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Mycology
Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungus, fungi, including their genetics, genetic and biochemistry, biochemical properties, their Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy and ethnomycology, their use to humans as a source for tinder, traditional medicine, Edible mushroom, food, and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poison, toxicity or fungal infection, infection. A biologist specializing in mycology is called a mycologist. Mycology branches into the field of phytopathology, the study of plant diseases, and the two disciplines remain closely related because the vast majority of plant pathogens are fungi. Overview Historically, mycology was a branch of botany because, although fungi are evolutionarily more closely related to Animal, animals than to plants, this was not recognized until a few decades ago. Pioneer ''mycologists'' included Elias Magnus Fries, Christian Hendrik Persoon, Anton de Bary, Elizabeth Eaton Morse, Lewis David von Schweinitz. ...
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Fungus
A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or ph ...: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biology), tax ... organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classifie ...s and mold A mold () or mould () is a fungus A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is a ...
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Fungus
A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or ph ...: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classified by taxonomy (biology), tax ... organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeast Yeasts are eukaryotic Eukaryotes () are organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells (cell theory). Organisms are classifie ...s and mold A mold () or mould () is a fungus A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is a ...
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Lewis David Von Schweinitz
Lewis David de Schweinitz (13 February 1780 – 8 February 1834) was a German-American botanist and mycologist. He is considered by some the "Father of North American Mycology", but also made significant contributions to botany. Education Born in Bethlehem, PA, a great-grandson of Zinzendorf, Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf und Pottendorf, founder and patron of the Moravian Church, in 1787 Schweinitz was placed in the institution of the Moravian Church, Moravian community at Nazareth, Pennsylvania, where he remained for 11 years and was a successful and industrious student. Schweinitz later entered the Theological seminary at Niesky (Electorate of Saxony, Saxony) in 1798. In 1805, he published the ''Conspectus Fungorum in Lusatiae'' in collaboration with his teacher, Professor Johannes Baptista von Albertini, J.B. Albertini. Early career In 1807 he went to Gnadenberg (in Silesia), then subsequently to Gnadau to work as a preacher in the Moravian church. A work appointment ...
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Pier Andrea Saccardo
Pier Andrea Saccardo (23 April 1845 in Treviso, Province of Treviso, Treviso – 12 February 1920 in Padua, Italy, Padua) was an Italy, Italian botany, botanist and mycology, mycologist. Life Saccardo studied at the Lyceum in Venice, and then at the Technical Institute of the University of Padua where, in 1867 he received his doctorate and in 1869 became a professor of Natural history, Natural History. In 1876 he established the journal ''Michelia'' which published many of his early mycological papers. In 1879 he became a professor of Botany and director of the Orto botanico di Padova, botanical gardens of the university. Saccardo's scientific activity focused almost entirely on mycology. He published over 140 papers on the Deuteromycota (imperfect mushrooms) and the Sordariomycetes, Pyrenomycetes. He was most famous for his ''Sylloge'', which was a comprehensive list of all of the Binomial nomenclature, names that had been used for mushrooms. ''Sylloge'' is still the on ...
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Elias Magnus Fries
Elias Magnus Fries (15 August 1794 – 8 February 1878) was a Swedish mycologist Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungus, fungi, including their genetics, genetic and biochemistry, biochemical properties, their Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy and ethnomycology, their use to humans as a source for ti ... and botanist. Career Fries was born at Femsjö (Hylte Municipality Hylte Municipality (''Hylte kommun'') is the only inland Municipalities of Sweden, municipality of Halland County in southwest Sweden. The industrial urban areas in Sweden, town Hyltebruk is the seat of the municipality. The first Hylte Municipal ...), Småland Småland () is a historical Provinces of Sweden, province (''landskap'') in southern Sweden. Småland borders Blekinge, Scania (Swedish: ''Skåne''), Halland, Västergötland, Östergötland and the island Öland in the Baltic Sea. The name Små ..., the son of the pastor there. He attended school in Växjö ...
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Biology
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Developmental biology, development and evolution.Based on definition from: Despite the complexity of the science, certain unifying concepts consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the Cell (biology), cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the Speciation, creation and extinction of species. Organism, Living organisms are Thermodynamic system, open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied: Mathematical and theoretical biology, theoretical biology uses mat ...
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Fungal Infection
Fungal infection, also known as mycosis, is disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interactin ... caused by fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full .... Different types are traditionally divided according to the part of the body affected; superficial, subcutaneous, and systemic. Superficial fungal infections include common tinea of the skin, such as tinea of the body Body may refer to: In science * Physical body, an object in physics that represents a large amount, has mass or takes up space * Body (biology), the physical material of an organism * Body plan, t ...
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Christian Hendrik Persoon
Christiaan Hendrik Persoon (1 February 1761 – 16 November 1836) was a German mycologist Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungus, fungi, including their genetics, genetic and biochemistry, biochemical properties, their Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy and ethnomycology, their use to humans as a source for ti ... who made additions to Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomi ...' mushroom A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore )'', growing on a thinning, thinned hybrid black poplar ''(populus, Populus x canadensis)''. The last stage of the moss#Life cycle, moss lifecycle is shown, where the sporophytes are visible befor ... taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts ...
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Anton De Bary
Heinrich Anton de Bary (26 January 183119 January 1888) was a German surgeon, botanist, microbiologist, and mycologist (fungal systematics and physiology). He is considered a founding father of plant pathology (phytopathology) as well as the founder of modern mycology. His extensive and careful studies of the life history of fungi and contribution to the understanding of algae and higher plants were landmarks of biology. Biography Born in Frankfurt, Anton de Bary was one of ten children born to physician August Theodor de Bary (1802–1873) and Emilie Meyer de Bary. His father encouraged him to join the excursions of the active group of naturalists who collected specimens in the nearby countryside. De Bary’s youthful interest in plants and in examination of fungi and algae were inspired by Georg Fresenius, George Fresenius, a physician, who also taught botany at Senckenberg Institute of Pathology, Senckenberg Institute. Fresenius was an expert on thallophytes. In 1848, de Bar ...
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Elizabeth Eaton Morse
Elizabeth Eaton Morse (31 December 1864 – 13 November 1955) was an American mycologist. Born in Framingham, Massachusetts, she graduated from Ashland High School (Massachusetts), Ashland, Massachusetts, High School in 1882. For seven years she taught in elementary school before entering Wellesley College, from which she graduated with a diploma from the School of Art in 1891. After twenty years of teaching in the New York City schools Morris High School (Bronx), Morris High School and Eleanor Roosevelt High School (New York City), Roosevelt High School, she returned to Wellesley College in 1924 and earned a degree in Botany in 1926. Shortly after, she registered as a part-time graduate student in the Department of Botany at the University of California, and was given storage and work space to pursue her interests in cryptogamic botany. Although she did not work towards an advanced degree, Morse maintained this space for her studies for more than twenty years. During this time, s ...
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Mycena Leaiana Var
''Mycena'' is a large genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ... of small saprotrophic Mycelial cord made up of a collection of hyphae; an essential part in the process of saprotrophic nutrition, it is used for the intake of organic matter through its cell wall. The network of hyphae is referred to as a mycelium, which is fundamental ... mushroom A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore )'', growing on a thinning, thinned hybrid black poplar ''(populus, Populus x canadensis)''. The last stage of the moss#Life cycle, moss lifecycle is shown, where the sporophytes are visible befor ...s that are rarely more than a few centimeters in width. They are characterized by a white spore print 300px, Making a spore print of the mushroom ''Volvariella volvacea'' s ...
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