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Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a historic county in
southeast England The points of the compass are the Euclidean vector, vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, east, south, and west—each separated by 90 degree ( ...
. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
and mostly within the
ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-lieutenant, lord-lieutenants are appointed. Lega ...

ceremonial county
of
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
, with small sections in neighbouring ceremonial counties. The county's name derives from its origin as the Middle Saxon Province of the
Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expression ...
Kingdom of Essex The Kingdom of the East Saxons ( ang, Ēastseaxna rīce; la, Regnum Orientalium Saxonum), referred to as the Kingdom of Essex , was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture ...
, with the county of Middlesex subsequently formed from part of that territory in either the ninth or tenth century, and remaining an administrative unit until 1965. The county is the second smallest, after
Rutland Rutland () is a Counties of England, county in the East Midlands of England, bounded to the west and north by Leicestershire, to the northeast by Lincolnshire and the southeast by Northamptonshire. Its greatest length north to south is on ...

Rutland
, of the historic counties of England. Three rivers provide most of the county's boundaries; the
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...
in the south, the
Lea
Lea
to the east and the
Colne Colne () is a market town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Borough of Pendle, Lancashire, England. 2.5 miles northeast of Nelson, Lancashire, Nelson, north-east of Burnley, east of Preston, Lancashire, Preston and west of L ...
to the west. A line of hills forms the northern boundary with
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the s ...

Hertfordshire
. The largely low-lying county is dominated by clay in its north and
alluvium Alluvium (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Re ...
on gravel in its south. The
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
was a
county corporate A county corporate or corporate county was a type of subnational division used for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the ...
from the 12th century and was able to exert political control over Middlesex. To the east of the City, the Tower Division (or Tower Hamlets) had considerable autonomy under its own Lord Lieutenant. As London expanded into rural Middlesex, the
Corporation of London The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United King ...
resisted attempts to expand the city boundaries into the county, which posed problems for the administration of local government and justice. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the population density was especially high in the southeast of the county, including the
East End The East End of London, often referred to within the London area simply as the East End, is the historic core of wider East London East London is a popularly and informally defined part of London London is the Capital city, cap ...
and
West End West End most commonly refers to: * West End of London, an area of central London, England * West End theatre, a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London, England West End may also refer to: Place ...
of London. From 1855, the southeast was administered, with sections of
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
and
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

Surrey
, as part of the area of the
Metropolitan Board of Works The Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) was the principal instrument of London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in ...
.Saint, A., ''Politics and the people of London: the London County Council (1889–1965)'', (1989) When
county council A county council is the elected administrative body governing an area known as a county. This term has slightly different meanings in different countries. Members are elected in County Council elections. Ireland The county councils created und ...
s were introduced in England in 1889 about 20% of the area of the historic county of Middlesex, along with a third of its population, was incorporated into the new
administrative Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes th ...
County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the general introduction of elected county government in England, by way of the Local Government A ...
and the remainder incorporated into the administrative county of Middlesex, governed by the
Middlesex County Council Middlesex County Council was the principal local government body in the administrative county An administrative county was a first-level administrative division in England and Wales from 1888 to 1974, and in Ireland from 1899 until either 1973 ( ...
Barlow, I., ''Metropolitan Government'', (1991) that met regularly at the
Middlesex Guildhall The Middlesex Guildhall is the home of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The Supreme Court (initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes ...

Middlesex Guildhall
in Westminster. The City of London, and Middlesex, became separate counties for other purposes and Middlesex regained the right to appoint its own sheriff, lost in 1199. In the
interwar years In the history of the 20th century, the Interwar period lasted from 11 November 1918 to 1 September 1939 (20 years, 9 months and 21 days), the end of the World War I, First World War and the beginning of the World War II, Second World War. Th ...
, suburban London expanded further, with improvement and expansion of public transport,Wolmar, C., ''The Subterranean Railway'', (2004) and the setting up of new industries. After the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the populations of the administrative county of London and of inner Middlesex were in steady decline, with high population growth continuing in the outer parts of Middlesex. After a
Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London The Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London, also known as the Herbert Commission, was established in 1957 and published its report in 1960. The report made recommendations for the overhaul of the administration of the capital. They w ...
, almost all of the area of the historic county of Middlesex was incorporated into Greater London in 1965, with the rest included in neighbouring ceremonial counties.


Governance


Origin and toponymy

The county has its roots in the Middle Saxon Province of the
Kingdom of Essex The Kingdom of the East Saxons ( ang, Ēastseaxna rīce; la, Regnum Orientalium Saxonum), referred to as the Kingdom of Essex , was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture ...
. The extent of the province is not clear, and probably varied over time, but it is clear that it occupied at least the area of the current county and much of
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the s ...

Hertfordshire
. Although the province is only ever recorded as a part of the East Saxon kingdom, charter evidence shows that it was not part of their core territory. At times, Essex was ruled jointly by co-Kings, and it thought that the Middle Saxon Province is likely to have been the domain of one of these co-kings. This link to Essex endured through the
Diocese of London In church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted ...
, re-established in 604 as the East Saxon see, and its boundaries continued to be based on the
Kingdom of Essex The Kingdom of the East Saxons ( ang, Ēastseaxna rīce; la, Regnum Orientalium Saxonum), referred to as the Kingdom of Essex , was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture ...
until the nineteenth century. The name means ''territory of the
middle Saxons The Middle Saxons or Middel Seaxe were a people whose territory later became, with somewhat contracted boundaries, the county of Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East Engla ...
''. The word is formed from the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
, 'middel' and '
Seax ''Seax'' (; also ''sax, sæx, sex''; invariant in plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of le ...
e' ('Saxons') (
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
,
Sussex Sussex (), from the Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, e ...
and
Wessex Wessex (; ang, Westseaxna rīċe , 'the Kingdom of the West Saxons') was an Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was Kingdom of England, unified by Æthelstan in 927. The Anglo-Sa ...

Wessex
). In 704, it is recorded as ''Middleseaxon'' in an Anglo-Saxon chronicle, written in Latin, about land at Twickenham. The Latin text reads: "''in prouincia quæ nuncupatur Middelseaxan Haec''". The
Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...

Saxon
s derived their name, ''Seaxe'' in their own tongue, from the ''
seax ''Seax'' (; also ''sax, sæx, sex''; invariant in plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of le ...
'', a kind of knife for which they were known. The seax appears in the heraldry of the English counties of
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
and Middlesex, each of which bears three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem, or rather the Tudor heralds' idea of what a seax looked like, portrayed in each case like a
falchion A falchion (; Old French: ''fauchon''; Latin: ''falx'', "sickle") is a one-handed, backsword, single-edged sword of European origin. Falchions are found in different forms from around the 13th century up to and including the 16th century. In som ...

falchion
or
scimitar A scimitar ( or ) is a single-edged sword with a Convex curve, convex curved blade associated with Middle Eastern, South Asian, or North African cultures. A European term, ''scimitar'' does not refer to one specific sword type, but an assortment ...

scimitar
. The names 'Middlesex', 'Essex', '
Sussex Sussex (), from the Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, e ...

Sussex
' and '
Wessex Wessex (; ang, Westseaxna rīċe , 'the Kingdom of the West Saxons') was an Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was Kingdom of England, unified by Æthelstan in 927. The Anglo-Sa ...

Wessex
', contain the name 'Seaxe'.


Early county government

It is not known exactly when Middlesex was established as a county, possibly the early tenth century, but it is clear that it did not cover the whole of the former Middle Saxon Province of Essex. It was recorded in the
Domesday Book Domesday Book () – the Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent ...
of 1086 as being divided into the six
hundreds A hundred is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. Hundred may also refer to: Units and divisions * Hundred (word) formerly also equal to 120 or other values * Hundred (unit) sometimes equal to 120 or other values ** Hundredweight (cw ...
of
Edmonton Edmonton ( ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region, which is surrounded by Central Albert ...
, Elthorne,
Gore Gore may refer to: Places Australia * Gore, Queensland, a town * Gore Creek (New South Wales) * Gore Island (Queensland) Canada * Gore, Nova Scotia, a rural community * Gore, Quebec, a township municipality * Gore Bay, Ontario, a township on Man ...
, Hounslow (
Isleworth Isleworth ( ) is a town sited within the London Borough of Hounslow in West London, England. It lies immediately east of the town of Hounslow and west of the River Thames and its tributary the River Crane, London, River Crane. Isleworth's orig ...
in all later records),
Ossulstone Ossulstone is an obsolete subdivision (hundred 100 or one hundred (Roman numerals, Roman numeral: C) is the natural number following 99 (number), 99 and preceding 101 (number), 101. In medieval contexts, it may be described as the short hundred ...
and Spelthorne. The
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
has been self-governing since the thirteenth century and became a county in its own right, a
county corporate A county corporate or corporate county was a type of subnational division used for local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the ...
. Middlesex also included
Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city sta ...
, which also had a high degree of autonomy.
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
dominated most of the early financial, judicial and ecclesiastical aspects of the county.The Proceedings of the Old Bailey
Rural Middlesex
. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
Of the six hundreds, Ossulstone contained the districts closest to the City of London. During the 17th century it was divided into four divisions, which, along with the Liberty of Westminster, largely took over the administrative functions of the hundred. The divisions were named
Finsbury Finsbury is a district of Central London, forming the south-eastern part of the London Borough of Islington. It borders the City of London. The Manorialism, Manor of Finsbury is first recorded as ''Vinisbir'' (1231) and means "manor of a man ...
,
Holborn Holborn ( or ) is a district in central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city s ...
,
Kensington Kensington is an affluent district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in the West End of London, West of Central London. The district's commercial heart is Kensington High Street, running on an east–west axis. The north-east is ...
and
Tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of ru ...
. The county had parliamentary representation from the 13th century. Middlesex outside the metropolitan area remained largely rural until the middle of the 19th century and so the special boards of local government for various metropolitan areas were late in developing. Other than the Cities of London and Westminster, there were no ancient
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
s.London Metropolitan Archives
A Brief Guide to the Middlesex Sessions Records
, (2009). Retrieved 26 July 2009.
The importance of the hundred courts declined, and such local administration as there was divided between "county business" conducted by the
justices of the peace A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer A judicial officer is a person with the responsibilities and powers to facilitate, arbitrate, preside over, and make decisions and directions in regard to the application of the law. Judicial ...
meeting in
quarter sessions The courts of quarter sessions or quarter sessions were local courts traditionally held at four set times each year in the Kingdom of England from 1388 (extending also to Wales following the Act of Union, 1536). They were also established in Scotlan ...
, and the local matters dealt with by parish vestries. As the suburbs of London spread into the area, unplanned development and outbreaks of
cholera Cholera is an infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of tissues to the infectious agents and the s they produce. An infectious disease, also known as a transmissible disea ...

cholera
forced the creation of local boards and
poor law union A poor law union was a geographical territory, and early local government unit, in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Poor law unions existed in England and Wales from 1834 to 1930 for the administration of poor relief In Kingdom of England, Eng ...
s to help govern most areas; in a few cases parishes appointed
improvement commissionersBoards of improvement commissioners were ''ad hoc'' urban local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the word government refers sp ...
. In rural areas, parishes began to be grouped for different administrative purposes. From 1875 these local bodies were designated as urban or rural sanitary districts.


Tower Division

The Tower division, better known as the Tower Hamlets, was an area in the Southeast of the county covering what is now the
London Borough of Tower Hamlets The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a covering much of the traditional . It was formed in 1965 from the merger of the former of , , and . 'Tower Hamlets' was originally an alternative name for the historic ; the area of south-east , focus ...
as well as most of what is now the
London Borough of Hackney The London Borough of Hackney ( ) is a London boroughs, London borough in Inner London. The historical and administrative heart of Hackney is Mare Street, which lies north-east of Charing Cross. The borough is named after Hackney, London, Hackn ...
. The area was unusual in combining
Hundred 100 or one hundred (Roman numerals, Roman numeral: C) is the natural number following 99 (number), 99 and preceding 101 (number), 101. In medieval contexts, it may be described as the short hundred or five 20 (number), score in order to different ...
and many County responsibilities, to form a "county within a county" comparable to one of the
Ridings of Yorkshire A riding is an administrative jurisdiction or electoral district, particularly in several current or former Commonwealth countries. Etymology The word ''riding'' is descended from late Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the ear ...
. Of particular note was its military autonomy: it had its own Lord-Lieutenant of the Tower Hamlets and was thus independent of the
Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex Lord is an appellation for a person or deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/supernatural By defini ...
.


Metropolitan challenges

By the 19th century, the
East End of London The East End of London, often referred to within the London area simply as the East End, is the historic core of wider East London, east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of London and north of the River Thames. It does not have uni ...
had expanded to the eastern boundary with Essex, and the
Tower division The Tower Division was a liberty Broadly speaking, liberty is the ability to do as one pleases, or a right or immunity enjoyed by prescription or by grant (i.e. privilege). It is a synonym for the word freedom Freedom, generally, is having t ...
had reached a population of over a million. When the railways were built, the north western suburbs of London steadily spread over large parts of the county. The areas closest to London were served by the
Metropolitan Police The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), formerly and still commonly known as the Metropolitan Police (and informally as the Met Police, the Met, Scotland Yard, or the Yard), is the territorial police force A territorial police force is a poli ...
from 1829, and from 1840 the entire county was included in the
Metropolitan Police District The Metropolitan Police District (MPD) is the police area which is policed by the Metropolitan Police Service in London. It currently consists of the Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of E ...
.Order in Council enlarging the Metropolitan Police District (SI 1840 5001) Local government in the county was unaffected by the
Municipal Corporations Act 1835 The Municipal Corporations Act 1835 (5 & 6 Wm. IV., c.76), sometimes known as the Municipal Reform Act, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Ki ...
, and civic works continued to be the responsibility of the individual parish vestries or ''ad hoc''
improvement commissionersBoards of improvement commissioners were ''ad hoc'' urban local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the word government refers sp ...
. In 1855, the parishes of the densely populated area in the south east, but excluding the City of London, came within the responsibility of the
Metropolitan Board of Works The Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) was the principal instrument of London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in ...
. Despite this innovation, the system was described by commentators at the time as one "in chaos".


1889 - Administrative County of London

In 1889, under the
Local Government Act 1888 The Local Government Act 1888 (51 & 52 Vict. c.41) was an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or ...
, the metropolitan area of approximately became part of the administrative county of London. The Act also provided that the part of Middlesex in the administrative county of London should be "severed from iddlesex and form a separate county for all non-administrative purposes". The part of the County of London that had been transferred from Middlesex was divided in 1900 into 18
metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of districts of England, local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, metropolitan boroughs are defined in English law as ...
s. They were merged in 1965 to form seven of the twelve current boroughs of
Inner London Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county of Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county ...
: *
Camden Camden may refer to: People * Camden (surname), a surname of English origin * Camden Joy (born 1964), American writer * Camden Toy (born 1957), American actor Places Australia * Camden, New South Wales * Camden, Rosehill, a heritage-listed ...
was formed from the metropolitan boroughs of
Hampstead Hampstead () is an area in London, which lies northwest of Charing Cross, and extends from Watling Street, the A5 road (Roman Watling Street) to Hampstead Heath, a large, hilly expanse of parkland. The area forms the northwest part of the Lond ...

Hampstead
,
Holborn Holborn ( or ) is a district in central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city s ...

Holborn
and . * Hackney was formed from the metropolitan boroughs of ,
Shoreditch Shoreditch is a district in the East End of London The East End of London, often referred to within the London area simply as the East End, is the historic core of wider East London, east of the Roman and medieval walls of the City of Lond ...

Shoreditch
and
Stoke Newington Stoke Newington is an area occupying the north-west part of the London Borough of Hackney The London Borough of Hackney ( ) is a London boroughs, London borough in Inner London. The historical and administrative heart of Hackney is Mare St ...

Stoke Newington
. *
Hammersmith Hammersmith is a district of West London West London is the western part of London, England. The area lies north of the River Thames and extends from its historic and commercial core of Westminster and the West End of London, West End to t ...
(known as Hammersmith and Fulham from 1979) was formed from the metropolitan boroughs of
Hammersmith Hammersmith is a district of West London West London is the western part of London, England. The area lies north of the River Thames and extends from its historic and commercial core of Westminster and the West End of London, West End to t ...

Hammersmith
and
Fulham Fulham () is an area of the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham The London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham () is a London boroughs, London borough in West London and which also forms part of Inner London. The borough was formed in 1 ...

Fulham
. *
Islington Islington () is a district in Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington. It is a mainly residential district of Inner London, extending from Islington's Islington#Islington High Street, High Street to Highbury Fields, ...
was formed from the metropolitan boroughs of
Finsbury Finsbury is a district of Central London, forming the south-eastern part of the London Borough of Islington. It borders the City of London. The Manorialism, Manor of Finsbury is first recorded as ''Vinisbir'' (1231) and means "manor of a man ...

Finsbury
and
Islington Islington () is a district in Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington. It is a mainly residential district of Inner London, extending from Islington's Islington#Islington High Street, High Street to Highbury Fields, ...

Islington
. * Kensington and Chelsea was formed from the metropolitan boroughs of
Chelsea Chelsea or Chelsey may refer to: Places Australia * Chelsea, Victoria Canada * Chelsea, Nova Scotia * Chelsea, Quebec United Kingdom * Chelsea, London, an affluent area of South West London, bounded to the south by the River Thames ** Chelsea ...

Chelsea
and
Kensington Kensington is an affluent district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in the West End of London, West of Central London. The district's commercial heart is Kensington High Street, running on an east–west axis. The north-east is ...

Kensington
. *
Tower Hamlets The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a London boroughs, London borough located in East London; it covers much of the traditional East End of London, East End. It was formed in 1965 from the merger of the former Metropolitan boroughs of the Co ...
was formed from the metropolitan boroughs of
Bethnal Green Bethnal Green is an area in the East End of London northeast of Charing Cross. The area emerged from the small settlement which developed around the Green, much of which survives today as Bethnal Green Gardens, beside Cambridge Heath Road. By t ...

Bethnal Green
, and
Stepney Stepney is a district in the East End The East End of London, often referred to within the London area simply as the East End, is the historic core of wider East London East London is a popularly and informally defined part of Londo ...

Stepney
. * The
City of Westminster The City of Westminster is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough in Inner London which forms a core part of Central London. It is the site of the United Kingdom's Houses of Parliament and much of the British gov ...

City of Westminster
was formed from the metropolitan boroughs of
Paddington Paddington is an List of areas of London, area within the City of Westminster, in central London. First a medieval parish then a Metropolitan Borough of Paddington, metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1 ...

Paddington
and
St Marylebone Marylebone ( or , , , ) usually pronounced MAR-lee-bon, is a district in the West End of London, in the City of Westminster. Oxford Street, Europe's busiest shopping street, forms its southern boundary. An Civil parish#Ancient parishes, ancien ...

St Marylebone
and the City of
Westminster Westminster is a district in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city sta ...

Westminster
.


1889 - Middlesex County Council

Following the Local Government Act 1888, the remaining county came under the control of
Middlesex County Council Middlesex County Council was the principal local government body in the administrative county An administrative county was a first-level administrative division in England and Wales from 1888 to 1974, and in Ireland from 1899 until either 1973 ( ...
except for the parish of
Monken Hadley Monken Hadley is a place in the London Borough of Barnet. An ancient country village north of Chipping Barnet, Barnet, it is now a suburban development on the very edge of Greater London north north-west of Charing Cross, while retaining much ...
, which became part of
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the s ...

Hertfordshire
. The area of responsibility of the
Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex Lord is an appellation for a person or deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/supernatural By defini ...
was reduced accordingly. Middlesex did not contain any
county borough County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiabl ...
s, so the county and
administrative county An administrative county was a first-level administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar term ...
(the area of county council control) were identical. The
Local Government Act 1894 The Local Government Act 1894 (56 & 57 Vict. c. 73) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organi ...
divided the administrative county into four
rural district#REDIRECT Rural district Rural districts were a type of local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the word government refers spe ...
s and thirty-one urban districts, based on existing
sanitary district Sanitary districts were established in England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitut ...
s. One urban district,
South Hornsey South Hornsey was a local government district in Middlesex, England from 1865 to 1900. The district was formed in 1865 when the Local Government Act 1858 was adopted in the southern part of the Hornsey (parish), parish of Hornsey. local board of h ...
, was an
exclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly ...

exclave
of Middlesex within the
County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the general introduction of elected county government in England, by way of the Local Government A ...
until 1900, when it was transferred to the latter county.Frederic Youngs, ''Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England'', Vol.I : Southern England, London, 1979 The rural districts were
Hendon Hendon is an urban area in the Borough of Barnet, North-West London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in sout ...
,
South Mimms South Mimms, sometimes spelt South Mymms, is a village and civil parish in the Hertsmere district of Hertfordshire in the East of England. It is a small settlement located near to the junction of the M25 motorway with the A1 road (Great Britain) ...
,
Staines Staines-upon-Thames is a town on the bank (geography), left bank of the River Thames in Surrey, England, in the borough of Spelthorne. At or near the Roman settlement of Pontibus, it became Stanes and then Staines. Its borough is in the Historic ...
and
Uxbridge Uxbridge () is a suburban town in West London and the administrative headquarters of the London Borough of Hillingdon. Situated west-northwest of Charing Cross, it is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Uxbridg ...
. Because of increasing urbanisation these had all been abolished by 1934. Urban districts had been created, merged, and many had gained the status of municipal borough by 1965. The districts as at the 1961 census were: After 1889, the growth of London continued, and the county became almost entirely filled by suburbs of London, with a big rise in population density. This process was accelerated by the
Metro-land Metro-land (or Metroland) is a name given to the suburban File:Husby Kista.jpg, The Swedish suburbs of Husby/Kista/Akalla are built according to the typical city planning of the Million Programme. A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is ...
developments, which covered a large part of the county. The expanding urbanisation had, however, been foretold in 1771 by
Tobias Smollett Tobias George Smollett (baptised 19 March 1721 – 17 September 1771) was a Scottish poet and author. He was best known for picaresque novels such as ''The Adventures of Roderick Random ''The Adventures of Roderick Random'' is a picaresque ...

Tobias Smollett
in ''
The Expedition of Humphry Clinker ''The Expedition of Humphry Clinker'' was the last of the picaresque novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfictional ( memoir, ...
'', in which it is said: Public transport in the county, including the extensive network of trams,Reed, J., ''London Tramways'', (1997) buses and the London Underground came under control of the
London Passenger Transport Board The London Passenger Transport Board was the organisation responsible for local public transport Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of transport Transpo ...
in 1933Office of Public Sector Information –
London Passenger Transport Act 1933 (as amended)
'. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
and a
New Works Programme The New Works Programme of 1935–1940 was the major investment programme delivered by the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB), commonly known as London Transport, which had been created in 1933 to coordinate underground train, Trams in Lond ...
was developed to further enhance services during the 1930s. Partly because of its proximity to the capital, the county had a major role during the Second World War. The county was subject to
aerial bombardment An airstrike, air strike or air raid is an offensive operation carried out by aircraft. Air strikes are delivered from aircraft such as blimps, balloons, Fighter aircraft, fighters, bombers, ground attack aircraft, attack helicopters and Unmanne ...
and contained military establishments, such as
RAF Uxbridge RAF Uxbridge was a Royal Air Force "Through Adversity to the Stars" , colours = , colours_label = , march = Royal Air Force March Past , mascot = , ...
and
RAF Heston Heston is a suburban area and part of the Hounslow district in the London Borough of Hounslow. The residential settlement covers a slightly smaller area than its predecessor farming village, 10.8 miles (17.4 km) west south-west of Charing Cr ...
, which were involved in the
Battle of Britain The Battle of Britain (german: die Luftschlacht um England, "the Air Battle for England") was a military campaign A military campaign is large-scale long-duration significant military strategy Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented ...

Battle of Britain
.Royal Air Force
Battle of Britain Campaign Diary
. Retrieved 20 February 2008.


County town

Middlesex arguably never, and certainly not since 1789, had a single, established
county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some pref ...
. The
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
could be regarded as its county town for most purposes and provided different locations for the various, mostly judicial, county purposes. The county assizes for Middlesex were held at the
Old Bailey The Central Criminal Court of England and Wales, commonly referred to as the Old Bailey after the street on which it stands, is a criminal court building in central London, one of several that houses the Crown Court of England and Wales. The ...
in the City of London. Until 1889, the
High Sheriff of Middlesex This is a list of high sheriff, sheriffs of Middlesex. History of the office From c. 1131 to 1889 there was no separate sheriff for the county. By a charter of Henry I of England, Henry I the Livery company, livery of the City of London were given ...
was chosen by the
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingd ...
. The sessions house for the Middlesex Quarter Sessions was Hicks Hall in
Clerkenwell Clerkenwell () is an area of central London, England. Clerkenwell was an Civil Parish#Ancient Parishes, ancient parish from the mediaeval period onwards, and now forms the south-western part of the London Borough of Islington. The well after ...
(just outside the City boundary) from 1612 to 1782, and
Middlesex Sessions House The former Middlesex Sessions House or the Old Sessions House is a large building on Clerkenwell Green Clerkenwell () is an area of central London, England. Clerkenwell was an Civil Parish#Ancient Parishes, ancient parish from the mediaeval per ...

Middlesex Sessions House
on
Clerkenwell Green Clerkenwell () is an area of central London, England. Clerkenwell was an Civil Parish#Ancient Parishes, ancient parish from the mediaeval period onwards, and now forms the south-western part of the London Borough of Islington. The well after w ...
from 1782 to 1921. The quarter sessions performed most of the limited administration on a county level prior to the creation of the Middlesex County Council in 1889.
New Brentford Brentford () is a suburban town in West London, England and part of the London Borough of Hounslow The London Borough of Hounslow () is a London borough in West London (sub region), West London, England, forming part of Outer London. It was ...
was first promulgated as the county town in 1789, on the basis that it was where elections of knight of the shire, knights of the shire (or Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Members of Parliament) were held from 1701.Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 Edition Thus a traveller's and historian's London regional summary of 1795 states that (New) Brentford was "considered as the county-town; but there is no town-hall or other public building". Middlesex County Council took over at the Guildhall in Westminster, which became the
Middlesex Guildhall The Middlesex Guildhall is the home of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom The Supreme Court (initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes ...

Middlesex Guildhall
. In the same year, this location was placed into the new
County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the general introduction of elected county government in England, by way of the Local Government A ...
, and was thus outside the council's area of jurisdiction.


Arms of Middlesex County Council

Coat of arms, Coats of arms were attributed by the mediaeval Officer of arms, heralds to the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. That assigned to the Kingdom of Essex, Kingdom of the Middle and East Saxons depicted three "
seax ''Seax'' (; also ''sax, sæx, sex''; invariant in plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of le ...
es" or short notched swords on a red background. The seaxe was a weapon carried by Anglo-Saxon warriors, and the term "Saxon" may be derived from the word.Doherty, F.,
The Anglo Saxon Broken Back Seax
'. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
Online Etymology Dictionary
Saxon
Retrieved 20 February 2008.
These arms became associated with the two counties that approximated to the kingdom: Middlesex and
Essex Essex () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Ro ...

Essex
. County authorities, militia and volunteer regiments associated with both counties used the attributed arms. In 1910, it was observed that the county councils of Essex and Middlesex and the High Sheriff of the County of London, Sheriff's Office of the
County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the general introduction of elected county government in England, by way of the Local Government A ...
were all using the same arms. Middlesex County Council decided to apply for a formal grant of arms from the College of Arms, with the addition of a heraldic "difference" to the attributed arms. Colonel Otley Parry, a justice of the peace for Middlesex and author of a book on military badges, was asked to devise an addition to the shield. The chosen addition was a "Saxon Crown", derived from the portrait of King Athelstan of England, Athelstan on a silver penny of his reign, stated to be the earliest form of crown associated with any English sovereign. The grant of arms was made by letters patent dated 7 November 1910."Armorial bearings of Middlesex", ''The Times''. London. 7 November 1910.''The Book of Public Arms'', A.C. Fox-Davies, 2nd edition, London, 1915''Civic Heraldry of England and Wales'', W.C. Scott-Giles, 2nd edition, London, 1953 The undifferenced arms of the kingdom were eventually granted to Essex County Council in 1932.Civic Heraldry of England and Wales –
Essex County Council
''. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
Seaxes were also used in the insignia of many of the boroughs and urban districts in the county, while the Saxon crown came to be a common heraldic charge in English civic arms.C W Scott-Giles, ''Royal and Kindred Emblems'', ''Civic Heraldry of England and Wales'', 2nd edition, London, 1953, p.11 On the creation of the Greater London Council in 1965 a Saxon crown was introduced in its coat of arms.Civic Heraldry of England and Wales –
Greater London Council
'. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
Seaxes appear in the arms of several London borough, London borough councils and of Spelthorne Borough Council.Civic Heraldry of England and Wales –
Greater London
'. Retrieved 20 February 2008.


Creation of Greater London

The population of inner London (then the
County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of the general introduction of elected county government in England, by way of the Local Government A ...
) had been in decline as more residents moved into the outer suburbs since its creation in 1889, and this continued after the Second World War. In contrast, the population of the administrative county of Middlesex had increased steadily during that period. From 1951 to 1961, the population of the inner districts of the county started to fall, and the population grew only in eight of the suburban outer districts. According to the 1961 census, Ealing, Enfield, Harrow, Hendon, Heston & Isleworth, Tottenham, Wembley, Willesden and Twickenham had each reached a population greater than 100,000, which would normally have entitled each of them to seek
county borough County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiabl ...
status. If this status were to be granted to all those boroughs, it would mean that the population of the administrative county of Middlesex would be reduced by over half, to just under one million. Evidence submitted to the
Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London The Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London, also known as the Herbert Commission, was established in 1957 and published its report in 1960. The report made recommendations for the overhaul of the administration of the capital. They w ...
included a recommendation to divide Middlesex into two administrative counties of North Middlesex and West Middlesex. However, the commission instead proposed abolition of the county and merging of the boroughs and districts. This was enacted by Parliament as the London Government Act 1963, which came into force on 1 April 1965. The Act abolished the administrative counties of Middlesex and London. The Administration of Justice Act 1964 abolished the Middlesex magistracy and Lord-lieutenant, lieutenancy, and altered the jurisdiction of the Central Criminal Court. In April 1965, nearly all of the area of the historic county of Middlesex became part of
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
, under the control of the Greater London Council, and formed the new outer London boroughs of London Borough of Barnet, Barnet (part only), London Borough of Brent, Brent, London Borough of Ealing, Ealing, London Borough of Enfield, Enfield, London Borough of Haringey, Haringey, London Borough of Harrow, Harrow, London Borough of Hillingdon, Hillingdon, London Borough of Hounslow, Hounslow and London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, Richmond upon Thames (part only).Office of Public Sector Information
London Government Act 1963 (as amended)
. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
The remaining areas were Potters Bar Urban District, which became part of the administrative county of
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the s ...

Hertfordshire
, and Sunbury-on-Thames Urban District and Staines Urban District, which became part of the administrative county of
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

Surrey
. Following the changes, local acts of Parliament relating to Middlesex were henceforth to apply to the entirety of the nine "North West London Boroughs".The Local Law (North West London Boroughs) Order 1965 (S.I. 1965 No. 533) In 1974, the three urban districts that had been transferred to Hertfordshire and Surrey were abolished and became the districts of Hertsmere (part only) and Borough of Spelthorne, Spelthorne respectively.The English Non-metropolitan Districts (Definition) Order 1972 (SI 1972/2038) In 1995 the village of Poyle was transferred from Spelthorne to the Berkshire borough of Slough.Office of Public Sector Information
Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Surrey (County Boundaries) Order 1994
. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
Additionally, the Greater London boundary to the west and north has been subject to several List of Greater London boundary changes, small changes since 1965. On its creation in 1965, Greater London was divided into five Commission Areas for justice. The one named "Middlesex" consisted of the boroughs of Barnet, Brent, Ealing, Enfield, Haringey, Harrow, Hillingdon and Hounslow.Administration of Justice Act 1964 (1964 C. 42) It was abolished on 1 July 2003.Office of Public Sector Information
''The Commission Areas (Greater London) Order 2003'' (Statutory Instrument 2003 No. 640)
Retrieved 20 February 2008.


Earldom

The title Earl of Middlesex was created twice, in 1622 and 1677, but became extinct in 1843.


Geography

The county lies within the London BasinNatural England
London Basin Natural Area
Retrieved 23 February 2008.
and the most significant feature is the River Thames, which forms the southern boundary. The River Lea and the River Colne, Hertfordshire, River Colne form natural boundaries to the east and west. The entire south west boundary of Middlesex follows a gently descending meander of the Thames without hills. In many places "Middlesex bank" is more accurate than "north bank" — for instance at Teddington the river flows north-westward, so the left (Middlesex) bank is the south-west bank. In the north, the boundary runs along a boxing the compass, WSW/ENE aligned ridge of hills. From the Colne to Barnet Gate Wood, this boundary is marked by a 20 kilometre hedge of great antiquity. East of the wood the hedge continues, but no longer forms the county boundary, suggesting that the eastern part of the boundary is younger. After Barnett Gate Wood the hedge continues east to Arkley where it divides into two branches, one continuing east to Chipping Barnet and Cockfosters, with another heading north to form the parish boundary between Shenley and Ridge, Hertfordshire, Ridge, both in Hertforshire. Neither branch forms part of the county boundary. The change to the county boundary was probably caused in the late 8th century, before Middlesex took the form of a county, when the Liberty of St Albans was created from parts of the Dioceses of Diocese of London, London and Diocese of Lincoln, Lincoln. The hills are broken by Barnet or 'Dollis' valleys. (South of the boundary, these feed into the Brent Reservoir, Welsh Harp Lake or Brent Reservoir which becomes the River Brent). This forms a long protrusion of Hertfordshire into the county. The county was once well wooded, with much of it covered by the ancient Forest of Middlesex; Domesday returns for Middlesex indicate that it was around 30% wooded (much of it silvopasture, wood-pasture) in 1086, about double the English average. The highest point is the High Road by Bushey Heath at .The Mountains of England and Wales
Historic County Tops
Retrieved 20 February 2008.


Economic development

There were settlements in the area of Middlesex that can be traced back thousands of years before the creation of a county.The economy of the county was dependent on the City of London from early times and was primarily agricultural. A variety of goods were provided for the City, including crops such as grain and hay, livestock and building materials. Recreation at day trip destinations such as Hackney, Islington, Highgate and Twickenham, as well as coaching, inn-keeping and sale of goods and services at daily shops and stalls to the considerable passing trade provided much local employment and also formed part of the early economy. However, during the 18th century the inner parishes of Middlesex became suburbs of the City and were increasingly urbanised. The Middlesex volume of John Norden's ''Speculum Britanniae'' (a chorography) of 1593 summarises: Similarly Thomas Cox wrote in 1794: In 1803, Sir John Sinclair, president of the Board of Agriculture (1793–1822), Board of Agriculture, spoke of the need to cultivate the substantial Finchley Common and Hounslow Heath (perhaps prophetic of the Dig for Victory campaign of World War II) and fellow Board member Middleton estimated that one tenth of the county, , was uncultivated common, capable of improvement. However, William Cobbett, in casual travel writing in 1822, said that "A more ugly country between Egham (
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

Surrey
) and Kensington would with great difficulty be found in England. Flat as a pancake, and until you come to Hammersmith, the soil is a nasty, stony dirt upon a bed of gravel. Hounslow Heath which is only a little worse than the general run, is a sample of all that is bad in soil and villainous in look. Yet this is now enclosed, and what they call 'cultivated'. Here is a fresh robbery of villages, hamlets, and farm and labourers' buildings and abodes." Baron Macaulay, Thomas Babington wrote in 1843, "An acre in Middlesex is worth a principality in Utopia" which contrasts neatly with its agricultural description. The building of radial railway lines from 1839 caused a fundamental shift away from agricultural supply store, agricultural supply for London towards large scale house building. Tottenham, Edmonton, London, Edmonton and Enfield Town, Enfield in the north developed first as working-class residential suburbs with easy access to central London. The line to Windsor, Berkshire, Windsor through Middlesex was completed in 1848, and the railway to Potters Bar in 1850; and the Metropolitan Railway, Metropolitan and District Railway, District Railways started a series of extensions into the county in 1878. Closer to London, the districts of Acton, London, Acton, Willesden, Ealing and Hornsey came within reach of the tram and bus networks, providing cheap transport to central London. After World War I, the availability of labour and proximity to London made areas such as Hayes, Hillingdon, Hayes and Park Royal ideal locations for the developing new industries. New jobs attracted more people to the county and the population continued to rise, reaching a peak in 1951. Middlesex became the location of facilities for the film industry. Twickenham Studios were established in 1913. There were also studios at Cricklewood Studios, Gainsborough Pictures, Isleworth Studios, Kew Bridge Studios and Southall Studios.


Former postal county

Middlesex (abbreviated Middx) was a Postal counties of the United Kingdom, former postal county.Royal Mail – [ftp://ftp.royalmail.com/Downloads/public/cmwalk/doc/active/doc21800003/PAF_Digest_Dec_03.pdf PAF Digest Issue 6.0]. Retrieved 20 February 2008. Counties were an element of postal addressing in routine use until 1996, intended to avoid confusion between post towns, and are no longer required for the routing of the mail. The postal county did not match the boundaries of Middlesex because of the presence of the London postal district, which stretched into the county to include Tottenham, Willesden, Hornsey and Chiswick.HMSO,
Names of Street and Places in the London Postal area
', (1930). Retrieved 20 February 2008.
Addresses in this area included "LONDON" which is the post town but any overlap with the then County of London was coincidental. In 1965, Royal Mail retained the postal county because it would have been too costly to amend addresses covering the bulk of Outer London. Exceptionally, the Potters Bar post town was transferred to Hertfordshire. Geographically the postal county consisted of two unconnected areas, apart. The first was in and around Enfield and the second, larger area was to the west. This led the retention of 25 Post Towns to this day: † = postal county was not required The postal county had many border inconsistencies where its constituent post towns encroached on neighbouring counties, such as the villages of Denham, Buckinghamshire, Denham in Buckinghamshire, Wraysbury in Berkshire and Eastbury, Hertfordshire, Eastbury in Hertfordshire which were respectively in the post towns of Uxbridge, Staines upon Thames, Staines and Northwood, London, Northwood and therefore in the postal county of Middlesex. Egham Hythe, Surrey also had postal addresses of Staines, Middlesex. Conversely, Hampton Wick was conveniently placed in Kingston upon Thames, Kingston, Surrey with its sorting offices just across the river. Nearby Hampton Court Palace has a postal address of East Molesey, therefore associating it with Surrey. The Enfield post town in the EN postcode area was in the former postal county. All post towns in the HA postcode area and UB postcode area were in the former postal county. Most of the TW postcode area was in the former postal county.


Culture and community


County flag

The Flag of Middlesex, Middlesex Flag is included in the Flag Institute's registry of county and regional flags. The flag is a banner of the arms of the former Middlesex County Council, abolished in 1965. Whilst such banners of county arms are legally not generally available for public use, a similar design had been used traditionally as a local badge in Middlesex and neighbouring Essex for centuries. The seax is the symbol of the Saxons and the Saxon crown was added in 1909 to differentiate the arms and flag from those of Essex.


County day

Middlesex Day is celebrated each year on 16 May. This commemorates the actions of the 57th (West Middlesex) Regiment in 1811, at the Battle of Albuera, during the Peninsular War. During the battle, William Inglis (British Army officer), Lieutenant-Colonel William Inglis, despite his injuries, refused to retire from the battle but remained with the regimental colours, encouraging his men with the words "Die hard 57th, die hard!" as they came under intense pressure from a French attack. The regiment held and the battle was won. The 'Die Hards' subsequently became the West Middlesex's regimental nickname and the phrase Die hard (phrase), Die Hard entered the language. In 2003, an early day motion in the House of Commons noted the celebration of 16 May, the anniversary of Albuhera, as Middlesex Day.


County flower

In 2002 Plantlife ran a County flowers of the United Kingdom, county flowers campaign to assign flowers to each of the counties of the United Kingdom. The general public was invited to vote for the bloom they felt most represented their county. The Anemone nemorosa, wood anemone was chosen as the flower of Middlesex. The flower was a common sight in the Forest of Middlesex. When the suburbs of London swept over Middlesex, many of its woods were bypassed and preserved. The wood anemone still blooms there to this day.


County history societies

The London and Middlesex Archaeological Society (LAMAS) was founded in 1855 for the study of the archaeology and local history of the City of London and the county of Middlesex. It works in close association with the Museum of London and with the Museum of London Archaeology. It has over 40 affiliated local history societies in Middlesex. The interests of family historians in Middlesex are supported by two member organisations of the Federation of Family History Societies: The London, Westminster and Middlesex Family History Society and the West Middlesex Family History Society. For genealogical research Middlesex is assigned Chapman code MDX, except for the City of London ("square mile") assigned LND.


Literature

Sir John Betjeman, Poet Laureate from 1972 until his death in 1984, was born in 1906 in Gospel Oak and grew up in Highgate. He published several poems about Middlesex and suburban life. Many were featured in the televised readings ''Metro-land (TV), Metroland''.Wilson, A., ''Betjeman'', (2006)


Sport


Rugby Union

The Rugby Football Union, the governing body for rugby union in England, is based at Twickenham Stadium. The stadium hosts home test matches for the England national rugby union team. Seven rugby union clubs at national league levels 1 to 4 have some or all of their other teams playing in Middlesex leagues (those marked * having grounds in Middlesex). These are Harlequin F.C., Harlequins*, Saracens F.C., Saracens*, London Scottish F.C., London Scottish, London Irish Amateur, London Irish*, Richmond F.C., Richmond, Ealing Trailfinders Rugby Club, Ealing Trailfinders*, and Barnes Rugby Football Club, Barnes. Middlesex Rugby Football Union, Middlesex Rugby is the governing body for rugby union in Middlesex. The union selects players from its 88 affiliated clubs for the Middlesex team in the County Championship (rugby union), County Championship. It runs the Middlesex RFU Senior Cup open to the top 8 Middlesex clubs that play between tiers 6–7 of the English rugby union system. It also runs the Middlesex RFU Senior Bowl and the Middlesex RFU Senior Vase for sides from lower down the pyramid. It helps run the Herts/Middlesex 1 (tier 9) and Herts/Middlesex 2 (tier 10) leagues. Middlesex Rugby is also active in promoting youth rugby and women's rugby in the county.


Football

The The Football Association, Football Association, the governing body of association football in England, is based at Wembley Stadium. The stadium hosts major football matches including home matches of the England national football team, and the FA Cup Final. There are 19 football clubs based in Middlesex in the top eight tiers of the English football league system (correct for 2018/9 season): Arsenal F.C., Arsenal, Chelsea F.C., Chelsea, Tottenham Hotspur F.C., Tottenham Hotspur, Brentford F.C., Brentford, Fulham F.C., Fulham, Queens Park Rangers F.C., Queens Park Rangers, Barnet F.C., Barnet, Hampton & Richmond Borough F.C., Hampton and Richmond Borough, Wealdstone F.C., Wealdstone, Enfield Town F.C., Enfield, Haringey Borough F.C., Haringey Borough, Wingate & Finchley F.C., Finchley and Wingate, Harrow Borough F.C., Harrow Borough, Hayes & Yeading United F.C., Hayes and Yeading United, Hendon F.C., Hendon, Ashford Town (Middlesex) F.C., Ashford Town (Middlesex), Bedfont Sports F.C., Bedfont Sports, Hanwell Town F.C., Hanwell Town, and Northwood F.C., Northwood. There are 4 women's football clubs based in Middlesex in the top two tiers of Women's football in England#League system, Women's football in England: Arsenal W.F.C., Arsenal Women, Chelsea F.C. Women, London Bees and Tottenham Hotspur L.F.C., Tottenham Hotspur Ladies. The Middlesex County Football Association regulates and promotes football in the county. The Middlesex F.A. organises many cup competitions, the most prestigious being the Middlesex Senior Cup (founded in 1889) and the Middlesex Senior Charity Cup (founded in 1901). The Middlesex County Football League was founded in 1984 and currently comprises 5 divisions. The premier divisions sits at level 7 of the National League System.


Cricket

Middlesex County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class County cricket, county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. The club was founded in 1864 but teams representing the county have played top-class cricket since the early 18th century and the club has always held first-class status. Middlesex have won thirteen County Championship titles (including 2 shared titles), the most recent in 2016. Middlesex Cricket Board, The Middlesex Cricket Board is the governing body of all recreational cricket in Middlesex. Middlesex County Cricket League, The Middlesex County Cricket League is the top-level competition for all recreational club cricket in the county. The League consists of nine divisions in total. The top division has been designated an ECB Premier Leagues, ECB Premier League. Marylebone Cricket Club (the MCC) was founded in 1787 and based since 1814 at Lord's, Lord's Cricket Ground, which it owns, in St John's Wood. The club was formerly the governing body of cricket in England and Wales and, as the sport's legislator, held considerable global influence. Lord's Cricket Ground is also home to the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). Lord's is widely referred to as the Home of Cricket.


Other sports

Middlesex Bowling Association has over 80 affiliated clubs throughout the county. Middlesex County Amateur Swimming Association organises training, competitions and representative county teams in swimming, diving, water polo and synchronised swimming. Middlesex County Athletics Association is the organisation controlling Amateur Athletics in Middlesex under the direction of UK Athletics. Middlesex Golf represents all aspects of golf within the county. It has 33 affiliated golf clubs. Middlesex Tennis, affiliated to the LTA (organization), LTA, works to create more opportunities for people in Middlesex to play and compete in tennis at all levels of the game. The Middlesex County Championships are the highlight of Middlesex's Competition Calendar. Middlesex County Badminton Association has over 80 affiliated clubs and organises men's, ladies' and mixed leagues. Middlesex Squash & Racketball Association is responsible for organising and promoting squash in Middlesex. It was founded in the 1930s and ran the first Middlesex Open Championships in 1937. Middlesex County Archery Association is the governing body for the sport of archery in the county. Middlesex Small-Bore Rifle Association brings together small-bore rifle and airgun clubs in the county, and organises teams to represent the County in competitions. Middlesex County Chess Association aims to foster chess throughout Middlesex. It has 15 affiliated clubs. Middlesex County Bridge Association runs the Middlesex Cup and the Middlesex League and enters county teams in national and regional competitions.Middlesex County Bridge Associatio

Retrieved 13 June 2019.


See also

* Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex, List of Lord Lieutenants of Middlesex * Custos Rotulorum of Middlesex – List of Keepers of the Rolls * High Sheriff of Middlesex, List of High Sheriffs of Middlesex * Middlesex (UK Parliament constituency) – Historical list of MPs for the Middlesex constituency


Notes


References


Citations


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External links


Victoria County History of MiddlesexMap of Middlesex
on Wikishire
Historic boundary as layer for Google Earth

Article on Middlesex from Encyclopædia BritannicaThe Middlesex Federation
* Maps o
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OssulstoneOuter FinsburyInner FinsburyOuter KensingtonInner KensingtonHolborn
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Middlesex and West London Photo Galleries
{{Authority control Middlesex, * Counties of England established in antiquity Counties of England disestablished in 1965 Greater London predecessors Former counties of England Home counties