HOME

TheInfoList




The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the
Christian biblical canon A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as authoritative scripture Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from ...
. It discusses the teachings and person of
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...
, as well as events in
first-century Christianity Christianity in the 1st century covers the formative history of Christianity from the start of the ministry of Jesus ( 27–29 AD) to the death of the last of the Apostles in Christianity, Twelve Apostles ( 100) and is thus also known as the Apos ...
. The New Testament's background, the first division of the Christian Bible, is called the
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as aut ...
, which is based primarily upon the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
; together they are regarded as
sacred scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred Sacred describes something that is dedicated or set apart for the service or worship of a ...
by Christians. The New Testament is a collection of Christian texts originally written in the
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
language, at different times by various authors. While the Old Testament canon varies somewhat between different
Christian denomination A Christian denomination is a distinct religious Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a rel ...
s, the 27-book canon of the New Testament has been almost universally recognized within Christianity since at least
Late Antiquity Late antiquity is a periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World Data'. Inst ...
. Thus, in almost all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books: * 4
canonical gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel"), but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out. In this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrative of the words an ...
( Matthew,
Mark Mark may refer to: Currency * Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian Bosnian may refer to: *Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants *Anything related to Bo ...
, Luke, and
John John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) * John (surname), including a list of people who have the name John John may also refer to: New Testament Works ...
) * The
Acts of the Apostles The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament The New T ...
* 14
Pauline epistles The Pauline epistles, also known as Epistles of Paul or Letters of Paul, are the thirteen books of the New Testament attributed to Paul the Apostle, although the authorship of some is in dispute. Among these epistles are some of the earliest extant ...
* 7
general epistles The catholic epistles (also called the general epistlesEncarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "katholieke brieven". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.) are seven epistles of the New Testament. Listed in order of their appearance in t ...
, and * The
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
. The earliest known complete list of the 27 books is found in a letter written by Athanasius, a 4th-century
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
of
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
, dated to 367 AD. The 27-book New Testament was first formally canonized during the councils of
Hippo The hippopotamus ( ; ''Hippopotamus amphibius''), also called the hippo, common hippopotamus or river hippopotamus, is a large, mostly herbivorous File:Land_Snail_radula_tracks.jpg#, 250px, Tracks made by terrestrial gastropods with their ...
(393) and
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...
(397) in North Africa.
Pope Innocent I Pope Innocent I ( la, Innocentius I) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within ...

Pope Innocent I
ratified the same canon in 405, but it is probable that a Council in Rome in 382 under
Pope Damasus I Damasus I (; c. 305 – 11 December 384) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Withi ...

Pope Damasus I
gave the same list first. These councils also provided the canon of the Old Testament, which included the
apocryphal Apocrypha (Gr. ἀπόκρυφος, ‘the hidden hings) The biblical Books received by the early Church as part of the Greek version of the Old Testament, but not included in the Hebrew Bible, being excluded by the non-Hellenistic Jews from t ...
books. There is no
scholarly consensus Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the scientific community, community of scientists in a Scientific discipline , particular field of study. Consensus implies general agreement, though not necessarily unanimit ...
on the date of composition of the latest New Testament texts. Conservative scholars John A. T. Robinson, Dan Wallace, and William F. Albright dated all the books of the New Testament before 70 AD. Many other scholars, such as
Bart D. Ehrman Bart Denton Ehrman (; born October 5, 1955) is an American New Testament scholar focusing on textual criticism Textual criticism is a branch of , , and of that is concerned with the identification of textual variants, or different versions ...
and Stephen L. Harris, date some New Testament texts much later than this; Richard Pervo dated
Luke–ActsLuke–Acts is the composite work of the ''Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, tells of the origins, ...
to c. AD 115, and
David Trobisch
David Trobisch
places
Acts The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament The New Te ...
in the mid-to-late second century, contemporaneous with the publication of the first New Testament canon. The ''New Oxford Annotated Bible'' states, "Scholars generally agree that the Gospels were written forty to sixty years after the death of Jesus. They are not eyewitness or contemporary accounts of Jesus's life and teaching."


Etymology


The word ''testament''

The word ''
testament A testament is a document that the author has sworn to be true. In law it usually means last will and testament. Testament or The Testament can also refer to: Books * Testament (comics), ''Testament'' (comic book), a 2005 comic book * ''Testament ...
'' in the expression "New Testament" refers to a new
covenant Covenant may refer to: Religion * Covenant (religion) In religion, a covenant is a formal alliance or agreement made by God with a religious community or with humanity in general. The concept, central to the Abrahamic religions The Abraha ...
that Christians believe completes or fulfils the
Mosaic covenant The Mosaic covenant (named after Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, Hebrew romanization, romanized: ''Mōshé'', ISO 259#ISO 259-3, ISO 259-3: '; syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, '. (), also known as Moshe Rabbenu ...
(the old covenant) that
Yahweh Yahweh was the national god of ancient Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Israel and Kingdom of Judah, Judah. His origins reach at least to the early Iron Age, and likely to the Late Bronze Age. In the oldest biblical literature, he is a Weather ...
(the
national God A national god is a guardian divinity whose special concern is the safety and well-being of an ethnic group (''nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), n ...
of Israel) made with the
people of Israel Israelis ( he, ישראלים ''Yiśraʾelim'', ar, الإسرائيليين ''al-ʾIsrāʾīliyyin'') are the citizens or permanent residents of the State of Israel, a multiethnic state populated by Demographics of Israel, people of different ...

people of Israel
made on
Mount Sinai Mount Sinai ( he , הר סיני ''Har Sinai''; Aramaic Aramaic (Classical Syriac The Syriac language (; syc, ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ / '), also known as Syriac Aramaic (''Syrian Aramaic'', ''Syro-Aramaic'') and Classical Syriac (in its ...
through
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, ''Mōše''; also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, ' () is considered the most important prophet in Judais ...

Moses
, described in the books of the
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as aut ...
. Christians traditionally view this new covenant as being prophesized in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Jeremiah: The word ''covenant'' means 'agreement' (from Latin ''con-venio'' 'to agree' lit. 'to come together'): the use of the word ''testament'', which describes the different idea of written instructions for inheritance after death, to refer to the covenant with Israel in the Old Testament, is foreign to the original Hebrew word ''brit'' (בְּרִית) describing it, which only means 'alliance, covenant, pact' and never 'inheritance instructions after death'. This use comes from the transcription of Latin ''testamentum'' 'will (left after death)', a literal translation of Greek ''diatheke'' (διαθήκη) 'will (left after death)', which is the word used to translate Hebrew ''brit'' in the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
. The choice of this word ''diatheke'', by the Jewish translators of the Septuagint in
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
in the 3rd and 2nd century BCE, has been understood in Christian theology to imply a reinterpreted view of the Old Testament covenant with Israel as possessing characteristics of a 'will left after death' (the death of
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
) and has generated considerable attention from biblical scholars and theologians: in contrast to the Jewish usage where ''brit'' was the usual Hebrew word used to refer to pacts, alliances and covenants in general, like a common pact between two individuals, and to the one between God and Israel in particular, in the Greek world ''diatheke'' was virtually never used to refer to an alliance or covenant (one exception is noted in a passage from
Aristophanes Aristophanes (; grc, Ἀριστοφάνης, ; c. 446 – c. 386 BC), son of Philippus, of the deme 250px, Pinakia, identification tablets (name, father's name, deme) used for tasks like jury selection, Museum at the Ancient Agora of Athe ...

Aristophanes
) and referred instead to a will left after the death of a person. There is scholarly debate as to the reason why the translators of the Septuagint chose the term ''diatheke'' to translate Hebrew ''brit'', instead of another Greek word generally used to refer to an alliance or covenant.


The phrase New Testament as the collection of scriptures

The use of the phrase "New Testament" (
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
: , ) to describe a collection of first and second-century Christian Greek scriptures can be traced back to
Tertullian Tertullian (; la, Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus; 155 AD – 220 AD) was a prolific early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religio ...

Tertullian
in his work ''Against Praxeas''."If I fail in resolving this article (of our faith) by passages which may admit of dispute out of the Old Testament, I will take out of the New Testament a confirmation of our view, that you may not straightway attribute to the Father every possible (relation and condition) which I ascribe to the Son." –
Tertullian Tertullian (; la, Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus; 155 AD – 220 AD) was a prolific early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religio ...

Tertullian
,
Against Praxeas
' 15
Irenaeus uses the phrase "New Testament" several times, but does not use it in reference to any written text. In ''Against Marcion'', written c. 208 AD, Tertullian writes of: And Tertullian continues later in the book, writing:See also Tertullian

chapters I, II, XIV. His meaning in chapter XX is less clear, and in chapters IX and XL he uses the term to mean 'new covenant'.
By the
4th century The 4th century (per the Julian calendar The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman people, Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in Crisis of the ...
, the existence—even if not the exact contents—of both an Old and New Testament had been established.
Lactantius Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) was an early Christian author who became an advisor to Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his Christian religious policy in its initial stages of emergence, and a tutor to his son Crisp ...

Lactantius
, a 3rd–4th century Christian author wrote in his early-4th-century Latin ''Institutiones Divinae'' (''Divine Institutes''):
Eusebius Eusebius of Caesarea (; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, ''Eusébios tés Kaisareías''; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου) ...

Eusebius
describes the collection of Christian writings as "covenanted" (ἐνδιαθήκη) books in ''Hist. Eccl.'' 3.3.1–7; 3.25.3; 5.8.1; 6.25.1.


Books


The Gospels

Each of the four
gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel"), but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out. In this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrative of the words and ...
in the New Testament narrates the life, death, and resurrection of
Jesus of Nazareth Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...
(the gospel of Mark in the original text ends with the empty tomb and has no account of the post-resurrection appearances, but the emptiness of the tomb implies a resurrection). The word "gospel" derives from the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
''gōd-spell'' (rarely ''godspel''), meaning "good news" or "glad tidings". The gospel was considered the "good news" of the coming , and the redemption through the life and death of Jesus, the central Christian message. Gospel is a
calque In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...

calque
(word-for-word translation) of the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
word , ''euangelion'' (''eu-'' "good", ''-angelion'' "message"). They were written between approximately 70 and 100 AD, and were the end-products of a long process of development; all are anonymous, and almost certainly none are the work of eyewitnesses. Starting in the late second century, the four narrative accounts of the life and work of Jesus Christ have been referred to as "The Gospel of ..." or "The Gospel according to ..." followed by the name of the supposed author. The first author to explicitly name the canonical gospels is Irenaeus of Lyon, who promoted the four canonical gospels in his book '' Against Heresies'', written around 180. Whatever these admittedly early ascriptions may imply about the sources behind or the perception of these gospels, they are anonymous compositions. * The
Gospel of Matthew The Gospel according to Matthew ( el, Κατὰ Ματθαῖον Εὐαγγέλιον, translit=Katà Matthaîon Euangélion), also called the Gospel of Matthew, or simply Matthew, is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three s ...
, ascribed to the . This gospel begins with a
genealogy of Jesus The New Testament provides two accounts of the genealogy of Jesus, one in the Gospel of Matthew and another in the Gospel of Luke. Matthew starts with Abraham, while Luke begins with Adam. The lists are identical between Abraham and David, but d ...
and a story of his birth that includes a visit from
magi Magi (; singular magus ; from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" o ...

magi
and a
flight into Egypt The flight into Egypt is a story recounted in the Gospel of Matthew ( Matthew 2:13– 23) and in New Testament apocrypha. Soon after the visit by the Magi, an angel appeared to Joseph in a dream telling him to flee to Egypt Egypt ( ; a ...
, and it ends with the commissioning of the disciples by the resurrected Jesus. * The
Gospel of Mark The Gospel according to Mark ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Μᾶρκον , translit=Euangélion katà Mârkon), also called the Gospel of Mark, or simply Mark, is the second of the four Gospel#Canonical_gospels, canonical gospels and of ...
, ascribed to
Mark the Evangelist Mark the Evangelist ( la, Marcus; el, Μᾶρκος, Mârkos; Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that originated among the in the ancient , at the end of the , and later became one of the most prominent langua ...

Mark the Evangelist
. This gospel begins with the preaching of
John the Baptist John the Baptist ''Yohanān HaMatbil''; la, Ioannes Baptista; grc-gre, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, ''Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs'' or , ''Iōánnēs ho baptízōn'', or , ''Iōánnēs ho pródromos'';Wetterau, Bruce. ''World history' ...

John the Baptist
and the
baptism of Jesus The baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist John the Baptist ''Yohanān HaMatbil''; la, Ioannes Baptista; grc-gre, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, ''Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs'' or , ''Iōánnēs ho baptízōn'', or , ''Iōánnēs ho pr ...

baptism of Jesus
. Two different secondary endings were affixed to this gospel in the 2nd century. * The
Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, tells of the origins, Nativity of Jesus, birth, Ministry of Jesus, ministry, Cr ...
, ascribed to
Luke the Evangelist Luke the Evangelist (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Rep ...

Luke the Evangelist
, who was not one of the Twelve Apostles, but was mentioned as a companion of the
Apostle Paul Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus A ...

Apostle Paul
and as a physician. This gospel begins with parallel stories of the birth and childhood of John the Baptist and Jesus and ends with appearances of the resurrected Jesus and his ascension into heaven. * The
Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Euangélion katà Iōánnēn, also known as the Gospel of John, or simply John) is the fourth of the four canonical gospels. It contains a highly sc ...
, ascribed to
John the Evangelist John the Evangelist ( grc-gre, Ἰωάννης, Iōánnēs; : ܝܘܚܢܢ; ar, يوحنا الإنجيلي, he, יוחנן האוונגליסט cop, ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ) is the name traditionally given to the author of the . ...

John the Evangelist
. This gospel begins with a philosophical prologue and ends with appearances of the resurrected Jesus. The first three gospels listed above are classified as the
Synoptic Gospels The gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testame ...
. They contain similar accounts of the events in Jesus's life and his teaching, due to their literary interdependence. The Gospel of John is structured differently and includes stories of several miracles of Jesus and sayings not found in the other three. These four gospels that were eventually included in the New Testament were only a few among many other early Christian gospels. The existence of such texts is even mentioned at the beginning of the Gospel of Luke. Other early Christian gospels, such as the so-called "
Jewish-Christian Gospels Jewish Christians ( he, יהודים נוצרים, yehudim notzrim) were the followers of a Jewish religious sect that emerged in Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern version of Judah (; from he, יהודה, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew ...
" or the
Gospel of Thomas The Gospel of Thomas (also known as the Coptic Gospel of Thomas) is an extra-canonical sayings gospel. It was discovered near Nag Hammadi Nag Hammadi ( ; ar, نجع حمادى ) is a city in Upper Egypt Upper Egypt ( ar, صعيد م ...

Gospel of Thomas
, also offer both a window into the context of
early Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religi ...
and may provide some assistance in the reconstruction of the
historical Jesus The term "historical Jesus" refers to the reconstruction of the life and teachings of Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or J ...
.


Acts of the Apostles

The Acts of the Apostles is a narrative of the apostles' ministry and activity after Christ's death and resurrection, from which point it resumes and functions as a sequel to the
Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, tells of the origins, Nativity of Jesus, birth, Ministry of Jesus, ministry, Cr ...
. Examining style, phraseology, and other evidence, modern scholarship generally concludes that Acts and the Gospel of Luke share the same author, referred to as
Luke–ActsLuke–Acts is the composite work of the ''Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, tells of the origins, ...
. Luke–Acts does not name its author. Church tradition identified him as
Luke the Evangelist Luke the Evangelist (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Rep ...

Luke the Evangelist
, the companion of Paul, but the majority of scholars reject this due to the many differences between Acts and the authentic Pauline letters. The most probable date of composition is around 80–100 AD, although some scholars date it significantly later, and there is evidence that it was still being substantially revised well into the 2nd century.


Epistles

The epistles of the New Testament are considered by Christians to be divinely inspired and holy letters, written by the apostles and disciples of Christ, to either local congregations with specific needs, or to
New Covenant The New Covenant (Biblical Hebrew, Hebrew '; Koine Greek, Greek ''diatheke kaine'') is a biblical interpretation originally derived from a Book of Jeremiah#Sections of the Book, phrase in the Book of Jeremiah (Jeremiah 31:31-34), in the Hebrew ...
Christians in general, scattered about; or "
catholic epistles The catholic epistles (also called the general epistlesEncarta-encyclopedie Winkler Prins (1993–2002) s.v. "katholieke brieven". Microsoft Corporation/Het Spectrum.) are seven epistle An epistle (; el, ἐπιστολή, ''epistolē,'' "letter ...
."


Pauline letters to churches

The Pauline letters are the thirteen New Testament books that present
Paul the Apostle Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus AD ...
as their author. Paul's authorship of six of the letters is disputed. Four are thought by most modern scholars to be
pseudepigraphic Pseudepigrapha (also :wikt:anglicized, anglicized as "pseudepigraph" or "pseudepigraphs") are false attribution, falsely attributed works, texts whose claimed author is not the true author, or a work whose real author attributed it to a figure o ...
, i.e., not actually written by Paul even if attributed to him within the letters themselves. Opinion is more divided on the other two disputed letters (2 Thessalonians and Colossians). These letters were written to Christian communities in specific cities or geographical regions, often to address issues faced by that particular community. Prominent themes include the relationship both to broader "
pagan Paganism (from classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, includ ...

pagan
" society, to Judaism, and to other Christians. *
Epistle to the Romans The Epistle to the Romans or Letter to the Romans, often shortened to Romans, is the sixth book in the New Testament. Biblical scholars agree that it was composed by Paul the Apostle to explain that Salvation (Christianity), salvation is offered ...
*
First Epistle to the Corinthians The First Epistle to the Corinthians ( grc, Α΄ ᾽Επιστολὴ πρὸς Κορινθίους), usually referred to as First Corinthians or 1 Corinthians is a Pauline epistle The Pauline epistles, also known as Epistles of Paul or Letter ...
*
Second Epistle to the Corinthians The Second Epistle to the Corinthians, commonly referred to as Second Corinthians or in writing 2 Corinthians, is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The epistle is attributed to Paul the Apostle and a co-author named Sa ...
*
Epistle to the Galatians The Epistle to the Galatians, often shortened to Galatians, is the ninth book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the ...
*
Epistle to the Ephesians The Epistle to the Ephesians, also called the Letter to the Ephesians and often shortened to Ephesians, is the tenth book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Test ...
* *
Epistle to the Philippians The Epistle to the Philippians, commonly referred to as Philippians, is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second di ...
*
Epistle to the Colossians The Epistle of Paul to the Colossians (or simply Colossians) is the twelfth book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of ...
* *
First Epistle to the Thessalonians The First Epistle to the Thessalonians, commonly referred to as First Thessalonians or 1 Thessalonians, is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The epistle is attributed to Paul the Apostle, and is addressed to the churc ...

First Epistle to the Thessalonians
*
Second Epistle to the Thessalonians The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, commonly referred to as Second Thessalonians or 2 Thessalonians is a book from the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testament ...

Second Epistle to the Thessalonians
* isputed letters are marked with an asterisk (*).


Pauline letters to persons

The last four Pauline letters in the New Testament are addressed to individual persons. They include the following: * First Epistle to Timothy* * Second Epistle to Timothy* * Epistle to Titus* * Epistle to Philemon isputed letters are marked with an asterisk (*). All of the above except for Philemon are known as the pastoral epistles. They are addressed to individuals charged with pastoral oversight of churches and discuss issues of Christian living, doctrine and leadership. They often address different concerns to those of the preceding epistles. These letters are believed by many to be pseudepigraphic. Some scholars (e.g., Bill Mounce, Ben Witherington) will argue that the letters are genuinely Pauline, or at least written under Paul's supervision.


Hebrews

The Epistle to the Hebrews addresses a Jewish audience who had come to believe that Jesus was the Messiah in Judaism, anointed one (Hebrew: מָשִׁיחַ—transliterated in English as "Moshiach", or "Messiah"; Greek: Χριστός—transliterated in English as "Christos", for "Christ") who was predicted in the writings of the Hebrew Scriptures. The author discusses the superiority of the new covenant and the ministry of Jesus, to the
Mosaic covenant The Mosaic covenant (named after Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, Hebrew romanization, romanized: ''Mōshé'', ISO 259#ISO 259-3, ISO 259-3: '; syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, '. (), also known as Moshe Rabbenu ...
and urges the readers in the practical implications of this conviction through the end of the epistle. The book has been widely accepted by the Christian church as inspired by God and thus authoritative, despite the acknowledgment of uncertainties about who its human author was. Regarding authorship, although the Epistle to the Hebrews does not internally claim to have been written by the
Apostle Paul Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus A ...

Apostle Paul
, some similarities in wordings to some of the Pauline Epistles have been noted and inferred. In antiquity, some began to ascribe it to Paul in an attempt to provide the anonymous work an explicit apostolic pedigree. In the 4th century, Jerome and Augustine of Hippo supported Authorship of the Pauline epistles, Paul's authorship. The Church largely agreed to include Hebrews as the fourteenth letter of Paul, and affirmed this authorship until the Protestant Reformation, Reformation. The letter to the Hebrews had difficulty in being accepted as part of the Christian canon because of its anonymity. As early as the 3rd century, Origen wrote of the letter, "Men of old have handed it down as Paul's, but who wrote the Epistle God only knows." Contemporary scholars often reject Pauline authorship for the epistle to the Hebrews, based on its distinctive style and theology, which are considered to set it apart from Paul's writings.


Catholic epistles

The Catholic epistles (or "general epistles") consist of both letters and treatises in the form of letters written to the church at large. The term "Catholic (term), catholic" (
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
: καθολική, ''katholikē''), used to describe these letters in the oldest manuscripts containing them, here simply means "general" or "universal". The authorship of a number of these is disputed. * Epistle of James, written by an author named "James", often identified with James the Just, James, the brother of Jesus. * First Epistle of Peter, ascribed to the Saint Peter, Apostle Peter. * Second Epistle of Peter, ascribed to the Apostle Peter, though widely considered not to have been written by him. * First Epistle of John, ascribed to John the Apostle. * Second Epistle of John, ascribed to John the Apostle. * Third Epistle of John, ascribed to John the Apostle. * Epistle of Jude, written under the name of Jude, brother of Jesus, Jude, the brother of Jesus and James.


Book of Revelation

The final book of the New Testament is the
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
, also known as the Apocalypse of John. In the New Testament canon, it is considered Bible prophecy, prophetical or apocalyptic literature. Its authorship has been attributed either to John the Apostle (in which case it is often thought that John the Apostle is
John the Evangelist John the Evangelist ( grc-gre, Ἰωάννης, Iōánnēs; : ܝܘܚܢܢ; ar, يوحنا الإنجيلي, he, יוחנן האוונגליסט cop, ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ) is the name traditionally given to the author of the . ...

John the Evangelist
, i.e. author of the
Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Euangélion katà Iōánnēn, also known as the Gospel of John, or simply John) is the fourth of the four canonical gospels. It contains a highly sc ...
) or to another John designated "John of Patmos" after the island where the text says the revelation was received (1:9). Some ascribe the writership date as AD, and others at around 68 AD.Robert Mounce, Mounce, Robert (1998)
''The Book of Revelation''
(revised ed.). The New International Commentary on the New Testament Series. Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans. pp. 15–16. .
The work opens with letters to Seven churches of Asia, seven local congregations of Asia Minor and thereafter takes the form of an apocalypse, a "revealing" of divine prophecy and mysteries, a literary genre popular in ancient Judaism and Christianity.


New Testament canons

;Table notes


Book order

The order in which the books of the New Testament appear differs between some collections and ecclesiastical traditions. In the Latin West, prior to the Vulgate (an early 5th-century Latin version of the Bible), the four Gospels were arranged in the following order: Matthew, John, Luke, and Mark. The Syriac Peshitta places the major Catholic epistles (James, 1 Peter, and 1 John) immediately after Acts and before the Pauline epistles. The order of an early edition of the letters of Paul is based on the size of the letters: longest to shortest, though keeping 1 and 2 Corinthians and 1 and 2 Thessalonians together. The Pastoral epistles were apparently not part of the ''Corpus Paulinum'' in which this order originated and were later inserted after 2 Thessalonians and before Philemon. Hebrews was variously incorporated into the ''Corpus Paulinum'' either after 2 Thessalonians, after Philemon (i.e. at the very end), or after Romans. Luther's canon, found in the 16th-century Luther Bible, continues to place Hebrews, James, Jude, and the Apocalypse (Revelation) last. This reflects the thoughts of the Reformer Martin Luther on the canonicity of these books.


Theme

The principal point of the New Testament is that Christ's death on the cross is God's means of reconciling an immoral and alienated humanity to himself. Ian Howard Marshall, Dr. Ian Howard Marshall, an expert on New Testament Exegesis, convincingly argued that the principal message of the New Testament is the restoring of relations with God. Even such magnificent themes like the inauguration of God's Kingdom or the establishment of a new covenant are subservient to the more important objective of humanity's reconciliation with God. “Reconciliation” is simply another term for atonement (“at-one-ment”). Christ's death serves to make us one with God, not in a metaphysical way, but in a relational way of being reconciled to God.


Apocrypha

The books that eventually found a permanent place in the New Testament were not the only works of Christian literature produced in the earliest Christian centuries. The long process of Development of the New Testament canon, canonization began early, sometimes with tacit reception of traditional texts, sometimes with explicit selection or rejection of particular texts as either acceptable or unacceptable for use in a given context (e.g., not all texts that were acceptable for private use were considered appropriate for use in the liturgy). Over the course of history, those works of early Christian literature that survived but that did not become part of the New Testament have been variously grouped by theologians and scholars. Drawing upon, though redefining, an older term used in
early Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religi ...
and among Protestants when referring to those books found in the Christian Old Testament although not in the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
, modern scholars began to refer to these works of early Christian literature not included in the New Testament as "apocryphal", by which was meant non-canonical. Collected editions of these works were then referred to as the "New Testament apocrypha". Typically excluded from such published collections are the following groups of works: Apostolic Fathers, The Apostolic Fathers, the 2nd-century Christian apologists, Alexandrian school, the Alexandrians,
Tertullian Tertullian (; la, Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus; 155 AD – 220 AD) was a prolific early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religio ...

Tertullian
, Methodius of Olympus, Novatian, Cyprian, martyrdoms, and Desert Fathers, the Desert Fathers. Almost all other Christian literature from the period, and sometimes including works composed well into
Late Antiquity Late antiquity is a periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World Data'. Inst ...
, are relegated to the so-called New Testament apocrypha. Although not considered to be inspired by God, these "apocryphal" works were produced in the same ancient context and often using the same language as those books that would eventually form the New Testament. Some of these later works are dependent (either directly or indirectly) upon books that would later come to be in the New Testament or upon the ideas expressed in them. There is even an example of a pseudepigraphical letter composed under the guise of a presumably lost letter of the Apostle Paul, the Epistle to the Laodiceans.


Authors

The books of the New Testament were all or nearly all written by Jewish Christians—that is, Jewish disciples of Christ, who lived in the Roman Empire, and under Judea (Roman province), Roman occupation. Luke, who wrote the Gospel of Luke and the Book of Acts, is frequently thought of as an exception; scholars are divided as to whether Luke was a Gentile or a Hellenistic Judaism, Hellenistic Jew.Strelan, Rick (2013). ''Luke the Priest: The Authority of the Author of the Third Gospel''. Farnham, ENG: Routledege-Ashgate Publishing, Ashgate. pp. 102–05. A few scholars identify the author of the Gospel of Mark as probably a Gentile, and similarly for the Gospel of Matthew, though most assert Jewish-Christian authorship.


Gospels

Authorship of the Gospels remains divided among both evangelical and critical scholars. The names of each Gospel stems from church tradition, and yet the authors of the Gospels do not identify themselves in their respective texts. Further, none of the authors of the Gospels were eyewitnesses or even explicitly claimed to be eyewitnesses.
Bart D. Ehrman Bart Denton Ehrman (; born October 5, 1955) is an American New Testament scholar focusing on textual criticism Textual criticism is a branch of , , and of that is concerned with the identification of textual variants, or different versions ...
of the University of North Carolina has argued for a scholarly consensus that many New Testament books were not written by the individuals whose names are attached to them. He further argues that names were not ascribed to the gospels until around 185 AD. Other scholars concur. Many scholars believe that none of the gospels were written in the region of Palestine (region), Palestine. Christian tradition identifies John the Apostle with
John the Evangelist John the Evangelist ( grc-gre, Ἰωάννης, Iōánnēs; : ܝܘܚܢܢ; ar, يوحنا الإنجيلي, he, יוחנן האוונגליסט cop, ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ) is the name traditionally given to the author of the . ...

John the Evangelist
, the supposed author of the
Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Euangélion katà Iōánnēn, also known as the Gospel of John, or simply John) is the fourth of the four canonical gospels. It contains a highly sc ...
. Traditionalists tend to support the idea that the writer of the Gospel of John himself claimed to be an eyewitness in their commentaries of John 21:24 and therefore the gospel was written by an eyewitness. This idea is rejected by the majority of modern scholars. Most scholars hold to the two-source hypothesis, which posits that the Marcan priority, Gospel of Mark was the first gospel to be written. On this view, the authors of the
Gospel of Matthew The Gospel according to Matthew ( el, Κατὰ Ματθαῖον Εὐαγγέλιον, translit=Katà Matthaîon Euangélion), also called the Gospel of Matthew, or simply Matthew, is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three s ...
and the
Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, tells of the origins, Nativity of Jesus, birth, Ministry of Jesus, ministry, Cr ...
used as sources the
Gospel of Mark The Gospel according to Mark ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Μᾶρκον , translit=Euangélion katà Mârkon), also called the Gospel of Mark, or simply Mark, is the second of the four Gospel#Canonical_gospels, canonical gospels and of ...
and a hypothetical Q document to write their individual gospel accounts. These three gospels are called the
Synoptic Gospels The gospel Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel#REDIRECT The gospel In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testame ...
, because they include many of the same stories, often in the same sequence, and sometimes in exactly the same wording. Scholars agree that the Gospel of John was written last, by using a different tradition and body of testimony. In addition, most scholars agree that the author of Luke also wrote the
Acts of the Apostles The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament The New T ...
. Scholars hold that these books constituted two-halves of a single work,
Luke–ActsLuke–Acts is the composite work of the ''Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, tells of the origins, ...
. All four gospels and the Acts of the Apostles are anonymous works. The Gospel of John claims to be based on eyewitness testimony from the Disciple whom Jesus loved, but never names this character.


Acts

The same author appears to have written the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, and most refer to them as the Lucan texts. The most direct evidence comes from the prefaces of each book; both were addressed to Theophilus (Biblical), Theophilus, and the preface to the Acts of the Apostles references "my former book" about the ministry of Jesus. Furthermore, there are linguistic and theological similarities between the two works, suggesting that they have a common author.


Pauline epistles

The Pauline epistles are the thirteen books in the New Testament traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus. Seven letters are generally classified as "undisputed", expressing contemporary scholarly near consensus that they are the work of Paul: Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians and Philemon. Six additional letters bearing Paul's name do not currently enjoy the same academic consensus: Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy and Titus. The anonymous Epistle to the Hebrews is, despite unlikely Pauline authorship, often functionally grouped with these thirteen to form a corpus of fourteen "Pauline" epistles. While many scholars uphold the traditional view, some question whether the first three, called the "Deutero-Pauline Epistles", are authentic letters of Paul. As for the latter three, the "Pastoral epistles", some scholars uphold the traditional view of these as the genuine writings of the Apostle Paul; most regard them as Pseudepigraphy, pseudepigrapha. One might refer to the Epistle to the Laodiceans and the Third Epistle to the Corinthians as examples of works identified as pseudonymous. Since the early centuries of the church, there has been debate concerning the authorship of the anonymous Epistle to the Hebrews, and contemporary scholars generally reject Pauline authorship. The epistles all share common themes, emphasis, vocabulary and style; they exhibit a uniformity of doctrine concerning the Mosaic Law, Jesus, faith, and various other issues. All of these letters easily fit into the chronology of Paul's journeys depicted in Acts of the Apostles.


Other epistles

The author of the Epistle of James identifies himself in the opening verse as "James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ". From the middle of the 3rd century, patristic authors cited the ''Epistle'' as written by James the Just. Ancient and modern scholars have always been divided on the issue of authorship. Many consider the epistle to be written in the late 1st or early 2nd centuries. The author of the First Epistle of Peter identifies himself in the opening verse as "Peter, an Apostle (Christian), apostle of Jesus Christ", and the view that the epistle was written by St. Peter is attested to by a number of Church Fathers: Irenaeus (140–203),
Tertullian Tertullian (; la, Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus; 155 AD – 220 AD) was a prolific early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religio ...

Tertullian
(150–222), Clement of Alexandria (155–215) and Origen of Alexandria (185–253). Unlike The Second Epistle of Peter, the authorship of which was debated in antiquity, there was little debate about Peter's authorship of this first epistle until the 18th century. Although 2 Peter internally purports to be a work of the apostle, many biblical scholars have concluded that Peter is not the author. For an early date and (usually) for a defense of the Apostle Peter's authorship see Kruger, Zahn, Spitta, Bigg, and Green. The Epistle of Jude title is written as follows: "Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ and brother of James". The debate has continued over the author's identity as the apostle, the brother of Jesus, both, or neither.


Johannine works

The Gospel of John, the three Johannine epistles, and the
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
, exhibit marked similarities, although more so between the gospel and the epistles (especially the gospel and 1 John) than between those and Revelation. Most scholars therefore treat the five as a single corpus of Johannine literature, albeit not from the same author. The gospel went through two or three "editions" before reaching its current form around AD 90–110. It speaks of an unnamed "disciple whom Jesus loved" as the source of its traditions, but does not say specifically that he is its author; Christian tradition identifies this disciple as the apostle John, but while this idea still has supporters, for a variety of reasons the majority of modern scholars have abandoned it or hold it only tenuously. It is significantly different from the synoptic gospels, with major variations in material, theological emphasis, chronology, and literary style, sometimes amounting to contradictions. The author of the
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
identifies himself several times as "John". and states that he was on Patmos when he received his first vision. As a result, the author is sometimes referred to as John of Patmos. The author has traditionally been identified with John the Apostle to whom the Gospel of John, Gospel and the epistles of John were attributed. It was believed that he was exiled to the island of Patmos during the reign of the Roman emperor Domitian, and there wrote Revelation. Justin Martyr (c. 100–165 AD) who was acquainted with Polycarp, who had been mentored by John, makes a possible allusion to this book, and credits John as the source. Irenaeus (c. 115–202) assumes it as a conceded point. According to the ''Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible'', modern scholars are divided between the apostolic view and several alternative hypotheses put forth in the last hundred years or so. Ben Witherington points out that linguistic evidence makes it unlikely that the books were written by the same person.


Dating the New Testament


External evidence

The earliest Biblical manuscript, manuscripts of New Testament books date from the late second to early third centuries (although see Rylands Library Papyrus P52, Papyrus 52 for a possible exception). These manuscripts place a clear Terminus post quem, upper limit on the dating of New Testament texts. Explicit references to NT books in extra-biblical documents can push this upper limit down a bit further. Irenaeus of Lyon names and quotes from most of the books in the New Testament in his book Against Heresies (Irenaeus), ''Against Heresies'', written around 180 AD. The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians, written some time between 110 and Polycarp's death in 155–167 AD, quotes or alludes to most New Testament texts. Ignatius of Antioch wrote letters referencing much of the New Testament. He lived from about 35 AD to 107 AD and is rumored to have been a disciple of the Apostle John. His writings reference the Gospels of John, Matthew, and Luke, as well as Peter, James, and Paul's Epistles. His writing is usually attributed to the end of his lifetime, which places the Gospels as first century writings.


Internal evidence

Literary analysis of the New Testament texts themselves can be used to date many of the books of the New Testament to the mid-to-late first century. The earliest works of the New Testament are the letters of the Paul the Apostle, Apostle Paul. It can be determined that First Epistle to the Thessalonians, 1 Thessalonians is likely the earliest of these letters, written around 52 AD.


Language

The major languages spoken by both Jews and Greeks in the Holy Land at the Cultural and historical background of Jesus, time of Jesus were Aramaic of Jesus, Aramaic and
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
, and also a colloquial dialect of Mishnaic Hebrew. It is generally agreed by most scholars that the
historical Jesus The term "historical Jesus" refers to the reconstruction of the life and teachings of Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or J ...
primarily spoke Aramaic of Jesus, Aramaic, perhaps also some Hebrew language, Hebrew and
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
. The majority view is that all of the books that would eventually form the New Testament were written in the Koine Greek language. Early centers of Christianity, As Christianity spread, these books were later translated into other languages, most notably, Latin, Syriac language, Syriac, and Coptic language, Egyptian Coptic. Some of the Church Fathers imply or claim that Matthew was originally written in Hebrew Gospel of Matthew, Hebrew or Aramaic Matthew, Aramaic, and then soon after was written in Koine Greek. Nevertheless, some scholars believe the Gospel of Matthew known today was composed in Greek and is neither directly dependent upon nor a translation of a text in a Semitic languages, Semitic language.


Style

The style of
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
in which the New Testament is written differs from the general Koine Greek used by Greek writers of the same era, a difference that some scholars have explained by the fact that the authors of the New Testament, nearly all Jews and deeply familiar with the
Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals Roman numerals are a that originated in and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe wel ...
, wrote in a Jewish-Greek dialect strongly influenced by Aramaic and Hebrew (see Jewish Koine Greek, related to the Septuagint#Language, Greek of the Septuagint). But other scholars note that this view is arrived at by comparing the linguistic style of the New Testament to the preserved writings of the literary men of the era, who imitated the style of the great Attic texts and as a result did not reflect the everyday spoken language, so that that this difference in style could be explained by the New Testament being written, unlike other preserved literary material of the era, in the Koine Greek spoken in every day life, in order to appeal to the common people, a style which has also been found in contemporary non-Jewish texts such as private letters, receipts and petitions discovered in Egypt (where the dry air has preserved these documents which, as everyday material not deemed of literary importance, had not been copied by subsequent generations).


Development of the New Testament canon

The process of canonization of the New Testament was complex and lengthy. In the initial centuries of
early Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religi ...
, there were many books widely considered by the church to be inspired, but there was no single formally recognized New Testament canon. The process was characterized by a compilation of books that Sacred tradition, apostolic tradition considered authoritative in worship and teaching, relevant to the historical situations in which they lived, and consonant with the Old Testament. Writings attributed to the apostles circulated among the Early centers of Christianity, earliest Christian communities and the Pauline epistles were circulating, perhaps in collected forms, by the end of the Christianity in the 1st century, 1st century AD. One of the earliest attempts at solidifying a canon was made by Marcion, AD, who accepted only a modified version of Luke (the Gospel of Marcion) and ten of Paul's letters, while rejecting the Old Testament entirely. His canon was largely rejected by other groups of Christians, notably the Proto-orthodox Christianity, proto-orthodox Christians, as was his theology, Marcionism. Adolf von Harnack, John Knox, and , among other scholars, have argued that the church formulated its New Testament canon partially in response to the challenge posed by Marcion. Polycarp, Irenaeus and
Tertullian Tertullian (; la, Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus; 155 AD – 220 AD) was a prolific early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religio ...

Tertullian
held the Pauline epistles, epistles of Paul to be divinely inspired "scripture." Other books were held in high esteem but were gradually relegated to the status of New Testament apocrypha. Justin Martyr, in the mid Christianity in the 2nd century, 2nd century, mentions "memoirs of the apostles" as being read on Sunday alongside the Nevi'im, "writings of the prophets".Justin Martyr
''First Apology''
Chapter 67.
The Muratorian fragment, dated at between 170 and as late as the end of the 4th century (according to the ''Anchor Bible Dictionary''), may be the earliest known New Testament canon attributed to mainstream Christianity. It is similar, but not identical, to the modern New Testament canon. The oldest clear endorsement of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John being the only legitimate gospels was written AD. A four gospel canon (the ''Tetramorph'') was asserted by Irenaeus, who refers to it directlyIrenaeus
"Chapter XI"
''Against Heresies, Book III''. Section 8.
in his polemic '' Against Heresies'': The books considered to be authoritative by Irenaeus included the four gospels and many of the letters of Paul, although, based on the arguments Irenaeus made in support of only four authentic gospels, some interpreters deduce that the fourfold Gospel must have still been a novelty in Irenaeus's time.


Origen (3rd century)

By the early 200s, Origen may have been using the same twenty-seven books as in the Catholic New Testament canon, though there were still disputes over the canonicity of the Letter to the Hebrews, Epistle of James, II Peter, II John and III John and the Book of Revelation, known as the Antilegomena. Likewise, the Muratorian fragment is evidence that, perhaps as early as 200, there existed a set of Christian writings somewhat similar to the twenty-seven book NT canon, which included four gospels and argued against objections to them. Thus, while there was a good measure of debate in the Early Church over the New Testament canon, the major writings are claimed to have been accepted by almost all Christians by the middle of the Christianity in the 3rd century, 3rd century. Origen was largely responsible for the collection of usage information regarding the texts that became the New Testament. The information used to create the late-4th-century Easter Letter, which declared accepted Christian writings, was probably based on the ''Ecclesiastical History'' (HE) of Eusebius of Caesarea, wherein he uses the information passed on to him by Origen to create both his list at HE 3:25 and Origen's list at HE 6:25. Eusebius got his information about what texts were then accepted and what were then Antilegomena, disputed, by the Early centers of Christianity, third-century churches throughout the known world, a great deal of which Origen knew of firsthand from his extensive travels, from the library and writings of Origen. In fact, Origen would have possibly included in his list of "inspired writings" other texts kept out by the likes of Eusebius—including the Epistle of Barnabas, Shepherd of Hermas, and 1 Clement. Notwithstanding these facts, "Origen is not the originator of the idea of biblical canon, but he certainly gives the philosophical and literary-interpretative underpinnings for the whole notion."


Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History

Eusebius Eusebius of Caesarea (; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, ''Eusébios tés Kaisareías''; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου) ...

Eusebius
, , gave a detailed list of New Testament writings in his ''Ecclesiastical History'
Book 3
Chapter XXV: : "1... First then must be put the holy quaternion of the gospels; following them the Acts of the Apostles... the epistles of Paul... the epistle of John... the epistle of Peter... After them is to be placed, if it really seem proper, the Book of Revelation, concerning which we shall give the different opinions at the proper time. These then belong among the accepted writings." : "3 Among the disputed writings, which are nevertheless recognized by many, are extant the so-called epistle of James and that of Jude, also the second epistle of Peter, and those that are called the second and third of John, whether they belong to the evangelist or to another person of the same name. Among the rejected [Kirsopp Lake translation: "not genuine"] writings must be reckoned also the Acts of Paul, and the so-called Shepherd of Hermas, Shepherd, and the Apocalypse of Peter, and in addition to these the extant epistle of Barnabas, and the so-called Didache, Teachings of the Apostles; and besides, as I said, the Book of Revelation, Apocalypse of John, if it seem proper, which some, as I said, reject, but which others class with the accepted books. And among these some have placed also the Gospel of the Hebrews, Gospel according to the Hebrews... And all these may be reckoned among the disputed books." : "6... such books as the Gospel of Peter, Gospels of Peter, of Gospel of Thomas, Thomas, of Gospel of Matthias, Matthias, or of any others besides them, and the Acts of Andrew and Acts of John, John and the other apostles... they clearly show themselves to be the fictions of heretics. Wherefore they are not to be placed even among the rejected writings, but are all of them to be cast aside as absurd and impious." The Book of Revelation is counted as both accepted (Kirsopp Lake translation: "recognized") and disputed, which has caused some confusion over what exactly Eusebius meant by doing so. From other writings of the church fathers, it was disputed with several canon lists rejecting its canonicity. EH 3.3.5 adds further detail on Paul: "Paul's fourteen epistles are well known and undisputed. It is not indeed right to overlook the fact that some have rejected the Epistle to the Hebrews, saying that it is disputed by the church of Rome, on the ground that it was not written by Paul." EH 4.29.6 mentions the Diatessaron: "But their original founder, Tatian, formed a certain combination and collection of the gospels, I know not how, to which he gave the title Diatessaron, and which is still in the hands of some. But they say that he ventured to paraphrase certain words of the apostle Paul, in order to improve their style."


4th century and later

In his Easter letter of 367, Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, gave a list of the books that would become the twenty-seven-book NT canon, and he used the word "canonized" (''kanonizomena'') in regards to them. The first council that accepted the present canon of the New Testament may have been the Synod of Hippo, Synod of Hippo Regius in North Africa (393 AD). The acts of this council are lost. A brief summary of the acts was read at and accepted by the Council of Carthage (397) and the Council of Carthage (419). These councils were under the authority of Augustine of Hippo, St. Augustine, who regarded the canon as already closed.
Pope Damasus I Damasus I (; c. 305 – 11 December 384) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Withi ...

Pope Damasus I
's Council of Rome in 382, if the ''Decretum Gelasianum'' is correctly associated with it, issued a biblical canon identical to that mentioned above, or, if not, the list is at least a 6th-century compilation. Likewise, Damasus' commissioning of the Latin Vulgate edition of the Bible, c. 383, was instrumental in the fixation of the canon in the West. In c. 405,
Pope Innocent I Pope Innocent I ( la, Innocentius I) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within ...

Pope Innocent I
sent a list of the sacred books to a Gallic bishop, Exuperius, Exsuperius of Toulouse. Christian scholars assert that, when these bishops and councils spoke on the matter. They were not defining something new but instead "were ratifying what had already become the mind of the Church." The New Testament canon as it is now was first listed by Athanasius of Alexandria, St. Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, in 367, in a letter written to his churches in Egypt
Festal Letter 39
Also cited is the Council of Rome, but not without controversy. That canon gained wider and wider recognition until it was accepted at the Third Council of Carthage in 397 and 419. The
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
was not added till the Council of Carthage (419). Even this council did not settle the matter. Certain books, referred to as Antilegomena, continued to be questioned, especially Epistle of James, James and Book of Revelation, Revelation. Even as late as the 16th century, the Reformer Martin Luther questioned (but in the end did not reject) the Epistle of James, the Epistle of Jude, the Epistle to the Hebrews and the
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
. To this day, German-language Luther Bibles are printed with these four books at the end of the canon, rather than in their traditional order as in other editions of the Bible. In light of this questioning of the canon of Scripture by Protestants in the 16th century, the (Roman Catholic) Council of Trent reaffirmed the traditional western canon (i.e., the canon accepted at the 4th-century Council of Rome and Council of Carthage), thus making the Canon of Trent and the Vulgate Bible Roman Catholic Dogma, dogma in the Catholic Church. Later, Pope Pius XI on 2 June 1927 decreed the Comma Johanneum was open to dispute and Pope Pius XII on 3 September 1943 issued the encyclical ''Divino afflante Spiritu'', which allowed translations based on other versions than just the Latin Vulgate, notably in English the New American Bible. Thus, some claim that, from the Christianity in the 4th century#Defining scripture, 4th century, there existed unanimity in the Western Church, West concerning the New Testament canon (as it is today), and that, by the Christianity in the 5th century, 5th century, the Eastern Church, with a few exceptions, had come to accept the
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
and thus had come into harmony on the matter of the canon. Nonetheless, full dogmatic articulations of the canon were not made until the Canon of Trent of 1546 for Roman Catholicism, the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1563 for the Church of England, the Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647 for Calvinism, and the Synod of Jerusalem (1672), Synod of Jerusalem of 1672 for the Greek Orthodox. On the question of NT Canon formation generally, New Testament scholar Lee Martin McDonald has written that: According to the ''Catholic Encyclopedia'' article on the Canon of the New Testament: "The idea of a complete and clear-cut canon of the New Testament existing from the beginning, that is from Apostolic times, has no foundation in history. The Canon of the New Testament, like that of the Old, is the result of a development, of a process at once stimulated by disputes with doubters, both within and without the Church, and retarded by certain obscurities and natural hesitations, and which did not reach its final term until the dogmatic definition of the Council of Trent, Tridentine Council." In 331, Constantine I and Christianity, Constantine I commissioned Eusebius to deliver Fifty Bibles of Constantine, fifty Bibles for the Church of Constantinople. Athanasius (''Apol. Const. 4'') recorded Alexandrian scribes around 340 preparing Bibles for Constans. Little else is known, though there is plenty of speculation. For example, it is speculated that this may have provided motivation for canon lists, and that Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209, Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus may be examples of these Bibles. Together with the Peshitta and Codex Alexandrinus, these are the earliest extant Christian Bibles. There is no evidence among the First Council of Nicaea#The biblical canon, canons of the First Council of Nicaea of any determination on the canon.


Early manuscripts

Like other literature from classical antiquity, antiquity, the text of the New Testament was (prior to the advent of the printing press) preserved and transmitted in manuscripts. Manuscripts containing at least a part of the New Testament number in the thousands. The earliest of these (like manuscripts containing other literature) are often very fragmentarily preserved. Some of these fragments have even been thought to date as early as the 2nd century (i.e., Papyrus 90, Papyrus 98, Papyrus 104, and famously Rylands Library Papyrus P52, though the early date of the latter has recently been called into question). For each subsequent century, more and more manuscripts survive that contain a portion or all of the books that were held to be part of the New Testament at that time (for example, the New Testament of the 4th-century Codex Sinaiticus, once a complete Bible, contains the Epistle of Barnabas and the Shepherd of Hermas), though occasionally these manuscripts contain other works as well (e.g., Papyrus 72 and the Crosby-Schøyen Codex). The date when a manuscript was written does not necessarily reflect the date of the form of text it contains. That is, later manuscripts can, and occasionally do, contain older forms of text or older readings. Some of the more important manuscripts containing an early text of books of the New Testament are: *The Chester Beatty Papyri (Greek; the New Testament portions of which were copied in the 3rd century) *The Bodmer Papyri (Greek and Coptic; the New Testament portions of which were copied in the 3rd and 4th centuries) *Codex Bobiensis (Latin; copied in the 4th century, but containing at least a 3rd-century form of text) *Uncial 0171, Uncial 0171 (Greek; copied in the late-third or early 4th century) *Syriac Sinaiticus (Syriac; copied in the 4th century) *Schoyen Collection, Schøyen Manuscript 2560 (Coptic; copied in the 4th century) *Codex Vaticanus (Greek; copied in the 4th century) *Codex Sinaiticus (Greek; copied in the 4th century) *Codex Vercellensis (Latin; copied in the 4th century) *Curetonian Gospels (Syriac; copied in the 5th century) *Garima Gospels ( Ge'ez language, produced in the 5th through 6th century)


Textual variation

Textual criticism deals with the identification and removal of Transcription (linguistics), transcription errors in the Writing, texts of manuscripts. Ancient scribes made errors or alterations (such as including non-authentic Interpolation (manuscripts), additions). The New Testament has been preserved in more than 5,800 Greek language, Greek manuscripts, 10,000 Latin manuscripts and 9,300 manuscripts in various other ancient languages including Syriac language, Syriac, Slavic languages, Slavic, Ethiopic and Armenian language, Armenian. Even if the original Greek versions were lost, the entire New Testament could still be assembled from the translations.Strobel, Lee (1998). ''The Case for Christ''. Chapter Three, when quoting biblical scholar Bruce Metzger. In addition, there are so many quotes from the New Testament in early church documents and commentaries that the entire New Testament could also be assembled from these alone. Not all biblical manuscripts come from orthodox Christian writers. For example, the Gnostic writings of Valentinus (Gnostic), Valentinus come from the 2nd century AD, and these Christians were regarded as heretics by the mainstream church. The sheer number of witnesses presents unique difficulties, but it also gives scholars a better idea of how close modern Bibles are to the original versions. On noting the large number of surviving ancient manuscripts, Bruce Metzger sums up the view on the issue by saying "The more often you have copies that agree with each other, especially if they emerge from different geographical areas, the more you can cross-check them to figure out what the original document was like. The only way they'd agree would be where they went back genealogically in a family tree that represents the descent of the manuscripts.


Interpolations

In attempting to determine the original text of the New Testament books, some modern textual critics have identified sections as additions of material, centuries after the gospel was written. These are called Interpolation (manuscripts), interpolations. In modern translations of the Bible, the results of textual criticism have led to certain verses, words and phrases being left out or marked as not original. According to
Bart D. Ehrman Bart Denton Ehrman (; born October 5, 1955) is an American New Testament scholar focusing on textual criticism Textual criticism is a branch of , , and of that is concerned with the identification of textual variants, or different versions ...
, "These scribal additions are often found in late medieval manuscripts of the New Testament, but not in the manuscripts of the earlier centuries." Most modern Bibles have footnotes to indicate passages that have disputed source documents. Bible commentaries also discuss these, sometimes in great detail. While many variations have been discovered between early copies of biblical texts, almost all have no importance, as they are variations in spelling, punctuation, or grammar. Also, many of these variants are so particular to the Greek language that they would not appear in translations into other languages. For example, order of words (i.e. "man bites dog" versus "dog bites man") often does not matter in Greek, so textual variants that flip the order of words often have no consequences. Outside of these unimportant variants, there are a couple variants of some importance. The two most commonly cited examples are the Mark 16, last verses of the Gospel of Mark and the story of the Pericope Adulterae, adulterous woman in the Gospel of John. Many scholars and critics also believe that the Comma Johanneum reference supporting the Trinity doctrine in 1 John to have been a later addition. According to Norman Geisler and William Nix, "The New Testament, then, has not only survived in more manuscripts than any other book from antiquity, but it has survived in a purer form than any other great book—a form that is 99.5% pure". The often referred to ''Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible'', a book written to prove the validity of the New Testament, says: "A study of 150 Greek [manuscripts] of the Gospel of Luke has revealed more than 30,000 different readings... It is safe to say that there is not one sentence in the New Testament in which the [manuscript] is wholly uniform." Most of the variation took place within the first three Christian centuries.


Text-types

By the 4th century, textual "families" or types of text become discernible among biblical manuscript, New Testament manuscripts. A "text-type" is the name given to a family of texts with similar readings due to common ancestors and mutual correction. Many early manuscripts contain individual readings from several different earlier forms of text. Modern texual critics have identified the following text-types among textual witnesses to the New Testament: The Alexandrian text-type is usually considered to generally preserve many early readings. It is represented, e.g., by Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209, Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus and the Bodmer Papyri. The Western text-type is generally longer and can be paraphrastic, but can also preserve early readings. The Acts of the Apostles#Manuscripts, Western version of the Acts of the Apostles is, notably, 8.5% longer than the Alexandrian form of the text. Examples of the Western text are found in Codex Bezae, Codex Claromontanus, Codex Washingtonianus, the Vetus Latina, Old Latin (i.e., Latin translations made prior to the Vulgate), as well as in quotations by Marcion, Tatian, Irenaeus,
Tertullian Tertullian (; la, Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus; 155 AD – 220 AD) was a prolific early Christian The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religio ...

Tertullian
and Cyprian. A text-type referred to as the "Caesarean text-type" and thought to have included witnesses such as Codex Koridethi and minuscule 565, can today be described neither as "Caesarean" nor as a text-type as was previously thought. The Gospel of Mark in Papyrus 45, Codex Washingtonianus and in Family 13 reflects a distinct type of text. Increasing standardization of distinct (and once local) text-types eventually gave rise to the Byzantine text-type. Since most manuscripts of the New Testament do not derive from the first several centuries, that is, they were copied after the rise of the Byzantine text-type, this form of text is found the majority of extant manuscripts and is therefore often called the "Majority Text." As with all of the other (earlier) text-types, the Byzantine can also occasionally preserve early readings.


Biblical criticism

Biblical criticism is the scholarly "study and investigation of Biblical manuscript, biblical writings that seeks to make discerning judgments about these writings." Viewing biblical texts as having human rather than supernatural origins, it asks when and where a particular text originated; how, why, by whom, for whom, and in what circumstances it was produced; what influences were at work in its production; what sources were used in its composition; and what message it was intended to convey. It will vary slightly depending on whether the focus is on the Old Testament, the letters of the New Testament, or the Canonical Gospels. It also plays an important role in the quest for the
historical Jesus The term "historical Jesus" refers to the reconstruction of the life and teachings of Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label= Hebrew/ Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or J ...
. It also addresses the physical text, including the meaning of the words and the way in which they are used, its preservation, history, and integrity. Biblical criticism draws upon a wide range of scholarly disciplines including archaeology, anthropology, folklore, linguistics, narrative criticism, Christian Oral Tradition, Oral Tradition studies, history, and religious studies.


Establishing a critical text

The #Textual variation, textual variation among manuscript copies of books in the New Testament prompted attempts to discern the earliest form of text already in antiquity (e.g., by the 3rd-century Christian author Origen). The efforts began in earnest again during the Renaissance, which saw a revival of the study of ancient Greek texts. During this period, modern textual criticism was born. In this context, Christian humanism, Christian humanists such as Lorenzo Valla and Erasmus promoted a return to the original Greek of the New Testament. This was the beginning of modern New Testament textual criticism, which over subsequent centuries would increasingly incorporate more and more manuscripts, in more languages (i.e., versions of the New Testament), as well as citations of the New Testament by ancient authors and the New Testament text in lectionary, lectionaries in order to reconstruct the earliest recoverable form of the New Testament text and the history of changes to it.


Relationship to earlier and contemporaneous literature

Books that later formed the New Testament, like other Christian literature of the period, originated in a literary context that reveals relationships not only to other Christian writings, but also to Classics, Graeco-Roman and Judaism#Antiquity, Jewish works. Of singular importance is the extensive use of and interaction with the Tanakh, Jewish Bible and what would become the Christian Old Testament. Both implicit and explicit citations, as well as countless allusions, appear throughout the books of the New Testament, from the Gospels and Acts, to the Epistles, to the Apocalypse.


Early versions

The first translations (usually called "versions") of the New Testament were made beginning already at the end of 2nd century. The earliest versions of the New Testament are the translations into the Syriac language, Syriac, Latin, and Coptic language, Coptic languages. These three versions were made directly from the Greek, and are frequently cited in the apparatuses of modern critical editions.


Syriac

Syriac was spoken in Syria, and Mesopotamia, and with dialect in Syria Palaestina, Roman and Palaestina Secunda, Byzantine Palestine where it was known as Jewish Palestinian Aramaic. Several Syriac translations were made and have come to us. Most of the Old Syriac, as well as the Philoxonian version have been lost. Tatian, the Assyrian, created the Diatessaron, a gospel harmony written in Syriac around 170 AD and the earliest form of the gospel not only in Syriac but probably also in Armenian. In the 19th century, manuscript evidence was discovered for an "Old Syriac" version of the four distinct (i.e., not harmonized) gospels. These "separated" (Syriac: ''da-Mepharreshe'') gospels, though old, have been shown to be later than the Diatessaron. The Old Syriac gospels are fragmentarily preserved in two manuscripts: the 5th-century Curetonian Gospels, Curetonian Syriac and the Syriac Sinaiticus, Sinaitic Syriac from the 4th or 5th century. No Old Syriac manuscripts of other portions of the New Testament survive, though Old Syriac readings, e.g. from the Pauline Epistles, can be discerned in citations made by Eastern fathers and in later Syriac versions. The Old Syriac version is a representative of the Western text-type. The Peshitta version was prepared in the beginning of the 5th century. It contains only 22 books (neither the General epistles, Minor Catholic Epistles of 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, and Jude, nor the
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
were part of this translation). The Philoxenian probably was produced in 508 for Philoxenus, Bishop of Mabung.


Latin

The Gospels were likely translated into Latin as early as the last quarter of the 2nd century in North Africa (''Afra''). Not much later, there were also European Latin translations (''Itala''). There are about 80 Old Latin manuscripts. The Vetus Latina ("Old Latin") versions often contain readings with a Western type of text. (For the avoidance of confusion, these texts were written in Late Latin, not the early version of the Latin language known as Old Latin, pre 75 BC.) The bewildering diversity of the Old Latin versions prompted Jerome to prepare another translation into Latin—the Vulgate. In many respects it was merely a revision of the Old Latin. There are currently around 8,000 manuscripts of the Vulgate.


Coptic

There are several dialects of the Coptic language: Bohairic (northern dialect), Fayyumic, Sahidic (southern dialect), Akhmimic, and others. The first translation was made by at least the 3rd century into the Sahidic dialect (copsa). This translation represents a mixed text, mostly Alexandrian text-type, Alexandrian, though also with Western text-type, Western readings. A Bohairic translation was made later, but existed already in the 4th century. Though the translation makes less use of Greek words than the Sahidic, it does employ some Greek grammar (e.g., in word-order and the use of particles such as the syntactic construction μεν—δε). For this reason, the Bohairic translation can be helpful in the reconstruction of the early Greek text of the New Testament.


Other ancient translations

The continued spread of Christianity, and the foundation of national churches, led to the translation of the Bible—often beginning with books from the New Testament—into a variety of other languages at a relatively early date: Bible translations into Armenian, Armenian, Bible translations into Georgian, Georgian, Ethiopic, Bible translations into Persian, Persian, Bible translations into Sogdian, Sogdian, and eventually Gothic Bible, Gothic, Bible translations into Church Slavonic, Old Church Slavonic, Bible translations into Arabic, Arabic, and Bible translations into Nubian, Nubian.


Modern translations

Historically, throughout the Christendom, Christian world and in the context of Mission (Christian), Christian missionary activity, the New Testament (or portions thereof) has been that part of the Christian Bible first translated into the vernacular. The production of such translations grew out of the insertion of vernacular gloss (annotation), glosses in biblical texts, as well as out of the production of biblical paraphrases and poetic renditions of stories from the life of Christ (e.g., the Heliand). The 16th century saw the rise of Protestantism and an explosion of translations of the New (and Old) Testament into the vernacular. Notable are those of Luther Bible, Martin Luther (1522), Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples (1523), the Zürich Bible, Froschau Bible (1525–1529, revised in 1574), Tyndale Bible, William Tyndale (1526, revised in 1534, 1535 and 1536), the Brest Bible (1563), and the Authorized King James Version, Authorized Version (also called the "King James Version") (1611). Most of these translations relied (though not always exclusively) upon one of the printed editions of the Greek New Testament edited by Erasmus, the ''Novum Instrumentum omne''; a form of this Greek text emerged as the standard and is known as the Textus Receptus. This text, based on the majority of manuscripts is also used in the majority of translations that were made in the years 100 to 400 AD. Translations of the New Testament made since the appearance of critical editions of the Greek text (notably those of Constantin von Tischendorf, Tischendorf, The New Testament in the Original Greek, Westcott and Hort, and Von Soden catalogue, von Soden) have largely used them as their Source text, base text. Unlike the Textus Receptus, these have a pronounced Alexandrian character. Standard critical editions are those of Novum Testamentum Graece, Nestle-Åland (the text, though not the full critical apparatus of which is reproduced in the United Bible Societies' "Greek New Testament"), Alexander Souter, Souter, Vogels, Bover and Merk. Notable translations of the New Testament based on these most recent critical editions include the Revised Standard Version (1946, revised in 1971), :fr:La Bible de Jérusalem, La Bible de Jérusalem (1961, revised in 1973 and 2000), the Einheitsübersetzung (1970, final edition 1979), the New American Bible (1970, revised in 1986 and 2011), the New International Version (1973, revised in 1984 and 2011), the Traduction Oecuménique de la Bible (1988, revised in 2004), the New Revised Standard Version (1989) and the English Standard Version (2001, revised in 2007, 2011 and 2016).


Theological interpretation in Christian churches

Though all Christian churches accept the New Testament as scripture, they differ in their understanding of the nature, extent, and relevance of its authority. Views of the authoritativeness of the New Testament often depend on the concept of ''Biblical inspiration, inspiration'', which relates to the role of God in the formation of the New Testament. Generally, the greater the role of God in one's doctrine of inspiration, the more one accepts the doctrine of biblical inerrancy or authoritativeness of the Bible. One possible source of confusion is that these terms are difficult to define, because many people use them interchangeably or with very different meanings. This article will use the terms in the following manner: *''Infallibility'' relates to the absolute correctness of the Bible in matters of doctrine. *''Inerrancy'' relates to the absolute correctness of the Bible in factual assertions (including historical and scientific assertions). *''Authoritativeness'' relates to the correctness of the Bible in questions of practice in morality. According to Gary T. Meadors: All of these concepts depend for their meaning on the supposition that the text of Bible has been properly interpreted, with consideration for the intention of the text, whether literal and figurative language, literal history, allegory or poetry, etc. Especially the doctrine of inerrancy is variously understood according to the weight given by the interpreter to scientific investigations of the world.


Unity in diversity

The notion of unity in diversity of Scripture claims that the Bible presents a noncontradictory and consistent message concerning God and redemptive history. The fact of diversity is observed in comparing the diversity of time, culture, authors' perspectives, literary genre, and the theological themes. Studies from many theologians considering the "unity in diversity" to be found in the New Testament (and the Bible as a whole) have been collected and summarized by New Testament theologian Frank Stagg (theologian), Frank Stagg. He describes them as some basic presuppositions, tenets, and concerns common among the New Testament writers, giving to the New Testament its "unity in diversity": #The reality of God is never argued but is always assumed and affirmed #Jesus Christ is absolutely central: he is Lord and Savior, the foretold Prophet, the Messianic King, the Chosen, the way, the truth, and the light, the One through whom God the Father not only acted but through whom He came #The Holy Spirit came anew with Jesus Christ. #The Christian faith and life are a calling, rooted in divine election. #The plight of everyone as sinner means that each person is completely dependent upon the mercy and grace of God #Salvation is both God's gift and his demand through Jesus Christ, to be received by faith #The death and resurrection of Jesus are at the heart of the total event of which he was the center #God creates a people of his own, designated and described by varied terminology and analogies #History must be understood eschatologically, being brought along toward its ultimate goal when the kingdom of God, already present in Christ, is brought to its complete triumph #In Christ, all of God's work of creation, revelation, and redemption is brought to fulfillmentStagg, Frank (1962). ''New Testament Theology''. Broadman. .


Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Classical Anglicanism

For the Roman Catholic Church, there are two modes of Revelation: Scripture and Apostolic Tradition, Tradition. Both of them are interpreted by the teachings of the Church. The Roman Catholic view is expressed clearly in the Catechism of the Catholic Church (1997):
§ 82: As a result the Church, to whom the transmission and interpretation of Revelation is entrusted, does not derive her certainty about all revealed truths from the holy Scriptures alone. Both Scripture and Tradition must be accepted and honoured with equal sentiments of devotion and reverence.
§ 107: The inspired books teach the truth. Since therefore all that the inspired authors or sacred writers affirm should be regarded as affirmed by the Holy Spirit, we must acknowledge that the books of Scripture firmly, faithfully, and without error teach that truth which God, for the sake of our salvation, wished to see confided to the Sacred Scriptures.
In Catholic terminology the teaching office is called the Magisterium. The Catholic view should not be confused with the two-source theory. As the Catechism states in §§ 80 and 81, Revelation has "one common source ... two distinct modes of transmission." While many Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox writers distinguish between Scripture and Tradition, Bishop Kallistos Ware says that for the Orthodox there is only one source of the Christian faith, Holy Tradition, within which Scripture exists. Traditional Anglican Communion, Anglicans believe that "Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation", (Article VI), but also that the Catholic Creeds "ought thoroughly to be received and believed" (Article VIII), and that the Church "hath authority in Controversies of Faith" and is "a witness and keeper of Holy Writ" (Article XX). Classical Anglicanism, therefore, like Orthodoxy, holds that Holy Tradition is the only safe guardian against perversion and innovation in the interpretation of Scripture. In the famous words of Thomas Ken, Bishop of Bath and Wells: "As for my religion, I dye in the holy catholic and apostolic faith professed by the whole Church before the disunion of East and West, more particularly in the communion of the Church of England, as it stands distinguished from all Papal and Puritan innovations, and as it adheres to the doctrine of the Cross."


Protestantism

Following the doctrine of ''sola scriptura'', Protestants believe that their traditions of faith, practice and interpretations carry forward what the scriptures teach, and so tradition is not a source of authority in itself. Their traditions derive authority from the Bible, and are therefore always open to reevaluation. This openness to doctrinal revision has extended in Liberal Protestant traditions even to the reevaluation of the doctrine of Scripture upon which the Reformation was founded, and members of these traditions may even question whether the Bible is infallible in doctrine, inerrant in historical and other factual statements, and whether it has uniquely divine authority. The adjustments made by modern Protestants to their doctrine of scripture vary widely.


American evangelical and fundamentalist Protestantism

Within the US, the Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy (1978) articulates evangelical views on this issue. Paragraph four of its summary states: "Being wholly and verbally God-given, Scripture is without error or fault in all its teaching, no less in what it states about God's acts in creation, about the events of world history, and about its own literary origins under God, than in its witness to God's saving grace in individual lives."


American mainline and liberal Protestantism

Mainline (Protestant), Mainline American Protestant denominations, including the United Methodist Church, Presbyterian Church USA, Episcopal Church in the United States of America, The Episcopal Church, and Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, do not teach the doctrine of inerrancy as set forth in the Chicago Statement. All of these churches have more ancient doctrinal statements asserting the authority of scripture, but may interpret these statements in such a way as to allow for a very broad range of teaching—from evangelicalism to skepticism. It is not an impediment to ordination in these denominations to teach that the scriptures contain errors, or that the authors follow a more or less unenlightened ethics that, however appropriate it may have seemed in the authors' time, moderns would be very wrong to follow blindly. For example, ordination of women is universally accepted in the mainline churches, abortion is condemned as a grievous social tragedy but not always a personal sin or a crime against an unborn person, and homosexuality is sometimes recognized as a genetic propensity or morally neutral preference that should be neither encouraged nor condemned. In North America, the most contentious of these issues among these churches at the present time is how far the ordination of gay men and lesbians should be accepted. Officials of the Presbyterian Church USA report: "We acknowledge the role of scriptural authority in the Presbyterian Church, but Presbyterians generally do not believe in biblical inerrancy. Presbyterians do not insist that every detail of chronology or sequence or prescientific description in scripture be true in literal form. Our confessions do teach biblical infallibility. Infallibility affirms the entire truthfulness of scripture without depending on every exact detail." Those who hold a more liberal view of the Bible as a human witness to the glory of God, the work of fallible humans who wrote from a limited experience unusual only for the insight they have gained through their inspired struggle to know God in the midst of a troubled world. Therefore, they tend not to accept such doctrines as inerrancy. These churches also tend to retain the social activism of their evangelical forebears of the 19th century, placing particular emphasis on those teachings of scripture that teach compassion for the poor and concern for social justice. The message of personal salvation is, generally speaking, of the good that comes to oneself and the world through following the New Testament's ethic of reciprocity, Golden Rule admonition to love others without hypocrisy or prejudice. Toward these ends, the "spirit" of the New Testament, more than the letter, is infallible and authoritative. There are some movements that believe the Bible contains the teachings of Jesus but who reject the churches that were formed following its publication. These people believe all individuals can communicate directly with God and therefore do not need guidance or doctrines from a church. These people are known as Christian anarchism, Christian anarchists.


Messianic Judaism

Messianic Judaism generally holds the same view of New Testament authority as evangelical Protestants. According to the view of some Messianic Jewish congregations, Jesus did not annul the Torah, but that its interpretation is revised and ultimately explained through the Apostolic Scriptures.


Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses accept the New Testament as divinely inspired Scripture, and as infallible in every detail, with equal authority as the Hebrew Scriptures. They view it as the written revelation and good news of the Messiah, the Atonement in Christianity, ransom sacrifice of Jesus, and the Kingdom of God, explaining and expounding the Hebrew Bible, not replacing but vitally supplementing it. They also view the New Testament as the primary instruction guide for Christian living, and church discipline. They generally call the New Testament the "Christian Greek Scriptures", and see only the "covenants" as "old" or "new", but not any part of the actual Scriptures themselves.


United Pentecostals

Oneness Pentecostalism subscribes to the common Protestant doctrine of ''sola scriptura''. They view the Bible as the inspired Word of God, and as absolutely Biblical inerrancy, inerrant in its contents (though not necessarily in every translation). They regard the New Testament as perfect and inerrant in every way, revealing the Lord Jesus Christ in the Flesh, and his Atonement, and which also explains and illuminates the Old Testament perfectly, and is part of the Bible canon, not because church councils or decrees claimed it so, but by witness of the Holy Spirit.


Seventh-day Adventists

The Seventh-day Adventist Church holds the New Testament as the inspired Word of God, with God influencing the "thoughts" of the Apostles in the writing, not necessarily every word though. The first fundamental belief of the Seventh-Day Adventist church stated that "The Holy Scriptures are the Biblical infallibility, infallible revelation of [God's] will." Seventh-day Adventist theology, Adventist theologians generally reject the "verbal inspiration" position on Scripture held by many conservative evangelical Christians. They believe instead that God inspired the thoughts of the biblical authors and apostles, and that the writers then expressed these thoughts in their own words. This view is popularly known as "thought inspiration", and most Adventist members hold to that view. According to Ed Christian, former ''Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, JATS'' editor, "few if any Adventist Theological Society, ATS members believe in verbal inerrancy". Regarding the teachings of the New Testament compared to the Old, and the application in the New Covenant, Adventists have traditionally taught that the Ethical Decalogue, Decalogue is part of the moral law of God, which was not abrogated by the ministry and death of Jesus Christ. Therefore, the fourth commandment concerning the Sabbath is as applicable to Christian believers as the other nine. Adventists have often taught a distinction between "moral law" and "ceremonial law". According to Adventist beliefs, the moral law continues into the "New Testament era", but the ceremonial law was done away with by Jesus. How the Mosaic Law should be applied came up at Adventist conferences in the past, and Adventist theologians such as A. T. Jones and E. J. Waggoner looked at the problem addressed by Paul in Epistle to the Galatians, Galatians as not the ceremonial law, but rather the wrong use of the law (legalism (theology), legalism). They were opposed by Uriah Smith and George Ide Butler, George Butler at the 1888 Conference. Smith in particular thought the Galatians issue had been settled by Ellen White already, yet in 1890 she claimed that justification by faith is "the Three Angels' Messages, third angel's message in verity." White interpreted Colossians 2:14 as saying that the ceremonial law was nailed to the cross.


Latter-day Saints

Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) believe that the New Testament, as part of the Christian biblical canons, Christian biblical canon, is accurate "as far as it is translated correctly". They believe the Bible as originally revealed is the word of God, but that the processes of transcription and translation have introduced errors into the texts as currently available, and therefore they cannot be regarded as completely inerrant. In addition to the Old and New Testaments, the Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ, Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants and the Pearl of Great Price (Mormonism), Pearl of Great Price are considered part of their scriptural canon.


In the liturgy

Despite the wide variety among Christian liturgy, Christian liturgies, texts from the New Testament play a role in almost all forms of Christian worship. In addition to some language derived from the New Testament in the liturgy itself (e.g., the Trisagion may be based on Apocalypse 4:8, and the beginning of the "Hymn of Praise" draws upon Luke 2:14), the reading of extended passages from the New Testament is a practice common to almost all Christian worship, liturgical or not. These Lection, readings are most often part of an established lectionary (i.e., Lection, selected texts to be read at church services on specific days), and (together with an Old Testament reading and a Psalms (Christian), Psalm) include a non-gospel reading from the New Testament and culminate with a Gospel (liturgy), Gospel reading. No readings from the
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
are included in the standard lectionary of the Eastern Orthodox churches. Central to the Christian liturgy is the celebration of the Eucharist or "Holy Communion". The Words of Institution that begin this rite are drawn directly from 1 Corinthians 11:23–26. In addition, the communal recitation of the Lord's Prayer (in the form found in the Gospel of Matthew 6:9–13) is also a standard feature of Christian worship.


In the arts

Most of the influence of the New Testament upon the arts has come from the Gospels and the
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; ...
. Literary expansion of the Nativity of Jesus found in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke began already in the 2nd century, and the portrayal of the Nativity has continued in various art forms to this day. The Early Christian art, earliest Christian art would often depict scenes from the New Testament such as the raising of Lazarus, the
baptism of Jesus The baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist John the Baptist ''Yohanān HaMatbil''; la, Ioannes Baptista; grc-gre, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, ''Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs'' or , ''Iōánnēs ho baptízōn'', or , ''Iōánnēs ho pr ...

baptism of Jesus
or the motif of the Good Shepherd. Biblical paraphrases and poetic renditions of stories from the life of Christ (e.g., the Heliand) became popular in the Middle Ages, as did the portrayal of the Arrest of Jesus, arrest, Trial of Jesus, trial and Crucifixion of Jesus, execution of Jesus in Passion plays. Indeed, the Passion (Christianity), Passion became a central theme in Christian Crucifixion in the arts, art and Passion (music), music. The :Portrayals of Jesus in film, ministry and Passion (Christianity)#Film, Passion of Jesus, as portrayed in one or more of the :Films based on the Gospels, New Testament Gospels, has also been a theme in film, almost since the inception of the medium (e.g., ''La Passion'', France, 1903).


See also

* Authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews * Catalogue of Vices and Virtues * Chronology of Jesus * Earlier Epistle to the Ephesians Non-canonical books referenced in the New Testament * Historical background of the New Testament * Life of Jesus in the New Testament * List of Gospels * Novum Testamentum Graece


Notes


References

;Citations ;Bibliography * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* Rudolf Bultmann, Bultmann, Rudolf (1951–1955). ''Theology of the New Testament'', English translation, 2 volumes. New York: Scribner. * von Campenhausen, Hans (1972). ''The Formation of the Christian Bible'', English translation. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. * Clark, Gordon (1990). "Logical Criticisms of Textual Criticism", The Trinity Foundation: Jefferson, Maryland * Hans Conzelmann, Conzelmann, Hans; Lindemann, Andreas (1999). ''Interpreting the New Testament: An Introduction to the Principles and Methods of New Testament Exegesis'', English translation. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson. * Dormeyer, Detlev (1998). ''The New Testament among the Writings of Antiquity'', English translation. Sheffield. * Duling, Dennis C.; Norman Perrin, Perrin, Norman (1993). ''The New Testament: Proclamation and Parenesis, Myth and History'', 3rd edition. New York: Harcourt Brace. * Bart D. Ehrman, Ehrman, Bart D. (2011). ''The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings'', 5th edition. New York: Oxford University Press. * Edgar J. Goodspeed, Goodspeed, Edgar J. (1937). ''An Introduction to the New Testament''. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. * Amy-Jill Levine, Levine, Amy-Jill; Marc Zvi Brettler, Brettler, Marc Z. (2011). ''The Jewish Annotated New Testament''. Oxford: Oxford University Press. * Helmut Koester, Koester, Helmut (1995 and 2000). ''Introduction to the New Testament'', 2nd edition, 2 volumes. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. * Kümmel, Werner Georg (1996). ''Introduction to the New Testament'', revised and enlarged English translation. Nashville: Abingdon Press. * Burton L. Mack, Mack, Burton L. (1995). ''Who Wrote the New Testament?''. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco. * * Stephen Neill, Neill, Stephen; Wright, Tom (1988). ''The Interpretation of the New Testament, 1861–1986'', new edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Thielman, Frank
''Theology of the New Testament: a Canonical and Synthetic Approach'', Zondervan, 2005. * Garry Wills, Wills, Garry, "A Wild and Indecent Book" (review of David Bentley Hart, ''The New Testament: A Translation'', Yale University Press, 577 pp.), ''The New York Review of Books'', vol. LXV, no. 2 (8 February 2018), pp. 34–35. Discusses some pitfalls in interpreting and translating the New Testament. * Theodor Zahn, Zahn, Theodor (1910). ''Introduction to the New Testament'', English translation, 3 volumes. Edinburgh: T&T Clark.


External links


General references


New Testament Gateway
Annotated guide to academic New Testament Web resources including not only other Web sites, but articles and course materials
Jewish Studies for Christians
An Online Study Group exploring the Jewish setting of the early Jesus movement. (An Israeli blog led by Dr. Eliyahu Lizorkin-Eyzenberg).
"Introduction to New Testament History and Literature" course materials
"Open Yale course" taught at Yale University by Dale B. Martin
New Testament Reading Room
Extensive on-line New Testament resources (including reference works, commentaries, translations, atlases, language tools, and works on New Testament theology), Tyndale Seminary
Biblicalstudies.org.uk New Testament pages
Bibliographies on the New Testament and its individual books
Christianity.com Bible Study Tools
For-profit, conservative religious site with links to translations, as well as to mostly out-dated and non-critical commentaries, concordances, and other reference works
Pastoral articles on the New Testament for ministerial training
Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary (WELS)
Jewish reading of the New Testament
Haaretz essay on reclaiming the New Testament as an integral part of Jewish literature
Guide to the University of Chicago New Testament Club Records 1894-1958
at th
University of Chicago Special Collections Research Center


Development and authorship



in the official canon, and some that were not included in the Bible

A compilation of the dates ascribed by Argumentum ad populum, various scholars to the composition of the New Testament documents, accompanied by an odd statistical average of the dates


Greek


New Testament Koine Greek Original
Side by side with the English (King James) and Russian Synodal Bible, Russian (Synodal) translation Commentary by the Greek Fathers – Icons from Mount Athos
New Testament, Greek Polytonic Text according to Ecumenical Patriarchate
''(Greek)''
Greek New Testament text (searchable only; no downloads) with lexical aids


Art


Collection: "Christian New Testament"
from the University of Michigan Museum of Art
New Testament art
from the Metropolitan Museum of Art {{Authority control New Testament, Christian terminology Greek literature (post-classical) Biblical exegesis