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Puntland ( so, Puntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda Federalkaa ee Puntland , ar, ولاية أرض البنط الصومالية), is a Federal Member State in northeastern
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
. The capital city is the city of
Garoowe Garowe ( so, Garoowe, ar, غاروي, it, Garoe) is the administrative capital of Puntland Puntland ( so, Buntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda Puntl ...
in the Nugal region, and its leaders declared the territory an
autonomous state An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division or territory, internal territory of a sovereign state that has a degree of ...
in 1998. Puntland is bordered by
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign ...

Somaliland
to its west, the
Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, خليج عدن, so, Gacanka Cadmeed 𐒅𐒖𐒐𐒕𐒌 𐒋𐒖𐒆𐒗𐒒) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Soma ...

Gulf of Aden
in the north, the
Guardafui Channel The Guardafui Channel ( so, Marinka Gardafuul) is an oceanic strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation o ...
in the northeast, the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Another definition is "any of the large ...

Indian Ocean
in the southeast, the central
Galmudug Galmudug (Arabic: ''جلمدج''; it, Galmudugh), officially Galmudug State of Somalia (Somali language, Somali: ''Dowlad Goboleedka Galmudug ee Somalia, Soomaaliya''), is a States and regions of Somalia, Federal Member State in central Somalia, ...

Galmudug
region in the south, and
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the ...

Ethiopia
in the southwest. There are several major geographical apexes in Puntland, including the
Cape Guardafui Cape Guardafui ( so, Gees Gardafuul, or Raas Caseyr, or Ras Asir, it, Capo Guardafui) is a headland in the autonomous Puntland region in Somalia. Coextensive with Puntland's Gardafuul administrative province, it forms the geographical apex of the ...
which forms the tip of the Horn of Africa,
Ras Hafun Ras Hafun ( so, Ras Xaafuun, ar, رأس حـافـون, it, Capo Hafun), also known as Cape Hafun, is a promontory A promontory is a raised mass of land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. Th ...
the easternmost place on the entire African continent, and the beginning of the
Karkaar Karkaar is a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have ...
mountain range. It also has the northernmost major city in Somalia,
Bosaso Bosaso ( so, Boosaaso, ar, بوصاصو) is a city in the northeastern Bari, Somalia, Bari province (''Administrative divisions of Somalia, gobol'') of Somalia. It is the seat of the Bosaso District. Located on the southern coast of the Gulf of ...

Bosaso
, located at a line of latitude higher than 11° north. The name "Puntland" is derived from the
Land of Punt Land is the solid surface of that is not permanently submerged in . Most but not all land is situated at s above (variable over geologic time frames) and consists mainly of components such as , , , and sometimes . The vast majority of huma ...
mentioned in
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
ian sources, although the exact location of the fabled territory is still a mystery. Many studies suggest that the Land of Punt was located in present-day Somalia, whereas others propose that it was situated elsewhere.


History


Majeerteen Sultanates

The
Osman Mahamuud Osman Mahamuud ( so, Cismaan Maxamuud, ar, عثمان محمود), also known as `Uthman III ibn Mahmud, was a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl off ...
clan was among powerful clans in northeastern region.
Boqor Osman This is a list of Somali aristocratic and court titles that were historically used by the Somali people's various sultanates, Realm, kingdoms and empires. Also included are the honorifics reserved for Islamic notables as well as traditional leader ...
was one of the prominent Darood clan chiefs who ruled the ancient towns of Bosaso, Alula, Bargaal and Hafun and subsequently emerged as a powerful traditional elder who fully controlled areas under his rule. The
Majeerteen Sultanate The Majeerteen Sultanate ( so, Suldanadda Majeerteen, lit=Boqortooyada Majerteen, ar, سلطنة مجرتين), also known as Majeerteenia and Migiurtinia, was a Somalis, Somali kingdom centered in the Horn of Africa. Ruled by Boqor Osman Maham ...
(Migiurtinia) was founded in the mid-18th century. It rose to prominence the following century, under the reign of the resourceful Boqor (King)
Osman Mahamuud Osman Mahamuud ( so, Cismaan Maxamuud, ar, عثمان محمود), also known as `Uthman III ibn Mahmud, was a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl off ...
.Helen Chapin Metz, ''Somalia: a country study'', (The Division: 1993), p. 10 . Centred in
Aluula Alula ( so, Caluula, ar, علولة), also spelled Aluula, is a coastal town in the northeastern Bari, Somalia, Bari province of Somalia, on the coast of the Guardafui Channel. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it served as the main capi ...
, it controlled much of northern and central Somalia in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The polity maintained a robust trading network, entered into treaties with foreign powers, and exerted strong centralized authority on the domestic front. The Majeerteen Sultanate was nearly destroyed in the mid-1800s by a power struggle between Boqor Osman and his ambitious cousin,
Yusuf Ali Kenadid Yusuf Ali Kenadid ( so, Yuusuf Cali Keenadiid; 1837 - 28 september 1911) was a Somali Sultan. He was the founder of the Sultanate of Hobyo in the 1870s. Along with Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire of the Warsangali Sultanate and King Osman Mahamuud o ...
. After almost five years of battle, the young upstart was finally forced into exile in
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
. A decade later, in the 1870s, Kenadid returned from the
Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...
with a band of Hadhrami
musketeer A musketeer (french: mousquetaire) was a type of soldier equipped with a musket. Musketeers were an important part of early modern warfare particularly in Europe as they normally comprised the majority of their infantry. The musketeer was a prec ...

musketeer
s and a group of devoted lieutenants. With their assistance, he managed to overpower the local clans and establish the
Sultanate of Hobyo This article includes a list of successive Muslim state , caption = , active = {{Collapsible list , title = 1999–present , 1 = 1999: Established under the name of Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad , 2 = October 2004: Joined al ...
in 1878. In late 1889, Boqor Osman entered into a treaty with
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...
, making his realm an Italian
protectorate A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory A dependent territory, dependent area, or dependency (sometimes referred as an external territory) is a territory that does not ...
. His rival Sultan Kenadid had signed a similar agreement vis-a-vis his own Sultanate the year before. Both rulers had signed the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist objectives, with Boqor Osman looking to use Italy's support in his ongoing power struggle with Kenadid over the Majeerteen Sultanate. Boqor Osman and Sultan Kenadid also hoped to exploit the conflicting interests among the European imperial powers that were then looking to control the Somali peninsula, so as to avoid direct occupation of their territories by force.The Majeerteen Sultanates With the gradual extension into northern Somalia of European colonial rule, all three sultanates were annexed to
Italian Somaliland Italian Somaliland ( it, Somala italiana; ar, الصومال الإيطالي, Al-Sumal Al-Italiy; so, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaalida), was a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state which ...

Italian Somaliland
in the early 20th century.


Establishment of Puntland

Following the outbreak of the
Somali Civil War The Somali Civil War ( so, Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya; ar, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups with ...
in 1991, a home-grown constitutional conference was held in
Garoowe Garowe ( so, Garoowe, ar, غاروي, it, Garoe) is the administrative capital of Puntland Puntland ( so, Buntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda Puntl ...
in 1998 over a period of three months. Attended by the area's political elite, traditional elders (''Issims''), members of the business community, intellectuals and other civil society representatives, the autonomous Puntland State of Somalia was established to deliver services to the population, offer security, facilitate trade, and interact with domestic and international partners.
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed ( so, Cabdullaahi Yuusuf Axmed, ar, عبدالله يوسف أحمد‎; 15 December 1934 – 23 March 2012) was a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, ال ...

Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
served as the fledgling state's founding president. As stipulated in Article 1 of the
Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic (TFC) was the principle organizing document of Somalia. Written and approved in February 2004, it represented one of the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs). The other TFIs included the ...
, Puntland is a part of the Federal State of Somalia. As such, the region seeks the unity of
Somalis The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒆𐒖, ar, صوماليون) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cushitic ethnic group native to the Horn of Africa who share a common ancestry, culture and history. The Somali language is the ...

Somalis
and adheres to a federal system of government. Unlike the republic of
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign ...

Somaliland
to its west, Puntland is not trying to obtain international recognition as a separate nation. However, both regions have one thing in common: they base their support upon clan elders and their organizational structure along lines based on clan relationships and
kinship In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox states th ...

kinship
. However, a key difference was that Puntland was formed as a descendant-based entity unlike in Somaliland. The state was established as a "homeland" for the
Harti Harti ( so, Harti, ar, هرتي), meaning "strong man", is a Somali clan The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒆𐒖, ar, صوماليون) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cushitic ethnic group native to the Horn of Afri ...

Harti
community of Northern Somalia, whereby the
Majeerten The Majeerteen ( so, Majeerteen, ar, ماجرتين; also spelled Majerteen, Macherten, Majertain, or Mijurtin) is a sub-clan. It is one of the major Somali groups, with a vast traditional territory spanning 3 major regions of Somalia: Bari ...
were deemed as the "chief architects" of the entity. Since its establishment in 1998, Puntland has also been in territorial disputes with Somaliland over the Sool,
Sanaag Sanag ( so, Sanaag, ar, سَنَاج) is an administrative region ('' gobol'') in north eastern Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soo ...

Sanaag
and Ayn regions. The legal structure of Puntland consists of the judiciary, legislative (House of Representatives) and the executive (the President and his nominated Council of Ministries) branches of government. Though relatively peaceful, the region briefly experienced political unrest in 2001 when then President of Puntland, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founding fathers of the Puntland State and its first president, wanted his term extended. Ahmed and
Jama Ali Jama Jama Ali Jama ( so, Jaamac Cali Jaamac, ar, جامع علي جامع) is a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Som ...
fought for control of the region, with Ahmed emerging victorious the following year. Ahmed served his second term as president until October 2004, when he was elected
President of Somalia The president of Somalia ( so, Madaxaweynaha Soomaaliya) is the head of state of Somalia. The president is also commander-in-chief of the Somali Armed Forces. The president represents the Federal Government of Somalia, Federal Republic of Somal ...
. He was succeeded in office by Mohamed Hashi, who served until January 2005 when he lost a re-election bid in parliament to General
Mohamud Muse Hersi Mohamud "Adde" Muse Hersi ( so, Maxamuud Muuse Xirsi Cadde, ar, محمد موسى حرسي; 1 July 1937 – 8 February 2017) was a Somali people, Somali politician. He was the list of Presidents of Puntland, President of the Puntland region of So ...
"Adde".


Politics


General Adde Muse administration

In March 2005, President Muse began an ambitious plan to build an airport in Puntland's commercial capital of Bosaso, a project which is now complete and referred to as
Bender Qassim International Airport Bosaso Airport , also known as Bender Qassim International Airport, is an airport in Somalia. It sits at 11°16′32″N 49°9′0″E on the outer edge of the city of Bosaso, the commercial capital of the northeastern Puntland macro-region and a ...
. In April 2007, Muse held meetings with Sheikh Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi, the crown prince and deputy ruler of
Ras al-Khaimah Ras Al Khaimah (RAK) ( ar, رَأْس ٱلْخَيْمَة, historically Julfar) is the largest city and capital of the Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. It is the List of cities in the United Arab Emirates, sixth-largest city in ...
in the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
(UAE), where the two leaders signed an agreement on a deal for setting up of a dedicated livestock quarantine facility to facilitate the import of
livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictabl ...
from Somalia to the UAE. In October 2008, Muse also signed a Dh170 million agreement with
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country i ...

Dubai
's Lootah Group to support the construction of an airport, seaport and free zone in the coastal city of Bosaso. Muse indicated that "I believe that when we finish all these projects our people will benefit by getting good health services, education and overall prosperity."


Farole administration

In January 2009,
Abdirahman Farole Abdirahman Mohamud Farole ( so, Cabdiraxmaan Maxamuud Faroole; ar, عبد الرحمن محمد; born 1945) is a Somali people, Somali politician. He served for many years in the government, acting as a governor of the Nugal, Somalia, Nugal reg ...

Abdirahman Farole
was elected the new president of Puntland. Upon assuming office, the Farole administration implemented a number of reforms, particularly in the security and judicial sectors. To bolster the region's justice system, numerous new prosecutors, judges and other court personnel as well as additional prison guards were hired and trained. In July 2010, the Puntland Council of Ministers unanimously approved a new anti-terrorism law to more efficiently handle terror suspects and their accomplices; a special court is also expected to be established within the region's existing criminal courts system to facilitate the task. Fiscally, a transparent,
budget A budget is a financial plan In general usage, a financial plan is a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's current pay and future financial state by using current known variables to predict future income, asset values and withdrawal p ...
-based
public finance Public finance is the study of the role of the government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Sta ...
system was established, which has reportedly helped increase public confidence in government. In addition, a new regional constitution was drafted and later passed on 15 June 2009, which is believed to represent a significant step toward the eventual introduction of a
multi-party In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decis ...
political system to the region for the first time; such a system already exists in the adjacent Somaliland region. More modest reforms were also put into motion in the social sector, particularly in the education and healthcare fields. The regional government has hired more healthcare workers and teachers, with major plans under way for school and hospital renovations. One of the most significant new reforms enacted by the incumbent Puntland administration is the launching in May 2009 of the Puntland Agency For Social Welfare (PASWE), the first organization of its kind in Somali history. The agency provides medical, educational and counselling support to vulnerable groups and individuals such as orphans, the disabled and the blind. PASWE is overseen by a Board of Directors, which consists of religious scholars (''
ulema In Islam, the ''ulama'' (; ar, علماء ', singular ', "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ''ulema''; feminine: ''alimah'' ingularand ''uluma'' lural are the guardians, transmitters, and interpreters of religious ...
''), business people, intellectuals and traditional elders.


Democratization process

On 15 June 2009, the Puntland government passed a new regional draft constitution, representing a significant step toward the eventual introduction of a
multi-party In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decis ...
political system to the region for the first time. On 15 April 2012, the Puntland government opened a four-day constitutional convention officially inaugurating the new Constitution of Puntland. Overseen by the Puntland Electoral Commission (PEC), the constitution represented the final step in the extant regional democratization process and was scheduled to be followed by the formation of political parties. On 12 September 2012, the Puntland Electoral Commission announced that the registration process for political parties in Puntland was now open. This came after the passing of the Political Association Law, the Referendum Act, the District Elections Law and the inauguration of the state constitution. They will also be challengers in the next elections, scheduled for January 2014. On 14 November 2012, President Farole announced the launching of his new political party, Horseed. The association counts over 200 members and represents the incumbent Puntland government, including Vice President
Abdisamad Ali Shire General Abdisamad Ali Shire ( so, Cabdisamad Cali Shiire, ar, عبدي الصمد علي شيري) is a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officiall ...
and the state Ministers. It is the first prospective party to register for an application with the Transitional Puntland Electoral Commission (TPEC). According to Farole, the general public will be eligible for membership in the organization once it is selected as an official political party. Five other political associations were established the following month, including the Development and Justice Party (Xisbiga Horumarinta iyo Cadaalada) or Horcad Party which was launched by an entrepreneur and businessman Omar Ismail Waberi along other members, the Union of the People of the Regions or UPR (Ururka Gobolada Umadaha Bahoobey or UGUB), Midnimo, Talowadaag (Consensus-building), and GAHAYR or Golaha Aqoonta iyo Horumarinta ee Asaaska Yoolka Runta (Council of Education and Development towards Founding the True Goal).


Dr. Abdiweli Mohamed Ali Gaas administration

On 8 January 2014, former Prime Minister of Somalia
Abdiweli Mohamed Ali Abdiweli Mohamed Ali Gaas ( so, Cabdiweli Maxamed Cali ; ar, عبدالولي محمد علي; ), also known as Abdiweli Gaas, is a Somali American economist and politician. He served as the Prime Minister of Somalia, Prime Minister of Somalia fro ...
was elected as the 5th President of Puntland overcoming Dr. Farole by a single electoral vote. Abdihakim Abdullahi Haji Omar was concurrently elected Puntland's vice president.


Dani administration

On 8 January 2019 the former Federal Minister for Planning and International Cooperation, Said Abdullahi Dani, was declared the new president. The election was closely contested, going to a third round of voting. Dani defeated former intelligence officer, Asad Osman Diyano. Dani got 35 votes, to Diayno's 31 votes. Dani addressed the lawmakers after being declared the winner. He said he would continue the policies of his predecessor, Abdiweli Gaas.


Speakers of the Puntland Parliament


State flag

On 22 December 2009, Puntland MPs introduced a new
state flag In vexillology Vexillology () is the study of the history, symbolism and usage of s or, by extension, any interest in flags in general.Smith, Whitney. ''Flags Through the Ages and Across the World'' New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975. Print. The w ...

state flag
at a parliamentary session in Garowe. With 38 of 41 legislators endorsing the motion, it also permitted the creation of a new state anthem. Puntland's new regional flag consists of three colours: white, blue and green. *''Top'': the blue stripe with the white star in the centre symbolizes the
flag of Somalia The flag of Somalia ( so, Calanka Soomaaliya, ar, علم الصومال), also known as the Somali flag, was adopted on October 12, 1954, and was designed by Mohammed Awale Liban. The flag was initially used within the Trust Territory of Somali ...

flag of Somalia
*''Centre'': the white stripe in the centre represents peace and stability in the region *''Bottom'': the green stripe symbolizes the natural wealth of the Puntland State of Somalia


Administrative divisions


Regions

As stipulated in Article 3 of the
Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic (TFC) was the principle organizing document of Somalia. Written and approved in February 2004, it represented one of the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs). The other TFIs included the ...
, Puntland consists of the following claimed regions:


Redistricting and border disputes

In January 2009, the short-lived
quasi-state A quasi-state or state-like entity, including what is termed a proto-state, is a political entity that does not represent a fully institutionalized or autonomous sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identi ...
of
Maakhir Maakhir ( so, Goboleedka Maakhir, ar, ماخر ), officially the Maakhir State of Somalia ( so, Maamul Goboleedka Maakhir; ar, ولاية ماخر الصومال ) was a short-lived proto-state, quasi-state in the Sanaag region of eastern Som ...
was officially incorporated into Puntland. Control of the western Sool,
Sanaag Sanag ( so, Sanaag, ar, سَنَاج) is an administrative region ('' gobol'') in north eastern Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soo ...

Sanaag
and Cayn (SSC) provinces is disputed with Somaliland. On 8 April 2013, the Puntland government announced the creation of a new region named
Gardafuul Gardafuul is a region in north-west Puntland Puntland ( so, Puntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda Federalkaa ee Puntland , ar, ولاية أر ...
. Carved out of the Bari region, it consists of three districts and has its capital at
Aluula Alula ( so, Caluula, ar, علولة), also spelled Aluula, is a coastal town in the northeastern Bari, Somalia, Bari province of Somalia, on the coast of the Guardafui Channel. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it served as the main capi ...
. Prior to naming this new region, the previous government of Puntland created three regions, all carved out of the existing regions:
Karkaar Karkaar is a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignment that have ...
was carved out of
Bari Bari ( , ; nap, label= Barese, Bare ; lat, Barium; grc, Βάριον, translit=Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari The Metropolitan City of Bari ( it, Città Metropolitana di Bari) is a Metropolitan cities of Italy, ...
,
HaylaanHaylaan is one of nine administrative provinces of Puntland Puntland ( so, Buntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda Puntland ee Soomaaliya, ar, ولاية ...
out of
Sanaag Sanag ( so, Sanaag, ar, سَنَاج) is an administrative region ('' gobol'') in north eastern Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soo ...

Sanaag
, and Ayn out of
Togdheer Togdheer ( so, Togdheer, ar, تُوْجْدَيْر, Tūjdayr) is an administrative region (''Administrative divisions of Somaliland, gobol'') in central Somaliland. Togdheer is bordered by Maroodi Jeex to the west, Sahil, Somaliland, Saaxil t ...

Togdheer
region.


Geography

Puntland is geographically situated in the northeastern portion of
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
. It is bordered by
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign ...

Somaliland
to its west, the
Gulf of Aden The Gulf of Aden ( ar, خليج عدن, so, Gacanka Cadmeed 𐒅𐒖𐒐𐒕𐒌 𐒋𐒖𐒆𐒗𐒒) also known as the ''Gulf of Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Soma ...

Gulf of Aden
in the north, the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Another definition is "any of the large ...

Indian Ocean
in the southeast, and
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the ...

Ethiopia
in the southwest. Puntland occupies a total land area of or roughly one-third of Somalia's geographical area. Mountains include
Golis Mountains The Golis Mountains are a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignme ...
, Galgala, and Al Madow.


Climate

The region is
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning ' ...
, with a warm climate and average daily temperatures ranging from to . These climatic conditions favor
pastoralism Pastoralism is a form of animal husbandry where domesticated animals known as livestock are released onto large vegetated outdoor lands (pastures) for grazing, historically by nomadic people who moved around with their herds. The species invol ...
as the most effective use of land in most parts of the region. Grazing lands include the
Hawd The Haud (also Hawd) (, ), formerly known as the Hawd Reserve Area is a plateau situated in the Horn of Africa consisting of thorn-bush and grasslands. The region includes the southern part of Somaliland as well as the northern and eastern parts ...
region in the high plateau to the west of the
Mudug Mudug ( so, Mudug; it, Mudugh) is an administrative region (''gobol'') in north-central Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia ...
and Sool regions, into the lush green land of
Sanaag Sanag ( so, Sanaag, ar, سَنَاج) is an administrative region ('' gobol'') in north eastern Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soo ...

Sanaag
and into Ethiopia and the low
Nugaal The Nugaal an intermittent river Intermittent, temporary, or seasonal rivers and streams cease to flow every year or at least twice every five years.(Tzoraki et al., 2007) Such river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usuall ...
valley. Mild temperatures, by contrast, are experienced only along the high mountain ranges of
Bari Bari ( , ; nap, label= Barese, Bare ; lat, Barium; grc, Βάριον, translit=Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari The Metropolitan City of Bari ( it, Città Metropolitana di Bari) is a Metropolitan cities of Italy, ...

Bari
. Rainfall is sparse and variable, with no single area receiving more than of rain annually. Nomads primarily rely on
wells Wells most commonly refers to: * Wells, Somerset, a cathedral city in Somerset, England * Well, an excavation or structure created in the ground * Wells (name) Wells may also refer to: Places ;Canada *Wells, British Columbia ;England * Wells ...

wells
as a source of water rather than
surface water Surface water is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for all known forms of ...
. There are four main seasons around which pastoral and agricultural life revolve, and these are dictated by shifts in the wind patterns. Puntland's seasons are: * ''Jilal'' – from January to March; the harshest dry season of the year * ''Gu'' – from April to June; the main rainy season * ''Xagaa'' – from July to September; the second dry season * ''Deyr'' – from October to December; the shorter and less reliable rainy season


Education

Following the outbreak of the civil war in Somalia, numerous problems arose with regard to access to education in rural areas and along gender lines, quality of educational provisions, responsiveness of school curricula, educational standards and controls, management and planning capacity, and financing. To address these concerns, the Puntland government is in the process of developing an educational policy to guide the region's scholastic process as it embarks on the path of reconstruction and economic development. The latter includes a gender sensitive national education policy compliant with world standards, such as those outlined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Examples of this and other educational measures at work are the government's enactment of legislation aimed at securing the educational interests of girls, promoting the growth of an
Early Childhood Development Developmental psychology is the science, scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, ...
(ECD) program designed to reach parents and care-givers in their homes as well as in the ECD centers for 0- to 5-year-old children, and introducing incentive packages to encourage teachers to work in remote rural areas. Puntland's education system is considered the most progressive, and is attempting to close the gender gap so that more females will be able to attend school. Other regions are following Puntland's lead in that regard. Within the Puntland government, the Ministry of Education is responsible for developing and managing the region's educational needs. It is headed by the Minister Mohamud Bile Dubbe, under whom a Vice Minister and Director General help oversee a Post-Primary Education Division (PPED) and a Basic Education Directorate (BED), among other boards. The educational system of Puntland comprises two years of Early Childhood Development (ECD), eight years of
primary education Primary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool/kindergarten and before secondary school. Primary education takes place in primary school, the elementary school or first and middle school depending on ...
(four years of lower primary and four years of upper primary) and four years of
secondary education Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) is a statistical framework for organizing information on education Education i ...
.
Tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, ...
comprises an average of four years, with the region currently counting seven major universities:
Puntland State University Puntland State University is a university in Garowe, the administrative capital of the northeastern Puntland region of Somalia. History The school traces its roots back to the Garowe School of Management, a women's school in Garowe offering course ...
in
Garowe Garowe ( so, Garoowe, ar, غاروي, it, Garoe) is the administrative capital of Puntland Puntland ( so, Puntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda F ...
, Puntland State University in
Galkayo Galkayo ( so, Gaalkacyo, ar, جالكعيو, also known in Italian as Gallacaio or formerly Rocca LittorioDr Badal Kariye Ba Bsit Ma Mba & Phd, ''The Kaleidoscopic Lover: The Civil War in the Horn of Africa & My Itinerary for a Peaceful Lover'', ...
, Bosaso College in
Bosaso Bosaso ( so, Boosaaso, ar, بوصاصو) is a city in the northeastern Bari, Somalia, Bari province (''Administrative divisions of Somalia, gobol'') of Somalia. It is the seat of the Bosaso District. Located on the southern coast of the Gulf of ...

Bosaso
, East Somalia University in
Qardho Qardho ( so, Qardho, ar, قرضو), also known as Gardo, is a city in the northeastern Bari Bari ( , ; nap, label= Barese, Bare ; lat, Barium; grc, Βάριον, translit=Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari The Met ...

Qardho
,
Mogadishu University Mogadishu University ( ar, جامعة مقديشو, so, Jaamacadda Muqdisho) is an accredited non-governmental university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) ...
(Puntland branch) in Bosaso,
Maakhir University Maakhir University ( so, Jaamacada Maakhir, ar, جامعة ماخر) is a university supported by the Puntland government in the eastern Sanaag region. Sanaag region is also claimed by the government of Somaliland. Overview Situated in Badhan, S ...
in Badhan,
Sanaag Sanag ( so, Sanaag, ar, سَنَاج) is an administrative region ('' gobol'') in north eastern Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soo ...

Sanaag
, and Nugaal University in
Las Anod Las Anod ( so, Laascaanood; ar, لاسعانود) is the administrative capital of the Sool region of Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriya ...
.
East Africa University East Africa University (EAU) ( ar, جامعة شرق أفريقيا) is a non-for-profit institution university A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education ...
also has six branches in Puntland, with campuses in Bosaso,
Erigavo Erigavo ( so, Ceerigaabo, ), also spelled as Erigabo, is the capital and largest city of the Sanaag Sanag ( so, Sanaag, ar, سَنَاج) is an administrative region (''Administrative divisions of Somaliland, gobol'') in north eastern Soma ...

Erigavo
,
Galdogob Galdogob ( so, Galdogob, ar, جلدغب) is a border town wholly administered by the semi-autonomous Puntland State of Somalia, and serves as the capital of the Galdogob District within the Mudug region. The town technically straddles the dispu ...
, Galkayo, Garowe and Qardho. Thus, it is a 2-4-4-4 system. Puntland's Ministry of Education also recognizes
non-formal education Non-formal learning includes various structured learning situations which do not either have the level of curriculum, syllabus, Educational accreditation, accreditation and certification associated with 'formal learning', but have more structure t ...
(NFE) and technical/vocational education and training (TVET) as integral parts of the region's educational system. From 2005/2006 to 2006/2007, there was a significant increase in the number of schools in Puntland, up 137 institutions from just one year prior. During the same period, the number of classes in the region increased by 504, with 762 more teachers also offering their services. Total student enrollment increased by 27% over the previous year, with girls lagging only slightly behind boys in attendance in most regions. The highest class enrollment was observed in the northernmost
Bari region Bari ( so, Bari, ar, باري) is an administrative region (''Administrative divisions of Somalia, gobol'') in northeastern Somalia. Overview It is bordered by Somaliland to the west, Nugal, Somalia, Nugal to the south, the Gulf of Aden to the ...
, and the lowest was observed in the under-populated Ayn region. The distribution of classrooms was almost evenly split between urban and rural areas, with marginally more pupils attending and instructors teaching classes in urban areas. Following the COVID-19 crisis, the Government of Puntland launched the Learning Passport, a digital remote learning platform where children can access educational content both online and offline from their homes. The Learning Passport is a ground-breaking partnership between UNICEF, Microsoft and the University of Cambridge.


Demographics and religion

As of 2005, the population of Puntland is estimated at 2 million residents, 65% of whom are
nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo ...

nomad
s. The region is primarily inhabited by people from the
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
ethnic group, with the
Darod The Darod ( so, Daarood, ar, دارود) is a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the H ...
especially well-represented. There are also a number of Mehri residents. Currently, 30% of the region's residents live in the fast-growing towns of
Bosaso Bosaso ( so, Boosaaso, ar, بوصاصو) is a city in the northeastern Bari, Somalia, Bari province (''Administrative divisions of Somalia, gobol'') of Somalia. It is the seat of the Bosaso District. Located on the southern coast of the Gulf of ...

Bosaso
, Gardo,
Galdogob Galdogob ( so, Galdogob, ar, جلدغب) is a border town wholly administered by the semi-autonomous Puntland State of Somalia, and serves as the capital of the Galdogob District within the Mudug region. The town technically straddles the dispu ...
,
Garowe Garowe ( so, Garoowe, ar, غاروي, it, Garoe) is the administrative capital of Puntland Puntland ( so, Puntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda F ...
and
Galkayo Galkayo ( so, Gaalkacyo, ar, جالكعيو, also known in Italian as Gallacaio or formerly Rocca LittorioDr Badal Kariye Ba Bsit Ma Mba & Phd, ''The Kaleidoscopic Lover: The Civil War in the Horn of Africa & My Itinerary for a Peaceful Lover'', ...
. Approximately 70% of the population is also below the age of 30. The
population density Population density (in agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise tr ...

population density
in Puntland is estimated at about . As with the rest of Somalia,
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
is the main religion of the Puntland region with all of the residents being Muslims.


Transport

Municipal bus services operate in
Bosaso Bosaso ( so, Boosaaso, ar, بوصاصو) is a city in the northeastern Bari, Somalia, Bari province (''Administrative divisions of Somalia, gobol'') of Somalia. It is the seat of the Bosaso District. Located on the southern coast of the Gulf of ...

Bosaso
,
Garowe Garowe ( so, Garoowe, ar, غاروي, it, Garoe) is the administrative capital of Puntland Puntland ( so, Puntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda F ...
,
Las Anod Las Anod ( so, Laascaanood; ar, لاسعانود) is the administrative capital of the Sool region of Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriya ...
,
Galkayo Galkayo ( so, Gaalkacyo, ar, جالكعيو, also known in Italian as Gallacaio or formerly Rocca LittorioDr Badal Kariye Ba Bsit Ma Mba & Phd, ''The Kaleidoscopic Lover: The Civil War in the Horn of Africa & My Itinerary for a Peaceful Lover'', ...
and
Qardho Qardho ( so, Qardho, ar, قرضو), also known as Gardo, is a city in the northeastern Bari Bari ( , ; nap, label= Barese, Bare ; lat, Barium; grc, Βάριον, translit=Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari The Met ...

Qardho
. Shuttle services between the region's major towns and adjacent hamlets are also available via different types of vehicles, such as 4 wheel drives and light goods vehicles (LGV). As of May 2015, over 70,000 vehicles are registered with the Puntland Ministry of Works and Transport. Puntland is traversed by a north–south highway. It connects major cities in the northern part of Somalia, such as Garowe, Bosaso and Galkayo, with towns in the south. In 2012, the Puntland Highway Authority completed rehabilitation work on the central artery linking Garowe with Galkayo. The transportation body also started an upgrade and repair project in June 2012 on the large thoroughfare between the regional capital and Bosaso. Additionally, renovations began in October 2012 on the freeway linking Bosaso with Qardho. Plans are also in the works to construct new roads connecting littoral towns in the region to the main highway. Bosaso has a major
seaport A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of ...
, which was constructed during the mid-1980s for annual livestock shipments to the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
. In January 2012, a renovation project was launched, with KMC contracted to upgrade the harbor. The initiative's first phase saw the clean-up of unwanted materials from the dockyard and was completed within the month. The second phase involves the reconstruction of the port's adjoining seabed, with the objective of accommodating larger ships. In 2012, a team of engineers was also enlisted by the Puntland authorities to assess the ongoing renovations taking place at the
Las Khorey Las Khorey ( so, Laasqoray, ar, لاسقُرَى ) is a historic coastal town in the Sanaag Sanag ( so, Sanaag, ar, سَنَاج) is an administrative region (''Administrative divisions of Somaliland, gobol'') in north eastern Somaliland.
port. According to the Minister of Ports, Said Mohamed Rage, the Puntland government intends to launch more such development projects in Las Khorey. Local airlines offer flights to various domestic and international locations, such as
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsu ...

Djibouti
,
Addis Ababa Addis Ababa ( am, አዲስ አበባ ' , "new flower"), also known as Finfinne ( om, Finfinne "natural spring") and Sheger ( ', ), is the and largest city of . According to the 2007 census, the city has a population of 2,739,551 inhabitants. ...

Addis Ababa
,
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country i ...

Dubai
and
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, جِدَّة, Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia (''Shahada ...

Jeddah
; they also provide flights for the
Hajj The Hajj (; ar, حَجّ ' "wikt:pilgrimage, ''pilgrimage''"; sometimes also spelled Hadj, Hadji or Haj in English) is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the Holiest sites in Islam, holiest city for Muslims. Hajj is a Far ...
and
Umrah The ʿUmrah ( ar, عُمْرَة, lit="to visit a populated place") is an Islamic pilgrimage A pilgrimage is a journey, often into an unknown or foreign place, where a person goes in search of new or expanded meaning about their self, others ...
pilgrimages. The most prominent airlines in Puntland are
Jubba Airways Jubba Airways is a Somalia, Somali airline. It operates domestic passenger and cargo flights within Somalia, as well as to destinations in the Middle East. History The carrier was founded in 1998 by one Calgary-based Somali people, Somali entr ...
, Osob Air and
Daallo Airlines Daallo Airlines is a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bord ...
, which operate from
Bender Qassim International Airport Bosaso Airport , also known as Bender Qassim International Airport, is an airport in Somalia. It sits at 11°16′32″N 49°9′0″E on the outer edge of the city of Bosaso, the commercial capital of the northeastern Puntland macro-region and a ...
in Bosaso and
Abdullahi Yusuf International Airport Abdullahi Yusuf Airport , formerly known as the Galkayo Airport, is an airport located in Galkayo, the capital of the north-central Mudug region of Somalia. Overview Like most of Galkayo, the Abdullahi Yusuf Airport is administered by the autono ...
(formerly Galkayo Airport) in Galkayo, among other places. In late September 2013, a launching ceremony of a tender process for the Bosaso airport's renovations was held at the facility. The renovations will include the extension of the airport's gravel runway from 1,800 m to 2,650 m. The runway's width will also be widened from 30 m to 45 m, and feature 7.5 m gravel shoulders on both sides. According to Puntland Deputy Minister of Civil Aviation Abdiqani Gelle, the Puntland government plans to carry out similar upgrades at the Garowe International Airport in Garowe, the Abdullahi Yusuf International Airport in Galkayo, and the
Qardho Airport Qardho Airport , also known as Gardo Airport, is an airport serving Qardho, a town in the northeastern Bari, Somalia, Bari region of Somalia. Overview The airport sits at an elevation of above mean sea level. It has a runway that is long. In ...
in Qardho.


Military

The Puntland Security Force (PSF) is the
armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...
of the autonomous Puntland region. Commanders and senior officials of the military are appointed by a qualified panel approved by the Council of Ministers.Puntland Constitution
. Puntlandgovt.com. Retrieved on 20 May 2012.
The Puntland security apparatus also has an independent military judiciary. The PSF includes the
Puntland Dervish Force The Puntland Dervish Force ( so, Ciidamada Daraawiishta Puntland, ar,  ) is the official paramilitary division of the Military of Puntland, Puntland Security Force. History Following the outbreak of the Somali Civil War, civil war in 199 ...
(PDF), its official paramilitary division.Intelligence profile – Somalia
. Cvni.net (6 June 2007). Retrieved on 20 May 2012.
It operates its own police force, which includes a Special Protection Unit. The Puntland Intelligence Agency (PIA) is the intelligence bureau of Puntland's military. It was established in 2001 as the ''Puntland Intelligence Service'' during the rule of President
Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed ( so, Cabdullaahi Yuusuf Axmed, ar, عبدالله يوسف أحمد‎; 15 December 1934 – 23 March 2012) was a Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, ال ...

Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
, with help from the United States. The
Puntland Maritime Police Force The Puntland Maritime Police Force (PMPF) is a security force based in Puntland Puntland ( so, Puntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda Federalkaa ee ...
(PMPF) is a locally recruited, professional maritime security force. It is primarily aimed at preventing, detecting and eradicating
piracy Piracy is an act of robbery Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publi ...
,
illegal fishing Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU) is an issue around the world. Fishing industry observers believe IUU occurs in most fisheries, and accounts for up to 30% of total catches in some important fisheries. Illegal fishing takes pla ...
, and other illicit activity off of the coast of Somalia, and at generally safeguarding the nation's marine resources. In addition, the Force provides civic support, including repairing wells, rehabilitating hospitals and clinics, and refurbishing roads, airports and other infrastructure. It also offers skills training programs to local communities.


Economy

Puntland has of coastline, which is abundant with fish and other natural
marine resources Marine is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the sea The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surfac ...

marine resources
. Additional economic products and activities of the region include
livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictabl ...
,
frankincense Frankincense (also known as olibanum) is an aromatic In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or ...
,
myrrh Myrrh (; from Semitic Semitic most commonly refers to the Semitic languages, a name used since the 1770s to refer to the language family currently present in West Asia, North and East Africa, and Malta. Semitic may also refer to: Religion ...
,
gum arabic '', pictured in a medicinal handbook: Franz Eugen Köhler, ''Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen'' (1887) Gum arabic, also known as ''gum sudani'', acacia gum, Arabic gum, gum acacia, acacia, Senegal gum, ''Indian gum'', and by other names, is a natur ...
,
manufacturing Manufacturing is the creation or Production (economics), production of goods with the help of equipment, Work (human activity), labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is the essence of secondary sector ...
and
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
. Agricultural products such as mangoes, bananas, guavas, lemons, sugarcanes, and peanuts are grown on plantations around the state. Food items and consumer goods imported via
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate be ...

Berbera
,
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign ...

Somaliland
sell more cheaply compared to those imported via
Bosaso Bosaso ( so, Boosaaso, ar, بوصاصو) is a city in the northeastern Bari, Somalia, Bari province (''Administrative divisions of Somalia, gobol'') of Somalia. It is the seat of the Bosaso District. Located on the southern coast of the Gulf of ...

Bosaso
. Therefore, in exchange live animals originating from Puntland are exported via
Berbera Berbera (; so, Barbara, ar, بربرة) is the capital of the Sahil, Somaliland, Sahil region of Somaliland and is the main sea port of the country. Berbera is a coastal city and was the former capital of the British Somaliland protectorate be ...

Berbera
. The key trading centres in Puntland are centred in Bosaso and
Galkayo Galkayo ( so, Gaalkacyo, ar, جالكعيو, also known in Italian as Gallacaio or formerly Rocca LittorioDr Badal Kariye Ba Bsit Ma Mba & Phd, ''The Kaleidoscopic Lover: The Civil War in the Horn of Africa & My Itinerary for a Peaceful Lover'', ...
. However, other towns such as
Qardho Qardho ( so, Qardho, ar, قرضو), also known as Gardo, is a city in the northeastern Bari Bari ( , ; nap, label= Barese, Bare ; lat, Barium; grc, Βάριον, translit=Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari The Met ...

Qardho
and
Garowe Garowe ( so, Garoowe, ar, غاروي, it, Garoe) is the administrative capital of Puntland Puntland ( so, Puntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda F ...
act as second-grade market places. Income is generated through the following industries: livestock, fishery, frankincense, and petty trading. Animals originating from Puntland are exported via Bosaso. The key trading centres in Puntland are centred in Bosaso and
Galkayo Galkayo ( so, Gaalkacyo, ar, جالكعيو, also known in Italian as Gallacaio or formerly Rocca LittorioDr Badal Kariye Ba Bsit Ma Mba & Phd, ''The Kaleidoscopic Lover: The Civil War in the Horn of Africa & My Itinerary for a Peaceful Lover'', ...
. Milk collectors ( aanoley in Somali ) are based in markets in the cities of
Qardho Qardho ( so, Qardho, ar, قرضو), also known as Gardo, is a city in the northeastern Bari Bari ( , ; nap, label= Barese, Bare ; lat, Barium; grc, Βάριον, translit=Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari The Met ...

Qardho
,
Garowe Garowe ( so, Garoowe, ar, غاروي, it, Garoe) is the administrative capital of Puntland Puntland ( so, Puntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda F ...
and . Puntland has the lowest rate of poverty in
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
, with 27%, compared to 50% in
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign ...

Somaliland
and 57% in
Mogadishu Mogadishu (, also ; so, Muqdisho or Xamar ; ar, مقديشو, Muqadīshū ; it, Mogadiscio ), locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital city and most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city ...

Mogadishu
. Experts believe this is because of higher consumption and higher labour force participation. Households in Puntland consume a higher quantity per capita per item and more items per household. The lower rate of poverty does not appear to be driven by household size, as the average in Puntland is 5.2, compared to 5.7 in
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign ...

Somaliland
and 4.5 in
Mogadishu Mogadishu (, also ; so, Muqdisho or Xamar ; ar, مقديشو, Muqadīshū ; it, Mogadiscio ), locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital city and most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city ...

Mogadishu
. Puntland is doing better in various important indicators of well-being. For instance, the literacy rate in Puntland is 64% compared to the national average of 55%. Additionally, households in Puntland also outperform the average in other educational outcomes such as enrolment and educational attainment. 70% of households in Puntland have access to improved water sources compared to the national average of 58%. Therefore, Puntland's higher performance on non-monetary indicators of well-being are inline with its lower rate of poverty. In December 2011, a new commercial market opened in Bosaso's northern Dayaha ("Star") neighborhood, near the seaport. Approximately half a kilometer in size, it was designed to ensure easy vehicle access. The market is the result of careful planning between Puntland government officials and civil society representatives. Bosaso is also home to
Golis Telecom Somalia Golis Telecom Somalia ( so, Shirkadda Isgaadhsiinta ee Golis Soomaaliya), shortened to Golis, is the largest telecommunications operator in the Puntland state of northeastern Somalia. It was founded in 2002 with the objective of supplying the cou ...
, the largest
telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication ov ...
operator in northeastern Somalia. Founded in 2002 with the objective of supplying the country with GSM mobile services,
fixed line A landline (also known as land line, land-line, main line, home phone, fixed-line, and wireline) is a telephone, phone that uses a wire, metal wire or optical fiber telephone line for transmission as distinguished from a cellular network, mobil ...
and
internet services An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides a myriad of services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers can be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, ...
, it has an extensive network that covers all of the nation's major cities and more than 40 districts in both Puntland and Somaliland. Additionally, Netco has its headquarters in the city. Other telecommunication firms serving the region include Telcom and NationLink. In April 2013, the Puntland Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources officially inaugurated a new fish market in Garowe. Constructed in conjunction with the UK authorities and the UNDP, it is part of a larger regional development plan which will see two other similar marketplaces launched within the year in Galkayo and Qardho. In August 2014, in conjunction with the government of Djibouti and an international construction firm headquartered in China, the Puntland Transport and Seaports Ministry launched a project to establish new seaports in the regional state. The initiative is part of a broader campaign by the Puntland administration to focus on tapping into the region's commercial potential through various development projects.


Oil exploration

In the 2000s, the Puntland government began official negotiations with foreign oil companies over exploration rights in the area. The provincial authorities in October 2005 granted Range Resources a majority stake in two sizable land-based mineral and hydrocarbon exploration licenses, in addition to offshore rights. The onshore Nugaal Valley, Nugaal and Dharoor Valley blocks in question span over , respectively. Two years later, Range Resources obtained a 100% interest in the two blocks and concurrently farmed out 80% of that share to Canmex Minerals. In January 2007, the Puntland administration, which was then led by President Mohamud Muse Hersi, signed the Puntland Product Sharing Agreement (PSA) with Range Resources Limited and the Canmex Minerals subsidiary Canmex Holdings (Bermuda) II Limited. Following a change in leadership in 2009, the Puntland government, now led by President Abdirahman Mohamud Farole, sought to renegotiate the profit sharing agreement with Range Resources to ensure more favorable terms for the region. In 2012, the Puntland government gave the green light to the first official oil exploration project in Puntland and Somalia at large. In 2017, Puntland ministers held a cabinet meeting where they approved an oil exploration deal with Chinese company CCECC, in return for constructing a road connecting Eyl and
Garowe Garowe ( so, Garoowe, ar, غاروي, it, Garoe) is the administrative capital of Puntland Puntland ( so, Puntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda F ...
as well as renovations and refurbishments to the Abdullahi Yusuf Airport.


Media

Puntland has its own television channel and studios. Puntland TV and Radio is the public broadcasting network of the autonomous Puntland state of Somalia. Its headquarters are at the regional capital of
Garowe Garowe ( so, Garoowe, ar, غاروي, it, Garoe) is the administrative capital of Puntland Puntland ( so, Puntland, ar, أرض البنط, it, Terra di Punt or ''Paese di Punt''), officially the Puntland State of Somalia ( so, Dowladda F ...
. The service also maintains an office in London. Founded in April 2013, Puntland TV and Radio broadcasts locally in Somali language, Somali via terrestrial service. It also airs programs globally through Satellite television, satellite. Radio Puntland broadcasts internationally via shortwave, with its transmission reaching as far as Finland. Its standard programming includes general news, focusing on regional developments, sports and entertainment. The private stations Eastern Television Network (ETN TV) and Somali Broadcasting Corporation (SBC TV) broadcast from Bosaso. Established in 2004, Radio Garowe is a community radio station based in Garowe. The station broadcasts daily from Somalia at 89.8 FM, covering all the latest headlines in Somali news, politics, and society. It also broadcasts other special programming on Garowe Online, its online sister website. LaasqorayNET is another privately owned website based in Badhan,
Bosaso Bosaso ( so, Boosaaso, ar, بوصاصو) is a city in the northeastern Bari, Somalia, Bari province (''Administrative divisions of Somalia, gobol'') of Somalia. It is the seat of the Bosaso District. Located on the southern coast of the Gulf of ...

Bosaso
,
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country i ...

Dubai
and London. The website features articles written in Somali language, Somali and English. In addition, the website hosts some audio, though the latter is not regularly updated. Radio Gaalkacyo is the state radio station. Based in
Galkayo Galkayo ( so, Gaalkacyo, ar, جالكعيو, also known in Italian as Gallacaio or formerly Rocca LittorioDr Badal Kariye Ba Bsit Ma Mba & Phd, ''The Kaleidoscopic Lover: The Civil War in the Horn of Africa & My Itinerary for a Peaceful Lover'', ...
, it was formerly known as Radio Free Somalia. Horseed Media was established in 2002 by a group of Somali intellectuals in the Netherlands and Finland. The station broadcasts from Bosaso and has a listening audience of about 80,000 people, with a reach of . It also operates a website that counts over 10,000 daily visitors. Based in Garowe, ''Puntland Post'' was established in 2001 by Somali expatriates in Denmark. Its website publishes daily domestic and international news reports and analysis in both Somali and English, with an emphasis on Puntland affairs. Established in 2014, ''Puntland Star'' presents breaking news, stories and documentaries from Somalia and the rest of the world. Other media organizations include Raxanreeb Online (RBC Radio). Launched in 2006, RBC presents Somali news to a global audience in both Somali and English. With direct sources based in Somalia, it covers local politics and society.


See also

*Federated state *Somaliland-Puntland dispute *Somali Salvation Democratic Front *
Majeerteen Sultanate The Majeerteen Sultanate ( so, Suldanadda Majeerteen, lit=Boqortooyada Majerteen, ar, سلطنة مجرتين), also known as Majeerteenia and Migiurtinia, was a Somalis, Somali kingdom centered in the Horn of Africa. Ruled by Boqor Osman Maham ...
*
Sultanate of Hobyo This article includes a list of successive Muslim state , caption = , active = {{Collapsible list , title = 1999–present , 1 = 1999: Established under the name of Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad , 2 = October 2004: Joined al ...


References


External links


Puntland Ministry of Planning and International CooperationPuntland Statistical Department
{{Countries and territories bordering the Indian Ocean Puntland, States of Somalia Geography of Somalia Divided regions States and territories established in 1998 1998 establishments in Africa