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Nomenclature codes or codes of nomenclature are the various rulebooks that govern biological
taxonomic Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
nomenclature Nomenclature (, ) is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal naming conventions, conventions of everyday speech to the i ...

nomenclature
, each in their own broad field of organisms. To an end-user who only deals with names of species, with some awareness that species are assignable to
families In human society, family (from la, familia) is a Social group, group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or Affinity (law), affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the w ...
, it may not be noticeable that there is more than one code, but beyond this basic level these are rather different in the way they work. The successful introduction of two-part names for species by
Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomia ...

Linnaeus
was the start for an ever-expanding system of nomenclature. With all naturalists worldwide adopting this approach to thinking up names, there arose several schools of thought about the details. It became ever more apparent that a detailed body of rules was necessary to govern
scientific names In Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed ...
. From the mid-19th century onwards, there were several initiatives to arrive at worldwide-accepted sets of rules. Presently nomenclature codes govern the naming of: *
Algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of s. It is a grouping that includes species from multiple distinct s. Included organisms range from , such as '','' and the s, to forms, such as the , a large whi ...

Algae
,
Fungi A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of Eukaryote, eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and Mold (fungus), molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as ...

Fungi
and
Plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel ...

Plant
s – ''
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants The ''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical name A botanical name is a formal scientific name Science (from the Latin Latin (, ...
'' (''ICN''), which in July 2011 replaced the ''
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature The ''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "tradi ...
'' (''ICBN'') and the earlier ''International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature''. *
Animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are organisms that form the Animalia. With few exceptions, animals , , are , can , and grow from a hollow sphere of , the , during . Over 1.5 million animal have been —of which around 1 million are —b ...

Animal
s – ''
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Co ...
'' (''ICZN'') *
Bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of biological cell The cell (from Latin ''cella'', meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms. Cells are the sm ...
and
Archaea Archaea ( ; singular archaeon ) constitute a domain Domain may refer to: Mathematics *Domain of a function, the set of input values for which the (total) function is defined **Domain of definition of a partial function **Natural domain of a pa ...

Archaea
– ''
International Code of Nomenclature of ProkaryotesThe International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) formerly the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (ICNB) or Bacteriological Code (BC) governs the scientific names for Bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular ...
'' (''ICNP''), which in 2008 replaced the ''International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria'' (''ICNB'') * Cultivated plants – ''
International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants The ''International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants'' (ICNCP), also known as the Cultivated Plant Code, is a guide to the rules and regulations for naming cultigens, plants whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional huma ...
'' (''ICNCP'') *
Plant associationA plant community is a collection or association of plant species within a designated geographical unit, which forms a relatively uniform patch, distinguishable from neighboring patches of different vegetation types. The components of each plant c ...
s – '' International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature (ICPN)'' *
Virus A virus is a that only inside the living of an . Viruses infect all , from animals and plants to s, including and . Since 's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial infecting tobacco plants and the discovery of the by in 1898, more ...

Virus
es – ''The International Code of Virus Classification and Nomenclature'' (ICVCN); ''see also
virus classification Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them into a Alpha taxonomy, taxonomic system similar to the classification systems used for cell (biology), cellular organisms. Viruses are classified by phenotypic characteristics, ...
''


Differences between codes


Starting point

The starting point, that is the time from which these codes are in effect (usually retroactively), varies from group to group, and sometimes from rank to rank. In
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
and
mycology Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungus, fungi, including their genetics, genetic and biochemistry, biochemical properties, their Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy and ethnomycology, their use to humans as a source for ti ...
the starting point is often 1 May 1753 (
Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomia ...

Linnaeus
, ''
Species plantarum ' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, i ...
''), in
zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical stru ...
1758 (Linnaeus, ''Systema Naturae'', 10th Edition). On the other hand,
bacteriology Bacteriology is the branch and specialty of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactio ...
started anew, making a clean sweep in 1980 (Skerman et al., "Approved Lists of Bacterial Names"), although maintaining the original authors and dates of publication. Exceptions in botany: *
Spermatophyta The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams (taxon Phanerogamae) or phaenogams (taxon Phaenogamae), comprise those plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plan ...

Spermatophyta
and
Pteridophyta A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants, the other being phloem. The basic function of xylem is to transport water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorga ...

Pteridophyta
, suprageneric names: 4 August 1789 (
Jussieu
Jussieu
, ''Genera plantarum''); *
Musci Mosses are small, non-vascular flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biologica ...
(except Sphagnaceae): 1 January 1801 (
HedwigHedwig may refer to: * Hedwig (name), a list of people and fictional characters with the given name * Johann Hedwig, (1730–1799), German botanist * Hedwig Fountain, a fountain in Zürich, Switzerland * Hedwig glass, type of glass of uncertain orig ...

Hedwig
, ''Species muscorum''); * Sphagnaceae and Hepaticae (including Anthocerotae), suprageneric names: 4 August 1789 (Jussieu, ''Genera plantarum''); * (
Fungi A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of Eukaryote, eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and Mold (fungus), molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as ...

Fungi
:)
Microsporidia Microsporidia are a group of spore-forming unicellular A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any indi ...
are governed by the ''ICZN'' (treated as animals), and see below for ''fossil'' fungi; * (
Algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of s. It is a grouping that includes species from multiple distinct s. Included organisms range from , such as '','' and the s, to forms, such as the , a large whi ...

Algae
:) **
Nostocaceae The Nostocaceae are a family of cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria , also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of Gram-negative bacteria Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram stain, gram-sta ...
homocysteae: 1 January 1892 (Gomont, “''Monographie des Oscillariées''”); ** Nostocaceae heterocysteae: 1 January 1886 ( Bornet &
Flahault Charles Henri Marie Flahault (3 October 1852 – 3 February 1935) was a France, French botanist, among the early pioneers of phytogeography, phytosociology, and forest ecology. The word ''Relevé (disambiguation), relevé'' for a plant community sam ...
, “''Révision des Nostocacées hétérocystées''”); **
Desmidiaceae The Desmidiaceae are one of four family (biology), families of Charophyta, Charophyte green algae in the order (biology), order Desmidiales (desmids).See the National Center for Biotechnology Information, NCBI]webpage on Desmidiaceae Data extract ...

Desmidiaceae
: 1 January 1848 ( John Ralfs, Ralfs, ''British Desmidieae''); **
Oedogoniaceae The Oedogoniales are an order (biology), order of filamentous freshwater green algae of the class Chlorophyceae. The order is well-defined and has several unique features, including asexual reproduction with zoospores that possess stephanokont fla ...
: 1 January 1900 ( Hirn, “''Monographie und Iconographie der Oedogoniaceen''”); * ''Fossil'' plants, algae (
diatom Diatoms (''diá-tom-os'' 'cut in half', from ''diá'', 'through' or 'apart', and the root of ''tém-n-ō'', 'I cut') are a major group of algae, specifically microalgae, found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world. Living diatoms make ...

diatom
s excepted) and fungi: 31 December 1820 ( Sternberg, ''Flora der Vorwelt''). Exceptions in zoology: *
Spider Spiders (order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, and the ...

Spider
s: 1757 ( Clerck, '' Aranei Svecici'').


Workings

There are also differences in the way codes work. For example, the ''ICN'' (the code for algae, fungi and plants) forbids
tautonym A tautonym is a scientific name of a species in which both parts of the name have the same spelling, for example, '' Rattus rattus''. The first part of the name is the name of the genus and the second part is referred to as the ''specific epithet ...
s, while the ''ICZN'', (the animal code) allows them.


Terminology

These codes differ in terminology, and there is a long-term project to "harmonize" this. For instance, the ''ICN'' uses "valid" in "valid publication of a name" (= the act of publishing a formal name), with "establishing a name" as the ''ICZN'' equivalent. The ''ICZN'' uses "valid" in "valid name" (= "correct name"), with "correct name" as the ''ICN'' equivalent. Harmonization is making very limited progress.


Types

There are differences in respect of what kinds of
type Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing, producing text via a keyboard, typewriter, etc. * Data type, collection of values used for computations. * File type * TYPE (DOS command), a command to display contents of a file. * Type ...
s are used. The bacteriological code prefers living type cultures, but allows other kinds. There has been ongoing debate regarding which kind of type is more useful in a case like
cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria (), also known as Cyanophyta, are a of that obtain energy via . The name ''cyanobacteria'' refers to their color (), giving them their other name, "blue-green algae", though modern botanists restrict the term ' to s and do not ...

cyanobacteria
.


Other codes


BioCode

A more radical approach was made in 1997 when the
IUBS The International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS) is a non-profit organization and non-governmental organization, founded in 1919, that promotes the biological sciences internationally. As a scientific umbrella organization it was a founding me ...
/ IUMS International Committee on Bionomenclature (ICB) presented the long debated ''Draft BioCode'', proposed to replace all existing ''Codes'' with an harmonization of them. The originally planned implementation date for the BioCode draft was January 1, 2000, but agreement to replace the existing ''Codes'' was not reached. In 2011 a revised ''BioCode'' was proposed that, instead of replacing the existing ''Codes'', would provide a unified context for them, referring to them when necessary. Changes in the existing codes are slowly being made in the proposed directions.DL Hawksworth (2011) BioCode 2011. Introduction. http://www.bionomenclature.net/biocode2011.htmlWerner Greuter (2011) BioCode 2011. Explanatory prologue. http://www.bionomenclature.net/biocode2011.html


PhyloCode

Some authors encountered problems in using the Linnean system in phylogenetic classification.de Queiroz, K.; Gauthier, J. (1990). Phylogeny as a Central Principle in Taxonomy: Phylogenetic Definitions of Taxon Names. ''Syst. Zool.'' (39): 307–322. doi:10.2307/2992353 http://vertebrates.si.edu/herps/herps_pdfs/deQueiroz_pdfs/1990deQ_GauSZ.pdf. Another ''Code'' in development since 1998 is the ''
PhyloCode The ''International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature'', known as the ''PhyloCode'' for short, is a formal set of rules governing phylogenetic nomenclature. Its current version is specifically designed to regulate the naming of clades, leaving the g ...
'', which would regulate what their creators called
phylogenetic nomenclature In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, ...
instead of the traditional Linnaean nomenclature (that is, it requires phylogenetic definitions as a "type" attached to every name, and does not contain mandatory ranks). The ''Code'' and the accompanying volume (meant to serve as a list of not-suppressed names and a new starting point, like the 1980s ''Approved Lists of Bacterial Names'' functions relative to the ''Bacteriological Code'', much like ''
Systema naturae ' (originally in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic ...
'' functions relative to the ''Zoological Code''), is however still in the draft stage, and it is uncertain when, or even if, the code will see any form of implementation.


Ambiregnal protists

Some
protist A protist () is any (that is, an organism whose contain a ) that is not an , , or . While it is likely that protists share a (the ), the exclusion of other eukaryotes means that protists do not form a natural group, or . Therefore, some pro ...
s, sometimes called ambiregnal protists, have been considered to be both
protozoa Protozoa (singular protozoon or protozoan, plural protozoa or protozoans) is an informal term for a group of Unicellular organism, single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or Parasitism, parasitic, that feed on organic matter such as other mi ...

protozoa
and
algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert Conversion or convert may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Co ...

algae
, or
protozoa Protozoa (singular protozoon or protozoan, plural protozoa or protozoans) is an informal term for a group of Unicellular organism, single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or Parasitism, parasitic, that feed on organic matter such as other mi ...

protozoa
and
fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

fungi
, and names for these have been published under either or both of the ''ICZN'' and the ''ICN''. The resulting double language throughout protist classification schemes resulted in confusion. Groups claimed by both
protozoologistProtozoology is the study of protozoa, the "animal-like" (i.e., motility, motile and heterotrophic) protists. This term has become dated as understanding of the evolutionary relationships of the eukaryotes has improved. For example, the Society of ...
s and phycologists include
euglenid Euglenids (euglenoids, or euglenophytes, formally Euglenida/Euglenoida, ICZN, or Euglenophyceae, ICBN) are one of the best-known groups of flagellate 's '' Artforms of Nature'', 1904 (''Giardia lamblia'') ('' Chlamydomonas'') A flagellate is ...
s,
dinoflagellate The dinoflagellates (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 m ...
s,
cryptomonad The cryptomonads (or cryptophytes) are a group of algae, most of which have plastids. They are common in freshwater, and also occur in marine and brackish habitats. Each cell is around 10–50 μm in size and flattened in shape, with an anterio ...
s,
haptophyte The haptophytes, classified either as the Haptophyta, Haptophytina or Prymnesiophyta (named for ''Prymnesium''), are a clade of algae. The names Haptophyceae or Prymnesiophyceae are sometimes used instead. This ending implies classification at th ...
s,
glaucophyte The glaucophytes, also known as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a small group of freshwater unicellular algae, less common today than they were during the Proterozoic. Only 15 species have been described, but more species are likely to exi ...

glaucophyte
s, many
heterokont Heterokonts are a group of protists A protist () is any eukaryotic organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biolog ...
s (e.g., chrysophytes,
raphidophyte The Raphidophyceae (raphidophytes, formerly referred to as Chloromonadophyceae and Chloromonadineae) are a small group of eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός ...
s, silicoflagellates, some xanthophytes,
proteromonad Proteromonadidae is a paraphyly, paraphyletic family (biology), family of heterokonts, that resemble Opalinidae. References

Placidozoa Heterokont families {{Heterokont-stub ...
s), some monadoid
green algae The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate Division (botany), divisions, together with the more basal Mesostigmatoph ...

green algae
(
volvocaleans
volvocaleans
and
prasinophyte The Prasinophytes (incl. Tetraphytina) or chlorophyta Image:Taiwan 2009 East Coast ShihTiPing Giant Stone Steps Algae FRD 6581.jpg, Green algae on coastal rocks at :zh:石梯坪, Shihtiping in Taiwan Chlorophyta or Prasinophyte, Prasinophyta ...
s),
choanoflagellate The choanoflagellates are a group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest living relatives of the animals. Choanoflagellates are collared flagellates having a funnel shaped collar of interconnect ...
s,
bicosoecid Bicosoecida (ICZN The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is also informa ...
s, ebriids and
chlorarachniophyte The chlorarachniophytes are a small group of exclusively marine alga Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of photosynthesis, photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. It is a polyphyletic grouping that includes ...
s.
Slime mold Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated organisms that can live freely as single cells, but can aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures. Slime molds were formerly classified ...

Slime mold
s,
plasmodial A plasmodium is a living structure of cytoplasm that contains many cell nucleus, nuclei, rather than being divided into individual cells each with a single nucleus. Plasmodia are best known from slime molds, but are also found in parasitic Myxosp ...
forms and other " fungus-like" organisms claimed by both protozoologists and
mycologist Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungus, fungi, including their genetics, genetic and biochemistry, biochemical properties, their Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy and ethnomycology, their use to humans as a source for ti ...
s include mycetozoans, plasmodiophorids,
acrasid The family Acrasidae (ICZN The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is al ...
s, and
labyrinthulomycetes The Labyrinthulomycetes (ICBN The ''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants'' (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other grou ...
s.
Fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ...

Fungi
claimed by both protozoologists and
mycologist Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungus, fungi, including their genetics, genetic and biochemistry, biochemical properties, their Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy and ethnomycology, their use to humans as a source for ti ...
s include
chytrid Chytridiomycota are a division of zoosporic A zoospore is a motile Motility is the ability of an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system th ...
s, blastoclads, and the gut fungi. Other problematic groups are the
Cyanobacteria Cyanobacteria (), also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum In biology, a phylum (; plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical number, grammatical ...

Cyanobacteria
(ICNP/ICN) and
Microsporidia Microsporidia are a group of spore-forming unicellular A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any indi ...
(ICZN/ICN).


Unregulated taxa

The zoological code does not regulate names of taxa lower than subspecies or higher than superfamily. There are many attempts to introduce some order on the nomenclature of these taxa, including the
PhyloCode The ''International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature'', known as the ''PhyloCode'' for short, is a formal set of rules governing phylogenetic nomenclature. Its current version is specifically designed to regulate the naming of clades, leaving the g ...
, or also of circumscriptional nomenclature. The botanical code is applied primarily to the ranks of family and below. There are some rules for names above the rank of family, but the principle of priority does not apply to them, and the Principle of Typification, principle of typification is optional. These names may be either automatically Type (biology), typified names or be Descriptive botanical name, descriptive names. In some circumstances, a taxon has two possible names (e.g., Chrysophyceae Pascher, 1914, ''nom. descrip.''; Hibberd, 1976, ''nom. typificatum''). Descriptive names are problematic, once that, if a taxon is split, it is not obvious which new group takes the existing name. Meanwhile, with typified names, the existing name is taken by the new group that still bears the type of this name. However, typified names present special problems for microorganisms.


See also

* Binomial nomenclature * Botanical nomenclature * Chemical nomenclature * Common name * Gene nomenclature * Glossary of scientific naming * List of taxa named by anagrams * International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Zoological nomenclature * Tree of life (biology)


References


Bibliography

* * *{{cite book , author1=Turland, N.J. , author2=Wiersema, J.H. , author3=Barry, F.R. , author4=Greuter, W. , author5=Hawksworth, D.L. , author6=Herendeen, P.S. , author7=Knapp, S. , author8=Kusber, W.H. , author9=Li, D.-Z. , author10=Marhold, K. , author11=May, T.W. , author12=McNeill, J. , author13=Monro, A.M. , author14=Prado, J. , author15=Price, M.J. , author16=Smith, G.F. , year=2018 , volume=Regnum Vegetabile 159 , title=International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017 , publisher=Koeltz Botanical Books , isbn=978-3-946583-16-5 , url=https://www.iapt-taxon.org/nomen/main.php , ref=Turland


External links


Biocode in Action
at the Smithsonian Ocean Portal
''ICN''
Shenzhen Code (2018)
''ICZN''
the "green book" (1999)

with Standing in Nomenclature (1997), by J.P. Euzéby
''BioCode''
introduction (2011)

Nomenclature codes, Biological nomenclature, Virology