HOME

TheInfoList




Pune (; ) is the seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of
Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), ...

Maharashtra
, with an estimated population of 7.4 million It has been ranked as "the most liveable city in India" several times. Along with the municipal corporation limits of
PCMC
PCMC
and the three cantonment towns of
Camp Camp may refer to: Outdoor accommodation and recreation * Campsite or campground, a recreational outdoor sleeping and eating site * a temporary settlement for nomads * Camp, a term used in New England, Northern Ontario and New Brunswick to describ ...
,
Khadki Khadki is a cantonment in the city of Pune Pune, known as Poona until 1978 ( ;), is the second-largest metropolitan city in the Indian State of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH) is a state in the western peninsular region of Indi ...
and
Dehu Road Dehu Road Cantt, is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with ...
, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR). According to the
2011 census2011 censuses were conducted in the following countries: * Australia: Census in Australia * Austria: Demographics of Austria * Bangladesh: 2011 Bangladesh Census * Bulgaria: Demographics of Bulgaria * Canada: Canada 2011 Census * Croatia: 2011 Censu ...
the urban area had a combined population of 5.05 million whilst the population of the metropolitan region was estimated at 7.4 million. Situated
above sea level Above may refer to: * Above (artist), Tavar Zawacki (born 1981), contemporary urban artist * ''Above'' (magazine), an American environmental magazine 2009–2010 *Above (Mad Season album), ''Above'' (Mad Season album), 1995 *Above (Pillar album), ' ...
on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the
Mutha river The Mutha River is a river in western Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH) is a state in the western peninsular region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List ...
, Pune is also the administrative headquarters of its namesake
district A district is a type of that, in some countries, is managed by the . Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning s or , several , subdivisions of municipalities, , or . By country/region Afghanistan In , a d ...
. In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the
Peshwa The Peshwa was the appointed (and later hereditary) Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire fo ...
s, the prime ministers of the
Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of as the and ended in 1818 with the defeat of ' at the hands ...

Maratha Empire
and one of the most important political centres on the Indian subcontinent. The city was also ruled by the
Ahmadnagar Sultanate The Ahmadnagar Sultanate was a late medieval India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on the southwes ...
, the
Mughals The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an early modern empire in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of th ...

Mughals
and the
Adil Shahi dynasty The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi, was a Shia Muslim Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main Islamic schools and branches, branches of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad ...
. Historical landmarks include Lal Mahal, the temple and
Shaniwar Wada Shaniwarwada ( ISO: ) is a historical fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is de ...

Shaniwar Wada
. Major historical events involving the city include the
Mughal–Maratha Wars The Mughal–Maratha Wars, also called The Deccan War or The Maratha War of Independence, were fought between the Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the in the 1 ...
and the
Anglo-Maratha Wars The Anglo–Maratha War were three wars fought in the Indian sub-continent between the Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the in the 18th century. The empire formally ...
. Pune is widely regarded as the second major "IT hub of India" and the top "automobile and manufacturing hub of India".


It is known as the Oxford of the East with the presence of a wide range of educational institutions. India's first indigenously run girls' school was started in Pune by
Savitribai Phule Savitribai Phule (3 January 1831 – 10 March 1897) was an Indian social reformer, educationalist, and poet from Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH) is a state in the western peninsular region of India India (Hindi: ), officially ...
. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total number of international students in the country studying in Pune. Research institutes of information technology, education, management and training attract students and professionals from India and overseas.


Etymology

The earliest reference to Pune is an inscription on a
Rashtrakuta Dynasty Rashtrakuta ( IAST: ') was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, ...
copper plate dated 937 CE, which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya, meaning 'sacred news'. By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi. During the Rashtrakuta dynasty, the city was referred to as Punnaka and Punyapur, whilst the copper plates of 758 and 768 CE show that the Yadava dynasty had renamed the city Punakavishaya and Punya Vishaya. Vishaya means land and Punaka and Punya mean holy. The city was known as Kasbe Pune when under the command of Maratha king
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Chhatrapati is a royal title from the Indian subcontinent that was mainly used by the Maratha The Maratha caste are a Marathi people, Marathi clan originally formed in the earlier centuries from the amalgamation of families from the peasant (K ...
's father, Shahaji Raje Bhosale. The only divergent naming was when Mughal emperor
Aurangzeb Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (3 November 16183 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet (Persian language, Persian: "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title (Persian: "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled ov ...

Aurangzeb
renamed the city Muhiyabad some time between 1703 and 1705 in memory of his great-grandson Muhi-ul-Milan, who died there. But the name was erased soon after Aurangzeb's death. It became Poona in English during British rule in 1857 and changed to Pune in 1978.


History


Early and Medieval Period

Copper plates dated 858 and 868CE show that by the 9th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed at the location of the modern Pune. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the
Rashtrakuta dynasty Rashtrakuta ( IAST: ') was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, ...
. The rock-cut temple complex was built during this era. Pune was part of the territory ruled by the
Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri The Seuna, Sevuna, Gavli Kings or Yadavas of Devagiri (IAST: Seuṇa, –1317) was a Medieval Indian dynasty, which at its peak ruled a kingdom stretching from the Narmada River, Narmada river in the north to the Tungabhadra river in the south ...
from the 9th century to 1327.


The Maratha Empire

Pune was part of the
Jagir A jagir ( fa, , translit=Jāgir), also spelled as jageer, was a type of feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was a combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9 ...
(fiefdom) granted to
Maloji Bhosale Maloji Bhosale was a Maratha The Maratha caste are a Marathi people, Marathi clan originally formed in the earlier centuries from the amalgamation of families from the peasant (Kunbi), shepherd (Dhangar), pastoral (Gavli, Gawli), blacksmith ( ...
in 1599 for his services to the . Pune was ruled by the
Ahmadnagar Sultanate The Ahmadnagar Sultanate was a late medieval India India, officially the Republic of India (: ), is a country in . It is the by area, the country, and the most populous in the world. Bounded by the on the south, the on the southwes ...
until it was annexed by the Mughals in the 17th century. Maloji Bhosale's grandson,
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Chhatrapati is a royal title from the Indian subcontinent that was mainly used by the Maratha The Maratha caste are a Marathi people, Marathi clan originally formed in the earlier centuries from the amalgamation of families from the peasant (K ...
, the founder of the
Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of as the and ended in 1818 with the defeat of ' at the hands ...

Maratha Empire
, was born at the fort of
Shivneri Shivneri Fort is a 17th-century military fortification located near Junnar in Pune district in Maharashtra, India. It is the birthplace of Shivaji , the founder of Maratha Empire. History Shivneri is known to be a place of Buddhist dominion from t ...

Shivneri
, about 90 km from Pune. It changed hands several times between the
Mughals The Mughal Empire, Mogul or Moghul Empire, was an early modern empire in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of th ...
and the
Maratha The Marathi people, also rendered as Marathis or Maharashtrian, are an ethnolinguistic group who speak Marathi language, Marathi, an Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan language, as their native language. They inhabit the state of Maharashtra in mo ...

Maratha
s in the period 1680 to 1705. After the destruction of the town in raids by the
Adil Shahi dynasty The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi, was a Shia Muslim Shia Islam or Shi'ism is one of the two main Islamic schools and branches, branches of Islam. It holds that the Prophets and messengers in Islam, Islamic prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad ...
in 1630 and again between 1636 and 1647,
Dadoji Konddeo Dadoji Kondadeo (also spelled as Dadoji Konddev) was an administrator of the Pune jagir and the nearby Kondana fort. He was appointed by Shahaji, a noble and general of the Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur. Biography Early life Dadoji Kondadeo was ...
, the successor to Dhadphale, oversaw the reconstruction of the town. He stabilised the revenue collection and administrative systems of the areas around Pune and the neighbouring
Maval Maval is a tehsil in a subdivision of the same name, in the Pune district of Maharashtra, India. Description The word Maval is derived from a Marathi word ''Maval'', meaning the direction in which the sun sets. This region is towards the west o ...

Maval
region. He also developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order. The Lal Mahal was commissioned in 1631 and construction was completed in 1640 AD. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj spent his young years at the Lal Mahal. His mother,
Jijabai Jijabai Shahaji Bhosale ((Pronunciation:Marathi Marathi may refer to: *Marathi people, an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group of Maharashtra, India *Marathi language, the Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people *Palaiosouda, also known as ...
is said to have commissioned the building of the temple. The
Ganesha Ganesha ( sa, गणेश, ), also known as Ganapati and Vinayaka, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subjec ...

Ganesha
idol consecrated at this temple has been regarded as the presiding deity ('' Gramadevata'') of the city. From 1703 to 1705, towards the end of the 27-year-long
Mughal–Maratha Wars The Mughal–Maratha Wars, also called The Deccan War or The Maratha War of Independence, were fought between the Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the in the 1 ...
, the town was occupied by
Aurangzeb Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (3 November 16183 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet (Persian language, Persian: "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title (Persian: "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth Mughal emperor, who ruled ov ...

Aurangzeb
and its name was changed to Muhiyabad. But the name was erased soon after Aurangzeb's death.


Peshwa Rule

In 1720,
Baji Rao I Baji Rao I (18 August 1700 – 28 April 1740), born as Visaji, also known as Bajirao Ballal, was the 7th Peshwa (Prime Minister) of the Maratha empire. In his 20-year military career, he never lost a battle and is widely considered as one of the ...

Baji Rao I
was appointed
Peshwa The Peshwa was the appointed (and later hereditary) Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire fo ...
(prime minister) of the Maratha Empire by
Shahu I Shahu Bhosale I (1682–1749 CE) was the fifth Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire founded by his grandfather, Shivaji. Born in the Bhonsle family, he was the son of Sambhaji Maharaj, Shivaji Maharaj's eldest son and successor. Shahu, as a child, ...

Shahu I
, the fifth
Chhatrapati Chhatrapati was a royal title from the Indian subcontinent that was mainly used by the Maratha Empire, Hindu Marathas. It is often taken to be the equivalent of emperor. The word ‘Chhatrapati’ is a Sanskrit language compound word (tatpurusha i ...
of the
Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of as the and ended in 1818 with the defeat of ' at the hands ...

Maratha Empire
. As the Peshwa, Bajirao moved his base from
Saswad Saswad is a municipal council located on South-Eastern corridor of of the Indian state of . Saswad is situated on the banks of the River. Saswad is about 31 km from Pune-Central Station. History Saswad is a place with a long history. It ...

Saswad
to Pune in 1728, marking the beginning of the transformation of what was a ''
kasbah A kasbah (, also ; ar, قَـصَـبَـة, qaṣaba, , 'central part of a town; citadel'), also spelled casbah or qasbah, more rarely as qasaba, gasaba or qasabeh, in also as qassabah, is a type of fortress, a . By extension, the term can ...

kasbah
'' into a large city. He also commissioned the construction of the
Shaniwar Wada Shaniwarwada ( ISO: ) is a historical fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is de ...

Shaniwar Wada
on the right bank of the
Mutha River The Mutha River is a river in western Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH) is a state in the western peninsular region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List ...
. The construction was completed in 1730, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the city. Bajirao's son and successor, constructed a lake at
Katraj Katraj is suburb of Pune Pune (; ) is the seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a states and union territories of India, state in the western a ...

Katraj
on the outskirts of the city and an underground aqueduct to bring water from the lake to Shaniwar Wada and the city. The aqueduct was still in working order in 2004. The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in a great expansion of Pune, with the construction of around 250 temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on
Parvati Hill Parvati Hill is a hillock in Pune, India. The hillock rises to above sea level. Atop the hillock is the Parvati Temple, one of the most scenic locations in Pune. The temple is the oldest heritage structure in Pune and was built during the rule ...
and many ,
Vithoba Vithoba, also known as Vi(t)thal(a) and Panduranga, is a Hindu deity predominantly worshipped in the Indian state of Maharashtra. He is generally considered as a manifestation of the god Vishnu Vishnu (; ; , ''IAST: Viṣṇu, ISO 15919, ...

Vithoba
,
Vishnu Vishnu (; ; , ), also known as Narayana and Hari, is one of the Hindu deities, principal deities of Hinduism. He is the supreme being within Vaishnavism, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism. Vishnu is known as "The Prese ...

Vishnu
, ,
Rama Rama (; , ; ), Ram, Raman or Ramar, also known as Ramachandra (; , ), is a major deity in Hinduism Hinduism () is an and ', or way of life. It is the , with over 1.2 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known a ...

Rama
,
Krishna Krishna (, ; sa, कृष्ण, ) is a major deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polythei ...

Krishna
, and
Ganesh Ganesha ( sa, गणेश, ), also known as Ganapati and Vinayaka, is one of the best-known and most worshipped in the . His image is found throughout , , , , ( and ), , , , and and in countries with large ethnic Indian populations incl ...

Ganesh
temples. The building of temples led to religion being responsible for about 15% of the city's economy during this period. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa. He developed , Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial,
trading Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of ru ...

trading
, and residential localities. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed. The Peshwa's influence in India declined after the defeat of Maratha forces at the Battle of Panipat but Pune remained the seat of power. In 1802 Pune was captured by
Yashwantrao Holkar ''H. H. Maharajadhiraj Raj Rajeshwar Shrimant'' Chakravarti Chhatrapati Yashwant Rao Holkar ( Marathi: महाराजा चक्रवर्ती छत्रपती यशवंतराव होळकर) Bahadur (1776-1811), belongin ...

Yashwantrao Holkar
in the
Battle of Poona The Battle of Pune took place on 25 October 1802 near Pune between the rival factions of the Maratha empire. The forces of the Scindia (Shinde) and the Peshwa Bajirao II were attacked by the Holkars. While the British East India Company was not i ...
, directly precipitating the
Second Anglo-Maratha War The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805) was the second conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the ...
of 1803–1805. The Peshwa rule ended with the defeat of Peshwa
Bajirao II Shrimant Peshwa Baji Rao II (10 January 1775 – 28 January 1851) was the 13th and the last Peshwa The Peshwa was the appointed (and later hereditary) Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy ...

Bajirao II
by the
British East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), the English East India Company or (after 1707) the British East India Company, and informally known as John Company, Com ...
in 1818. Historian
Govind Sakharam Sardesai Govind Sakharam Sardesai (17 May 1865 – 29 November 1959), popularly known as ''Riyasatkar Sardesai'', was a historian from Maharashtra, India. Through his ''Riyasats'' written in Marathi language, Marathi, Sardesai presented an account of ov ...
lists 163 prominent families that held high ranks and played significant roles in politics, military, and finance in 18th century Pune. Of these 163 families, a majority(80) were Deshastha Brahmins, 46 were
Chitpawan The Chitpavan Brahmin (चित्पावन ब्राह्मण) or Konkanastha Brahmin (कोकणस्थ ब्राह्मण) is a Hindu Maharashtrian Brahmin community inhabiting Konkan, the coastal region of the state of M ...
, 15 were
Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu (CKP) is an ethno-religious An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attr ...
(
CKP Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu (CKP) is an ethno-religious An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attri ...

CKP
) whereas
Karhade Brahmin Karhaḍe Brahmins (also spelled as Karada Brahmins or Karad Brahmins) are a Hindu Brahmin sub-caste mainly from the Indian state of Maharashtra. Classification Along with the Deshastha and Konkanastha Brahmins, the Karhade Brahmins are refer ...
and Saraswat accounted for 11 families each.


British Rule (1818 – 1947)

The
Third Anglo-Maratha War The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1819) was the final and decisive conflict between the British East India Company The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), East India Trading Company (EITC), ...
broke out between the Marathas and the British East India Company in 1817. The Peshwas were defeated at the
Battle of Khadki The Battle of Khadki, also known as or The Battle of Ganeshkhind, took place at modern day Khadki, India on 5 November 1817 between the forces of the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire under the leadership of Appasaheb Bhonsle. T ...
(then spelled Kirkee) on 5November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the
Bombay Presidency The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still e ...
and the British built a large military
cantonment A cantonment (, , or ) is a military or police quarters. The word ''cantonment'', derived from the French word ''canton Canton may refer to: Administrative division terminology * Canton (administrative division), territorial/administrative d ...
to the east of the city (now used by the
Indian Army The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organi ...

Indian Army
). The Southern Command of the
Indian Army The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organi ...

Indian Army
was established in 1895 and has its headquarters in
Pune cantonment Pune Cantt, also known as Camp, is a military cantonment located in the city of Pune, India. It was established in 1817 for accommodating troops of the British Indian Army, Indian Army. The cantonment houses many military establishments. It is al ...
. The city of Pune was known as Poona during British rule. Poona Municipality was established in 1858. A railway line from Bombay to the city opened in 1858, run by the
Great Indian Peninsula Railway The Great Indian Peninsula Railway ( reporting mark GIPR) was a predecessor of the Central Railway (and by extension, the current state-owned Indian Railways), whose headquarters was at the Boree Bunder in Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also kno ...

Great Indian Peninsula Railway
(GIPR). Navi Peth, Ganj Peth (now renamed Mahatma Phule Peth) were developed during the
British Raj The British Raj (; from ''rāj'', literally, "rule" in Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the In ...

British Raj
.


Centre of Social Reform and Nationalism

Pune was prominently associated with the struggle for Indian independence. In the period between 1875 and 1910, the city was a centre of agitation led by
Gopal Krishna Gokhale Gopal Krishna Gokhale ( International Phonetic Alphabet, ɡoːpaːl ˈkrɪʂɳə ˈɡoːkʰleː9 May 1866 – 19 February 1915) was an Indian liberal political leader and a social reformer during the Indian Independence Movement. Gokhale wa ...

Gopal Krishna Gokhale
and
Bal Gangadhar Tilak Bal Gangadhar Tilak (or Lokmanya Tilak, ; 23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920), born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, teacher, and an independence activist. He was one third of the Lal Bal Pal triumvirate. Tilak was the first ...

Bal Gangadhar Tilak
. The city was also a centre for social reform led by
Gopal Ganesh Agarkar ''Gopal Ganesh Agarkar'' (14 July 1856 – 17 June 1895) was an Indian people, Indian social reformer, educationist, and thinker from Maharashtra, British India, India. At one time a close associate of Bal Gangadhar Tilak, he was co-founde ...

Gopal Ganesh Agarkar
,
Mahatma Jyotirao Phule Jyotirao Govindrao Phule (11 April 1827 – 28 November 1890) was an Indian social activist, intellectual, thinker, anti-caste social reformer and writer from Maharashtra. His work extended to many fields, including eradication of untouchabilit ...
, feminist
Tarabai Shinde Tarabai Shinde (1850–1910) was a feminist activist who protested patriarchy Patriarchy is a social system in which men hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control ...
,
Dhondo Keshav Karve '' Dhondo Keshav Karve (18 April 1858 – 9 November 1962), popularly known as Maharshi Karve, was a social reformer in India in the field of women's welfare He advocated widow remarriage and he himself married a widow. In his honour, Karvenagar ...

Dhondo Keshav Karve
and
Pandita Ramabai Pandita Ramabai Sarasvati (23 April 1858 – 5 April 1922) was an Indian social reformer A reform movement is a type of social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal ...

Pandita Ramabai
. They demanded the abolition of caste prejudice, equal rights for women, harmony between the
Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic re ...
and
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
communities, and better schools for the poor.
Mahatma Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (; ; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist Quote: "... marks Gandhi as a hybrid cosmopolitan figure who transformed ... anti-colonial nationalist politics in the ...

Mahatma Gandhi
was imprisoned at the
Yerwada Central Jail Yerwada Central Jail is a noted high-security jail in Yerwada, Pune, in Maharashtra. This is the largest jail in the state of Maharashtra, and also one of the largest prisons in South Asia, housing over 5,000 prisoners (2017) spread over various ...
several times and placed under house arrest at the
Aga Khan Palace The Aga Khan Palace was built by Sultan Muhammed Shah Aga Khan III in Pune Pune, known as Poona until 1978 ( ;), is the second-largest metropolitan city in the Indian State of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH) is a state in the west ...

Aga Khan Palace
between 1942 and 1944, where both his wife
Kasturba Gandhi Kasturbai "Kasturba" Mohandas Gandhi ( born Kasturbai Gokuldas Kapadia on (11 April 1869 – 22 February 1944) was an Indian political activist. She married Mohandas Gandhi in 1883. In association with her husband and son, she was involved in ...

Kasturba Gandhi
and aide
Mahadev Desai Mahadev Desai (1 January 1892 – 15 August 1942) was an Indian independence activist and writer best remembered as Mahatma Gandhi's personal secretary. He has variously been described as "Gandhi's James Boswell, Boswell, a Plato to Gandhi' ...
died. Savarkar used to study in Fergusson College and performed the "Holi" of foreign items near
Mutha river The Mutha River is a river in western Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH) is a state in the western peninsular region of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List ...
bank.


Pune since Indian Independence

After
Indian independence Indian independence may refer to: *Independence Day (India) Independence Day is celebrated annually on 15 August as a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence upright=1.0, Pedro I of Brazil, Pedro surrounded by a ...
from the British in 1947, Pune saw enormous growth transforming it into a modern metropolis. The Poona Municipal Council was reorganised to form the
Pune Municipal Corporation Pune (; ) is the seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine' ...
(PMC) in 1950. The education sector in the city continued its growth in the post-independence era with the establishment of the University of Pune (now,
Savitribai Phule Pune University Savitribai Phule Pune University (SPPU), formerly University of Pune and University of Poona, is a collegiate public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the gene ...

Savitribai Phule Pune University
) in 1949, the
National Chemical Laboratory The National Chemical Laboratory (NCL) is an Indian government laboratory based in Pune, in western India. Popularly known as NCL, a constituent member of the CSIR India, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) India, it was estab ...

National Chemical Laboratory
in 1950 and the
National Defence Academy The National Defence Academy (NDA) is the joint defence service training institute of the Indian Armed Forces, where cadets of the three services i.e. the Indian Military Service , the Indian Naval Service and the Indian Air Force Servic ...
in 1955. The establishment of
Hindustan Antibiotics Hindustan Antibiotics Limited (HAL), based in Pune, India, is the first public sector drug manufacturing companies set up by the Government of India. It was the first company in India to launch a recombinant DNA product, rHU-Erythropoietin (Hema ...
in 1954 marked the beginning of industrial development in the
Hadapsar Hadapsar is a developed town in eastern Pune, Pune City, Maharashtra. After 1990, Hadapsar developed into a major industrial area and is now one of the most densely populated and developed areas of Pune District. It is well connected to all part ...

Hadapsar
,
Bhosari Bhosari ( mr, भोसरी, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the sc ...
, and
Pimpri Pimpri is an affluent neighbourhood in the north western city limits of Pune Pune (; ) is the seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a state S ...
areas.
MIDC Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) is a project of the government of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
provided the necessary infrastructure for new businesses to set up operations. In the 1970s, several engineering companies were set up in the city, allowing it to vie with
Chennai Chennai (, ), also known as Madras (List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996), is the capital city of the states and territories of India, Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area ...

Chennai
. In the 1990s, Pune began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering industries. IT parks were established in Aundh, Viman Nagar, Hinjawadi, Wagholi, Pune, Wagholi, Kharadi and Balewadi-Baner region. As a result, the city saw a huge influx of people to the city due to opportunities offered by the manufacturing, and lately, the software industries. The breach in the Panshet Dam, Panshet dam and the resulting Khadakwasla Dam#Flood of 1961, flood of 1961 led to severe damage and destruction of housing close to the river banks. The mishap spurred the development of new suburbs and housing complexes. To integrate urban planning, the Pune Metropolitan Region was defined in 1967 covering the area under PMC, the Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation, the three cantonments and the surrounding villages. In 1998 work on the six-lane Mumbai-Pune expressway began; it was completed in 2001. In 2008 the Commonwealth Youth Games took place in Pune, which encouraged development in the northwest region of the city. On 13February 2010 2010 Pune bombing, a bomb exploded at the German Bakery in the upmarket Koregaon Park neighbourhood in eastern Pune, killing 17 and injuring 60. Evidence suggested that the Indian Mujahideen terrorist group carried out the attack.


Geography

Pune is situated at approximately 18° 32" north latitude and 73° 51" east longitude. The city's total area is 15.642 sq. km. By road Pune is south of Delhi, north of Bangalore, north-west of Hyderabad and south-east of Mumbai. Pune lies on the western margin of the Deccan plateau, at an altitude of above sea level. It is on the Windward and leeward, leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain range, which forms a barrier from the Arabian Sea. It is a hilly city, with Vetal Hill in Pune, Vetal Hill rising to above sea level. The Sinhagad fort is at an altitude of . The old city of Pune is at the confluence of the Mula River (India), Mula and Mutha rivers. The Pavana River, Pavana, a tributary of Mula river and Indrayani river, a tributary of the Bhima river, traverse the northwest Neighbourhoods of Pune.


Cityscape

The modern city of Pune has many distinct neighbourhoods. These include the numerous Peths in Pune, peths of the old city on the eastern bank of the Mutha river, the cantonment areas of Khadki and
Camp Camp may refer to: Outdoor accommodation and recreation * Campsite or campground, a recreational outdoor sleeping and eating site * a temporary settlement for nomads * Camp, a term used in New England, Northern Ontario and New Brunswick to describ ...
established by the British, and numerous suburbs. The industrial growth in the
Pimpri Pimpri is an affluent neighbourhood in the north western city limits of Pune Pune (; ) is the seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a state S ...
, Chinchwad, Akurdi, Nigdi and nearby areas allowed these areas to incorporate a new governing muncipal corporation. The Pune Metropolitan Region (PMR), initially defined in 1967, has grown to 7,256 km2 made up of the ten ''Tehsil, talukas'' of the Pune district. The areas of PMC and PCMC along with the three cantonment areas of Camp, Khadki, and Dehu Road form the urban core of the PMR, which also includes seven Nagar Palika, municipal councils and 842 villages. Rapid industrialisation since the 1960s has led to large influx of people to the city. Housing supply has not kept pace with demand, causing the number of slum dwellings to increase. Approximately 36% of the population lives in 486 slum areas. Of these, 45% slum households do not have in-house toilet facilities and 10% do not have electricity. One third of the slums are on mixed ownership land. The living conditions in slums varies considerably, depending on their status (formal/informal) and in how far non-governmental organisations (NGOs), community organisations (CBOs) and government agencies are involved and committed to improving local living conditions.Since the 1990s a number of landmark integrated townships and gated communities have been developed in Pune such as Magarpatta, Nanded City, Pune, Nanded city, Amanora Park Town, Amanora, Blue Ridge Town Pune, Blue Ridge, Life Republic and Lavasa. They also offer business opportunities and access to infrastructure. According to the Pune Municipal Corporation, PMC, six townships with up to 15,000 housing units existed in Pune in 2012 and 25 more were in the planning process. The Mercer 2017 Quality of Living Rankings evaluated living conditions in more than 440 cities around the world and ranked Pune at 145, second highest in India after Hyderabad at 144. The same source highlights Pune as being among evolving business centres and as one of nine emerging cities around the world with the citation "Hosts IT and automotive companies". The 2017 Annual Survey of India's City-Systems (ASICS) report, released by the Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy, adjudged Pune as the best governed of 23 major cities.


Peths in Pune

Peth is a general term in the Marathi language for a locality in Pune. Seventeen peths are located in Pune, which today constitute the old city of Pune. Most were established during the Maratha empire era under the
Maratha The Marathi people, also rendered as Marathis or Maharashtrian, are an ethnolinguistic group who speak Marathi language, Marathi, an Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan language, as their native language. They inhabit the state of Maharashtra in mo ...

Maratha
and
Peshwa The Peshwa was the appointed (and later hereditary) Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire fo ...
rule of the city in the 18th century, before the arrival of the British Raj, British.


Climate

Pune has a tropical savanna climate, tropical wet and dry (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''Aw'') climate, closely bordering upon a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen ''BSh'') with average temperatures ranging between . Pune experiences three seasons: summer, monsoon, and winter. Typical summer months are from mid-March to mid-June, with maximum temperatures sometimes reaching . The warmest month in Pune is May. The city often has heavy dusty winds in May, with humidity remaining high. Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to Pune's high altitude. The highest temperature recorded was on 30April 1897. The monsoon lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures ranging from . Most of the of annual rainfall in the city falls between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Hailstorms are not unheard of. For most of December and January the daytime temperature hovers around while night temperatures are below , often dropping to . The lowest temperature recorded was on 17January 1935.


Seismology

Pune is north of the seismically active zone around Koyna Dam. The India Meteorological Department has assessed this area as being in Earthquake hazard zoning of India#Zone 3, Zone 3, on a scale of 2 to 5, with 5 being the most prone to earthquakes. Pune has experienced some moderateand many lowintensity earthquakes in its history.


Demographics

The city has a population of 3,124,458; while 5,057,709 people reside in the Pune Urban Agglomeration . The latter was 4,485,000 in 2005. According to the
Pune Municipal Corporation Pune (; ) is the seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine' ...
(PMC), 40% of the population lived in slums in 2001. Since Pune is a major industrial metropolis, it has attracted migrants from all parts of India. The number of people migrating to Pune rose from 43,900 in 2001 to 88,200 in 2005. The sharp increase in population during the decade 1991–2001 led to the absorption of 38 fringe villages into the city. The top five source areas of migrants are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. The Sindhis in the city are mostly refugees and their descendants, who came to the area after the partition of India in 1947. Initially they settled in the Pimpri area, which is still home to a large number of Sindhis in India, Sindhi people. However, they are also present in other parts of the city. As agriculture has dwindled in recent decades, immigration of the erstwhile rural peoples now accounts for 70 percent of the population growth. Marathi language, Marathi is the official and most spoken language. The average Literacy, literacy rate of Pune was 86.15% in 2011 compared to 80.45% in 2001.


Religion

Hinduism is the dominant religion in Pune. Other religions with a significant presence include Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and Zoroastrianism. Of the many Hindu temples in the city, the Parvati temple complex on
Parvati Hill Parvati Hill is a hillock in Pune, India. The hillock rises to above sea level. Atop the hillock is the Parvati Temple, one of the most scenic locations in Pune. The temple is the oldest heritage structure in Pune and was built during the rule ...
and at least 250 others date back to the 18th century. These temples were commissioned by the
Peshwa The Peshwa was the appointed (and later hereditary) Prime Minister of the Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire fo ...
s, who ruled the city at the time, and are dedicated to various deities including ,
Vithoba Vithoba, also known as Vi(t)thal(a) and Panduranga, is a Hindu deity predominantly worshipped in the Indian state of Maharashtra. He is generally considered as a manifestation of the god Vishnu Vishnu (; ; , ''IAST: Viṣṇu, ISO 15919, ...

Vithoba
,
Vishnu Vishnu (; ; , ), also known as Narayana and Hari, is one of the Hindu deities, principal deities of Hinduism. He is the supreme being within Vaishnavism, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism. Vishnu is known as "The Prese ...

Vishnu
, ,
Rama Rama (; , ; ), Ram, Raman or Ramar, also known as Ramachandra (; , ), is a major deity in Hinduism Hinduism () is an and ', or way of life. It is the , with over 1.2 billion followers, or 15–16% of the global population, known a ...

Rama
,
Krishna Krishna (, ; sa, कृष्ण, ) is a major deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as a God (male deity), god or goddess (in a polythei ...

Krishna
and
Ganesh Ganesha ( sa, गणेश, ), also known as Ganapati and Vinayaka, is one of the best-known and most worshipped in the . His image is found throughout , , , , ( and ), , , , and and in countries with large ethnic Indian populations incl ...

Ganesh
. The historic temples of , the Budhwar Peth, Pune, Tambadi (Red) Jogeshwari are considered the guardian deities of the city.Dagadusheth Halwai Ganapati Temple in Budhwar Peth, Dagdusheth Halwai Ganapati Temple is the richest Ganesh temple in Pune. Pune has two of the most important pilgrimage centres of the Varkari sect of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra, namely Alandi where the ''samadhi'' of 13th century Saint Dnyaneshwar is located and Dehu where the 17th century Saint Tukaram lived. Every year in the Hindu calendar, Hindu month of ''Ashadh'' (June/July), the ''Paduka'' (symbolic sandals) of these saints are carried in a pilgrimage, the ''Pandharpur Vari'', to meet Vithoba. The procession makes a stopover in the city on its way to Pandharpur attracting hundreds of thousands of ''Varkaris'' and devotees. Other important Hindu pilgrimage sites in Pune Metropolitan Region, PMR or the district include Jejuri, and five of Ashtavinayak Ganesh temples. The Shrutisagar Ashram houses the Vedanta Research Centre and a unique temple of Dakshinamurthy. Prominent mosques include Chand Tara Masjid, Jama Masjid, and Azam Campus Masjid. Chand Tara Masjid, located in Nana Peth, is one of the biggest and most important mosques in Pune as it is the city headquarters (''markaz'') for the Tablighi Jamaat. Pune is also the birthplace of Meher Baba, although his followers usually travel to Meherabad to visit his tomb. Hazrat Babajan, identified by Meher Baba as one of the five Perfect Master (Meher Baba), perfect masters, has a shrine (''Dargah'') erected in her honour under a Azadirachta indica, neem tree in Pune Camp. Pune has a distinct Christian community comprising Catholic Church, Roman Catholic, Church of North India, CNI, Methodist Church in India, Methodist, Presbyterianism, Presbyterians, Christian Missionaries helped in setting up sechools and colleges all over and also spread the message of faith. The city has several churches dedicated to different Christian denominations including St. Anthony's Shrine, Dapodi Church, etc. St Patrick's Cathedral, Pune, St. Patrick's Cathedral built in 1850 is the seat of the bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Poona. Pune has Jainism, Jain temples dating back to the Peshwa era. At present, there are more than one hundred Jain temples in Pune Metropolitan Region, PMR with the one at
Katraj Katraj is suburb of Pune Pune (; ) is the seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a states and union territories of India, state in the western a ...

Katraj
being the largest. Pune has over 20 Gurdwaras, with Gurdwara Guru Nanak Darbar in Pune Camp and Gurdwara Shri Guru Singh Sabha in Ganesh Peth, Pune, Ganesh Peth being the ones situated in the heart of the city. The 19th-century Ohel David Synagogue, known locally as Lal Deval, is said to be one of the largest synagogues in Asia outside Israel. The Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Agiary is a prominent Zoroastrian temple. Pune has been associated with several significant recent spiritual teachers. The controversial Guru Rajneesh, Osho, formerly the self-styled Bhagwan Rajneesh, lived and taught in Pune for much of the 1970s and 1980s. The Osho (Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh)#Legacy, Osho International Meditation Resort, one of the world's largest spiritual centres, is located in Koregaon Park and attracts visitors from over a hundred countries. The meditation resort organises music and meditation festival every year during monsoon, known as Osho Monsoon Festival. Number of well known artists around the world participates in the event.


Economy

With an estimated nominal GDP of Rs. 3,31,478 crores for year 2019-20, Pune District is the third largest contributor to the economy of Maharashtra, after Mumbai and Thane. Pune has the fifth largest metropolitan economy and the sixth highest per capita income in the country. As per the Directorate of Economics and Statistics (Government of Maharashtra), the GDP per capita of Pune District in 2019-20 is Rs. 3,16,848. The key sectors of the local economy are education, manufacturing and information technology (IT). Pune has historically been known as a center for higher education and has been referred to as the educational capital of India. In 2016, it was reported that nearly 500,000 students from across India and abroad study in Pune at nine universities and more than a hundred educational institutes. Pune is a major manufacturing and industrial hub. It has established industries in the fields of automobile, electronics & hardware, aerospace pharmaceuticals, locomotives etc. Industry is mainly located in Pimpri-Chinchwad, PCMC Administered areas, Chakan, Pune, Chakan, Indapur, and Ranjangaon areas of the metropolitan region. The region serves as headquarters to Kirloskar Group, Bajaj Auto, Serum Institute of India, Tata BlueScope Steel, Bharat Forge, Kalyani Group, Tata Steel Processing and Distribution etc. Public sector undertakings in India, Public sector undertakings such as
Hindustan Antibiotics Hindustan Antibiotics Limited (HAL), based in Pune, India, is the first public sector drug manufacturing companies set up by the Government of India. It was the first company in India to launch a recombinant DNA product, rHU-Erythropoietin (Hema ...
, Maharashtra State Agri and Rural Tourism Co-operative Federation Limited, Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited are based in the city.Automotive companies such as Bajaj Auto, Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, Skoda cars, Mercedes-Benz India, Mercedes Benz, Force Motors, Kinetic Engineering Limited, Kinetic Motors, General Motors, Land Rover, Jaguar Cars, Jaguar, Renault, Volkswagen India, Volkswagen, and Fiat India Automobiles, Fiat have set up greenfield facilities in Chakan, Maharashtra, Chakan near Pune, leading ''The Independent'' to describe Chakan, Pune as India's "Motor City". Several other compabies such as Philips, Foxconn, ThyssenKrupp, Tata Group, Tata Battery have there plants in the city. The Kirloskar Group came to Pune in 1945 when Kirloskar Brothers Ltd setup Kirloskar Oil Engines, India's largest diesel engine company, at Khadki. The group has several group companies in Pune including Kirloskar Pneumatics and the groups flagship company Kirloskar Brothers Limited, one of India's largest manufacturers and exporters of pumps and the largest infrastructure pumping project contractor in Asia. According to the Indo-German Chamber of Commerce, Pune has been the single largest hub for German companies for the last 60 years. Over 225 German companies have set up their businesses in Pune. Serum Institute of India, the world's fifth largest vaccine producer by volume, has a manufacturing plant located in Pune. In 2014-15, the manufacturing sector provided employment to over 500,000 people. The Rajiv Gandhi Infotech Park in Hinjawadi is a ₹ 60,000 crore (US$8.9 billion) project by the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC). The IT Park encompasses an area of about and is home to over 800 IT companies of all sizes. Besides Hinjawadi, IT companies are also located at Magarpatta, Kharadi and several other parts of the city. As of 2017, the IT sector employs more than 300,000 people. Pune has also emerged as a new hub for tech startups in India. NASSCOM, in association with MIDC, has started a co-working space for city based startups under its ''10,000 startups'' initiative at Kharadi MIDC. Pune Food Cluster development project is an initiative funded by the World Bank. It is being implemented with the help of Small Industries Development Bank of India, Cluster Craft to facilitate the development of the fruit and vegetable processing industries in and around Pune. The Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions trade is expected to be boosted since the Pune International Exhibition and Convention Centre (PIECC) opened in 2017. The 97-hectare PIECC boasts a seating capacity of 20,000 with a floor area of . It has seven exhibition centres, a convention centre, a golf course, a five-star hotel, a business complex, shopping malls, and residences. The US$115 million project was developed by the Pimpri-Chinchwad New Town Development Authority.


Culture


Architecture

Historical attractions include the 8th century rock-cut cave temple, the 18th century Shaniwarwada, the 19th century Aga Khan Palace, Lal Mahal and Sinhagad fort. Shinde Chhatri, located at Wanowrie, is a memorial dedicated to the great Maratha general, Mahadaji Shinde (Scindia). The old city had many residential buildings with courtyards called Wada (house), Wada. However, many of these have been demolished and replaced by modern buildings. A renowned wada in Pune is the last residential palace of the Peshwa called Vishrambaug Wada which is currently being renovated by the city corporation. The city is also known for its British Raj bungalow architecture and the Garden Cities Movement layout of the Cantonment from the early 20th century. Landmark architectural works by Christopher Charles Benninger surround the city, including the Mahindra United World College of India, the Centre for Development Studies and Activities, the YMCA Retreat at Nilshi and the Samundra Institute of Maritime Studies.


Museums, Parks and Zoos

Museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Mahatma Phule Museum, Mahatma Phule Industrial Museum, Deccan college museum of Maratha history, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum, Joshi's Museum of Miniature Railway and the Pune Tribal Museum. Pune also houses Blades of Glory Cricket Museum which is the biggest cricket museum in the world. The College of Military Engineering has an archive and an equipment museum; this includes a rail exhibit with a metre-gauge train. The
Aga Khan Palace The Aga Khan Palace was built by Sultan Muhammed Shah Aga Khan III in Pune Pune, known as Poona until 1978 ( ;), is the second-largest metropolitan city in the Indian State of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH) is a state in the west ...

Aga Khan Palace
, where
Mahatma Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (; ; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist Quote: "... marks Gandhi as a hybrid cosmopolitan figure who transformed ... anti-colonial nationalist politics in the ...

Mahatma Gandhi
was interned during the Quit India movement, has a memorial dedicated to his wife,
Kasturba Gandhi Kasturbai "Kasturba" Mohandas Gandhi ( born Kasturbai Gokuldas Kapadia on (11 April 1869 – 22 February 1944) was an Indian political activist. She married Mohandas Gandhi in 1883. In association with her husband and son, she was involved in ...

Kasturba Gandhi
who died here during the internment. For a city of its size, Pune has does not very few large public parks and gardens. Parks and green spaces in the city include the Kamala Nehru Park, Pune, Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park, ''Shahu Udyan'', Peshwe Park, , Empress Gardens, and Bund Garden, Pune, Bund Garden. The Pu La Deshpande Garden, Pu La Deshpande Udyan is a replica of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan. The Hanuman Tekdi, Hanuman hill, Vetal Tekdi, Vetal hill, and Taljai Hills are protected nature reserves on hills within the city limits. The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located in Katraj. The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999.


Performing Arts

Both experimental and professional theatre receive extensive patronage from the Marathi community. The Tilak Smarak Ranga Mandir, Bal Gandharva Ranga Mandir, Bharat Natya Mandir, Yashwantrao Chavan Natya Gruha, and Sudarshan Rangmanch are prominent theatres in the city. Ganesh Kala Krida Rangamanch is the largest indoor theatre in the city, with a seating capacity of approximately 45,000. The Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav, one of the most prominent and sought-after Hindustani Classical Music, Indian classical music festivals in India, is held in Pune every year in December. It commemorates the life and achievements of Sawai Gandharva. The concept of ''Diwāḷī Pahāṭ'' (lit. Diwali dawn) originated in Pune as a music festival on the morning of the festival of Diwali.


Festivals

Ganeshotsav is widely and publicly celebrated in Pune. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lokamanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak started the public celebration of the festival as a means to circumvent the colonial British government ban on Hindu gatherings through its anti-public assembly legislation in 1892. Pandals with Ganesh idols are erected all across Pune. Many ''ganesh'' ''mandals'' (local organisations) display live or figurine shows called ''Dekhava'' during the festival. These shows often carry socially relevant messages. Processions of Ganpati are accompanied by ''Dhol-Tasha pathaks'' (groups who play Dhol-Tasha percussion instruments). Involvement of these ''pathaks'' has become a cultural identity of Pune with there being over 150 such groups operating in and around Pune. Jnana Prabodhini, a social organisation in Pune is widely accredited for founding the tradition of ''Dhol-Tasha'' ''pathaks''


Sports

As a matter of historic interest, early on, the game of badminton was also known as Poona or Poonah after the then British garrison town of Poona where it was particularly popular and where the first rules for the game were drawn up in 1873. (Games employing shuttlecocks have been played for centuries across Eurasia, but the modern game of badminton developed in the mid-19th century among the British as a variant of the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock. "Battledore" was Badminton#History, an older term for "racquet".) Every year women profesional tennis players' ITF $25K tournament take place at Deccan Gymkhana Ground, Deccan Gymkhana club's tennis courts. It also hosts men's ITF $15K event. Maharashtra Open, ATP 250 Maharashtra Open annually held at Pune. It is India's biggest profesional tennis championship and only ATP event of India. Where top professional tennis players participate. Popular games and sports in Pune include athletics, cricket, basketball, badminton, field hockey, football, tennis, ''kabaddi'', paragliding, ''kho-kho'', Rowing (sport), rowing, and chess. The Chhatrapati Shivaji Stadium in Balewadi is the venue for wrestling and other traditional sports. The Royal Connaught Boat Club is one of several boating clubs on the Mula-Mutha river. Pune has basketball courts at the Deccan Gymkhana and at Fergusson College. Pune Skatepark is a skateboarding park built in Sahakarnagar, consisting of an eight-foot bowl in a 3,000 square foot flatground. Other prominent sporting institutions in Pune include the Nehru Stadium, Pune, Nehru Stadium, the PYC Hindu Gymkhana, the Poona Golf Club and the Poona Cricket Club. The Pune International Marathon is an annual marathon conducted in Pune. The National Games of India, National Games of 1994 and the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games were held in the city at the Balewadi Stadium. The Deccan Gymkhana has hosted Davis Cup matches on several occasions. The 37,000 seating capacity Maharashtra Cricket Association Stadium has hosted international cricket – Twenty20, T20s, One Day Internationals, and a Test cricket, test match. The National Education Foundation organises Enduro3, a cross country adventure race in Pune. It is a two- or three-day event with activities including cycling, trekking, river-crossing and rifle shooting. Pune Race Course was built in 1830 on of land and is managed by the Royal Western India Turf Club. The course has two training tracks and two racing surfaces. The racing season is from July to October every year and includes major racing events the Pune Derby, the RWITC Invitational, the Independence Cup and the Southern Command Cup. The city has also hosted the 2009 FIVB Men's Junior World Championship.


Teams

The Maharashtra cricket team, one of the three teams of the Maharashtra Cricket Association that compete in interstate matches and leagues such as the Ranji Trophy, is based in the city. Pune Warriors India (2011-2014) and Rising Pune Supergiant (2016-2017) were the two teams based in Pune to play in the Indian Premier League. Poona District Football Association (PDFA) was established in 1972 and currently has more than 100 registered teams. FC Pune City was an Indian Super League football club in Pune. Established in 2014, FC Pune City became the only professional football club in India to have teams which participated at all levels of professional football; Senior Team (Indian Super League, ISL), U-18 Team (Elite League (India), Elite league), U- 16 Team, U-14 Team and the Women's Team. The city is home to the Pune Peshwas, runners-up in the 2015 UBA Pro Basketball League season. Pune also has an American football Franchise (sports), franchise, called the Pune Marathas (American football), Pune Marathas, which began playing in the inaugural season of the Elite Football League of India in 2011 and which plays at the Balewadi Stadium.


Government and public services


Civic Administration

Pune Municipal Corporation & Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation is the civic body responsible for Municipal governance in India, local government. It comprises two branches, the executive branch headed by the Municipal Commissioner, an Indian Administrative Service, IAS officer appointed by the Government of Maharashtra, and an elected deliberative branch, the general body, headed by the Mayor of Pune. Municipal elections are held every five years to elect councillors, commonly known as "corporators", who form the general body. The current general body of the PMC elected in February 2017 has 162 corporators representing 41 multi-member wards (39 with 4 corporators each and 2 with 3 each). The general body, in turn, elects the mayor and the deputy mayor. The mayor has a ceremonial role as the first citizen and ambassador of the city while the actual executive power lies with the municipal commissioner. For policy deliberations, corporators form several committees. Perhaps the most important of these is the 16-member Standing Committee, half of whose members retire every year. The Standing Committee and the 15 ward committees are in charge of financial approvals. PMC was ranked 8th out of 21 Indian cities for best governance and administrative practices in 2014. It scored 3.5 out of 10 compared to the national average of 3.3. The Pune Police, Pune City Police Department is the law enforcement agency for the city of Pune. It is a division of the Maharashtra Police and is headed by the Police Commissioner of Pune, Police Commissioner, an officer of the Indian Police Service. The Pune Police Department reports to the State Ministry of Home Affairs. A separate police commissionerate was announced for Pimpri-Chinchwad, PCMC, Pune in April 2018 to be carved out of the historic Pune Police Department. The new commissionerate took charge on 15 August 2018. Pune Metropolitan Region Development Authority (PMRDA) was formed on 31March 2015 and is responsible for the integrated development of the PMR. Currently its jurisdiction extends over and includes two Municipal corporations in India, municipal corporations, three cantonment boards, seven municipal councils, 13 Census town#India, census towns and 842 villages.


Utility Services

The PMC supplies the city with potable water that is sourced from the Khadakwasla Reservoir. There are five other reservoirs in the area that supply water to the city and the greater metropolitan area.Tirthkar, S.N., 2009. Master plan 2025 of Pune Municipal Corporation for sewage treatment and disposal. J Inst Public Health Eng, 2, pp.13–1

The city lacks the capacity to treat all the sewage it generates, which leads to the Mutha river containing only sewage outside the monsoon months. In 2009 only 65% of sewage generated was treated before being discharged into the rivers. According to Anwesha Borthakur and Pardeep Singh, unplanned and haphazard development has turned the Mula-Mutha river into a dead river.The Pune municipal corporation has undertaken plans to restore life into the rivers. PMC is also responsible for collecting solid waste. Around 1,600 tons of solid waste is generated in Pune each day. The waste consists of 53% organic, compostable material; and 47% inorganic material, of which around half is recyclable. The unrecovered solid waste is transported to the dumping grounds in Urali devachi. The state owned Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Limited supplies electricity to the city. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), owned by the Government of India, central government, as well as private enterprises such as Jio, Reliance Jio, Bharti Airtel and Vodafone Idea are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city.


Education and research

Pune has over a hundred educational institutes and more than nine deemed universities apart from the
Savitribai Phule Pune University Savitribai Phule Pune University (SPPU), formerly University of Pune and University of Poona, is a collegiate public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the gene ...

Savitribai Phule Pune University
(SPPU; formerly University of Pune), which is the largest University in the country based on total number of affiliated colleges. Higher education institutes attract international students mainly from the Middle Eastern countries such as Iran, and United Arab Emirates, and also African countries such as Ethiopia and Kenya. Pune is the largest centre for Japanese learning in India. Other languages taught in the city include German, which is taught at the Goethe-Institut, and French, which is taught at Alliance Française. Several colleges in Pune have student exchange programmes with colleges in Europe.


Primary and Secondary Education

The PMC runs 297 primary schools and 30 secondary and higher secondary schools. While it is mandatory for the PMC to provide primary education under state law, secondary education is an optional duty. In the rural and suburban areas of the PMR, public primary schools are run by the Pune District Councils of India, Zilla Parishad. Private schools are run by education trusts and are required to undergo mandatory inspection by the concerned authorities. Private schools are eligible for financial aid from the state government.Joshi, R., Regulatory Requirements for Starting a School in Poona. Centre for Civil Society, CCS RESEARCH INTERNSHIP PAPERS 200

Public schools are affiliated to the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education (State Board). The language of instruction in public schools is primarily Marathi, although the PMC also runs Urdu, English and Kannada Medium of instruction, medium schools. Along with these languages, private schools also offer instruction in Hindi and Gujarati language, Gujarati. Private schools vary in their choice of curriculum and may follow the State Board or one of the two central boards of education, the Central Board of Secondary Education, CBSE or Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, CISCE. Jnana Prabodhini Prashala, located in Sadashiv Peth, is the first school for Gifted education, intellectually gifted and talented students in India.


Tertiary Education

Most colleges in Pune are affiliated to the SPPU (Savitribai Phule Pune University). Nine other universities have also been established in the city. Pune also hosts the Military Intelligence Training School which offers diploma courses in counter intelligence, combat intelligence, aerial imagery and interpretation, among others. The College of Engineering Pune, an autonomous institute of the government of Maharashtra founded in 1854, is the third oldest engineering college in Asia. The Deccan Education Society was founded by local citizens in 1884, including social and political activist
Bal Gangadhar Tilak Bal Gangadhar Tilak (or Lokmanya Tilak, ; 23 July 1856 – 1 August 1920), born as Keshav Gangadhar Tilak, was an Indian nationalist, teacher, and an independence activist. He was one third of the Lal Bal Pal triumvirate. Tilak was the first ...

Bal Gangadhar Tilak
, who was also responsible for founding Fergusson College in 1885. The Indian Law Society's (ILS) ILS Law College, Law College is one of the top ten law schools in India. The Armed Forces Medical College (India), Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) and B. J. Medical College, Pune, B. J. Medical College are among the top medical colleges in India. The AFMC consistently ranks among the top five medical colleges in India. The Film and Television Institute of India, one of only three Indian institutions in the global CILECT film school network, is located on Law College Road. The Lalit Kala Kendra is an undergraduate department of Music, Dance and Drama on the SPPU campus that has been operational since 1987. This department features a combination of ''Gurukula, gurukul'' and formal education systems. Symbiosis International University operates 33 colleges and institutions in the city, including the Symbiosis Institute of Business Management, the Symbiosis Institute of Management Studies, the Symbiosis Centre for Management and Human Resource Development, the Symbiosis Law School and the Symbiosis Institute of International Business. They are ranked among the top management and law institutes in the country. The Symbiosis Institute of Computer Studies and Research is one of the few colleges in India that promotes Open-source model, open source technology.


Research Institutes

Pune is home to a number of governmental and non-governmental research institutes focusing on a wide range of subject areas from the humanities to the sciences. The Ministry of Defence (India), Ministry of Defence also runs a number of defence related education, training and research establishments in and around the city. Major research centers include: *Agharkar Research Institute (ARI) *Armament Research and Development Establishment, Armament Research Development Establishment (ARDE) *Armed Forces Medical College (India) (AFMC) *Army Institute of Technology (AIT) *Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) *Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI) *Central Institute of Road Transport (CIRT) *Central Water and Power Research Station (CW&PRS) *Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) *Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) *Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT) *Film and Television Institute of India (FTII) *Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics *High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL) *Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune (IISER, Pune) *Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) *Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Inter-university Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCAA) *National AIDS Research Institute (NARI) *National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS) *National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) *
National Chemical Laboratory The National Chemical Laboratory (NCL) is an Indian government laboratory based in Pune, in western India. Popularly known as NCL, a constituent member of the CSIR India, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) India, it was estab ...

National Chemical Laboratory
(NCL) *
National Defence Academy The National Defence Academy (NDA) is the joint defence service training institute of the Indian Armed Forces, where cadets of the three services i.e. the Indian Military Service , the Indian Naval Service and the Indian Air Force Servic ...
(NDA) *National Informatics Centre (NIC) *National Institute of Bank Management (NIBM) *National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR) *National Institute of Virology (NIV) *National School of Leadership (NSL) *National Insurance Academy (NIA) *Research & Development Establishment (Engineers) (R&DE(E)) *Tata Research Development and Design Centre (TRDDC)


Media

A number of Marathi-language newspapers from the British era continued publishing decades after independence. These included Kesari (newspaper), ''Kesari'', ''Tarun Bharat'', ''Prabhat'' and''Sakal''. ''Sakal'' has remained the most popular Marathi daily. ''Kesari'' is now only published as an online newspaper. The Mumbai-based ''Maharashtra Times'', ''Loksatta'' and ''Lokmat'' have all introduced Pune based editions in the last fifteen years. The Mumbai-based popular English newspaper the ''Indian Express'' has a Pune edition. Its rival the ''Times of India'' introduced a tabloid called ''Pune Mirror'' in 2008. ''Mid-Day'', ''Daily News and Analysis'' and ''Sakaal Times'' are other local English newspapers. The English-language newspaper ''The Hindu'' has launched a Pune edition covering local as well as national news. The government owned All India Radio (AIR) has been broadcasting from Pune since 1953. Savitribai Phule Pune University broadcasts programmes focusing on its different departments and student welfare schemes on its own FM radio channel called ''Vidyavani''. A number of commercial FM channels are also received in the city. The city receives almost all of the Television in India, television channels in India including Broadcasting, broadcast, Cable television, cable and Direct-to-home television in India, direct-to-home TV.


Transport


Public transport

Public transport in Pune includes Pune Suburban Railway, bus services operated by Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited, PMPML and auto rickshaws. Uber and Ola Cabs also operate in the city. Construction of Pune Metro, an urban mass rapid transit system, is underway as of 2018.


Rail

Pune Suburban Railway (electric multiple units) (popularly called local trains) connect Pune to the industrial city of Pimpri-Chinchwad and the hill station of Lonavala. Daily express trains connect Pune to Mumbai, Nashik, Ahmedabad,
Chennai Chennai (, ), also known as Madras (List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996), is the capital city of the states and territories of India, Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area ...

Chennai
, Delhi, Hyderabad, Telangana, Hyderabad, Nanded, Jaipur, Raipur, Nagpur, Visakhapatnam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Coimbatore, Bangalore, Allahabad, Kanpur, Howrah, Jammu Tawi, Vijayawada, Darbhanga, Goa, Gwalior, Varanasi, Bhubaneswar, Ranchi, Patna, and Jamshedpur. At Pune, there is a diesel locomotive shed and an electric trip shed. Pune Railway Station is administered by the Pune Railway Division of Central Railways.


Bus service

Public buses within the city and its suburbs are operated by Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML). PMPML operates the Rainbow BRTS system, the first of its kind in India, in which dedicated bus lanes were supposed to allow buses to travel quickly through the city. The project has turned out to be a failure, receiving little patronage from the local citizenry. Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation runs buses from stations in Wakdewadi, Pune Station Bus Stand, Pune station, and Swargate to all major cities and towns in Maharashtra and neighbouring states. Private companies also run buses to major cities throughout India. In January 2019, Pune became the first Indian city to adopt Electric bus, e-buses and Bhekrai Nagar the country's first all electric bus depot. As of November 2019, up to 133 Electric vehicles in India, electric vehicles (EVs) have been deployed across the city in the first phase of its e-bus programme. The user's group is Pune Bus Pravasi Sangh.


Metro

Pune Metro, a mass rapid transit system, is under construction and is expected to be operational by 2021. The Project plan, detailed project report was prepared for the initial two lines by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation which was approved by the State government in 2012 and by the central government in December 2016. Two lines, Line 1 from Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corportion Building to Swargate and Line 2 from State Highway 27 (Maharashtra), Ramwadi to Vanaz, with a combined length of , are being constructed by Maharashtra Metro Rail Corporation Limited, MahaMetro, a 50:50 joint venture of the State and central governments. Line 1 will run underground between Swargate and Range Hills be and elevated until PCMC Bhavan. Line 2 will be completely elevated and will intersect Line 1 at the Civil Court interchange station in Shivajinagar, Pune, Shivajinagar. Line 3 between Hinjawadi and Civil Court, Shivajinagar was approved by the state and central governments in January and March 2018, respectively. This 23.3-km line is being implemented by PMRDA on a public-private partnership basis.


Road transport

Pune is well-connected to other cities by National highways of India, Indian and state highways. National Highway 48 (India), National Highway 48 connects it to Mumbai and Bangalore, National Highway 65 (India), National Highway 65 connects it to Hyderabad and National Highway 60 connects it to Nashik. State Highway 27 (Maharashtra), State Highway 27 connect Pune to Ahmednagar. The Mumbai Pune Expressway is India's first six-lane high-speed expressway, and it was built in 2002. Only four wheeled vehicles are allowed on it. This expressway has reduced travel time between Pune and Mumbai to a little over two hours. A Pune Ring Road, ring road is planned around the city.


Personal Transport

Once known as the "Bicycle, cycle city of India", Pune has experienced a rapid growth in the number of Motorcycle, motorised two wheelers replacing the bicycle. In 2005 the city was reported to have one million two wheelers. The report also stated that the increase in vehicular and industrial activity had led to a 10-fold increase in particulate pollution in some areas of the city. In 2018 the number of vehicles in the city has exceeded its population with 3.62 million total vehicles, 2.70 million being two wheelers. In the fiscal year 2017–18 alone 300,000 new vehicles were registered in the city, two-thirds of them two wheelers. A revival of cycling in Pune with of cycle tracks built was attempted as a part of the Bus rapid transit, BRT system under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission in 2004. However, a 2011 report revealed that only of tracks were actually built and most were unusable at the time of the report. Under the Smart Cities Mission, app based Bicycle-sharing system, cycle sharing schemes have been launched in the city since late 2017. The PMC has devised the Pune Cycle Plan with of cycle tracks planned. Cycles are also seen as a possible way of improving Last mile (transportation), last mile connectivity for the metro system.


Air

Pune International Airport at Lohagaon is one of the busiest airports in India. The airport is operated by the Airports Authority of India. It shares its runways with the neighbouring Indian Air Force base. In addition to domestic flights to all major Indian cities, the airport has international direct flights to Dubai, operated by Air India Express, and SpiceJet. Pune International Airport at Lohegaon was ranked third best in the category of 5-15 million passengers b
Airport Service Quality
A New Pune Airport, new international airport has been proposed, due to the limited capacity of the existing airport. A location in the Chakan, Maharashtra, Chakan-Rajgurunagar (Khed), Rajgurunagar area was chosen for the airport, but non-availability of land delayed the project for over a decade. In September 2016 the location was changed to Purandar taluka, Purandar, south of the city. The proposed airport in Purandar will be spread over 2,400 hectares. New Pune Airport, Chhatrapati Sambhaji Raje Airport is proposed to serve the city of Pune. The greenfield airport will be located near the villages of Ambodi, Sonori, Kumbharvalan, Ekhatpur-Munjawadi, Khanwadi, Pargaon Memane, Rajewadi, Aamble, Tekwadi, Vanpuri, Udachiwadi, Singapur near
Saswad Saswad is a municipal council located on South-Eastern corridor of of the Indian state of . Saswad is situated on the banks of the River. Saswad is about 31 km from Pune-Central Station. History Saswad is a place with a long history. It ...

Saswad
and Jejuri in Purandar taluka of Pune District.


Healthcare

Healthcare in the PMR is provided by private and public facilities. Primary care is provided by practitioners of Medicine, western as well as traditional alternative medicine (i.e.''Ayurved'', Homeopathy and Unani). For minor and chronic ailments, people in the region have preference for practitioners of the traditional medicine. The PMR is served by three government hospitals: Sassoon Hospital, Budhrani and Dr Ambedkar Hospital. There are also a number of private hospitals such as Ranka Hospital, Sahyadri Hospital, Sahyadri, Jahangir Nursing Home, Sancheti Hospital, Aditya Birla Memorial Hospital, Somwar Peth#KEM Hospital, KEM Hospital, Ruby Hall Clinic, Ruby Hall, Naidu Hospital and Deenanath Mangeshkar Hospital.


International relations

World Trade Center (WTC) Pune is a 1.6 million sq. ft. infrastructure to foster international trade. WTC Pune is part of the World Trade Centers Association. ;Twin towns and sister cities * San Jose, California, United States (1992) * Vacoas-Phoenix, Mauritius * Austin, Texas, United States – since 2018 Informal relationship * Bremen, Germany * Okayama, Japan


See also

* List of people from Pune * List of tourist attractions in Pune * Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited * Pune Metro * Chhatrapati Sambhaji Raje International Airport


References


External links

* for Pune City and District * {{Authority control Pune, Metropolitan cities in India Smart cities in India Cities and towns in Pune district Paschim Maharashtra Former capital cities in India Cities in Maharashtra Maharashtra Populated places with period of establishment missing