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, , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol =

Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_type = National seal , national_motto =

"Firm and Happy for the Union" , national_anthem =

"National Anthem of Peru"
, march =

"March of Flags"
, image_map = PER_orthographic.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital =
Lima Lima ( ; ) is the capital and the largest city of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_t ...

Lima
, coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type =
Official language An official language is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically the term "official language" does not refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government (e.g. judiciar ...

Official language
, languages = , languages2_type = Other languages , languages2 = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2017 , demonym = Peruvian , government_type =
Unitary Unitary may refer to: * Unitary construction, in automotive design a common term for unibody (unitary body/chassis) construction * Lethal Unitary Chemical Agents and Munitions (Unitary), as chemical weapons opposite of Binary * Unitarianism, in Chr ...
presidential President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
, leader_title1 =
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, leader_name1 =
Pedro Castillo José Pedro Castillo Terrones ( (); born 19 October 1969), sometimes referred to as "El Profe" ('The Teacher'), is a Peruvian schoolteacher, union leader and politician serving as the 130th president of Peru since 28 July 2021, following the 20 ...

Pedro Castillo
, leader_title2 =
Vice president A vice president, also director in British English, is an officer An officer is a person who has a position of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationsh ...
, leader_name2 = Dina Boluarte , leader_title3 =
Prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
, leader_name3 = Mirtha Vásquez , leader_title4 = President of Congress , leader_name4 =
Maricarmen Alva
Maricarmen Alva
, legislature = Congress of the Republic , sovereignty_type =
Independence upright=1.0, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822.">Independence of Brazil">Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state State may ref ...
, sovereignty_note = from
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
, established_event1 = Declared , established_date1 = 28 July 1821 , established_event2 =
Consolidated
Consolidated
, established_date2 = 9 December 1824 , established_event3 = Recognized , established_date3 = 14 August 1879 , area_km2 = 1,285,216 , area_rank = 19th , area_sq_mi = 496,225 , percent_water = 0.41 , population_estimate = 34,294,231 , population_census = 31,237,385 , population_estimate_year = 2021 , population_estimate_rank = 44th , population_census_year = 2017 , population_density_km2 = 23 , population_density_sq_mi = 57 , population_density_rank = 198th , GDP_PPP = $385.719 billion , GDP_PPP_year = 2020 , GDP_PPP_rank = 47th , GDP_PPP_per_capita = $11,516 , GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 103rd , GDP_nominal = $195.761 billion , GDP_nominal_year = 2020 , GDP_nominal_rank = 49th , GDP_nominal_per_capita = $5,845 , GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 86th , Gini = 41.5 , Gini_year = 2019 , Gini_change = decrease , Gini_ref = , Gini_rank = , HDI = 0.777 , HDI_year = 2019 , HDI_change = increase , HDI_ref = , HDI_rank = 79th , currency = Sol , currency_code = PEN , time_zone =
PET A pet, or companion animal, is an animal kept primarily for a person's company or entertainment rather than as a working animal, livestock or a laboratory animal. Popular pets are often considered to have attractive appearances, Animal cognitio ...
, utc_offset = −5 , date_format = dd.mm.yyyy ( CE) , drives_on = right , calling_code = +51 , iso3166code = PE , cctld = .pe , religion = , religion_ref = , religion_year = 2017 , today = Peru (; es, link=no, Perú ; qu, Piruw ; ay, Piruw ), officially the Republic of Peru (), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by
Ecuador Ecuador ( ; ; Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a ...

Ecuador
and
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...

Colombia
, in the east by
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, in the southeast by
Bolivia Bolivia ; ay, Wuliwya ; Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''Puliwya'' , officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The constitutional capital is Sucre, while the seat of g ...

Bolivia
, in the south by
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
, and in the south and west by the
Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. ...

Pacific Ocean
. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the
Andes mountains The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains ( es, Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America South America is a continent e ...

Andes mountains
extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical
Amazon Basin The Amazon Basin is the part of South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven ...

Amazon Basin
rainforest in the east with the
Amazon river The Amazon River (, ; es, Río Amazonas, pt, Rio Amazonas) in South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern of a single con ...

Amazon river
. Peru has a
population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size of the resident population within their jurisdiction by a process called a ...
of 34 million, and its capital and largest city is
Lima Lima ( ; ) is the capital and the largest city of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_t ...

Lima
. At 1.28 million km2 (0.5 million mi2), Peru is the 19th largest country in the world, and the third largest in South America. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the
Norte Chico civilization Norte Chico (also known as Caral or Caral-Supe) was a complex pre-Columbian-era society that included as many as thirty major population centers in what is now the Caral region of north-central coastal Peru , , image_flag ...
starting in 3500 BCE, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five
cradles of civilization A cradle of civilization is any location where civilization is understood to have independently emerged. According to current thinking, there was no single "cradle" of civilization; instead, several cradles of civilization developed independentl ...
, to the
Inca Empire The Inca Empire, also known as Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, and at the time known as the Realm of the Four Parts,,  "four parts together" was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military c ...

Inca Empire
, the largest state in the pre-Columbian Americas, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 10th millennium BCE. The
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American territories, with its capital in
Lima Lima ( ; ) is the capital and the largest city of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_t ...

Lima
. Higher education started in the Americas with the official establishment of the
National University of San Marcos The National University of San Marcos ( es, link=no, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, UNMSM) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general p ...
in Lima in 1551. Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the foreign military campaigns of
José de San Martín José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (25 February 177817 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín () or ''libertadores, El Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru'', was an Argentina, Argentine general and the prime leader of t ...

José de San Martín
and
Simón Bolívar Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Ponte Palacios y Blanco ( , also , ; 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), also colloquially as '' El Libertador'', or ''Liberator of America'', was a Venezuelan military and political le ...

Simón Bolívar
, and the decisive , Peru completed its independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, though the nation faced a sovereignty crisis in 1836, with the formation of the Peruvian–Bolivian Confederation, and later the
War of the Pacific The War of the Pacific ( es, link=no, Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Saltpeter War ( es, link=no, Guerra del salitre) and by War of the Pacific#Etymology, multiple other names, was a war between Chile and a Treaty of Defensive Allianc ...
(1879–1884) with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, coups, social unrest, and internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. In the 1990s, the country implemented a which is still in use to this day. Since then, Peru has experienced constant economic growth and a decrease in
inequality Inequality may refer to: Economics * Attention inequality Attention inequality is a term used to target the inequality of distribution of attention across users on social networks, people in general, and for scientific papers. Yun Family Foundat ...
. The
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. Peru has a high level of
human developmentHuman development may refer to: * Development of the human body * Developmental psychology * Human development (economics) * Human Development Index, an index used to rank countries by level of human development * Human evolution, the prehistoric p ...
with an upper middle income level ranking 82nd on the
Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
. It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing; along with other growing sectors such as telecommunications and
biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad area of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Phy ...

biotechnology
. The country forms part of
The Pacific Pumas The Pacific Pumas are a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America’s Pacific coast that includes Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South Ameri ...
, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in ; it is an active member of the
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC; ) is an inter-governmental forum for 21 member economies An economy (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offic ...
, the
Pacific Alliance The Pacific Alliance ( es, link=no, Alianza del Pacífico) is a Latin American trade bloc, formed by Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which all border the Pacific Ocean. The alliance was formed with the express purpose of improving regional in ...

Pacific Alliance
, the
Trans-Pacific Partnership The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), also called the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, was a proposed trade agreement A trade agreement (also known as trade pact) is a wide-ranging taxes, tariff and trade treaty that often includes invest ...
and the
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through ...
; and is considered as a
middle power In international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between ...
. Peru has a population that includes
Mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...

Mestizo
s,
Amerindians The Indigenous peoples of the Americas, also known as Amerindians or Indians, are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European colonization of the Americas, European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who n ...
,
Europeans Europeans are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, nations of Europe. Groups may be defined by commo ...
,
Africans The population of Africa has population growth, grown rapidly over the past century and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries. Total population as of 20 ...
and
Asians Asian people (or Asiatic people)United States National Library of Medicine. Medical Subject Headings. 2004. November 17, 200Nlm.nih.gov: ''Asian Continental Ancestry Group'' is also used for categorical purposes. are the people A peopl ...
. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak
Quechua languages Quechua (, ; ), usually called ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autocht ...
,
Aymara Aymara may refer to: Languages and people * Aymaran languages Aymaran (also Jaqi or Aru) is one of the two dominant language families in the central Andes alongside Quechua languages, Quechuan. The family consists of Aymara language, Aymara, wi ...
, or other
Indigenous languages An indigenous language or autochthonous language, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have ...
. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.


Etymology

The name of the country may be derived from ''Birú'', the name of a local ruler who lived near the
Bay of San Miguel The Bay of San Miguel () is a bay of the Gulf of Panama, located on the Pacific coast of Darién Province in eastern Panama Panama ( , ; es, link=no, Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama ( es, República de Panamá), is a Lis ...
, Panama City, in the early 16th century. Spanish
conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knights, soldiers, and explorers of the Spanish Empire, Spanish and the Portuguese Empires. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to t ...

conquistador
s, who arrived in 1522, believed this was the southernmost part of the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 33: " 6c: from ...
. When Francisco Pizarro invaded the regions farther south, they came to be designated ''Birú'' or ''Perú''. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a
conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knights, soldiers, and explorers of the Spanish Empire, Spanish and the Portuguese Empires. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to t ...

conquistador
. He said the name ''Birú'' was that of a common Amerindian who was happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila and went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The
Spanish Crown , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = (Felipe de Borbón) Inauguración de FITUR 2018 (39840659951) (cropped).jpg , incumbent = Feli ...

Spanish Crown
gave the name legal status with the 1529 '' Capitulación de Toledo'', which designated the newly encountered
Inca Empire The Inca Empire, also known as Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, and at the time known as the Realm of the Four Parts,,  "four parts together" was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military c ...

Inca Empire
as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination ''
Viceroyalty of Peru The Viceroyalty of Peru ( es, Virreinato del Perú, links=no) was a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other place ...
'', which became the ''Peruvian Republic'' after its
independence Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or Sovereign state, state in which residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over its territory. The opposite of independe ...
until
1979 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since the day ma ...
, adopting its current name of ''Republic of Peru''.


History


Prehistory and Pre-Columbian Peru

The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 12,500
BCE Common Era (CE) is one of the year notations used for the Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , reducing the average year from 365.2 ...
in the
Huaca Prieta Huaca Prieta is the site of a prehistoric settlement beside the Pacific Ocean in the Chicama Valley , just north of Trujillo, Peru, Trujillo, La Libertad Region, La Libertad Province, Peru. It is a part of the El Brujo Archaeological Complex, which ...
settlement. Scientific studies of the DNA of Amazon populations which extend even to Peru, show admixture from
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Eart ...

Oceania
n groups. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as
irrigation Irrigation is the agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in seden ...

irrigation
and terracing;
camelid Camelids are members of the biological family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social ...
husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on
reciprocity Reciprocity may refer to: Law and trade * Reciprocity (Canadian politics), free trade with the United States of America ** Reciprocal trade agreement, entered into in order to reduce (or eliminate) tariffs, quotas and other trade restrictions on ...
and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Caral/Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BCE. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The
Cupisnique 250px, Stirrup-handled Cupinisque ceramic vase 1250 BC ( Larco Museum Collection) The Cupisnique culture was a pre-Columbian indigenous culture that flourished from c. 1500 to 500 BC along what now is Peru , , image_flag = Fl ...
culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BCE along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Inca culture. The
Chavín culture The Chavín culture is an extinct, pre-Columbian civilization, named for Chavín de Huantar, the principal archaeological site at which its artifacts have been found. The culture developed in the northern Andean highlands of Peru from 900 BCE to 2 ...
that developed from 1500 to 300 BCE was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious center in
Chavín de Huantar Chavín de Huántar is an archaeological site in Peru, containing ruins and artifacts constructed as early as 1200 BCE, and occupied until around 400–500 BCE by the Chavín culture, Chavín, a major pre-Inca culture. The site is located in the An ...
. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century CE, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell, both on the coast and in the highlands, during the next thousand years. On the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas,
Nazca Nazca (; sometimes spelled Nasca; Quechuan languages, Quechua: Naska) is a city and system of valleys on the southern coast of Peru. It is also the name of the largest existing town in the Nazca Province. The name is derived from the Nazca cultur ...
, Wari, and the more outstanding
Chimu Chimor (also Kingdom of Chimor or Chimú Empire) was the political grouping of the Chimú culture. The culture arose about 900 AD, succeeding the Moche culture The Moche civilization (; alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- o ...
and Moche. The Moche, who reached their apogee in the first millennium CE, were renowned for their irrigation system which fertilized their arid terrain, their sophisticated ceramic pottery, their lofty buildings, and clever metalwork. The Chimu were the great city builders of pre-Inca civilization; as a loose confederation of walled cities scattered along the coast of northern Peru, the Chimu flourished from about 1140 to 1450. Their capital was at
Chan Chan Chan Chan was the largest city of the pre-Columbian era in South America. It is now an archaeology, archaeological site in La Libertad Region west of Trujillo, Peru. Chan Chan is located in the mouth of the Moche Valley and was the capital of ...
outside of modern-day Trujillo. In the highlands, both the
Tiahuanaco Tiwanaku ( es, Tiahuanaco or ) is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia near Lake Titicaca and one of the largest sites in South America. Surface remains currently cover around 4 square kilometers and include decorated ceramics, mo ...
culture, near
Lake Titicaca Lake Titicaca (; es, Lago Titicaca ; qu, Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep, freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and transl ...

Lake Titicaca
in both Peru and Bolivia, and the Wari culture, near the present-day city of
Ayacucho Ayacucho (, qu, Ayak'uchu) is the capital city of Department of Ayacucho, Ayacucho Region and of Huamanga Province, Ayacucho Region, Peru. During the Inca Empire and Viceroyalty of Peru periods the city was known by the name of Huamanga (Quechu ...

Ayacucho
, developed large urban settlements and wide-ranging state systems between 500 and 1000 CE.In the 15th century, the
Incas The Inca Empire, also known as Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, and at the time known as the Realm of the Four Parts,,  "four parts together" was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military c ...

Incas
emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the in the pre-Columbian Americas with their capital in
Cusco Cusco, often spelled Cuzco (; qu, Qusqu ()), is a city in southeastern Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the St ...

Cusco
. The Incas of Cusco originally represented one of the small and relatively minor ethnic groups, the
Quechuas Quechua people (, ; ) or Quecha people, may refer to any of the aboriginal people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred t ...
. Gradually, as early as the thirteenth century, they began to expand and incorporate their neighbors. Inca expansion was slow until about the middle of the fifteenth century, when the pace of conquest began to accelerate, particularly under the rule of the emperor
Pachacuti Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui ( qu, Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki) was the ninth Sapa Inca The Sapa Inca (from Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, ...
. Under his rule and that of his son,
Topa Inca Yupanqui Topa Inca Yupanqui or Túpac Inca Yupanqui ( qu, 'Tupaq Inka Yupanki'), translated as "noble Inca accountant," (c. 1441–c. 1493) was the tenth Sapa Inca The Sapa Inca (from Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ...

Topa Inca Yupanqui
, the Incas came to control most of the Andean region, with a population of 9 to 16 million inhabitants under their rule. Pachacuti also promulgated a comprehensive code of laws to govern his far-flung empire, while consolidating his absolute temporal and spiritual authority as the God of the Sun who ruled from a magnificently rebuilt Cusco. From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the
Andean The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains ( es, Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America South America is a continent e ...

Andean
mountain ranges, from southern Colombia to northern Chile, between the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Amazon rainforest in the east. The official language of the empire was
Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a common ancestral language **Sou ...
, although hundreds of local languages and dialects were spoken. The Inca referred to their empire as ''Tawantinsuyu'' which can be translated as "The Four Regions" or "The Four United Provinces." Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred ''
Huaca In the Quechuan languages Quechua (, ; ), usually called ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal peopl ...
s'', but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of
Inti Inti is the ancient Incan sun god A solar deity (also sun goddess or sun god) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength. Solar deities and Sun worship can be found throughout ...

Inti
, the sun god and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of
Pachamama Pachamama is a goddess revered by the indigenous peoples of the Andes. In Inca mythology she is an "Earth Mother" type goddess,Penelope Dransart, Dransart, Penny. (1992) "Pachamama: The Inka Earth Mother of the Long Sweeping Garment." ''Dress an ...

Pachamama
. The Incas considered their King, the
Sapa Inca The Sapa Inca (from Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a ...
, to be the " child of the sun."


Conquest and colonial period

Atahualpa (also Atahuallpa), the last
Sapa Inca The Sapa Inca (from Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a ...
, became emperor when he defeated and executed his older half-brother
Huáscar Huáscar Inca (; Quechua language, Quechua: ''Waskar Inka''; 1503–1532) also Guazcar was Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire from 1527 to 1532. He succeeded his father, Huayna Capac, and his brother Ninan Cuyochi, both of whom died of smallpox while ca ...
in a civil war sparked by the death of their father, Inca Huayna Capac. In December 1532, a party of ''
conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knights, soldiers, and explorers of the Spanish Empire, Spanish and the Portuguese Empires. During the Age of Discovery, conquistadors sailed beyond Europe to t ...

conquistador
s'' (supported by the
Chanka The Chanka people (or Chanca) are a Quechua people Quechua people (, ; ) or Quecha people, may refer to any of the aboriginal people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peopl ...
s, Huancas,
Cañari The Cañari (in Kichwa: Kañari) are an indigenous ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the territory of the modern provinces of Azuay and Cañar Province, Cañar in Ecuador. They are descended from the independent pre-Columbian era, pre-Columb ...
s and Chachapoyas as
Indian auxiliaries Indian auxiliaries or ''indios auxiliares'' is the term used in old Spanish chronicles and historical texts for the indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous p ...
) led by
Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González (; ;  – 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador Conquistadors (, ) or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the invaders, knights, soldiers, and explorers of the Spanish Empire, Spanish and t ...

Francisco Pizarro
defeated and captured the Inca Emperor Atahualpa in the
Battle of Cajamarca The 'Battle' of Cajamarca also spelled Cajamalca (though many contemporary scholars prefer to call it Massacre of Cajamarca) was the ambush and seizure of the Inca The Inca Empire ( qu, Tawantinsuyu,  "four parts together"), also known a ...
. The Spanish conquest of Peru was one of the most important campaigns in the
Spanish colonization of the Americas The Spanish colonization of the Americas began under the Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some deca ...

Spanish colonization of the Americas
. After years of preliminary exploration and military conflicts, it was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory and colonization of the region known as the
Viceroyalty of Peru The Viceroyalty of Peru ( es, Virreinato del Perú, links=no) was a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other place ...
with its capital at
Lima Lima ( ; ) is the capital and the largest city of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_t ...

Lima
, which was then known as "La Ciudad de los Reyes" (The City of Kings). The conquest of Peru led to spin-off campaigns throughout the viceroyalty as well as expeditions towards the Amazon Basin as in the case of Spanish efforts to quell Amerindian resistance. The last Inca resistance was suppressed when the Spaniards annihilated the
Neo-Inca State The Neo-Inca State, also known as the Neo-Inca state of Vilcabamba, was the Inca state established in 1537 at Vilcabamba by Manco Inca Yupanqui Manco Inca Yupanqui ( 1515 – c. 1544) (''Manqu Inka Yupanki'' in Quechua Quechua may refer t ...
in Vilcabamba in 1572. The Indigenous population dramatically collapsed overwhelmingly due to epidemic diseases introduced by the Spanish as well as exploitation and socio-economic change. Viceroy
Francisco de Toledo Francisco Álvarez de Toledo (Oropesa, Spain, Oropesa, 10 July 1515 – Escalona, 21 April 1582), also known as ''The Viceroyal Solon'', was an aristocrat and soldier of the Kingdom of Spain and the fifth Viceroyalty of Peru, Viceroy of Peru. ...
reorganized the country in the 1570s with gold and silver mining as its main economic activity and Amerindian
forced labor Forced labour, or unfree labour, is any work relation, especially in modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeolog ...
as its primary workforce. With the discovery of the great silver and gold lodes at
Potosí Potosí, known as Villa Imperial de Potosí in the colonial period, is the capital city and a municipality of the Potosí Department, Department of Potosí in Bolivia. It is one of the list of highest cities in the world, highest cities in the wo ...

Potosí
(present-day Bolivia) and
Huancavelica Huancavelica Huancavelica () or Wankawilka in Quechua is a city in Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the ...
, the viceroyalty flourished as an important provider of mineral resources. Peruvian
bullion Bullion is non-ferrous metal In metallurgy Metallurgy is a domain of Materials science, materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic Chemical element, elements, their Inter-metallic alloy, in ...
provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far as Europe and the Philippines. The commercial and population exchanges between Latin America and Asia undergone via the
Manila Galleon fil, Galyon ng Maynila , english_name = Manila Galleon , duration = From 1565 to 1815 (250 years) , venue = Between Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( ...
s transiting through Acapulco, had
Callao Callao (; ) is a seaside city on the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth' ...

Callao
at Peru as the furthest endpoint of the trade route in the Americas. In relation to this, Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, governor of Panama was also responsible for settling
Zamboanga City , officially the (Chavacano Chavacano or Chabacano is a group of varieties spoken in the . The variety spoken in , located in the southern Philippine island group of Mindanao, has the highest concentration of speakers. Other currently exis ...
in the Philippines, which now speak a by employing Peruvian soldiers and colonists. Because of lack of available workforce,
African slaves Slavery has historically been widespread in Africa. Systems of servitude and slavery were common in parts of Africa in ancient times, as they were in much of the rest of the Ancient history, ancient world. When the trans-Saharan slave trade ...

African slaves
were added to the labor population. The expansion of a colonial administrative apparatus and bureaucracy paralleled the economic reorganization. With the conquest started the spread of Christianity in South America; most people were forcefully converted to
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholicism
, with Spanish clerics believing like Puritan divines of English colonies later that the Native Peoples "had been corrupted by the Devil, who was working "through them to frustrate" their foundations. It only took a generation to convert the population. They built churches in every city and replaced some of the Inca temples with churches, such as the
Coricancha Coricancha, Koricancha, Qoricancha or Qorikancha (''"The Golden Temple,"'' from Quechua language, Quechua ''quri'' gold; ''kancha'' enclosure) was the most important temple in the Inca Empire. It is located in Cusco, Peru, which was the capital o ...
in the city of Cusco. The church employed the
Inquisition The Inquisition, in historical ecclesiastical terminology also referred to as the "Holy Inquisition", was a group of institutions within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1. ...

Inquisition
, making use of torture to ensure that newly converted Catholics did not stray to other religions or beliefs, and monastery schools, educating girls, especially of the Inca nobility and upper class, "until they were old enough either to profess o become a nunor to leave the monastery and assume the role ('estado') in the Christian society that their fathers planned to erect" in Peru. Peruvian Catholicism follows the
syncretism Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs and various schools of thought A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, Li ...
found in many Latin American countries, in which religious native rituals have been integrated with Christian celebrations.Conquest and Colony of Peru. In this endeavor, the church came to play an important role in the
acculturation Acculturation is a process of social, psychological, and cultural change Culture change is a term used in public policy making that emphasizes the influence of cultural capital on individual and community behavior. It has been sometimes called re ...
of the Natives, drawing them into the cultural orbit of the Spanish settlers. By the 18th century, declining silver production and economic diversification greatly diminished royal income. In response, the Crown enacted the
Bourbon Reforms The Bourbon Reforms ( es, Reformas Borbónicas) consisted of political and economical legislation promulgated by the Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spa ...
, a series of
edict An edict is a decree or announcement of a law, often associated with monarchy, monarchism, but it can be under any official authority. Synonyms include "dictum" and "pronouncement". ''Edict'' derives from the Latin wikt:edictum#Latin, edictum. N ...
s that increased taxes and partitioned the
Viceroyalty A viceroyalty was an entity headed by a viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place ...
. The new laws provoked Túpac Amaru II's rebellion and other revolts, all of which were suppressed. As a result of these and other changes, the Spaniards and their creole successors came to monopolize control over the land, seizing many of the best lands abandoned by the massive native depopulation. However, the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. The
Treaty of Tordesillas The Treaty of Tordesillas, ; pt, Tratado de Tordesilhas . signed in Tordesillas, Spain on June 7, 1494, and authenticated in Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly-discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire The Portuguese ...

Treaty of Tordesillas
was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal. The need to ease communication and trade with Spain led to the split of the viceroyalty and the creation of new viceroyalties of and
Rio de la Plata Rio or Río is the Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, and Maltese word for "river". When spoken on its own, the word often means Rio de Janeiro, a major city in Brazil. Rio or Río may also refer to: Geography Brazil * Rio de Janeiro * Rio do Sul, a ...
at the expense of the territories that formed the
Viceroyalty of Peru The Viceroyalty of Peru ( es, Virreinato del Perú, links=no) was a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other place ...
; this reduced the power, prominence and importance of Lima as the viceroyal capital and shifted the lucrative
Andean The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains ( es, Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of South America South America is a continent e ...

Andean
trade to
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or cap ...

Buenos Aires
and
Bogotá Bogotá (, also , , ), officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santa Fe de Bogotá during the Spanish period and between 1991 and 2000, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Colombia, a ...

Bogotá
, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century. These movements led to the formation of the majority of modern-day countries of South America in the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru. The conquest and colony brought a mix of cultures and ethnicities that did not exist before the Spanish conquered the Peruvian territory. Even though many of the Inca traditions were lost or diluted, new customs, traditions and knowledge were added, creating a rich mixed Peruvian culture. Two of the most important Indigenous rebellions against the Spanish were that of
Juan Santos Atahualpa Juan Santos Atahualpa Apu-Inca Huayna Capac (born, c. 1710 - died, c. 1756) was the messianic leader of a successful indigenous rebellion in the Amazon Basin and Andes, Andean foothills against the Viceroyalty of Peru. The rebellion began in 1742 in ...
in 1742, and Rebellion of
Túpac Amaru II José Gabriel Túpac Amaru (March 10, 1738 – May 18, 1781) — known as Túpac Amaru II — was the leader of a Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II, large Andean uprising against the Viceroyalty of Peru, Spanish in Peru, whose quelling resulted in ...
in 1780 around the highlands near Cuzco.


Independence

In the early 19th century, while most South American nations were swept by
wars of independence A war of independence or independence war is a conflict occurring over a territory A territory is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnation ...
, Peru remained a
royalist A royalist supports a particular monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. ...
stronghold. As the elite vacillated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy,
independence Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or Sovereign state, state in which residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over its territory. The opposite of independe ...
was achieved only after the occupation by military campaigns of
José de San Martín José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (25 February 177817 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín () or ''libertadores, El Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru'', was an Argentina, Argentine general and the prime leader of t ...

José de San Martín
and
Simón Bolívar Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Ponte Palacios y Blanco ( , also , ; 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), also colloquially as '' El Libertador'', or ''Liberator of America'', was a Venezuelan military and political le ...

Simón Bolívar
. The economic crises, the loss of power of Spain in Europe, the war of independence in North America, and Native uprisings all contributed to a favorable climate to the development of emancipation ideas among the C''riollo'' population in South America. However, the Criollo oligarchy in Peru enjoyed privileges and remained loyal to the Spanish Crown. The liberation movement started in Argentina where autonomous juntas were created as a result of the loss of authority of the Spanish government over its colonies. After fighting for the independence of the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata,
José de San Martín José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (25 February 177817 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín () or ''libertadores, El Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru'', was an Argentina, Argentine general and the prime leader of t ...

José de San Martín
created the
Army of the Andes An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch ...

Army of the Andes
and crossed the Andes in 21 days. Once in Chile, he joined forces with Chilean army General
Bernardo O'Higgins Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme (; 1778–1842) was a Chilean independence leader who freed Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a continent A co ...

Bernardo O'Higgins
and liberated the country in the battles of
Chacabuco Chacabuco is one of the many abandoned nitrate or "saltpeter" towns ("oficinas salitreras" in Spanish) in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. Other nitrate towns of the Atacama Desert include Humberstone and Santa Laura Saltpeter Works. Unlike m ...

Chacabuco
and Maipú in 1818. On 7 September 1820, a fleet of eight warships arrived in the port of Paracas under the command of General José de San Martin and , who was serving in the Chilean Navy. Immediately on 26 October, they took control of the town of
Pisco Pisco is a colorless or yellowish-to-amber colored brandy produced in winemaking regions of Peru and Chile. Made by distillation, distilling fermented grape juice into a high-proof Distilled beverage, spirit, it was developed by 16th-century Spa ...
. San Martin settled in
Huacho Huacho () is a city in Peru, capital of the Huaura Province and capital of the Lima Region. Also is the most populated city of the Lima Region and Norte Chico civilization, Norte Chico. It is located 223 feet (68 metres) above sea level and 148  ...

Huacho
on 12 November, where he established his headquarters while Cochrane sailed north and blockaded the port of
Callao Callao (; ) is a seaside city on the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth' ...

Callao
in Lima. At the same time in the north,
Guayaquil , motto = Por Guayaquil Independiente en, For Independent Guayaquil , image_map = , map_caption = , pushpin_map = Ecuador#South America , pushpin_re ...

Guayaquil
was occupied by rebel forces under the command of Gregorio Escobedo. Because Peru was the stronghold of the Spanish government in South America, San Martin's strategy to liberate Peru was to use diplomacy. He sent representatives to Lima urging the
Viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "king". A ...

Viceroy
that Peru be granted independence, however, all negotiations proved unsuccessful. The Viceroy of Peru, Joaquín de la Pazuela named
José de la Serna José is a predominantly Spanish and Portuguese language, Portuguese form of the given name Joseph (given name), Joseph. While spelled alike, this name is pronounced differently in each language: Spanish ; Portuguese (or ). In French, the name ' ...
commander-in-chief of the loyalist army to protect Lima from the threatened invasion by San Martin. On 29 January, de la Serna organized a coup against de la Pazuela, which was recognized by Spain and he was named Viceroy of Peru. This internal power struggle contributed to the success of the liberating army. To avoid a military confrontation, San Martin met the newly appointed viceroy, José de la Serna, and proposed to create a
constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from ...
, a proposal that was turned down. De la Serna abandoned the city, and on 12 July 1821, San Martin occupied Lima and declared Peruvian independence on 28 July 1821. He created the first Peruvian flag.
Upper Peru Upper Peru (; ) is a name for the land that was governed by the Real Audiencia of Charcas The Real Audiencia of Charcas ( es, Audiencia y Cancillería Real de La Plata de los Charcas) was a Spanish '' audiencia'' with its seat in what is toda ...
(Bolivia) remained as a Spanish stronghold until the army of
Simón Bolívar Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Ponte Palacios y Blanco ( , also , ; 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), also colloquially as '' El Libertador'', or ''Liberator of America'', was a Venezuelan military and political le ...

Simón Bolívar
liberated it three years later. José de San Martin was declared Protector of Peru. Peruvian national identity was forged during this period, as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation floundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral. Simon Bolivar launched his campaign from the north, liberating the
Viceroyalty of New Granada The Viceroyalty of New Granada ( es, Virreinato de Nueva Granada, links=no ) also called Viceroyalty of the New Kingdom of Granada or Viceroyalty of Santafé was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire The S ...

Viceroyalty of New Granada
in the Battles of
Carabobo , anthem = '' Himno del Estado Carabobo'' , image_map = Carabobo in Venezuela.svg , map_alt = , map_caption = Location within Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivari ...
in 1821 and Pichincha a year later. In July 1822, Bolivar and San Martin gathered in the Guayaquil Conference. Bolivar was left in charge of fully liberating Peru while San Martin retired from politics after the first parliament was assembled. The newly founded Peruvian Congress named Bolivar dictator of Peru, giving him the power to organize the military. With the help of
Antonio José de Sucre Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá (; 1795–1830), known as "Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho" ( en, "Grand Marshal of Ayacucho"), was a Venezuelan people, Venezuelan independence leader who served as the 4th President of Peru and as the 2nd President ...

Antonio José de Sucre
, they defeated the larger Spanish army in the
Battle of Junín The Battle of Junín was a military engagement of the Peruvian War of Independence, fought in the highlands of the Junín Region on August 6, 1824. The preceding February the royalists had regained control of Lima, and having regrouped in Trujillo ...
on 6 August 1824 and the decisive on 9 December of the same year, consolidating the independence of Peru and Alto Peru. Alto Peru was later established as Bolivia. During the early years of the Republic, endemic struggles for power between military leaders caused political instability.


19th century

From the 1840s to the 1860s, Peru enjoyed a period of stability under the presidency of
Ramón Castilla Ramón Castilla y Marquesado (; 31 August 1797 – 30 May 1867) was a Peruvian ''caudillo'' who served as President of Peru three times as well as the President of Peru, Interim President of Peru (Revolution Self-proclaimed President) in 1863. ...
, through increased state revenues from
guano Guano (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguatio ...

guano
exports. However, by the 1870s, these resources had been depleted, the country was heavily indebted, and political in-fighting was again on the rise. Peru embarked on a railroad-building program that helped but also bankrupted the country. In 1879, Peru entered the
War of the Pacific The War of the Pacific ( es, link=no, Guerra del Pacífico), also known as the Saltpeter War ( es, link=no, Guerra del salitre) and by War of the Pacific#Etymology, multiple other names, was a war between Chile and a Treaty of Defensive Allianc ...
which lasted until 1884. Bolivia invoked its alliance with Peru against Chile. The
Peruvian Government The politics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "public affair") is a List of forms of government, form of go ...
tried to mediate the dispute by sending a diplomatic team to negotiate with the Chilean government, but the committee concluded that war was inevitable. Chile declared war on 5 April 1879. Almost five years of war ended with the loss of the and the provinces of
Tacna Tacna is a city in southern Peru and the regional capital of the Tacna Region. A very commercially active city, it is located only north of the border with Arica y Parinacota Region from Chile, inland from the Pacific Ocean and in the valley of t ...
and
Arica Arica ( ; ) is a Communes of Chile, commune and a port city with a population of 222,619 in the Arica Province of northern Chile's Arica y Parinacota Region. It is Chile's northernmost city, being located only south of the border with Peru. The c ...
, in the Atacama region. Two outstanding military leaders throughout the war were
Francisco Bolognesi Francisco Bolognesi Cervantes (November 4, 1816 – June 7, 1880) was a Peruvian military general. He is considered a national hero in Peru and was declared patron of the Army of Peru by the government of Peru on January 2 of 1951. Early life ...
and
Miguel Grau Miguel María Grau Seminario() (27 July 1834 – 8 October 1879) is the most renowned Peruvian naval officer and hero of the Naval Battle of Angamos during the War of the Pacific (1879–1884). He was known as ''el Caballero de los Mares'' (Spa ...

Miguel Grau
. Originally Chile committed to a referendum for the cities of Arica and Tacna to be held years later, to self determine their national affiliation. However, Chile refused to apply the Treaty, and neither of the countries could determine the statutory framework. After the War of the Pacific, an extraordinary effort of rebuilding began. The government started to initiate a number of social and economic reforms to recover from the damage of the war. Political stability was achieved only in the early 1900s.


20th century

Internal struggles after the war were followed by a period of stability under the
Civilista Party The Civilista Party ( es, Partido Civil, PC) was a political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas ...
, which lasted until the onset of the authoritarian regime of Augusto B. Leguía. The
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
caused the downfall of Leguía, renewed political turmoil, and the emergence of the
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance The Peruvian Aprista Party ( es, Partido Aprista Peruano, PAP) () is a Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the ...
(APRA). The rivalry between this organization and a coalition of the elite and the military defined Peruvian politics for the following three decades. A final peace treaty in 1929, signed between Peru and Chile called the
Treaty of LimaTreaty of Lima refers to a number of treaties. * Treaty of Lima (1848), more formally known as the Treaty of Confederation between the Republics of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador and New Granada, was signed on February 8, 1848. * Treaty of Lima (1865 ...
, returned
Tacna Tacna is a city in southern Peru and the regional capital of the Tacna Region. A very commercially active city, it is located only north of the border with Arica y Parinacota Region from Chile, inland from the Pacific Ocean and in the valley of t ...
to Peru. Between 1932 and 1933, Peru was engulfed in a year-long war with Colombia over a territorial dispute involving the
Amazonas Department The Amazonas Department ( es, Departamento del Amazonas, ) is a departments of Colombia, department of Southern Colombia in the south of the country. It is the largest department in area while also having the 3rd smallest population. Its capital i ...
and its capital Leticia. Later, in 1941, Peru and Ecuador fought the
Ecuadorian–Peruvian War The Ecuadorian–Peruvian War, known locally as the War of '41 ( es, link=no, Guerra del 41), was a South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively ...
, after which the
Rio Protocol The Protocol of Peace, Friendship, and Boundaries between Peru and Ecuador, or Rio Protocol for short, was an international agreement signed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on January 29, 1942, by the foreign ministers of Peru and Ecuador, with the part ...
sought to formalize the boundary between those two countries. In a military coup on 29 October 1948, General became president. Odría's presidency was known as the ''Ochenio''. He came down hard on APRA, momentarily pleasing the oligarchy and all others on the right, but followed a
populist Populism refers to a range of political stances that emphasise the idea of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite". The term developed in the 19th century and has been applied to various politicians, parties, and moveme ...

populist
course that won him great favor with the poor and lower classes. A thriving economy allowed him to indulge in expensive but crowd-pleasing social policies. At the same time, however,
civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights Rights are legal Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', ...
were severely restricted and corruption was rampant throughout his regime. Odría was succeeded by . However, widespread allegations of fraud prompted the Peruvian military to depose Prado and install a military junta, led by Ricardo Pérez Godoy. Godoy ran a short transitional government and held new elections in 1963, which were won by
Fernando Belaúnde Terry Fernando is a given name and a surname common in Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, Switzerland, former Spanish or Portuguese colonies in Latin America, Africa and the Philippines, India and Sri Lanka (the name was introduced there during the Portugu ...

Fernando Belaúnde Terry
who assumed presidency until 1968. Belaúnde was recognized for his commitment to the democratic process. In 1968, the Armed Forces, led by General
Juan Velasco Alvarado Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado (June 16, 1910 – December 24, 1977) was a left-wing Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political phi ...

Juan Velasco Alvarado
, staged a coup against Belaúnde. Alvarado's regime undertook radical reforms aimed at fostering development, but failed to gain widespread support. In 1975, General
Francisco Morales-Bermúdez Francisco Morales Bermúdez Cerruti (born 4 October 1921) is a Peruvian general who served as the President of Peru (2nd President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces) between 1975 and 1980, after deposing his predecessor, General ...
forcefully replaced Velasco, paralyzed reforms, and oversaw the reestablishment of democracy. Peru engaged in a brief successful conflict with Ecuador in the
Paquisha War The Paquisha War or Fake Paquisha War () was a military clash that took place between January and February 1981 between Ecuador Ecuador ( ; ; Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South Americ ...
as a result of territorial dispute between the two countries. After the country experienced chronic inflation, the Peruvian currency, the sol, was replaced by the ''
Inti Inti is the ancient Incan sun god A solar deity (also sun goddess or sun god) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength. Solar deities and Sun worship can be found throughout ...
'' in mid-1985, which itself was replaced by the nuevo sol in July 1991, at which time the new sol had a cumulative value of one billion old soles. The per capita annual income of Peruvians fell to $720 (below the level of 1960) and Peru's GDP dropped 20% at which national reserves were a negative $900 million. The economic turbulence of the time acerbated social tensions in Peru and partly contributed to the rise of violent rebel rural insurgent movements, like
Sendero Luminoso The Communist Party of Peru – Shining Path ( es, Partido Comunista del Perú – Sendero Luminoso, PCP-SL), more commonly known as the Shining Path ( es, Sendero Luminoso), is a revolutionary A revolutionary is a person who either participate ...
(Shining Path) and MRTA, which caused great havoc throughout the country. Concerned about the economy, the increasing terrorist threat from Sendero Luminoso and MRTA, and allegations of official corruption,
Alberto Fujimori Alberto Kenya Fujimori Inomoto ( or ; or ; ja, 片岡 謙也, かたおか けんや ''Kataoka Kenya''; born 28 July 1938) is a former Peruvian engineer and politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 until his downfall o ...
assumed the presidency in 1990. Fujimori implemented drastic measures that caused inflation to drop from 7,650% in 1990 to 139% in 1991 and 57% in 1992. Faced with opposition to his reform efforts, Fujimori dissolved Congress, suspended the judiciary, arrested several opposition leaders and assumed full powers in the '' auto-golpe'' ("self-coup") of 5 April 1992. He then revised the constitution; called new congressional elections; and implemented substantial economic reform, including privatization of numerous state-owned companies, creation of an investment-friendly climate, and sound management of the economy. Fujimori's administration was dogged by
insurgent An insurgency is a violent, armed rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority. A rebellion originates from a sentiment ...
groups, most notably the Sendero Luminoso (also called the Shining Path), who carried out terrorist campaigns across the country throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Fujimori cracked down on the insurgents and was successful in largely quelling them by the late 1990s, but the fight was marred by atrocities committed by both the Peruvian security forces and the insurgents: the
Barrios Altos massacre The Barrios Altos massacre took place on 3 November 1991, in the Barrios Altos neighborhood of Lima Lima ( ; ) is the capital and the largest city of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = ...
and La Cantuta massacre by Government paramilitary groups, and the bombings of Tarata and Frecuencia Latina by Sendero Luminoso. Those incidents subsequently came to symbolize the
human rights Human rights are moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
violations committed in the last years of violence. During early 1995, once again Peru and Ecuador clashed in the
Cenepa War The Cenepa War (26 January – 28 February 1995), also known as the Alto Cenepa War, was a brief and localized military conflict between Ecuador and Peru, fought over control of an area in Peruvian territory (i.e. in the eastern side of the Cord ...
, but in 1998 the governments of both nations signed a peace treaty that clearly demarcated the international boundary between them. In November 2000, Fujimori resigned from office and went into a self-imposed exile, avoiding prosecution for human rights violations and corruption charges by the new Peruvian authorities.


21st century, and political turmoil

Since the end of the Fujimori regime, Peru has tried to fight corruption while sustaining economic growth. In spite of human rights progress since the time of insurgency, many problems are still visible and show the continued marginalization of those who suffered through the violence of the Peruvian conflict. A caretaker government presided over by
Valentín Paniagua Valentín Demetrio Paniagua Corazao (23 September 1936 – 16 October 2006) was a Peruvian lawyer and politician who briefly served as President of Peru from 2000 to 2001. Elected President of the Congress of the Republic of Peru, President of Con ...
took on the responsibility of conducting new presidential and congressional elections. Afterwards
Alejandro Toledo Alejandro Celestino Toledo Manrique (; born 28 March 1946) is a Peruvian politician who served President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, t ...

Alejandro Toledo
became president in 2001 to 2006. On 28 July 2006, former president
Alan García Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez (; 23 May 1949 – 17 April 2019) was a Demographics of Peru, Peruvian politician who served as President of Peru for two non-consecutive terms from 1985 to 1990 and from 2006 to 2011. He was the second leader ...
became President of Peru after winning the 2006 elections. In May 2008, Peru became a member of the
Union of South American Nations The Union of South American Nations (USAN; es, links=no, Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; pt, links=no, União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; nl, links=no, Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as ...
. In April 2009, former president
Alberto Fujimori Alberto Kenya Fujimori Inomoto ( or ; or ; ja, 片岡 謙也, かたおか けんや ''Kataoka Kenya''; born 28 July 1938) is a former Peruvian engineer and politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 until his downfall o ...
was convicted of human rights violations and
sentenced Sentenced was a Finnish gothic metal band that played melodic death metal in their early years. The band formed in 1989, in the town of Muhos, Finland, and broke up in 2005. Band history Early years (1988–1991) Sentenced started in 1988 as D ...
to 25 years in prison for his role in killings and kidnappings by the
Grupo Colina Grupo Colina (Spanish for "hill group") was a military anti-communist Anti-communism is a political movement and ideology An ideology () is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a person or group of persons, especially as held for r ...
death squad A death squad is an armed group whose primary activity is carrying out extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances as part of political repression, genocide Genocide is the intentional action to destroy a people—usually defined as ...
during his government's battle against leftist guerrillas in the 1990s. On 5 June 2011,
Ollanta Humala Ollanta Moisés Humala Tasso (; born 27 June 1962) is a Peruvian politician and former military officer who served as President of Peru from 2011 to 2016. Originally considered to be a socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, ...

Ollanta Humala
was elected president. During his presidency, Prime Minister and her cabinet were successfully censured, which was the first time in 50 years that a cabinet had been forced to resign from the Peruvian legislature. In 2016,
Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Godard (; born 3 October 1938), also known simply as PPK (), is a Peruvian economist, politician and public administrator who served as President of Peru from 2016 to 2018. He was previously the Prime Minister of Peru fro ...

Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
was elected, though his government was short-lived as he
resigned Resignation is the formal act of leaving or quitting one's office or position. A resignation can occur when a person holding a position gained by election or appointment steps down, but leaving a position upon the expiration of a term, or choosing ...
in 2018 amid various controversies surrounding his administration. Vice president
Martín Vizcarra Martín Alberto Vizcarra Cornejo ( (); born 22 March 1963) is a Peruvian engineer and politician who served as President of Peru from 2018 to 2020. Vizcarra previously served as Governor of the Department of Moquegua (2011–2014), Vice Preside ...

Martín Vizcarra
then assumed office in March 2018 with generally favorable approval ratings. Alan García was involved in the
Operation Car Wash Operation Car Wash ( pt, Operação Lava Jato) was a criminal investigation by the Federal Police of Brazil, Curitiba Branch. It began in March 2014 and was initially headed by investigative judge in France, but unlike judges in the common la ...
scandal and as police tried to arrest him, he committed suicide on 17 April 2019. Later that year, in July, police arrested Alejandro Toledo in California. Amid the crisis, on 30 September 2019, President Vizcarra dissolved the congress, and elections were held on 26 January 2020. The first case of
COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease A contagious disease is a disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization o ...

COVID-19
was confirmed on 6 March 2020. During the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru, most Peruvians were under a
stay-at-home order A stay-at-home order, safer-at-home order, movement control order (more common in Southeast Asia), or lockdown restrictions (in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kin ...
by president Martin Vizcarra. However, an economic crisis triggered by the pandemic led to his removal from the presidency, seen by many as a coup by
congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...

congress
, and the far-right government of
Manuel Merino Manuel Arturo Merino de Lama (born 20 August 1961) is a Peruvian politician who briefly served as the president of Peru for five days between 10 and 15 November 2020. He also serves as a Member of Congress (Popular Action (Peru), AP) representin ...

Manuel Merino
, the new president, received a lot of backlash.
Protests Demonstration in front of the headquarters of the brutal_polices_during_referendum.html" ;"title="2017 Catalan general strike">Spanish National Police in Barcelona during the brutal_polices_during_referendum">2017_Catalan_general_strik ...
sprang across the country, and after five days, Merino resigned. He was replaced by
Francisco Sagasti Francisco Rafael Sagasti Hochhausler OSP Osp (; it, Ospo) is a village A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet (place), hamlet but smaller than a town (although the word is often used to describ ...

Francisco Sagasti
. Sagasti led a provisional, centrist government, and enforced many of Vizcarra's former policies.
Elections An election is a formal group decision-makingGroup decision-making (also known as collaborative decision-making or collective decision-making) is a situation faced when individuals An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity. Ind ...
were held on 11 April 2021, and
Pedro Castillo José Pedro Castillo Terrones ( (); born 19 October 1969), sometimes referred to as "El Profe" ('The Teacher'), is a Peruvian schoolteacher, union leader and politician serving as the 130th president of Peru since 28 July 2021, following the 20 ...

Pedro Castillo
of the Free Peru party won the first round, followed closely by
Keiko Fujimori Keiko Sofía Fujimori Higuchi ( or ; ja, 藤森恵子, born 25 May 1975) is a Peruvians, Peruvian politician. Fujimori is the eldest daughter of former Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori and Susana Higuchi. From August 1994 to November 2000, s ...

Keiko Fujimori
. On 28 July 2021, Pedro Castillo was sworn in as the new
President of Peru The president of Peru ( es, link=no, Presidente del Perú), formally recognized as the President of the Republic of Peru ( es, link=no, Presidente de la República del Perú), is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is t ...
after a narrow win in a tightly contested run-off election. The new Peruvian president Castillo appointed Guido Bellido, a member of Free Peru Party, as prime minister.


Government and politics

Peru is a
unitary Unitary may refer to: * Unitary construction, in automotive design a common term for unibody (unitary body/chassis) construction * Lethal Unitary Chemical Agents and Munitions (Unitary), as chemical weapons opposite of Binary * Unitarianism, in Chr ...
presidential President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
with a
multi-party system In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decis ...
. The country has maintained a
liberal democratic Liberal democracy, also referred to as Western democracy, is a political ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is tru ...
system under its 1993 Constitution, which replaced a
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
that leaned the government to a federation to authorize more power to the President. It is also a
unitary republic A unitary state is a State (polity), state governed as a single entity in which the central government is ultimately supreme. The central government may create (or abolish) administrative divisions (sub-national units). Such units exercise only ...
, in which the central government holds the most power and can create
administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular ...

administrative division
s. The Peruvian system of government combines elements derived from the political systems of the United States (a
written constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

written constitution
, an autonomous
Supreme court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme court
, and a
presidential system A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government (President (government title), president) leads an Executive (government), executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in s ...
) and the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...
(a
unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by ...
congress, a
premier Premier is a title for the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the Executive (government), executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, aut ...

premier
and ministry system, and a strong executive). The Peruvian government is separated into three branches: * Legislature: the unicameral
Congress of Peru The Congress of the Republic of Peru ( es, Congreso de la República) is the unicameral body that assumes legislative power in Peru. Congress' composition is established by Chapter I of Title IV of the Constitution of Peru. Congress is composed ...
, consisting of 130 members of Congress (on a basis of population), the President of Congress, and the Permanent Commission; * Executive: the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, the
Council of MinistersThe Council of Ministers is a traditional name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments. The term is usually equivalent to the word " cabinet" ( Council of State is a similar term that also may refer to a Cabinet. However, the terms ...
, which in practice controls domestic legislation and serve as a Cabinet to the President, consisting of the
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
and 18 ministers of the state; * Judiciary: the
Supreme Court of Peru The Supreme Court of Justice is the highest judicial court in Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , ot ...
, also known as the Royal Audencia of Lima, composed of 18
justices A judge is a person who presides over court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administrati ...

justices
including a Supreme Justice, along with 28 superior courts, 195 trial courts, and 1,838 district courts. Under its constitution, the Presidential system, President is both head of state and head of government, government and is elected to a five-year term without immediate reelection. The President appoints Council of Ministers of Peru, ministers who oversee the 18 Cabinet of Peru, ministries of the state, including the Prime Minister of Peru, Prime Minister, into the Cabinet of Peru, Cabinet. The constitution designates minimal authority to the Prime Minister, who presides over Cabinet (government), cabinet meetings in which ministers advise the President and acts as a spokesperson on behalf of the Executive (government), executive branch. The President is also able to pose Motion of confidence, questions of confidence to the Congress of Peru, and consequently order the Dissolution of parliament, dissolution of congress, done in 1992 Peruvian constitutional crisis, 1992 by
Alberto Fujimori Alberto Kenya Fujimori Inomoto ( or ; or ; ja, 片岡 謙也, かたおか けんや ''Kataoka Kenya''; born 28 July 1938) is a former Peruvian engineer and politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 until his downfall o ...
and in 2019–20 Peruvian constitutional crisis, 2019 by
Martín Vizcarra Martín Alberto Vizcarra Cornejo ( (); born 22 March 1963) is a Peruvian engineer and politician who served as President of Peru from 2018 to 2020. Vizcarra previously served as Governor of the Department of Moquegua (2011–2014), Vice Preside ...

Martín Vizcarra
. In the
Congress of Peru The Congress of the Republic of Peru ( es, Congreso de la República) is the unicameral body that assumes legislative power in Peru. Congress' composition is established by Chapter I of Title IV of the Constitution of Peru. Congress is composed ...
, there are 130 Members of Congress from 25
administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular ...

administrative division
s, determined by respective population, elected to five-year terms. Bills are proposed by the executive and Legislature, legislative powers and become law through a Plurality voting, plurality vote in Congress. The judiciary is nominally independent, though political intervention into judicial matters has been common throughout history. The Congress of Peru can also pass a motion of no confidence, censure ministers, as well as initiate impeachments and convict executives, in an effort to balance power between the executive and Legislature, legislative branches. The Legislature, legislative body in recent times has passed semi-successful impeachments, including that of
Alberto Fujimori Alberto Kenya Fujimori Inomoto ( or ; or ; ja, 片岡 謙也, かたおか けんや ''Kataoka Kenya''; born 28 July 1938) is a former Peruvian engineer and politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 until his downfall o ...
in 2000 and
Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Godard (; born 3 October 1938), also known simply as PPK (), is a Peruvian economist, politician and public administrator who served as President of Peru from 2016 to 2018. He was previously the Prime Minister of Peru fro ...

Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
in 2018, causing Kuczynski to Resignation of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, resign. Peru's electoral system uses compulsory voting for citizens from the age of 18 to 70, including Multiple citizenship, dual-citizens and Peruvians abroad. Members of Congress are directly elected by Constituent state, constituents in respective districts through Proportional representation, proportional voting. The
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
is elected in a general election, along with the Vice President of Peru, Vice President, through a majority in a two-round system. Elections are observed and organized by the National Jury of Elections, National Office of Electoral Processes, and the National Registry of Identification and Civil Status. Peru uses a
multi-party system In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decis ...
for congressional and general elections. Major groups that have formed governments, both on a federal and legislative level, are parties that have historically adopted economic liberalism, progressivism, right-wing populism (specifically Fujimorism), nationalism, and reformism. The 2021 Peruvian general election, most recent general election was held on 11 April 2021 and resulted in Free Peru winning the most seats in Congress, although it fell well short of a majority. A presidential runoff between
Pedro Castillo José Pedro Castillo Terrones ( (); born 19 October 1969), sometimes referred to as "El Profe" ('The Teacher'), is a Peruvian schoolteacher, union leader and politician serving as the 130th president of Peru since 28 July 2021, following the 20 ...

Pedro Castillo
and
Keiko Fujimori Keiko Sofía Fujimori Higuchi ( or ; ja, 藤森恵子, born 25 May 1975) is a Peruvians, Peruvian politician. Fujimori is the eldest daughter of former Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori and Susana Higuchi. From August 1994 to November 2000, s ...

Keiko Fujimori
took place on 5 June 2021 and resulted in the victory of Castillo.


Allegations of corruption in politics

Exceptionally many President of Peru, Presidents of Peru have been ousted from office or imprisoned on allegations of corruption over the past three decades. Alberto Fujimori is serving a 25-year sentence in prison for commanding
death squad A death squad is an armed group whose primary activity is carrying out extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances as part of political repression, genocide Genocide is the intentional action to destroy a people—usually defined as ...
s that killed civilians in a counterinsurgency campaign during his tenure (1990-2000). He was later also found guilty of corruption. Former president Alan García (1985-1990 and 2006–2011) committed suicide in April 2019 when Peruvian police arrived to arrest him over allegations he participated in Odebrecht Case, Odebrecht bribery scheme. Former president Alejandro Toledo is accused of allegedly receiving bribe from Brazilian construction firm Odebrecht during his government (2001-2006). Former president Ollanta Humala (2011-2016) is also under investigation for allegedly receiving bribe from Odebrecht during his presidential election campaign. Humala's successor Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (2016-2018) remains under house arrest while prosecutors investigate him for favoring contracts with Odebrecht. Former president Martín Vizcarra (2018-2020) was ousted by Congress after media reports alleged he had received bribes while he was a regional governor years earlier.


Regions and territories

Peru is divided into 26 units: Regions of Peru#History, 24 departments, the Constitutional Province of Callao and the Lima Province, Province of Lima (LIM) — which is independent of any region and serves as the Capital city, country's capital. Under the constitution, the 24 departments plus Callao Province have an elected "regional" government composed of the regional governor and the Regions of Peru, regional council. The Governor constitutes the Executive (government), executive body, proposes budgets, and creates Decrees, resolutions, and regional programs. The Regional Council, the region's Legislature, legislative body, debates and votes on budgets, supervises regional officials, and can vote to remove the governor, deputy governor, or any member of the council from office. The Regional Governor and the Regional Council serve a term of four years, without immediate reelection. These governments plan regional development, execute public investment projects, promote economic activities, and manage public property. Provinces, such as the province of
Lima Lima ( ; ) is the capital and the largest city of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_t ...

Lima
, are administered by a municipal council, headed by a mayor. The goal of devolving power to regional and municipal governments was among others to improve popular participation. NGOs played an important role in the decentralization process and still influence local politics. Some areas of Peru are defined as List of metropolitan areas of Peru, metropolitan areas which overlap district areas. The largest of them, the Lima metropolitan area, is the seventh-List of metropolitan areas in the Americas, largest metropolis in the Americas.


Foreign relations


Over recent decades, Foreign relations of Peru, Peru's foreign relations has historically been dominated by close ties with the United States and Asia, particularly through the
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC; ) is an inter-governmental forum for 21 member economies An economy (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offic ...
(APEC), the
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through ...
, the
Pacific Alliance The Pacific Alliance ( es, link=no, Alianza del Pacífico) is a Latin American trade bloc, formed by Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which all border the Pacific Ocean. The alliance was formed with the express purpose of improving regional in ...

Pacific Alliance
, Mercosur, and the Organization of American States (OAS). Peru is an active member of several Trade bloc, regional trade blocs and is one of the founding members of the Andean Community of Nations. It is also a member of international organizations such as the Organization of American States, OAS and the United Nations. Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, a celebrated Peruvian diplomat, served as Secretary-General of the United Nations, United Nations Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Peru has planned to be fully integrated into the OECD, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) by 2021, attributing its economic success and efforts to strengthen institutions as meeting factors to be a part of the OECD. Peru is a member of the
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through ...
, and has pursued multiple major free trade agreements, most recently the United States - Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, Peru—United States Free Trade Agreement, the China–Peru Free Trade Agreement, China—Peru Free Trade Agreement, the European Union free trade agreements, European Union Free Trade Agreement, free trade agreements with Japan, and many others. Peru maintains an integrated relationship with other South American nations, and is a member of various South American intergovernmental agreements, more recently the Organization of American States, Mercosur, the Andean Community of Nations, the
Pacific Alliance The Pacific Alliance ( es, link=no, Alianza del Pacífico) is a Latin American trade bloc, formed by Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which all border the Pacific Ocean. The alliance was formed with the express purpose of improving regional in ...

Pacific Alliance
, and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, APEC. Peru has historically experienced Chile–Peru relations, stressed relations with Chile, including the Peru v Chile international court resolution and the Chilean–Peruvian maritime dispute, Chilean-Peruvian maritime dispute, but the two countries have agreed to work in improving relations. Additionally, Peru has participated in taking a leading role in addressing the crisis in Venezuela through the establishment of the Lima Group.


Military and law enforcement

Peru has the fourth largest military in Latin America. Peru's armed forces—the Peruvian Armed Forces, Armed Forces of Peru—comprise the Peruvian Navy (MGP), the Peruvian Army (EP), and the Peruvian Air Force (FAP), in total numbering 392,660 personnel (including 120,660 regulars and 272,000 reservists) as of 2020. Their primary mission is to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country. Their functions are separated by branch: * The Peruvian Army is made up of the Chief of Staff, two Control Bodies, two Support Bodies, five Military Regions and six Command Rooms. * The Peruvian Air Force was officially created on 20 May 1929, with the name of Peruvian Aviation Corps. Its main function is to serve as the country's air defense. It also participates in Peace movement, social support campaigns for hard-to-reach populations, organizes air bridges during disasters, and participates in Peacekeeping, international peace missions. Its four major air bases are located in the cities of Piura,
Callao Callao (; ) is a seaside city on the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth' ...

Callao
, Arequipa and Iquitos. *The Peruvian Navy is in charge of the country's maritime, river, and lake defense. It is made up of 26,000 sailors. Personnel are divided into three levels: superior personnel, junior personnel and seafarers. The military is governed by both the President of Peru, commander in chief, Ministry of Defense (Peru), Ministry of Defense, and Joint Command of the Armed Forces of Peru, Joint Command of the Armed Forces (CCFFAA). The CCFFAA has subordinates to the Operational Commands and Special Commands, with which it carries out the military operations that are required for the defense and the fulfillment of the tasks that the executive power provides. Conscription was abolished in 1999 and replaced by voluntary military service. The National Police of Peru is often classified as a part of the armed forces. Although in fact it has a different organization and a wholly civil mission, its training and activities over more than two decades as an anti-terrorist force have produced markedly military characteristics, giving it the appearance of a virtual fourth military service with significant land, sea and air capabilities and approximately 140,000 personnel. The Peruvian armed forces report through the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police of Peru reports through the Ministry of Interior. Since the end of the Internal conflict in Peru, crisis in Peru in 2000, the federal government has significantly reduced annual spending in defense. In the 2016—2017 budget, defense spending has constituted 1.1% of GDP ($2.3 billion), the second lowest spending relative to GDP in South America following Argentina. More recently, the Armed Forces of Peru have been used in civil defense. In 2020, Peru used its military personnel and even reservists to enforce the strict quarantine measures placed during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Geography

Peru is located on the central western coast of South America facing the Pacific Ocean. It lies wholly in the Southern Hemisphere, its northernmost extreme reaching to 1.8 minutes of latitude or about south of the equator, covers of western South America. It borders Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The Andes mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean; they define the three regions traditionally used to describe the country geographically. The ''costa'' (coast), to the west, is a narrow, largely arid plain except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. The ''sierra'' (highlands) is the region of the Andes; it includes the ''Altiplano'' plateau as well as the highest peak of the country, the Huascarán. The third region is the ''selva'' (jungle), a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. Almost 60 percent of the country's area is located within this region. The country has fifty-four hydrographic basins, fifty-two of which are small coastal basins that discharge their waters into the Pacific Ocean. The final two are the Endorheic basin, endorheic basin of
Lake Titicaca Lake Titicaca (; es, Lago Titicaca ; qu, Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep, freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and transl ...

Lake Titicaca
, and the Amazon basin, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Both are delimited by the Andes mountain range. The Amazon basin is particularly noteworthy as it is the source of the Amazon River, which at 6872 km, is the longest river in the world, and covers 75% of Peruvian territory. Peru contains 4% of the planet's freshwater. Most Peruvian rivers originate in the peaks of the Andes and drain into one of three drainage basin, basins. Those that drain toward the Pacific Ocean are steep and short, flowing only intermittently. Tributaries of the Amazon River have a much larger flow, and are longer and less steep once they exit the ''sierra''. Rivers that drain into Lake Titicaca are generally short and have a large flow. Peru's longest rivers are the Ucayali, the Marañón River (Peru), Marañón, the Içá, Putumayo, the Yavarí River, Yavarí, the Huallaga River, Huallaga, the Urubamba River, Urubamba, the Mantaro River, Mantaro, and the Amazon. The largest List of lakes of Peru, lake in Peru, Lake Titicaca between Peru and Bolivia high in the Andes, is also the largest of South America. The largest Water resources management in Peru, reservoirs, all in the coastal region of Peru, are the Poechos Reservoir, Poechos, Tinajones, San Lorenzo, and El Fraile reservoirs.


Climate

The combination of tropical latitude, mountain ranges, topography variations, and two ocean currents (Humboldt Current, Humboldt and El Niño Southern Oscillation, El Niño) gives Peru a large diversity of climates. The coastal region has moderate temperatures, low precipitation, and high humidity, except for its warmer, wetter northern reaches. In the mountain region, rain is frequent in summer, and temperature and humidity diminish with altitude up to the frozen peaks of the Andes. The Peruvian Amazon is characterized by heavy rainfall and high temperatures, except for its southernmost part, which has cold winters and seasonal rainfall.


Wildlife

Because of its varied geography and climate, Peru has a high biodiversity with 21,462 species of plants and animals reported as of 2003, 5,855 of them endemism, endemic, and is one of the megadiverse countries. Peru has over 1,800 species of birds (120 Endemism, endemic), over 500 species of mammals, over 300 species of reptiles, and over 1,000 species of freshwater fishes. The hundreds of mammals include rare species like the Puma (genus), puma, jaguar and spectacled bear. The Birds of Peru produce large amounts of
guano Guano (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguatio ...

guano
, an economically important export. The Pacific holds large quantities of bass (fish), sea bass, flounder, anchovies, tuna, crustaceans, and shellfish, and is home to many sharks, sperm whales, and whales. Peru also has an equally diverse Flora of Peru, flora. The coastal deserts produce little more than cacti, apart from hilly lomas, fog oases and river valleys that contain unique plant life. The Highlands above the tree-line known as Puna grassland, puna is home to bushes, cactus, drought-resistant plants such as Jarava ichu, ichu, and the largest species of bromeliad – the spectacular Puya raimondii. The cloud-forest slopes of the Andes sustain moss, orchids, and bromeliads, and the Amazon rainforest is known for its variety of trees and canopy plants. Peru had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 8.86/10, ranking it 14th globally out of 172 countries.


Economy

The economy of Peru is the 48th largest in the world (ranked by Purchasing power parity),Peru
. CIA, The World Factbook
and the income level is classified as ''upper middle'' by the World Bank.The World Bank
''Data by country: Peru''
. Retrieved on 1 October 2011.
Peru is, , one of the world's fastest-growing economies owing to an economic boom experienced during the 2000s. It has an above-average
Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
of 0.77 which has seen steady improvement over Historically, the country's economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments. Although they have provided substantial revenue, self-sustained growth and a more egalitarian distribution of income have proven elusive. According to 2015 data, 19.3% of its total population is poor, including 9% that lives in extreme poverty. Inflation in 2012 was the lowest in Latin America at only 1.8%, but increased in 2013 as oil and commodity prices rose; it stands at 2.5%. The unemployment rate has fallen steadily and stands at 3.6%. Peruvian economic policy has varied widely over The 1968–1975 government of
Juan Velasco Alvarado Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado (June 16, 1910 – December 24, 1977) was a left-wing Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism Egalitarianism (), or equalitarianism, is a school of thought within political phi ...

Juan Velasco Alvarado
introduced radical reforms, which included agrarian reform, the expropriation of foreign companies, the introduction of an economic interventionism, economic planning system, and the creation of a large state-owned sector. These measures failed to achieve their objectives of income redistribution and the end of dependency theory, economic dependence on developed nations. Despite these results, most reforms were not reversed until the 1990s, when the liberalization, liberalizing government of
Alberto Fujimori Alberto Kenya Fujimori Inomoto ( or ; or ; ja, 片岡 謙也, かたおか けんや ''Kataoka Kenya''; born 28 July 1938) is a former Peruvian engineer and politician who served as the President of Peru from 28 July 1990 until his downfall o ...
ended price controls, protectionism, restrictions on foreign direct investment, and most state ownership of companies. Tertiary sector of industry, Services account for 53% of Peruvian gross domestic product, followed by manufacturing (22.3%), extractive industries (15%), and taxes (9.7%). Recent economic growth had been fueled by Macroeconomics, macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade, and rising investment and consumption. Trade was expected to increase further after the implementation of a United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, free trade agreement with the United States signed on 12 April 2006. Peru's main exports were copper, gold, zinc, textiles, and fish meal; its major trade partners were the United States, China, Brazil, and Chile. Peru was ranked 76th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 69th in 2019.


Demographics


Largest cities and towns


Ethnic groups

Peru is a multiethnic society, multiethnic nation formed by successive waves of different peoples over five centuries.
Amerindians The Indigenous peoples of the Americas, also known as Amerindians or Indians, are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European colonization of the Americas, European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who n ...
inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before the Spanish conquest of Peru, Spanish conquest in the 16th century; according to historian Noble David Cook, their population decreased from nearly 5–9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases. The 2017 census for the first time included a question on ethnic self-identification. According to the results, 60.2% of the people identified themselves as mestizo, 22.3% identified themselves as Quechua people, Quechua, 5.9% identified themselves as White Peruvians, white, 3.6% identified themselves as Afro-Peruvians, black, 2.4% identified themselves as Aymara people, Aymara, 2.3% identified themselves as other ethnic groups, and 3.3% didn't declare their ethnicity. Spaniards and Africans arrived in large numbers under colonial rule, mixing widely with each other and with Indigenous peoples. After independence, there was gradual immigration from England, France, Germany, and Italy. Peru freed its black slaves in 1854. Chinese and Japanese arrived in the 1850s as laborers following the end of slavery, and have since become a major influence in Peruvian society.


Population

With about 31.2 million inhabitants in 2017, Peru is the List of South American countries by population, fourth most populous country in South America. The demographic growth rate of Peru declined from 2.6% to 1.6% between 1950 and 2000; with the population being expected to reach approximately 42 million in 2050. According to the 1940 Peruvian census, Peru had a population at the time of seven million residents. , 79.3% lived in urban areas and 20.7% in rural areas. Major cities include the Lima metropolitan area (home to over 9.8 million people), Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, Iquitos,
Cusco Cusco, often spelled Cuzco (; qu, Qusqu ()), is a city in southeastern Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the St ...

Cusco
, Chimbote, and Huancayo; all reported more than 250,000 inhabitants in the 2007 Peru Census, 2007 census. There are 15 Uncontacted peoples, uncontacted Amerindian tribes in Peru.


Language

According to the Peruvian Constitution of 1993, Peru's official languages are Spanish and, in areas where they predominate,
Quechua Quechua may refer to: *Quechua people, several indigenous ethnic groups in South America, especially in Peru *Quechuan languages, a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a common ancestral language **Sou ...
and other Indigenous languages. Spanish is spoken natively by 82.6% of the population, Quechua by 13.9%, and Aymara by 1.7%, while other languages are spoken by the remaining 1.8%. Spanish language is used by the government and is the mainstream language of the country, which is used by the media and in educational systems and commerce. Amerindians who live in the Andean highlands speak Quechua and Aymara and are ethnically distinct from the diverse Indigenous groups who live on the eastern side of the Andes and in the tropical lowlands adjacent to the Amazon basin. Peru's distinct geographical regions are mirrored in a language divide between the coast where Spanish is more predominant over the Amerindian languages, and the more diverse traditional Andean cultures of the mountains and highlands. The Indigenous populations east of the Andes speak various languages and dialects. Some of these groups still adhere to traditional Indigenous languages, while others have been almost completely assimilated into the Spanish language. There has been an increasing and organized effort to teach Quechua in public schools in the areas where Quechua is spoken. In the Peruvian Amazon, numerous Indigenous languages are spoken, including Asháninka language, Asháninka, Bora language, Bora, and Aguaruna language, Aguaruna.Resonancias.org
– Aboriginal languages of Peru


Religion

Roman Catholicism has been the predominant faith in Peru for centuries, albeit religious practices have a high degree of
syncretism Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs and various schools of thought A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of opinion or outlook of a philosophy, Li ...
with Indigenous traditions. As of the 2017 census, 76% of the population over 12 years old described themselves as Catholic Church, Catholic, 14.1% as Evangelical Protestant, Evangelical, 4.8% as Protestant, Jewish, Latter-day Saints, and Jehovah's Witnesses, and 5.1% as nonreligious. Amerindian religious traditions continue to play a major role in the beliefs of Peruvians. Catholic festivities like Corpus Christi (feast), Corpus Christi, Holy Week and Christmas sometimes blend with Amerindian traditions. Amerindian festivities from pre-Columbian remain widespread; Inti Raymi, an ancient Inca festival, is still celebrated, especially in rural communities. The majority of towns, cities, and villages have their own official church or cathedral and patron saint. According to Article 50 of the Peruvian Constitution, Roman Catholicism is the official religion, and Roman Catholicism is mandatory in all state schools.


Education

Peru's literacy rate is estimated at 92.9% as of 2007; this rate is lower in rural areas (80.3%) than in urban areas (96.3%). Primary and secondary education are compulsory education, compulsory and free in public schools. Peru is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World. The
National University of San Marcos The National University of San Marcos ( es, link=no, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, UNMSM) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general p ...
, founded on 12 May 1551, during the
Viceroyalty of Peru The Viceroyalty of Peru ( es, Virreinato del Perú, links=no) was a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other place ...
, is the first officially established and the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.


Health

Peru has a life expectancy of 75.0 years (72.4 for males and 77.7 for females) according to the latest data for the year 2016 from the World Bank.


Toponyms

Many of the Peruvian toponyms have Indigenous language, Indigenous sources. In the Andes communities of Áncash Region, Ancash, Cusco Region, Cusco and Puno Region, Puno, Quechua or Aymara names are overwhelmingly predominant. Their Spanish-based orthography, however, is in conflict with the normalized alphabets of these languages. According to Article 20 of ''Decreto Supremo No 004-2016-MC'' (Supreme Decree) which approves the Regulations to Law 29735, published in the official newspaper El Peruano on 22 July 2016, adequate spellings of the toponyms in the normalized alphabets of the Indigenous languages must progressively be proposed with the aim of standardizing the naming used by the National Geographic Institute ''(Instituto Geográfico Nacional, IGN)''. The National Geographic Institute realizes the necessary changes in the official maps of Peru.


Culture

Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and European traditions, though it has also been influenced by various Asian and African ethnic groups. Peruvian arts, Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incas maintained these crafts and made Architecture of Peru, architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu. Baroque dominated colonial art, though modified by Native traditions. During this period, most art focused on religious subjects; the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of the Cusco School are representative. Arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of ''Indigenismo'' in the early 20th century. Since the 1950s, Peruvian art has been Eclecticism in art, eclectic and shaped by both foreign and local art currents.


Visual Arts

Peruvian art has its origin in the Peruvian Ancient Cultures, Andean civilizations. These civilizations arose in the territory of modern Peru before the Spanish colonization of the Americas, arrival of the Spanish. Peruvian art incorporated European elements after the Spanish conquest and continued to evolve throughout the centuries up to the modern day.


Pre-Columbian art

Peru's earliest artwork came from the
Cupisnique 250px, Stirrup-handled Cupinisque ceramic vase 1250 BC ( Larco Museum Collection) The Cupisnique culture was a pre-Columbian indigenous culture that flourished from c. 1500 to 500 BC along what now is Peru , , image_flag = Fl ...
culture, which was concentrated on the Pacific coast, and the Chavín culture, which was largely north of
Lima Lima ( ; ) is the capital and the largest city of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_t ...

Lima
between the Andean mountain ranges of the Cordillera Negra and the Cordillera Blanca. Decorative work from this era, approximately the 9th century BCE, was symbolic and religious in nature. The artists worked with gold, silver, and Ceramics (art), ceramics to create a variety of sculptures and relief carvings. These civilizations were also known for their architecture and wood sculptures. Between the 9th century BCE and the 2nd century CE, the Paracas Cavernas and Paracas Necropolis cultures developed on the south coast of Peru. Paracas Cavernas produced complex polychrome and monochrome ceramics with religious representations. Burials from the Paracas Necropolis also yielded complex textiles, many produced with sophisticated geometric patterns. The 3rd century BCE saw the flowering of the urban culture, Moche (culture), Moche, in the Lambayeque (Department of Peru), Lambayeque region. The Moche culture produced impressive architectural works, such as the Huaca del Sol, Huacas del Sol y de la Luna and the Huaca Rajada of Sipán. They were experts at Terrace (agriculture), cultivation in terraces and hydraulic engineering and produced original ceramics, textiles, pictorial and sculptural works. Another urban culture, the Huari Culture, Wari civilization, flourished between the 8th and 12th centuries in Ayacucho (Department of Peru), Ayacucho. Their centralized town planning was extended to other areas, such as Pachacamac, Cajamarquilla and Wari Willka. Between the 9th and 13th centuries CE, the military urban Tiwanaku empire rose by the borders of
Lake Titicaca Lake Titicaca (; es, Lago Titicaca ; qu, Titiqaqa Qucha) is a large, deep, freshwater Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and transl ...

Lake Titicaca
. Centered around a city of the same name in modern-day Bolivia, the Tiwanaku introduced stone architecture and sculpture of a monumental type. These works of architecture and art were made possible by the Tiwanaku's developing bronze, which enabled them to make the necessary tools. Urban architecture reached a new height between the 14th and 15th centuries in the Chimú Culture. The Chimú built the city of
Chan Chan Chan Chan was the largest city of the pre-Columbian era in South America. It is now an archaeology, archaeological site in La Libertad Region west of Trujillo, Peru. Chan Chan is located in the mouth of the Moche Valley and was the capital of ...
in the valley of the Moche River, in La Libertad (Department of Peru), La Libertad. The Chimú were skilled goldsmiths and created remarkable works of hydraulic engineering. The Inca Empire, Inca Civilization, which united Peru under its hegemony in the centuries immediately preceding the Spanish conquest, incorporated into their own works a great part of the cultural legacy of the civilizations which preceded it. Important relics of their artwork and architecture can be seen in cities like Cusco (Department of Peru), Cusco, architectural remains like Sacsayhuamán, Sacsahuamán and Machu Picchu and stone pavements that united Cusco with the rest of the Inca Empire.


Colonial art

Peruvian sculpture and painting began to define themselves from the Studio, ateliers founded by monks, who were strongly influenced by the Sevillian Baroque School. In this context, the stalls of the Lima Cathedral, Cathedral choir, the fountain of the Main Square of Lima both by Pedro de Noguera, and a great part of the colonial production were registered. The first center of art established by the Spanish was the Cuzco School that taught Quechua languages, Quechua artists European painting styles. Diego Quispe Tito (1611–1681) was one of the first members of the Cuzco school and Marcos Zapata (1710–1773) was one of the last. Painting of this time reflected a synthesis of European and Indigenous influences, as is evident in the portrait of prisoner Atahualpa, by D. de Mora or in the canvases of the Italians Mateo Pérez de Alesio and Angelino Medoro, the Spaniards Francisco Bejarano and J. de Illescas and the Creole J. Rodriguez. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Baroque Style also dominated the field of plastic arts.


Literature

The term Peruvian literature not only refers to literature produced in the independent Republic of Peru, but also to literature produced in the
Viceroyalty of Peru The Viceroyalty of Peru ( es, Virreinato del Perú, links=no) was a Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other place ...
during the country's colonial period, and to Oral tradition, oral artistic forms created by diverse ethnic groups that existed in the area during the Prehispanic#South America, pre-Columbian period, such as the Quechua people, Quechua, the Aymara people, Aymara and the
Chanka The Chanka people (or Chanca) are a Quechua people Quechua people (, ; ) or Quecha people, may refer to any of the aboriginal people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peopl ...
people. Peruvian literature is rooted in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century; colonial literary expression included chronicles and Christian literature, religious literature. After independence, Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma. The early 20th century's ''Indigenismo'' movement was led by such writers as Ciro Alegría and José María Arguedas. César Vallejo wrote modernist and often politically engaged verse. Modern Peruvian literature is recognized thanks to authors such as List of Nobel laureates in Literature, Nobel laureate Mario Vargas Llosa, a leading member of the Latin American Boom.


Cuisine

Due to the Spanish expedition and discovery of the Americas, the explorers started the Columbian exchange which included food unheard of in the Old World, including potato, tomato, and maize. Modern Indigenous Peruvian food often includes corn, potatoes, and Chili pepper, chilies. There are now more than 3,000 kinds of potatoes grown on Peruvian terrain, according to Peru's Instituto Peruano de la Papa. Modern Peruvian cuisine blends Native American cuisine#Native American cuisine of South America, Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from Chinese, African, Arab, Italian, and Japanese cooking. Common dishes include ''anticuchos'', ''ceviche'', and ''pachamanca''. Peru's varied climate allows the growth of diverse plants and animals good for cooking. Peruvian cuisine reflects local practices and ingredients—including influences from the Indigenous population including the Quechua people, Inca and cuisines brought in with colonizers and immigrants. Without the familiar ingredients from their home countries, immigrants modified their traditional cuisines by using ingredients available in Peru. The four traditional staples of Peruvian cuisine are Maize, corn, potatoes and other tubers, Amaranthaceaes (quinoa, kañiwa and kiwicha) and legumes (beans and lupins). Staples brought by the Spanish include rice, wheat, and meats (beef, pork, and chicken). Many traditional foods—such as quinoa, kiwicha, chili peppers, and several roots and tubers have increased in popularity in recent decades, reflecting a revival of interest in Native Peruvian foods and culinary techniques. It is also common to see traditional cuisines being served with a modern flair in towns like
Cusco Cusco, often spelled Cuzco (; qu, Qusqu ()), is a city in southeastern Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the St ...

Cusco
, where tourists come to visit. Chef Gaston Acurio has become well known for raising awareness of local ingredients.


Music

Peruvian music has Andean music, Andean, Music of Spain, Spanish, and African Music, African roots. In pre-Columbian times, musical expressions varied widely in each region; the ''quena'' and the ''tinya'' were two common instruments. Spaniards introduced new instruments, such as the guitar and the harp, which led to the development of crossbred instruments like the ''charango''. African contributions to Peruvian music include its rhythms and the ''Cajon, cajón'', a percussion instrument. Peruvian folk dances include marinera, tondero, zamacueca, diablada and huayno.Romero, Raúl (1985). "La música tradicional y popular". In: Patronato Popular y Porvenir, ''La música en el Perú''. Lima: Industrial Gráfica, pp. pp. 243–245, 261–265. Peruvian music is dominated by the national Musical instrument, instrument, the charango. The charango is a member of the lute family of instruments and was invented during Viceroyalty of Peru, colonial times by musicians imitating the Spanish vihuela. In the Canas and Titicaca regions, the charango is used in courtship rituals, symbolically invoking mermaids with the instrument to lure the woman to the male performers. Until the 1960s, the charango was denigrated as an instrument of the rural poor. After the revolution in 1959, which built upon the Indigenismo movement (1910–1940), the charango was popularized among other performers. Variants include the walaycho, chillador, chinlili, and the larger and lower-tuned charangon. While the Spanish guitar is widely played, so too is the Spanish-in-origin bandurria. Unlike the guitar, it has been transformed by Peruvian players over the years, changing from a 12-string, 6-course instrument to one having 12 to 16 strings in a mere four courses. Violins and harps, also of European origin, are also played.


Cinema

While the Peruvian film industry has not been nearly as prolific as that of some other Latin American countries, some Peruvian movies produced enjoyed regional success. Historically, the cinema of Peru Cinema of Iquitos, began in Iquitos in 1932 by Antonio Wong Rengifo (with a momentous, initial Movie theater, film billboard from 1900) because of the rubber boom and the intense arrival of foreigners with technology to the city, and thus continued an extensive, unique filmography, with a different style than the films made in the capital, Lima. Peru also produced the first animated 3-D film in Latin America, ''Piratas en el Callao''. This film is set in the historical port city of
Callao Callao (; ) is a seaside city on the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth' ...

Callao
, which during colonial times had to defend itself against attacks by Dutch and British privateers seeking to undercut Spain's trade with its colonies. The film was produced by the Peruvians, Peruvian company Alpamayo Entertainment, which made a second 3-D film one year later: ''Dragones: Destino de Fuego''. In February 2006, the film ''Madeinusa'', produced as a joint venture between Peru and Spain and directed by Claudia Llosa, was set in an imaginary Andean village and describes the stagnating life of Madeinusa performed by Magaly Solier and the traumas of post-civil war Peru. Llosa, who shared elements of Gabriel García Márquez's magic realism, won an award at the Rotterdam Film Festival. Llosa's second feature, The Milk of Sorrow ("La Teta Asustada"), was nominated for the 82nd Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Picture, the first Peruvian film in the academy's history to be nominated. The Milk of Sorrow ("La Teta Asustada"), won the Golden Bear award at the 2009 Berlinale.


See also

*Outline of Peru


Notes and references


Notes


Citations


Bibliography

* Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. ''Art of colonial Latin America''. London: Phaidon, 2005, .
''Constitución Política del Perú''
29 December 1993. * Custer, Tony. ''The Art of Peruvian Cuisine''. Lima: Ediciones Ganesha, 2003, . * Gonzalo Garland, Garland, Gonzalo. "Perú Siglo XXI", series of 11 working papers describing sectorial long-term forecasts, Grade, Lima, Peru, 1986–1987. * Garland, Gonzalo. Peru in the 21st Century: Challenges and Possibilities in ''Futures: the Journal of Forecasting, Planning, and Policy'', Volume 22, No. 4, Butterworth-Heinemann, London, England, May 1990. * Gootenberg, Paul. (1991) ''Between silver and guano: commercial policy and the state in postindependence Peru''. Princeton: Princeton University Press . * Gootenberg, Paul. (1993) ''Imagining development: economic ideas in Peru's "fictitious prosperity" of Guano, 1840–1880''. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993, 0520082907. * Higgins, James (editor). ''The Emancipation of Peru: British Eyewitness Accounts'', 2014. Online a
jhemanperu
* Instituto de Estudios Histórico–Marítimos del Perú. ''El Perú y sus recursos: Atlas geográfico y económico''. Lima: Auge, 1996. * Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática.  . Lima: INEI, 2005. * Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. ''Perfil sociodemográfico del Perú''. Lima: INEI, 2008. * Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. ''Perú: Estimaciones y Proyecciones de Población, 1950–2050''. Lima: INEI, 2001. * . 28 September 1999. * Ley N° 27867
''Ley Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales''
16 November 2002. * Martin, Gerald. "Literature, music and the visual arts, c. 1820–1870". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), ''A cultural history of Latin America''. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 3–45. * Martin, Gerald. "Narrative since c. 1920". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), ''A cultural history of Latin America''. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 133–225. * Porras Barrenechea, Raúl. ''El nombre del Perú''. Lima: Talleres Gráficos P.L. Villanueva, 1968. * * Thorp, Rosemary, and Geoffrey Bertram. ''Peru 1890–1977: growth and policy in an open economy''. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978,


Further reading

;Economy * Banco Central de Reserva

. * Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. ''Perú: Perfil de la pobreza por departamentos, 2004–2008''. Lima: INEI, 2009. * Concha, Jaime. "Poetry, c. 1920–1950". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), ''A cultural history of Latin America''. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 227–260.


External links


Country Profile
from BBC News
Peru
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency. *
Google search

World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Peru

PeruLinks
web directory * * *
Web portal
of the Peruvian Government * {{Authority control Peru, Andean Community Countries in South America Former Spanish colonies Member states of the United Nations Republics Spanish-speaking countries and territories States and territories established in 1821