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Martinique ( , ; gcf, label=
Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and vocabulary include elements of Carib language, Carib, E ...
, Matinik or ;
Kalinago The Kalinago, also known as the Island Caribs or simply Caribs, are an indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when r ...
: or ) is an island and an overseas department/region and
single territorial collectivity A single territorial collectivity (french: collectivité territoriale ''unique'') is a chartered subdivision of France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in ...
of France. An integral part of the
French Republic France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of severa ...

French Republic
, Martinique is located in the
Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles ( es, link=no, Antillas Menores; french: link=no, Petites Antilles; pap, Antias Menor; nl, Kleine Antillen) are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea The Caribbean Sea ( es, Mar Caribe; french: Mer des Caraïbes; ht, ...
of the West Indies in the eastern
Caribbean Sea The Caribbean Sea ( es, Mar Caribe; french: Mer des Caraïbes; ht, Lamè Karayib; jam, Kiaribiyan Sii; nl, Caraïbische Zee; pap, Laman Karibe) is an Americas, American Mediterranean sea (oceanography), mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean ...
. It has a land area of and a population of 376,480 inhabitants as of January 2016. One of the
Windward Islands french: Îles du Vent , image_name = , image_caption = ''Political'' Windward Islands. Clockwise: Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago : ; french: Dominique; Dominican Creole French Dominican Creole French is a French-based creole, which ...
, it is directly north of
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia (, ; french: Sainte-Lucie) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individu ...

Saint Lucia
, northwest of
Barbados Barbados is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or c ...

Barbados
and south of
Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago : ; french: Dominique; Dominican Creole French Dominican Creole French is a French-based creole, which is the generally spoken language in Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago language: ; french: Dominique; Do ...

Dominica
. Martinique is also an Outermost Region (OMR) of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
and a
special territory of the European Union
special territory of the European Union
; the currency in use is the
euro The euro (currency symbol, symbol: euro sign, €; ISO 4217, code: EUR) is the official currency of 19 of the Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area ...

euro
. Virtually the entire population speaks both French (the sole official language) and
Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and vocabulary include elements of Carib language, Carib, E ...
.


Etymology

It is thought that Martinique is a corruption of the
Taíno The Taíno were an indigenous people of the Caribbean. At the time of European contact in the late fifteenth century, they were the principal inhabitants of most of Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cub ...
name for the island (/, meaning 'island of flowers', or , 'island of women'), as relayed to
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
when he visited the island in 1502. According to historian Sydney Daney, the island was called or by the Caribs, which means 'the island of iguanas'.


History


Pre-European contact

The island was occupied first by
Arawaks The Arawak are a group of indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), o ...
, then by Caribs. The Arawaks were described as gentle timorous Indians and the Caribs as ferocious cannibal warriors. The Arawaks came from Central America in the 1st century AD and the Caribs came from the Venezuelan coast around the 11th century. When Columbus arrived, the Caribs had massacred many of their adversaries, sparing the women, whom they kept for their personal or domestic use.


European arrival and early colonial period

Martinique was charted by
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
in 1493, but Spain had little interest in the territory. Columbus landed on 15 June 1502, after a 21-day
trade wind The trade winds or easterlies are the permanent east-to-west prevailing winds that flow in the Earth's equatorial region. The trade winds blow mainly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere The Northern Hemisphere is the half of E ...
passage Passage may refer to: Places * Passage West, a town in County Cork, Ireland * Passage: 19th century English name for Pasaia (''Pasaje'', or ''Pasage'') People *Joseph Maldonado-Passage (born 1963), American former zoo operator and convicted fel ...
, his fastest ocean voyage. He spent three days there refilling his water casks, bathing and washing laundry. On 15 September 1635,
Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc Pierre Belain, sieur d'Esnambuc (; 1585–1636) was a France, French trader and adventurer in the Caribbean, who established the first permanent French colony, Saint-Pierre, Martinique, Saint-Pierre, on the island of Martinique in 1635. Biography B ...
, French governor of the island of
St. Kitts Saint Kitts, also known more formally as Saint Christopher Island, is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe ...
, landed in the harbour of with 80-150 French settlers after being driven off St. Kitts by the English. D'Esnambuc claimed Martinique for the French king
Louis XIII Louis XIII (; sometimes called the Just; 27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was from 1610 until his death in 1643 and (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown. Shortly before his ninth bi ...

Louis XIII
and the French " Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique" (Company of the American Islands), and established the first European settlement at Fort Saint-Pierre (now St. Pierre). D'Esnambuc died in 1636, leaving the company and Martinique in the hands of his nephew,
Jacques Dyel du Parquet Jacques Dyel du Parquet (1606 – 3 January 1658) was a French soldier who was one of the first governors of Martinique Martinique ( , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole, Matinik or ; Kalinago language, Kalinago: or ) is an island and an Oversea ...
, who in 1637 became governor of the island. In 1636, in the first of many skirmishes, the indigenous Caribs rose against the settlers to drive them off the island. The French successfully repelled the natives and forced them to retreat to the eastern part of the island, on the Caravelle Peninsula in the region then known as the Capesterre. When the Caribs revolted against French rule in 1658, the governor Charles Houël du Petit Pré retaliated with war against them. Many were killed, and those who survived were taken captive and expelled from the island. Some Caribs fled to
Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago : ; french: Dominique; Dominican Creole French Dominican Creole French is a French-based creole, which is the generally spoken language in Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago language: ; french: Dominique; Do ...

Dominica
or , where the French agreed to leave them at peace. After the death of du Parquet in 1658, his widow Marie Bonnard du Parquet tried to govern Martinique, but dislike of her rule led King
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
to take over the sovereignty of the island. In 1654, Dutch Jews expelled from Portuguese Brazil introduced sugar plantations worked by large numbers of enslaved Africans. In 1667 the
Second Anglo-Dutch War The Second Anglo-Dutch War or the Second Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667; nl, Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict between Kingdom of England, England and the Dutch Republic partly for control over the seas an ...
spilled out into the Caribbean, with Britain attacking the pro-Dutch French fleet in Martinique, virtually destroying it and further cementing British preeminence in the region. In 1674, the Dutch attempted to conquer the island, but were repulsed. Because there were few
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
priests in the French Antilles, many of the earliest French settlers were
Huguenots The Huguenots ( , also , ) were a religious group of French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République fran ...
who sought religious freedom. Others were transported there as a punishment for refusing to convert to Catholicism, many of them dying en route. Those who survived were quite industrious and over time prospered, though the less fortunate were reduced to the status of indentured servants. Although edicts from King Louis XIV's court regularly came to the islands to suppress the
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
"heretics", these were mostly ignored by island authorities until Louis XIV's in 1685. As many of the planters on Martinique were Huguenots suffering under the harsh strictures of the Revocation, they began plotting to emigrate from Martinique with many of their recently arrived brethren. Many of them were encouraged by the Catholics, who looked forward to their departure and the opportunities for seizing their property. By 1688, nearly all of Martinique's French Protestant population had escaped to the
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ir ...

British
American colonies or Protestant countries in Europe. The policy decimated the population of Martinique and the rest of the French Antilles and set back their colonisation by decades, causing the French king to relax his policies in the region, which left the islands susceptible to British occupation over the next century.


Post-1688 period

Under governor of the Antilles Charles de Courbon, comte de Blénac, Martinique served as a home port for French pirates, including Captain Crapeau, Etienne de Montauban, and Mathurin Desmarestz. French language original, as reprinted in ''Le Diable Volant: Une histoire de la flibuste: de la mer des Antilles à l'océan Indien (1688–1700)'' / (''The Flying Devil: A History of the Filibusters: From the Antilles to the Indian Ocean (1688–1700)''). In later years, pirate
Bartholomew Roberts ) , type=Pirate , birth_place = Casnewydd Bach, near Puncheston Puncheston ( cy, Cas-mael or Casmael) is a village, parish and Community (Wales), community in Pembrokeshire, southwest Wales. It sits below the mountain known as Castlebythe ( en, C ...

Bartholomew Roberts
styled his
jolly roger Jolly Roger is the traditional English name for the flags A flag is a piece of fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, sui ...

jolly roger
as a black flag depicting a pirate standing on two skulls labeled "ABH" and "AMH" for "A Barbadian's Head" and "A Martinican's Head" after governors of those two islands sent warships to capture Roberts. Martinique was attacked or occupied several times by the British, in 1693,
1759 In Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain, this year was known as the ''Annus Mirabilis of 1759, Annus Mirabilis'', because of British victories in the Seven Years' War. Events January–March * January 6 – George Washington ...
,
1762 Events January–March * January 4 Events Pre-1600 *46 BC – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina. *871 – Battle of Reading (871), Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfred ...
and
1779 Events January–March * January 11 – British troops surrender to the Marathas in Battle of Wadgaon, Wadgaon, India, and are forced to return all territories acquired since 1773. * January 11 – Ching-Thang Khomba is crow ...
. Excepting a period from 1802 to 1809 following signing of the
Treaty of Amiens The Treaty of Amiens (French: ''la paix d'Amiens'') temporarily ended hostilities between France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcont ...
, Britain controlled the island for most of the time from 1794 to 1815, when it was traded back to France at the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars. Martinique has remained a French possession since then. Despite the introduction of successful coffee plantations in the 1720s to Martinique, the first coffee-growing area in the Western hemisphere, as sugar prices declined in the early 1800s, the planter class lost political influence. Slave rebellions in 1789, 1815 and 1822, plus the campaigns of abolitionists such as Cyrille Bissette and
Victor Schœlcher Victor Schœlcher (; 22 July 1804 – 25 December 1893) was a French politician and writer, best known for his work towards the abolition of slavery in France. Biography Schœlcher was born in Paris. His father, Marc Schœlcher (1766–1832), from ...

Victor Schœlcher
, persuaded the French government to end in 1848. As a result, some plantation owners imported workers from India and China. Despite the abolition of slavery, life scarcely improved for most Martinicans; class and racial tensions exploded into rioting in southern Martinique in 1870 following the arrest of Léopold Lubin, a trader of African ancestry who retaliated after he was beaten by a Frenchman. After several deaths, the revolt was crushed by French militia.


20th–21st centuries

On 8 May 1902, erupted and completely destroyed St. Pierre, killing 30,000 people. Due to the eruption refugees from Martinique arrived in boats to the southern villages of
Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago : ; french: Dominique; Dominican Creole French Dominican Creole French is a French-based creole, which is the generally spoken language in Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago language: ; french: Dominique; Do ...

Dominica
with some remaining permanently on the island. In Martinique the only survivor in the town of Saint-Pierre, Auguste Cyparis, was saved by the thick walls of his prison cell. Shortly thereafter the capital shifted to
Fort-de-France Fort-de-France (, , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar a ...

Fort-de-France
, where it remains today. During
WWII World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...

WWII
, the pro-Nazi
Vichy government Vichy France (french: Régime de Vichy; 10 July 1940 – 9 August 1944) is the common name of the French State (') headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known ...
controlled Martinique under Admiral . German
U-boat U-boats were naval submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most importa ...

U-boat
s used Martinique for refuelling and re-supply during the Battle of the Caribbean. In 1942, 182 ships were sunk in the Caribbean, dropping to 45 in 1943, and five in 1944.
Free French Free France (french: France Libre) was the government-in-exile A government in exile (abbreviated as GiE) is a political group which claims to be a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It ...
forces took over on the island on Bastille Day, 14 July 1943. In 1946 the
French National Assembly The National Assembly (french: link=no, italics=set, Assemblée nationale; ) is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Ala ...
voted unanimously to transform the colony into an Overseas Department of France. Meanwhile, the post-war period saw a growing campaign for full independence; a notable proponent of this was the author
Aimé Césaire Aimé Fernand David Césaire (; ; 26 June 1913 – 17 April 2008) was a Francophone and Martinican poet, an Afro-Caribbean author and politician from the region of Martinique. He was "one of the founders of the négritude movement in Francopho ...

Aimé Césaire
, who founded the Progressive Party of Martinique in the 1950s. Tensions boiled over in December 1959 when riots broke out following a racially-charged altercation between two motorists, resulting in three deaths. In 1962, as a result of this and the global turn against colonialism, the strongly pro-independence OJAM (''Organisation de la jeunesse anticolonialiste de le Martinique'') was formed. Its leaders were later arrested by the French authorities. However, they were later acquitted. Tensions rose again in 1974, when gendarmes shot dead two striking banana workers. However the independence movement lost steam as Martinique's economy faltered in the 1970s, resulting in large scale emigration. Hurricanes in 1979–80 severely affected agricultural output, further straining the economy. Greater autonomy was granted by France to the island in the 1970s–80s In 2009 Martinique was convulsed by the French Caribbean general strikes. Initially focusing on cost-of-living issues, the movement soon took on a racial dimension as strikers challenged the continued economic dominance of the '' Béké'', descendants of French European settlers. President
Nicolas Sarkozy Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa (; ; born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as the 23th President of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la ...

Nicolas Sarkozy
later visited the island, promising reform."Sarkozy offers autonomy vote for Martinique"
,
AFP AFP most often refers to: * Agence France-Presse, an international news agency * Australian Federal Police AFP or afp may also refer to: Media *Advertiser-funded programming, a television funding model *American Family Publishers, a magazine sub ...
While ruling out full independence, which he said was desired neither by France nor by Martinique, Sarkozy offered Martiniquans a referendum on the island's future status and degree of autonomy.


Governance

Like
French Guiana French Guiana ( or ; french: link=no, Guyane ) is an overseas department/region and single territorial collectivity A single territorial collectivity (french: collectivité territoriale ''unique'') is a chartered subdivision of France ...

French Guiana
, Martinique is a special collectivity (Unique in French) of the French Republic. It is also an outermost region of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. The inhabitants of Martinique are French citizens with full political and legal rights. Martinique sends
four deputies The Four Deputies ( ar, ٱلنُّوَّاب ٱلْأَرْبَعَة, '), also known as the Gates ( ar, أَبْوَاب, link=no, '), the ''Sufara'' ( ar, سُفَرَاء, lit=emissaries, link=no) or the ''Wukala'' ( ar, وُكَلَاء, lit=ag ...
to the
French National Assembly The National Assembly (french: link=no, italics=set, Assemblée nationale; ) is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Ala ...
and two senators to the
French Senate The Senate (french: Sénat, ) is the upper house of the French Parliament The French Parliament (french: Parlement français) is the bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with t ...
. On 24 January 2010, during a referendum, the inhabitants of Martinique approved by 68.4% the change to be a "special (unique) collectivity" within the framework of article 73 of the French Republic's Constitution. The new council replaces and exercises the powers of both the
General Council#REDIRECT General council {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation {{R ambig ...
and the regional council.


Administrative divisions

Martinique is divided into four ''
arrondissements An arrondissement (, , ) is any of various administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms ...
'' and 34 ''
communes An intentional community is a voluntary residential community A residential community is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention ( ...

communes
''. It had also been divided into 45 ''
cantons A canton is a type of administrative division of a country. In general, cantons are relatively small in terms of area and population when compared with other administrative divisions such as county, counties, Department (administrative division), ...
'', but these were abolished in 2015. The four arrondissements of the island, with their respective locations, are as follows: * Fort-de-France, is the sole prefecture of Martinique. It takes up the central zone of the island. It includes four communes and sixteen cantons. In 2013 the population was 161,021. Besides the capital, it includes the communities of Saint-Joseph and Schœlcher. * La Trinité, one of the three subprefectures on the island and occupies the northeast region. It has ten communes and eleven cantons. In 2013 the population was 81,475. La Trinité contains the communities of La Trinité, Ajoupa-Bouillon,
Basse-Pointe Basse-Pointe (, ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole, Baspwent) is a town and Communes of France, commune in the France, French overseas department of France, overseas department and region, and island of Martinique. See also *Communes of the Martiniqu ...
, Le Gros-Morne,
Le Lorrain Le Lorrain (; Martinican Creole: ) is a town and Communes of France, commune in the France, French Overseas departments and regions of France, overseas region and department of Martinique. Personalities *Raphaël Confiant *Jean Bernabé See also ...
,
Macouba Macouba is a village and Communes of France, commune in the France, French Département d'outre-mer, overseas department of Martinique. See also *Communes of the Martinique department References External links

* Communes of Martiniqu ...
,
Le Marigot Le Marigot is a village and Communes of France, commune in the France, French Département d'outre-mer, overseas department of Martinique. See also *Communes of the Martinique department References External links

* Communes of Martin ...
,
Le Robert Le Robert (; gcf, label=Antillean Creole, Wobè) is a town and the third-largest commune in France, commune in the France, French overseas departments of France, overseas department of Martinique. It is located in the northeastern (Atlantic) side ...
and Sainte-Marie. *
Le Marin Le Marin (; gcf, label=Martinican Creole, Maren) is a town and Communes of France, commune in the France, French Département d'outre-mer, overseas department of Martinique. Points of interest In Le Marin there is Église du Marin, an old church ...
, the second subprefecture of Martinique, makes up the southern part of the island and is composed of twelve communes and thirteen cantons. In 2013 the population was 119,653. The subprefecture includes the communities of La Marin, Les Anses d'Arlet,
Le Diamant Le Diamant is a town and Communes of France, commune in the France, French Département d'outre-mer, overseas department of Martinique. See also *Communes of the Martinique department References External links Official website
* Commu ...

Le Diamant
, Ducos,
Le François Le François (Martinican Creole: ''Fwanswa'') is a town and communes of France, commune in the arrondissement of Le Marin on Martinique, from the island capital of Fort-de-France. See also *Communes of the Martinique department References Exte ...
,
Rivière-Pilote Rivière-Pilote () is a town and Communes of France, commune in the France, French Département d'outre-mer, overseas department of Martinique. The village is situated on the southern end of Martinique, between the village of Sainte-Luce, Martiniq ...
, Rivière-Salée, , , ,
Les Trois-Îlets Les Trois-Îlets (; gcf, label=Martinican Creole, Twazilé) is a town and Communes of France, commune in the France, French Overseas departments and regions of France, overseas department and region of Martinique. It was the birthplace of Joséph ...
, and Le Vauclin. * Saint-Pierre, the third subprefecture of the island. It comprises eight communes and five cantons, lying in the northwest of Martinique. In 2013 the population was 23,402. Together with Saint-Pierre, its communities include
Le Carbet Le Carbet ( ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole, Kabé) is a village and Communes of France, commune in the France, French Overseas departments of France, overseas department of Martinique. See also *Communes of Martinique *Paul Gauguin Interpretation ...
, Case-Pilote-Bellefontaine,
Le Morne-Rouge Le Morne-Rouge is a Communes of France, commune and town in the France, French Département d'outre-mer, overseas department of Martinique. See also *Communes of the Martinique department References External links

* Communes of Marti ...
, and
Le Prêcheur Le Prêcheur (; gcf, label=Martinican Creole, Pwéchè) is a village and Communes of France, commune in the France, French Overseas departments and regions of France, overseas department, region and island of Martinique. See also *Communes of Mar ...
.


Representation of the State

The
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
of Martinique is Fort-de-France. The three sub-prefectures are Le Marin, Saint-Pierre and La Trinité. The French State is represented in Martinique by a prefect (Stanislas Cazelles since 5 February 2020) , and by two sub-prefects in Le Marin (Corinne Blanchot-Prosper) and La Trinité / Saint-Pierre (Nicolas Onimus, appointed on 20 May 2020). The prefecture was criticized for racism following the publication on its Twitter account of a poster calling for physical distancing against the
coronavirus Coronaviruses are a group of related Orthornavirae, RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, they cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses in humans include some ca ...

coronavirus
and showing a black man and a white man separated by pine cones.


Institutions

The President of the Executive Council of Martinique is Serge Letchimy as of 2 July 2021. The Executive Council of Martinique is composed of nine members (a president and eight executive councilors). The deliberative assembly of the collective of Martinique is composed of the President of the Executive Council and the President of the Executive Council. The deliberative assembly of the territorial collectivity is the Assembly of Martinique, composed of 51 elected members and chaired by Lucien Saliber as of 2 July 2021. The advisory council of the
territorial collectivity A territorial collectivity (or territorial authority, french: collectivité territoriale, previously ') is a chartered subdivision Subdivision may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Subdivision (metre), in music * Subdivision (film), ''Subdivisi ...
of Martinique is the Economic, Social, Environmental, Cultural and Educational Council of Martinique (Conseil économique, social, environnemental, de la culture et de l'éducation de Martinique), composed of 68 members. Its president is Justin Daniel since 20 May 2021.


National representation

Martinique has been represented since 17 June 2017, in the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media L ...
by four deputies (Serge Letchimy, Jean-Philippe Nilor, Josette Manin and Manuéla Kéclard-Mondésir) and in the Senate by two senators (Maurice Antiste and Catherine Conconne) since 24 September 2017. Martinique is also represented in the Economic, Social and Environmental Council by Pierre Marie-Joseph since 26 April 2021


Institutional and statutory evolution of the island

During the 2000s, the political debate in Martinique focused on the question of the evolution of the island's status. Two political ideologies,
assimilationism Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble a society's Dominant culture, majority group or assume the values, behaviors, and beliefs of another group whether fully or partially. There are different ...
and
autonomism Autonomism, also known as autonomist Marxism and autonomous Marxism, is an anti-authoritarian Anti-authoritarianism is opposition to authoritarianism, which is defined as "a form of social organisation characterised by submission to authority ...
, clashed. On the one hand, there are those who want a change of status based on Article 73 of the French Constitution, i.e., that all French laws apply in Martinique as of right, which in law is called legislative identity, and on the other hand, the autonomists who want a change of status based on Article 74 of the French Constitution, i.e., an autonomous status subject to the regime of legislative specialty following the example of St. Martin and St. Barthelemy. Since the constitutional revision of 28 March 2003, Martinique has four options: * First possibility: the status quo, Martinique retains its status as an Overseas Department and Region, under Article 73 of the Constitution. The DROMs are under the regime of legislative identity. In this framework, the laws and regulations are applicable as of right, with the adaptations required by the particular characteristics and constraints of the communities concerned. * Second possibility: if the local stakeholders, and first and foremost the elected representatives, agree, they can, within the framework of Article 73 of the Constitution, propose an institutional evolution such as the creation of a single assembly (merger of the general council and the regional council). However, the department and the region will remain. The government may propose to the President of the Republic to consult the voters on this issue. In case of a negative answer, nothing will be possible. In case of positive response, the final decision will be taken by the Parliament, which will finally decide whether the reform is carried out by passing an ordinary law. * Third possibility: those elected may propose the creation of a new collectivity within the framework of Article 73 of the French Constitution. This new community will replace the department and the region. It will bring together the competences currently attributed to the General Council and the Regional Council. This community governed by Article 73 is subject to the regime of legislative identity and is therefore not autonomous. It will have as institutions an executive council, a deliberative assembly and an economic and social council. * Fourth possibility: if a consensus is reached, the elected representatives may propose to the government a change of status, i.e., the transformation of Martinique into an overseas collectivity (COM). Indeed, since the constitutional revision of 28 March 2003, the overseas departments may, under Article 74, become an overseas collectivity (COM) like St. Martin and St. Barthélemy. Unlike the overseas departments, the overseas collectivities are subject to legislative specialization. The laws and decrees of the Republic apply to them under certain conditions established by the organic law defining their status. The overseas departments have a greater degree of autonomy than the DOMs. They have an executive council, a territorial council and an economic and social council. The prefect is the representative of the French State in the overseas collectivity. However, the
French Constitution The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958. It is typically called the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, and it replaced the Constitution of the Fourth Republic, of 1946. Charles de Gaulle Charles André Joseph ...
specifies in Article 72-4 that "no change may be made, for all or part of one of the communities mentioned in the second paragraph of Article 72-3, from one of the regimes provided for in Articles 73 and 74, without the prior consent of the electors of the community or part of the community concerned having been obtained, under the conditions provided for in the following paragraph. In 2003, a new organization is envisaged, in which the regional and departmental institutions would be merged into a single institution. This proposal was rejected in Martinique (but also in Guadeloupe) by 50.48% in a referendum held on 7 December 2003. On 10 January 2010, a
consultation Consultation may refer to: * Public consultation, a process by which the public's input on matters affecting them is sought * Consultation (Texas), the 1835 Texas meeting of colonists on a proposed rebellion against the Republic of Mexico * Consult ...

consultation
of the population was held. Voters were asked to vote in a referendum on a possible change in the status of their territory. The ballot proposed voters to "approve or reject the transition to the regime provided for in Article 74 of the Constitution". The majority of voters, 79.3%, said "no". The following 24 January, in a second referendum, 68.4% of the population of Martinique approved the transition to a "single collectivity" under Article 73 of the Constitution, i.e., a single
assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is the body of ethics, Procedural l ...
that would exercise the powers of the General Council and the Regional Council.


New collectivity of Martinique

The project of the elected representatives of Martinique to the government proposes a single territorial community governed by Article 73 of the Constitution, whose name is "Territorial Community of Martinique". The single assembly that replaces the General Council and the Regional Council is called the "Assembly of Martinique". The Assembly of Martinique is composed of 51 councilors, elected for a six-year term of office by the
proportional representation#REDIRECT Proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. The concept applies mainly to geographical, and to ideolog ...

proportional representation
system (the
electoral district An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is a subdivision of a larger state St ...
is divided into four sections). A majority bonus of 20% is granted to the first place list. The
executive body Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government) The executive is the branch of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. ...
of this community is called the "executive council", which is composed of nine executive councilors, including a president. The president of the community of Martinique is the president of the executive council. The executive council is responsible to the Assembly of Martinique, which may overrule it by a motion of constructive censure. Unlike the previous functioning of the General Council and the Regional Council, the Assembly of Martinique is separate from the Executive Council and is headed by a bureau and a president. The new collectivity of Martinique combines the powers of the general and regional councils, but may obtain new powers through empowerments under Article 73. The executive council is assisted by an advisory council, the Economic, Social,
Environmental A biophysical environment is a life, biotic and Abiotic component, abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution. A biophysical environ ...
, Cultural and Educational Council of Martinique. The bill was approved on 26 January 2011, by the
French Government The Government of the French Republic (french: Gouvernement de la République française ) exercises executive power ''Executive Power'' is Vince Flynn's fifth novel, and the fourth to feature Mitch Rapp, an American agent that works for t ...
. The ordinary law was submitted to Parliament during the first half of 2011 and resulted in the adoption of Law No. 2011-884 27 July 2011, on the territorial communities of French Guiana and Martinique.


Political forces

Political life in Martinique is essentially based on Martinican political parties and local federations of national parties (PS and LR). The following classification takes into account their position with regard to the statutory evolution of the island: there are the assimilationists (in favor of an institutional or statutory evolution within the framework of Article 73 of the French Constitution), the autonomists and the (in favor of a statutory evolution based on Article 74 of the French Constitution). Indeed, on 18 December 2008, during the congress of Martinique's departmental and regional elected representatives, the thirty-three pro-independence elected representatives (MIM/CNCP/MODEMAS/PALIMA) of the two assemblies voted unanimously in favor of a change in the island's status based on Article 74 of the French Constitution, which allows access to autonomy; this change in status was massively rejected (79.3%) by the population during the
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...

referendum
of 10 January 2010.


Geography

Part of the
archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

archipelago
of the
Antilles The Antilles (; gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles ( es, link=no, Pequeñas Anti ...

Antilles
, Martinique is located in the
Caribbean Sea The Caribbean Sea ( es, Mar Caribe; french: Mer des Caraïbes; ht, Lamè Karayib; jam, Kiaribiyan Sii; nl, Caraïbische Zee; pap, Laman Karibe) is an Americas, American Mediterranean sea (oceanography), mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean ...
about northeast of the coast of South America and about southeast of the
Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with ...

Dominican Republic
. It is directly north of
St. Lucia Saint Lucia (, ; french: Sainte-Lucie) is an island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. The island was previously called Iyonola, the name given to the island by the native Arawaks, ...

St. Lucia
, northwest of
Barbados Barbados is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or c ...

Barbados
and south of
Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago : ; french: Dominique; Dominican Creole French Dominican Creole French is a French-based creole, which is the generally spoken language in Dominica Dominica ( or ; Kalinago language: ; french: Dominique; Do ...

Dominica
. The total area of Martinique is , of which is water and the rest land. Martinique is the 3rd largest island in The Lesser Antilles after
Trinidad Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago (, ), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean The Caribbean ( ...

Trinidad
and
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe (; ; gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and voca ...
. It stretches in length and in width. The highest point is the volcano of
Mount Pelée Mount Pelée or Mont Pelée ( ; french: Montagne Pelée , meaning "bald mountain" or "peeled mountain") is an active volcano at the northern end of Martinique, an island and France, French overseas department in the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc of ...

Mount Pelée
at
above sea level Above may refer to: *Above (artist) Tavar Zawacki formerly known as 'ABOVE' (born 1981) is an American abstract art Abstract art uses visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of ind ...
. There are numerous small islands, particularly off the east coast. The Atlantic, or "windward" coast of Martinique is difficult for navigation by ships. A combination of coastal cliffs, shallow coral reefs and cays, and strong winds make the area a notoriously hazardous zone for sea traffic. The clearly separates the north Atlantic and south Atlantic coast. The Caribbean, or "leeward" coast of Martinique is much more favourable to sea traffic. In addition to waters off of the leeward coast being shielded from the harsh Atlantic trade winds by the island, the sea bed itself descends steeply from the shore. This ensures that most potential hazards are too deep underwater to be an issue, and it also prevents the growth of corals that could otherwise pose a threat to passing ships. The north of the island is especially mountainous. It features four ensembles of ''pitons'' (
volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, such as the trajectory of a planet a ...

volcano
es) and ''mornes'' (mountains): the Piton Conil on the extreme North, which dominates the Dominica Channel; Mont Pelée, an active volcano; the Morne Jacob; and the , an ensemble of five extinct volcanoes covered with rainforest and dominating the Bay of Fort de France at . Mont Pelée's
volcanic ash Volcanic ash consists of fragments of rock, mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure ...
has created grey and black sand beaches in the north (in particular between Anse Ceron and Anse des Gallets), contrasting markedly from the white sands of Les Salines in the south. The south is more easily traversed, though it still features some impressive geographic features. Because it is easier to travel to, and due to the many beaches and food facilities throughout this region, the south receives the bulk of the tourist traffic. The beaches from Pointe de Bout, through Diamant (which features right off the coast of Roche de Diamant), St. Luce, the department of St. Anne and down to Les Salines are popular.


Relief

The terrain is mountainous on this island of volcanic origin. The oldest areas correspond to the volcanic zones at the southern end of the island and towards the peninsula of La Caravelle to the east. The island has developed over the last 20 million years according to a sequence of movements and eruptions of volcanic activity to the north. The island is volcanic in origin, lying along the
subduction Subduction is a geological process in which the oceanic lithosphere A lithosphere ( grc, λίθος [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial planet, terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. O ...

subduction
fault where the
South American Plate The South American Plate is a major tectonic plate This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface Earth is the third planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remn ...
slides beneath the
Caribbean Plate The Caribbean Plate is a mostly oceanic tectonic plate This is a list of tectonic plates on Earth's surface. Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth's crust and uppermost mantle, together referred to as the lithosphere. The plates are around ...
. Martinique has eight different centres of volcanic activity. The oldest rocks are
andesitic Andesite ( or ) is an extrusive A volcanic rock from Italy with a relatively large six-sided phenocryst (diameter about 1 mm) surrounded by a fine-grained groundmass, as seen in thin section under a petrographic microscope Extrusive rock ref ...
lavas dated to about 24 million years ago, mixed with
tholeiitic The tholeiitic magma series is one of two main magma series in subalkaline igneous rocks, the other being the Calc-alkaline magma series, calc-alkaline series. A magma series is a chemically distinct range of magma compositions that describes the e ...
magma Magma () is the molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rock Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ''ignis'' meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main The three types of rocks, rock types, the others ...

magma
containing iron and
magnesium Magnesium is a chemical element upright=1.0, 500px, The chemical elements ordered by link=Periodic table In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science ...

magnesium
. Mount Pelée, the island's most dramatic feature, formed about 400,000 years ago. Pelée erupted in 1792, 1851, and twice in 1902. The eruption of 8 May 1902, destroyed Saint-Pierre and killed 28,000 people in 2 minutes; that of 30 August 1902, caused nearly 1,100 deaths, mostly in Morne-Red and Ajoupa-Bouillon. The east coast, coast of the wind or of the Islands, has been called in the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
cabesterre. The term cabesterre in Martinique designates more specifically the area of La Caravelle. This windward coast, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, is directly exposed to the trade winds and the sea bottom. The northern part of the Grand River in Sainte-Marie is basically surrounded by cliffs with very few mooring points and access to maritime navigation is limited to inshore fishing with small traditional Martinique boats.


Flora and fauna

The northern end of the island catches most of the rainfall and is heavily forested, featuring species such as
bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in th ...

bamboo
,
mahogany Mahogany is a straight-grained, reddish-brown timber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant wit ...
,
rosewood Rosewood refers to any of a number of richly hued timber Lumber, also known as timber, is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant wit ...
and
locust Locusts (derived from the Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considere ...

locust
. The south is drier and dominated by savanna-like brush, including
cacti A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses, or less commonly, cactus) is a member of the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light en ...

cacti
, Copaiba balsam,
logwood ''Haematoxylum campechianum'' (blackwood, bloodwood tree, bluewood, campeachy tree, campeachy wood, campeche logwood, campeche wood, Jamaica wood, logwood or logwood tree) is a species of Flowering plant, flowering tree in the legume family, Fab ...
and
acacia ''Acacia'', commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of nam ...

acacia
.
Anole Dactyloidae are a family of lizard Lizards (suborder Lacertilia) are a widespread group of Squamata, squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The gro ...

Anole
lizards and fer-de-lance snakes are native to the island.
Mongoose A mongoose is a small terrestrial carnivorous A carnivore , meaning "meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization allowed the dome ...

Mongoose
s ('' Urva auropunctata''), introduced in the 1800s to control the snake population, have become a particularly cumbersome
introduced species An introduced species, alien species, exotic species, adventive species, immigrant species, foreign species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, ...
as they prey upon bird eggs and have exterminated or endangered a number of native birds, including the Martinique trembler, white-breasted trembler and
White-breasted Thrasher#REDIRECT White-breasted thrasher {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
. Bat species include the Jamaican fruit bat, the Antillean fruit-eating bat, the Little yellow-shouldered bat, Davy's naked-backed bat, the Greater bulldog bat, Schwartz's myotis, and the Mexican free-tailed bat.


Beaches

Martinique has many beaches: those in the south of the island are of white sand, unlike those in the north which are of volcanic origin and therefore of black or gray sand. Most of the beaches are wild, without services and without surveillance, but some are organized and give the possibility to do sports and activities related to the sea.


Beaches of the South Caribbean

* Les Salines * Point du Marin * Pointe des Salines * Anse Meunière * Anse Mabouyas * Grande Anse * Anse Dufour * Anse Noir * Anse Mitan * Anse à l'Ane


South Atlantic beaches

* Anse Trabaud * Anse Michel * Anse Au Bois * Anse Esprit * Ilet Chevalier * Anse Baleine * Anse Grosse Roche * Grand Macabou * Gli Ilets di François


Northern Caribbean Beaches

* Anse Couleuvre * Anse Céron


North Atlantic Beaches

* Tartane and L'Etang Sound * Anse Bonneville * Anse Charpentier


Hydrography

The island has a small hydrographic network, due to its geographic and morphological characteristics, it has short and torrential rivers. The main ones are: The Lézarde, 30 km long, the longest on the island. To the North are: Galion, Lorrain, Hood, White, Lower Pointe, Hackaert River, Macouba, La Grande, Prêcheur, Roxelane, Father River, Carbet River. To the Center: Monsieur River, Madame, Longvilliers. To the south: the Salt River, Vauclin, Paquemar, Simon, and La Nau.


Economy

In 2014, Martinique had a total GDP of 8.4 billion
euro The euro (currency symbol, symbol: euro sign, €; ISO 4217, code: EUR) is the official currency of 19 of the Member state of the European Union, member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area ...

euro
s. Its economy is heavily dependent on tourism, limited agricultural production, and grant aid from mainland France. Historically, Martinique's economy relied on agriculture, notably sugar and bananas, but by the beginning of the 21st century this sector had dwindled considerably. Sugar production has declined, with most of the sugarcane now used for the production of rum. Banana exports are increasing, going mostly to mainland France. Kepone#French Antilles, Chlordecone, a pesticide used in the cultivation of bananas before a ban in 1993, has been found to have contaminated farming ground, rivers and fish, and affected the health of islanders. Fishing and agriculture has had to stop in affected areas, having a significant effect on the economy. The bulk of meat, vegetable and grain requirements must be imported. This contributes to a chronic trade deficit that requires large annual transfers of aid from mainland France. All goods entering Martinique are charged a variable "sea toll" which may reach 30% of the value of the cargo and provides 40% of the island's total revenue. Additionally the government charges an "annual due" of 1–2.5% and a value added tax of 2.2–8.5%.


Exports and imports

Exports of goods and services in 2015 amounted to €1,102  million (€504  million of goods), of which more than 20% were refined petroleum products (SARA refinery located in the town of Le Lamentin), €95.9  million of agricultural, forestry, fish and aquaculture products, €62.4  million of agri-food industry products and €54.8  million of other goods. Imports of goods and services in 2015 were €3,038  million (of which €2,709  million were goods), of which approximately 40% were crude and refined petroleum products, €462.6  million were agricultural and agri-food products, and €442.8  million were mechanical, electrical, electronic and computer equipment.


Tourism

Tourism has become more important than agricultural exports as a source of foreign exchange. Most visitors come from mainland France, Canada and the US. Roughly 16% of the total businesses on the island (some 6,000 companies) provide tourist-related services.


Agriculture


Banana

Banana cultivation is the main agricultural activity, with more than 7,200 hectares cultivated, nearly 220,000 tons produced and almost 12,000 jobs (direct + indirect) in 2006 figures. Its weight in the island's economy is low (1.6%), however it generates more than 40% of the agricultural value added.


Rum

Rum, and particularly agricultural rum, accounted for 23% of agri-food value added in 2005 and employed 380 people on the island (including traditional rum). The island's production is about 90,000 hl of Ethanol, pure alcohol in 2009, of which 79,116 hl of pure alcohol is agricultural rum (2009).


Sugarcane

In 2009, sugarcane cultivation occupied 4,150 hectares, or 13.7% of agricultural land. The area under cultivation has increased by more than 20% in the last 20 years, a rapid increase explained by the high added value of the rum produced and the rise in world sugar prices85. This production is increasingly concentrated, with farms of more than 50 hectares accounting for 6.2% of the farms and 73.4% of the area under production. Annual production was about 220,000 tons in 2009, of which almost 90,000 tons went to sugar production, and the rest was delivered to agricultural rum distilleries.


Pineapples

Pineapples used to be an important part of agricultural production, but in 2005, according to IEDOM, they accounted for only 1% of agricultural production in value (2.5 million euros compared to 7.9 million in 2000).


Infrastructure


Transport

Martinique's main and only airport with commercial flights is Martinique Aimé Césaire International Airport. It serves flights to and from Europe, the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
, Venezuela, the United States, and Canada. See List of airports in Martinique. Fort-de-France is the major harbour. The island has regular ferry service to Guadeloupe, Dominica and St. Lucia. There are also several local ferry companies that connect Fort-de-France with Pointe du Bout. The road network is extensive and well-maintained, with freeways in the area around Fort-de-France. Buses run frequently between the capital and St. Pierre.


Roads

In 2019, Martinique's road network consisted of 2,123 km: * 7 km of highway (A1 between
Fort-de-France Fort-de-France (, , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar a ...

Fort-de-France
and Le Lamentin) ; * 919 km of departmental and national roads * 1,197 km of communal roads. In proportion to its population, Martinique is the French department with the highest number of vehicle registrations. In 2019, 19,137 new vehicles were registered in Martinique, i.e. 42 new vehicles were purchased per 1,000 Domicile (law), inhabitants (+14 in 5 years), to the great benefit of dealers.


Public transport

The Public transport, public entity "Martinique Transport" was created in December 2014. This establishment is in charge of urban, intercity passenger (cabs), maritime, school and disabled student transport throughout the island, as well as the bus network. The first exclusive right-of-way public transport line in Martinique (TCSP), served by high service level buses between Fort-de-France and Le Lamentin airport, was put into service on 13 August 2018. Extensions to Schœlcher, Robert and Ducos are planned.


Ports

Given the insular nature of Martinique, its supply by sea is important. The port of Fort-de-France is the seventh largest French port in terms of container traffic. After 2012, it became the Grand Port Maritime Port (GPM) of Martinique, following the State's decision to modernize port infrastructures of national interest.


Air Services

The island's airport is Martinique-Aimé-Césaire International Airport. It is located in the municipality of Le Lamentin. Its civilian traffic (1,696,071 passengers in 2015) ranks it thirteenth among French airports, behind those of two other overseas departments (Guadeloupe – Pôle Caraïbes de Pointe-à-Pitre Airport, Guadeloupe, and La Réunion-Roland-Garros Airport). Its traffic is very strongly polarized by metropolitan France, with very limited (192,244 passengers in 2017) and declining international traffic.


Railroads

At the beginning of the 20th century, Martinique had more than 240 km of railways serving the sugar factories (cane transport). Only one tourist train remains in Sainte-Marie between the Saint-James house and the banana museum.


Communications

The country code top-level domain for Martinique is .mq, but .fr is often used instead. The List of country calling codes, country code for international dialling is 596. The entire island uses a single area code (also 596) for landline phones and 696 for cell phones. (596 is dialled twice when calling a Martinique landline from another country.)


Mobile telephony

There are three mobile telephone networks in Martinique: Orange, SFR Caraïbe and Digicel. The arrival of Free, in partnership with Digicel, was planned for 2020.45 According to Arcep, by mid-2018, Martinique is 99% covered by 4G.


Television

The DTT package includes 10 free channels: 4 national channels of the France Télévisions group, the news channel France 24, Arte and 4 local channels Martinique 1re, ViàATV, KMT Télévision. Zouk TV stopped broadcasting in April 2021 and will be subsequently replaced by Zitata TV, whose broadcasting is delayed following the 1974 covidae pandemic. Viewers in Martinique do not have free access to other free national channels in the Digital terrestrial television, DTT package in mainland France (TF1 group, M6 group, etc.). Viewers in the Overseas France, French overseas territories also do not have free access to the public service cultural channel "culturebox," which is not broadcast locally on DTT. The French language, French-language satellite package Canal+ Caraïbes is available in the territory.


Telephone and Internet

In early 2019, Orange put into service "Kanawa", a new submarine cable linking Martinique to French Guiana. Martinique is also connected by other submarine cables: ECFS (en), Americas-2 (en) and Southern
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
Fiber.


Demographics


Population

Martinique had a population of 385,551 as of January 2013. There are an estimated 260,000 people of Martinican origin living in mainland France, most of them in the Paris region. Emigration was highest in the 1970s, causing population growth to almost stop, but it is comparatively light today.


Ethnic groups

The population of Martinique is mainly of African diaspora, African descent generally mixed with European, Amerindian (Island Caribs, Carib), Indo-Martiniquais (descendants of 19th-century Tamils, Tamil immigrants from South India), Lebanese, Syrian or Chinese. Martinique also has a small Syria, Syro-Lebanese people, Lebanese community, a small but increasing Overseas Chinese, Chinese community, and the '' Béké'' community, descendants of the first European settlers. Whites in total represent 5% of the population of Martinique. The Béké population represents around 1% of Martinique's population, mostly of noble ancestry or members of the old bourgeoisie. In addition to the island population, the island hosts a mainland French community, most of which live on the island on a temporary basis (generally from 3 to 5 years).


Religion

About 90% of Martiniquans are Christians, Christian, predominantly Roman Catholic as well as smaller numbers of various
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
denominations. There are much smaller communities of other faiths such as Islam, Hinduism in Martinique, Hinduism and the Baháʼí Faith. The island has 49 Parish (Catholic Church), parishes and several historic places of worship, such as the St. Louis Cathedral, Fort-de-France, Saint-Louis Cathedral of Fort de France, the Sacred Heart Church of Balata, and the Co-Cathedral of Our Lady of Assumption, Saint-Pierre.


Catholic Church

Catholic Christians follow the Latin rite, with parishes in each municipality and village of the territory. The island has the following places of worship classified as historic monuments: * St. Louis Cathedral, Fort-de-France, Saint-Louis Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint Louis) in
Fort-de-France Fort-de-France (, , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar a ...

Fort-de-France
, erected in 1850 by a bull of Pope Pius IX, is currently the seat of the archdiocese of Saint-Pierre and Fort-de-France since 1967. * Church of the Sacré-coeur (Sacred Heart of Jesus, Sacred Heart) in Balata * Cathedral of Notre-Dame-de-l'Assomption (Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption) in Saint-Pierre de la Martinique. The former church of Mouillage, located on the corner of Victor Hugo Street and Dupuy Street, in the Mouillage district of Saint-Pierre, was completed in 1956. * Our Lady of the Assumption Church, Sainte-Marie, Our Lady of the Assumption Church, in Sainte-Marie, a town in Martinique, dates to 1658. The Archdiocese of Saint-Pierre and Fort-de-France (Latin language, Latin: archidioecesis Sancti Petri et Arcis Gallicae seu Martinicensis) is an ecclesiastical circumscription of the Catholic Church in the Caribbean, based in Saint-Pierre and Fort-de-France, on the island of Martinique. The archdiocese of Saint-Pierre and Fort-de-France is metropolitan and its suffragan dioceses are Basse-Terre and Pointe-à-Pitre and Cayenne.


Languages

The official language of Martinique is French, which is spoken by most of the population. The department was integrated into France in 1946, and consequently became French. Most residents also speak Martinican Creole language, Creole (''Martinique Creole'', ''Kréyol Mat'nik, Kreyòl''), a form of Antillean Creole closely related to the varieties spoken in neighboring English-dominated islands of Saint Lucia and Dominica. Martiniquan Creole is based on French, Carib language, Carib and African languages with elements of English, Spanish, and Portuguese language, Portuguese[''wikipedia:Citation needed, citation needed'']. Also, unlike other varieties of French creole, such as Mauritian Creole, Martinican Creole is not readily understood by speakers of Standard French due to significant differences in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and pronunciation[''wikipedia:Citation needed, citation needed'']. It continues to be used in oral storytelling traditions and other forms of speech and to a lesser extent in writing[''wikipedia:Citation needed, citation needed'']. French and Creole are in a Diglossia, diglossic situation in Martinique, where French is used in official dialogue and Martinican Creole is used in casual or familial contexts. Creole was a spoken language with a developed "oraliture"; it wasn't until the mid 20th century that Martinican Creole began to be written. Since then, decreolization of the language has taken place via the adoption of Standard French features, mostly unconsciously, but some speakers have noticed that they do not speak Creole like their parents once did. Being an Overseas departments and regions of France, overseas department of France, the island has European, French, Caribbean, Martinican, black and Creole peoples, Creole markers of identity, all being influenced by foreign factors, social factors, cultural factors and, as a reportedly important marker, linguistic practices. Martinican and Creole peoples, Creole identities are specifically asserted through encouragement of Creole language, Creole and its use in literature, in a movement known as ''Créolité,'' that was started by Patrick Chamoiseau, Jean Bernabé and Raphaël Confiant. Martinican Creole used to be a shameful language, and it wasn't until the 1970s that it has been revalorized through literature and increasing Code-switching, code switching. People now speak Martinican Creole more often and in more contexts. Speaking Creole in public schools was forbidden until 1982, which is thought to have discouraged parents from using Creole in the home. In collaboration with GEREC (''Groupe d’Etudes et de Recherches en Espace Créolophone'') Raphaël Confiant created KAPES KREYOL (Certificate of aptitude for secondary school teachers (France), CAPES for Creole, ''Certificat d'aptitude au professorat de l'enseignement du second degré)'', which is an aptitude exam that allowed Creole teachers in secondary school. This debuted the 9th of February, 2001. Recently, the education authority, ''Académie de la Martinique'', launched "Parcours Creole +" in 2019, a project trialling bilingual education of children in French and Martinican Creole. Rather than being a topic to be learned itself, Creole became a language that classes were taught in, such as arts, math, physical activity, etc. Though Creole is normally not used in professional situations, members of the media and politicians have begun to use it more frequently as a way to redeem national identity and prevent cultural assimilation by mainland France.


Linguistic Features of Martinican Creole

One of the features of Martinican Creole is that is has General Locative case, Locative Marking (''GLM'', also called ''General Locative Adposition'', ''Goal/Source (in)difference'' and ''Motion-to=Motion-from)''. This means that source locations, final locations and static entity locations are expressed morphologically identical. Some West Africa, West-African languages that are possibly contributors to Martinican Creole also present GLM. Martinican Creole locative marking exists in 3 morphological types, including: # spatial prepositions as free morphemes; #* These include "''an''" (in), "''adan''" (inside), "''douvan''" (in front), "''anba''" (under) and "''anlè''" (on). # spatial morphemes "a-", "an(n)-", and "o(z)-" bound to the noun on their right; #* Only bare lexemes that depict certain locations will take on these particles # phonologically null locative markers #* In ambiguous sentences, these are added to polysyllabic city names


Culture

As an overseas ''département'' of France, Martinique's culture blends French and
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
influences. The city of Saint-Pierre (destroyed by a volcanic eruption of
Mount Pelée Mount Pelée or Mont Pelée ( ; french: Montagne Pelée , meaning "bald mountain" or "peeled mountain") is an active volcano at the northern end of Martinique, an island and France, French overseas department in the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc of ...

Mount Pelée
), was often referred to as the "Paris of the
Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles ( es, link=no, Antillas Menores; french: link=no, Petites Antilles; pap, Antias Menor; nl, Kleine Antillen) are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea The Caribbean Sea ( es, Mar Caribe; french: Mer des Caraïbes; ht, ...
". Following traditional French custom, many businesses close at midday to allow a lengthy lunch, then reopen later in the afternoon. Today, Martinique has a higher standard of living than most other Caribbean countries. French products are easily available, from Chanel fashions to Limoges porcelain. Studying in the ''métropole'' (mainland France, especially Paris) is common for young adults. Martinique has been a vacation hotspot for many years, attracting both upper-class French and more budget-conscious travelers.


Cuisine

Martinique has a hybrid cuisine, mixing elements of African, French, Carib Amerindian and culture of India, Indian subcontinental traditions. One of its most famous dishes is the Colombo (compare kuzhambu ( ta, குழம்பு) for gravy or broth), a unique curry of chicken (curry chicken), meat or fish with vegetables, spiced with a distinctive ''Spice mix#Masala, masala'' of Tamil origins, sparked with tamarind, and often containing wine, coconut milk, cassava and rum. A strong tradition of Martiniquan desserts includes cakes made with pineapple, rum, and a wide range of local ingredients.


Literature

Sisters Jeanne Nardal and Paulette Nardal were involved in the creation of the Négritude movement. Yva Léro was a writer and painter who co-founded the Women's Union of Martinique. Marie-Magdeleine Carbet wrote with her partner under the pseudonym Carbet.
Aimé Césaire Aimé Fernand David Césaire (; ; 26 June 1913 – 17 April 2008) was a Francophone and Martinican poet, an Afro-Caribbean author and politician from the region of Martinique. He was "one of the founders of the négritude movement in Francopho ...

Aimé Césaire
is perhaps Martinique's most famous writer; he was one of the main figures in the Négritude literary movement. René Ménil was a surrealist writer who founded the journal ''Tropiques'' with Aimé and Suzanne Césaire and later formulated the concept of Antillanité. Other surrealist writers of that era included Étienne Léro and Jules Monnerot, who co-founded the journal ''Légitime Défense'' with Simone Yoyotte and Ménil. Édouard Glissant was later influenced by Césaire and Ménil, and in turn had an influence on Patrick Chamoiseau, who founded the Créolité movement with Raphaël Confiant and Jean Bernabé.[''wikipedia:Citation needed, citation needed''] Raphaël Confiant was a poetry, prose and non-fiction writer who supports Creole and tries to bring both French and Creole (Martinican and Antillean Creole, Guadeloupean) together in his work. He is specifically known for his contribution to the Créolité movement. Frantz Fanon, a prominent critic of colonialism and racism, was also from Martinique.


Music

Martinique has a large popular music industry, which gained in international renown after the success of Zouk (musical movement), zouk music in the later 20th century. Zouk's popularity was particularly intense in France, where the genre became an important symbol of identity for Martinique and Guadeloupe.Ledesma and Scaramuzzo, pp. 289–303 Zouk's origins are in the folk music of Martinique and Guadeloupe, especially Martinican chouval bwa, and Guadeloupan gwo ka. There's also notable influence of the pan-Caribbean calypso music, calypso tradition and Haitian compas, kompa.


Symbols and flags

As a part of the French Republic, the Flag of France, French tricolour is in use and ''La Marseillaise'' is sung at national French events. When representing Martinique outside of the island for sport and cultural events the civil flag is 'Ipséité’ and the anthem is ‘Lorizon’. Martinique's Civil ensign is the cross of St Michael (White cross with 4 blue quarters with one snake in each), which is the official civil ensign of Martinique (it also used to be the one of
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia (, ; french: Sainte-Lucie) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individu ...

Saint Lucia
). A coat of arms adaptation of the civil ensign (also called snake flag) is used in an unofficial but formal context such as by the Gendarmerie. The independentists also have their own flag, using a red/black/green colours. Image:Flag of the Territorial Collectivity of Martinique.svg, The Ipséité is a civil flag, designed for use in international cultural and sporting events to represent the territory. Image:Snake Flag of Martinique.svg, Civil ensign of Martinique, a St Michael cross with white snakes. Also called the 'snake flag' of Martinique. Its use is sometimes controversial. Image:Flag of the Front National de Libération de la Martinique.svg, Also called ‘red, green and black’, this flag is used by the independence movement. Image:Flag of Martinique (Local).svg, Flag of the High Council of Martinique (Collectivité Territoriale de la Martinique).


Sport

Martinique does not participate in the Pan American Games or the Olympic Games, nor do the delegations of
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe (; ; gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and voca ...
, French Guiana, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Anguilla, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands and Greenland, as they are not independent countries endorsed by PASO (Panam Sports, Pan American Sports Organization) and do not have Olympic committees recognized by the International Olympic Committee.


Association football

The Martinique national football team is affiliated with CONCACAF, but not FIFA, so it does not play in World Cup Qualifiers, but can play friendly matches and CONCACAF tournaments such as the CONCACAF Nations League and 2021 CONCACAF Gold Cup, Gold Cup. Since Martiniquais people are French citizens, they may choose to represent France national football team, France in international competitions. Several French players also have had roots in Martinique although they were born or raised in France. Among the most famous include Thierry Henry, Eric Abidal, Raphaël Varane, Sylvain Wiltord and Loïc Rémy, all of whom represented France on multiple occasions and in Henry's case won the European Golden Boot twice. Henry and Varane also have won a FIFA World Cup each. Martinique has its own soccer league known as the Ligue de Football de Martinique. The Martinique men's soccer championship, known as the Regional 1 (R1) – Trophée Gérard Janvion, is a premier local soccer competition in the territory. It is held annually in the form of a championship between fourteen amateur clubs between the months of September and May. The competition is organized by the Martinique Football League and, although the clubs in the league are affiliated with the French Football Federation, there is no promotion to the French national championships. At the end of the twenty-six-day (two-stage) championship, the top four teams qualify for the Ligue Antilles, while the bottom three are relegated to the lower division, the Régionale 2.


Surf

The Martinique Surfing, Surf Pro is an international surfing competition held every year in April in Basse-Pointe (Martinique). It was created in 2015 by two Martinicans, Nicolas Ursulet and Nicolas Clémenté and is organized by the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
Surf Project (CSP).51 It is the only Caribbean competition in the World Surf League, World Surf League, the world surfing championship. It is part of the World Qualifying Series calendar, the entry league to the WSL's elite circuit, the Championship Tour.


Regattas

The Tour de Martinique des Yoles Rondes is an annual sailing regatta, the island's largest sporting event, which takes place in late July and early August and is very popular with spectators. The event is organized by the ''Fédération des yoles rondes''. Crews circumnavigate Martinique on a 180-kilometer course over eight stages. The race begins with a prologue time trial from the starting town. The time trial determines the starting order of the first ten boats, and the time between starts is determined by the advantage of each boat over the next during the prologue; all Boats below the top ten start simultaneously. The next seven legs Circumnavigation, circumnavigate the island. The leg around the southern part of the island, starting in the commune of Le Diamant, passing through Sainte-Anne and finishing in Le François, is known as the Défi de l'Espace Sud (Southern Challenge Zone).


Handball

The Martinique Handball Championship, organized by the Martinique Handball League, concludes with the Poule des As (play-off) which determines the Martinique champion in the women's and men's categories. The Poule des As is a very popular event in Martinique, the pavilions are filled for the finals held at the Palais des Sports de Lamentin. The highest division is the Pré-Nationale, equivalent to the Pré-Nationale (or even the Nationale 3) in metropolitan France. The champions of the Poule des As come every year to Metropolitan France to play in the finals of the French Handball Championships of N1, N2 and N3 Women, N2 and N3 Men Metropolitan/Ultra Marines. The winners (female and male) of the Martinique Handball Cup, receive a reward of 10 000 Euros. The main players of the Martinique Handball Championship in recent years have been: Katty Piejos, Cédric Sorhaindo, Joël Abati.


Notable Martinique people

Below is a list of notable people born in Martinique, with at least one parent or grandparent born in Martinique, or who are living or have lived in Martinique.


Painters and sculptors

* Victor Anicet * Hector Charpentier * Henri Guédon *René Louise *Joseph René-Corail, also known as Khokho


Film-makers, screenwriters, directors and actors

* Lucien Jean-Baptiste * Alex Descas * Viktor Lazlo * Darling Légitimus * Chris Macari * Euzhan Palcy * Stéfi Celma * Cathy Rosier


Singers, musicians or music groups

* La Perfecta#Musiciens, Paulo Albin : author, composer and performer, lead singer in La Perfecta * Jenny Alpha : actress and singer * Jocelyne Béroard : author and part of the group Kassav' and first woman to receive a double gold record for the sales of her album ''Siwo'' in the Antilles. She was made Officer of l'ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2020 and National Order of the Legion of Honour, Legion of Honor in 2014. * Mino Cinelu : musician * Cyril Cinélu : winner of Star Academy (France), ''Star Académy'' 2006 * Miss Dominique : singer * Gibson Brothers : a disco/salsa band from Sainte-Marie * Christina Goh : singer and songwriter of blues-chanson réaliste music * JoeyStarr : French hip hop, rapper, producer and actor * La Perfecta#Musiciens, Simon Jurad : author, composer, performer (former guitarist of La Perfecta) * Lord Kossity : rap, rapper and dancehall singer. In 1998, he recorded the hit Ma Benz with Kool Shen and JoeyStarr on Suprême NTM's album, which made him a household name in France. * Philippe Lavil : singer, author, composer and performer *Kalash (rapper), Kalash : rapper - his hit "Mwaka Moon" featuring rapper Damso has more than 200 million views on YouTube. * Tiitof : Rap, rapper and Trap music, trap music artist. * Viktor Lazlo : actress and singer * Princess Lover : zouk singer * Malavoi : band mixing French Antillean music with modern influences from across the Americas * Edmond Mondésir : author, composer and singer of Bèlè music * La Perfecta : a band which played music including Cadence rampa, cadence and compas most active in the 1970's and 80's. * Ronald Rubinel : author, composer, performer and producer of zouk. * Dédé Saint Prix : singer and traditional musician playing chouval bwa * Shy'm : French R'n'B singer and dancer * Axel Tony : singer * Lynnsha : singer, author, composer and performer of zouk * Eddy Marc : zouk singer * Stacy : zouk singer, nominee for Best New International Act at the BET Awards 2020.


Sports personalities


Athletics / Parathletics

* Coralie Balmy *Ghislaine Barnay *Mélanie de Jesus dos Santos *Mandy François-Elie *Max Morinière *Hermann Panzo *Ronald Pognon


Basketball

* Marielle Amant * Leslie Ardon * Sandrine Gruda * Ronny Turiaf


Football

* Stéphane Abaul *Nicolas Anelka * Johan Audel * Jean-Sylvain Babin * Mickaël Biron * Garry Bocaly * Patrick Burner * Daniel Charles-Alfred * Paul Chillan * Gaël Clichy * Charles-Édouard Coridon * Mathias Coureur * Sébastien Crétinoir * Jordy Delem * Didier Domi * Gaël Germany * Thierry Henry * Christophe Hérelle * Daniel Hérelle * Steeven Langil * Peter Luccin * Kévin Parsemain * Patrick Percin * Frédéric Piquionne * Loïc Rémy * Wendie Renard * Fabrice Reuperné * Emmanuel Rivière * Franck Tanasi * Kévin Théophile-Catherine * Raphaël Varane * Sylvain Wiltord * Axel Witsel * Jonathan Zebina


Handball

* Joël Abati * Mathieu Grébille * Cédric Sorhaindo


Judo

* Amandine Buchard * Kayra Sayit


Tennis

* Gaël Monfils


Volleyball

* Frantz Granvorka


Politics


Contemporary political figures

* Maurice Antiste, Senator and former mayor of François * David Zobda, Mayor of Lamentin, Vice-President of Communauté d'agglomération du Centre de la Martinique, CACEM and member of the Executive Council of Martinique * Didier Laguerre, Mayor of
Fort-de-France Fort-de-France (, , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar a ...

Fort-de-France
, CACEM and Councillor to the Assembly of Martinique * Yann Monplaisir, Mayor of Saint-Joseph,1st vice-president of the Territorial Authorities of Martinique * André Lesueur, Mayor of Rivière-Salée and former Conseiller régional of Martinique * Serge Letchimy, President of the Executive Council of Martinique since 2021, member of the National Assembly of France representing the island of Martinique's 3rd constituency since June 2007 * Josette Manin, Member of Parliament for Martinique, Councillor to the Assembly of Martinique and former President of the General Council of Martinique * Bruno Nestor Azerot, Mayor of Sainte-Marie, President of Communauté d'agglomération du Pays Nord Martinique, CAP Nord Martinique and Councillor to the Assembly of Martinique * Jean-Philippe Nilor, Deputy and Councillor to the Assembly of Martinique * Luc-Louison Clémenté, Mayor of Schœlcher, Schoelcher and President of the Communauté d'agglomération du Centre de la Martinique, CACEM * Justin Pamphile, Mayor of
Le Lorrain Le Lorrain (; Martinican Creole: ) is a town and Communes of France, commune in the France, French Overseas departments and regions of France, overseas region and department of Martinique. Personalities *Raphaël Confiant *Jean Bernabé See also ...
, Councillor to the Assembly of Martinique, President of the Association of Mayors of Martinique * Nicaise Monrose, Mayor of , Vice-President of CAESM and member of the Executive Council of Martinique * Arnaud René-Corail, Mayor of Les Trois-Îlets, Les Trois-Ilets, Vice-President of CAESM and member of the Executive Council of Martinique * Marie-Thérèse Casimirius, Mayor of
Basse-Pointe Basse-Pointe (, ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole, Baspwent) is a town and Communes of France, commune in the France, French overseas department of France, overseas department and region, and island of Martinique. See also *Communes of the Martiniqu ...
, First Vice-President of Communauté d'agglomération du Pays Nord Martinique, CAP Nord Martinique and member of the Executive Council of Martinique * Manuéla Kéclard-Mondésir, Member of Parliament for Martinique * Lucien Saliber, President of the Assembly of Martinique, 4th Vice President of Communauté d'agglomération du Pays Nord Martinique, CAP Nord Martinique, Municipal Councillor of Le Morne-Vert and former mayor of Le Morne-Vert * Jenny Dulys-Petit, Mayor of Le Morne-Rouge, Le Morne Rouge and Councillor to the Assembly of Martinique * Audrey Pulvar, former journalist and politician, Deputy Mayor of Paris and Regional Councillor for Île-de-France, Member of the Standing Committee. * Karine Jean-Pierre, activist and author. Since January 2021, she has been White House Deputy Press Secretary, White House Principal Deputy Press Secretary in the Presidency of Joe Biden, Biden-Harris Administration. * Cédric Pemba-Marine was born in France, of Martinican origin, and mayor of Le Port-Marly since 2020.


Politicians of Martinique

* Pierre Aliker, doctor and mayor of Fort-de-France * Empress Joséphine, Josephine Buoneparte, born Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de La Pagerie was First French Empire, Empress of the French and Queen of Italy * Cyrille Bissette, deputy and one of the fathers of the abolition of slavery in Martinique * Auguste-François Perrinon, Abolitionist Member of Parliament * Pierre-Marie Pory-Papy, first black Martinician to become a lawyer, a mayor of Saint-Pierre and Abolitionist Member of Parliament * Victor Mazuline, first black Martinican elected Member of Parliament * Léopold Bissol, deputy and one of the founders of the communist movement in Martinique and the General Confederation of Labour (France), CGT Martinique union *
Aimé Césaire Aimé Fernand David Césaire (; ; 26 June 1913 – 17 April 2008) was a Francophone and Martinican poet, an Afro-Caribbean author and politician from the region of Martinique. He was "one of the founders of the négritude movement in Francopho ...

Aimé Césaire
, Deputy Mayor of
Fort-de-France Fort-de-France (, , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar a ...

Fort-de-France
and President of the Regional Council * Camille Darsières, Member of Parliament and President of the Regional Council * Louis Delgrès, known for the anti-Slavery proclamation signed with his name, dated 10 May 1802, and leading resistance on Guadeloupe to reoccupation and thus the reinstitution of slavery by First French Empire, Napoleonic France in 1802. * Alcide Delmont, Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies of the nineteenth and nineteenth century, in the government of André Tardieu * Ernest Deproge, Member of Parliament for Martinique (1882-1898), President of the General Council and a controversial figure of French colonization * Osman Duquesnay, Mayor of Fort-de-France and Member of Parliament * François Duval (politician), François Duval, Senator from 1968 to 1977, Mayor of François and President of the General Council * Georges Gratiant, Mayor of Lamentin and President of the General Council * Marius Hurard, deputy and founder of the secular school in Martinique * Joseph Lagrosillière, deputy and founder of the socialist movement in Martinique * Pierre-Alexandre Le Camus, Count of Fürstenstein (born in Martinique in 1774, died in 1824 in Le Chesnay), Secretary of State (France), Secretary of State and foreign minister to Kingdom of Westphalia. * Henry Lémery, Justice minister, Justice Minister in the government of Gaston Doumergue, Martinician appointed minister in a French government. * Émile Maurice, Mayor of Saint-Joseph and President of the General Council of Martinique, President of the General Council * Camille Petit, deputy and founder of the Gaullism, Gaullist movement in Martinique * Pierre Petit (politician), Pierre Petit, Mayor of
Le Morne-Rouge Le Morne-Rouge is a Communes of France, commune and town in the France, French Département d'outre-mer, overseas department of Martinique. See also *Communes of the Martinique department References External links

* Communes of Marti ...
and Member of Parliament * Michel Renard, Mayor of Marigot and Deputy * Victor Sévère, Deputy Mayor of Fort-de-France * Paul Symphor, President of the General Council 1947-1948 and Senator *
Victor Schœlcher Victor Schœlcher (; 22 July 1804 – 25 December 1893) was a French politician and writer, best known for his work towards the abolition of slavery in France. Biography Schœlcher was born in Paris. His father, Marc Schœlcher (1766–1832), from ...

Victor Schœlcher
(died 1893), deputy of Martinique, 1848-1849 and 1871-1875, known for having acted in favor of the definitive Abolitionism#France, abolition of slavery in France, via the decree of abolition of 1848.


Martinican writers and intellectuals

Image : EdouardGlissant.jpg, thumbnail, Édouard Glissant, novelist, poet, essayist and philosopher, he won the Prix Renaudot in 1958, the Prix Puterbaugh in the United States in 1989 and the Prix Roger Caillois in 1991. Edouard Glissant is the founder of the literary movement L'Antillanité and the philosophical concept "Le Tout Monde" A non-exhaustive list of the main novelists, poets, playwrights, essayists, sociologists, economists and historians from Martinique: * Jacques Adélaïde-Merlande : Historian. In 2000, he was awarded an honorary degree by the University of the West Indies, University of the West Indes. He is the author of "''Histoire générale des Antilles et des Guyanes, des Précolombiens à nos jours''" and directed the publication of volumes 3 and 4 of the "''Historial antillais''" series. * Alfred Alexandre : a writer, he won the Prix des Amériques insulaires et de la Guyane in 2006 for his novel "''Bord de canal''". In 2020, he won the Prix Carbet de la Caraïbe et du Tout-Monde for his collection of poems "''The walk of Leïla Khane''". * Sabine Andrivon-Milton : historian, founder of the Association for the Military History of Martinique and ordre national de la Légion d'honneur, Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur, he is the author of "''La Martinique pendant la Grande Guerre''" a collection of poems and songs, and "''Anatole dans la tourmente du Morne Siphon''". * Jean Bernabé : a writer, linguist and author of several novels including ''Le Bailleur d'étincelle'' and ''Le Partage des ancêtres'' * Daniel Boukman : writer, he won the Prix Carbet de la Caraïbe et du Tout-Monde, Carbet Prize in 1992, writing ''Et jusqu'à la dernière pulsation de nos veines'', ''Délivrans'', and ''Chants pour hâter la mort du temps des Orphées ou Madinina île esclave'' * Roland Brival : writer, awarded the prix RFO du livre in 2000 and chevalier de l'ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2013 * Guy Cabort-Masson : novelist, who won the Prix de la Fondation Frantz Fanon in 1998 for ''La Mangrove mulâtre'', ''Martinique, comportements et mentalité'' * Nicole Cage-Florentiny : novelist who won the prix Casa de las Américas 1996 (Cuba) for ''Arc-en-Ciel, l'espoir'', also writing ''C'est vole que je vole'' and a bilingual collection of poems, ''Dèyè pawol sé lanmou / Par-delà les mots l'amour'' * Mayotte Capécia : novelist born in Le Carbet in 1916, the author of two major novels "''I Am a Martinican Woman''" and "''The White Negress''". She won the France-Antilles prize for "''Je suis martiniquaise''" in 1949 * Marie-Magdeleine Carbet : a novelist, whose best-known work is a volume of poetry titled "''Rose de ta grâce''". She received the Prix littéraire des Caraïbes in 1970 * Paule Cassius de Linval, writer, storyteller and poet. In 1961, his collection of tales "''Mon pays à travers les légendes''" won the prix Montyon *
Aimé Césaire Aimé Fernand David Césaire (; ; 26 June 1913 – 17 April 2008) was a Francophone and Martinican poet, an Afro-Caribbean author and politician from the region of Martinique. He was "one of the founders of the négritude movement in Francopho ...

Aimé Césaire
: poet and playwright and father of the concept of négritude, ''Cahier d'un retour au pays natal'', ''Discourse on Colonialism, The Tragedy of King Christophe'' * Suzanne Césaire : author of ''Léo Frobénius et le problème des civilisations'' and ''Aurore de la liberté'' * Patrick Chamoiseau : novellist awarded the prix Goncourt in 1992 for ''Texaco (novel), Texaco'', ''Chronique des sept misères'', ''Une enfance créole'' * Nadia Chonville : Sociologist and novelist. She is the author of the fantasy novel "''Rose de Wégastrie''". * Raphaël Confiant : novellist awarded the prix Antigone and the prix Décembre, prix Novembre for his work ''Eau de café, Adèle et la Pacotilleuse, La Panse du chacal'' * Jean Crusol : economist and author of ''Les Antilles Guyane et la Caraïbe : coopération et globalisation'', ''Le tourisme et la Caraïbe'' and ''L'enjeu des petites Économies insulaires'' * Camille Darsières : and author of : ''Des origines de la nation martiniquaise'', ''Joseph Lagrosillière, socialiste colonial'' * Marie-Reine de Jaham, novellist, made officer of the ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2013, awarded the Prix littéraire des Caraïbes in 1997 and author of the best-selling novel "La Grande Béké" * Édouard de Lépine : historian and essayist, ''Sur la Question dite du Statut de la Martinique'', ''Questions sur l'histoire antillaise : trois essais sur l'abolition, l'assimilation, l'autonomie'', ''Dix semaines qui ébranlèrent la Martinique : '' * Tony Delsham : a journalist and best selling novelist in the Antilles; he is author of ''Xavier : Le drame d'un émigré antillais'', ''Papa, est-ce que je peux venir mourir à la maison?'' and "''Tribunal des femmes bafouées''". * Georges Desportes : novelist, poet and essayist, the author of : ''Cette île qui est la nôtre'', ''Sous l'œil fixe du soleil'' and ''Le Patrimoine martiniquais, souvenirs et réflexions''. * Suzanne Dracius : novellist awarded the prix de la Société des Poètes français Jacques Raphaël-Leygues in 2010 : ''Negzagonal et Moun le Sid'', and in 2009 Prix Fetkann Maryse Condé in the poetry category for ''Exquise déréliction métisse'' * Miguel Duplan, a writer and teacher, he won the Prix Carbet de la Caraïbe et du Tout-Monde, Prix Carbet de la Caraïbe in 2007 for his novel "L'Acier". He is also the author of the following novels "Le Discours profane" and "Un long silence de Carnaval". * Victor Duquesnay : Martinican poet. His best-known works are "Les Martiniquaises" and "Les Chansons des Isles". * Jude Duranty : writer in French language, French and Antillean Creole, Martinican Creole. He is the author of "Zouki ici danse", de "La fugue de Sopaltéba" et "Les contes de Layou". * Frantz Fanon : essayist, author of Black Skin, White Masks and The Wretched of the Earth * Georges Fitt-Duval : poet, author of the following collections of poems : "Salut ma patrie", "Floralies-florilèges" et "Environnement, tropiques rayonnants". * Édouard Glissant : novellist awarded the prix Renaudot in 1958. He is the author of ''La Lézarde'', ''La Case du commandeur''. In 1992, Edouard Glissant was a finalist for the Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel prize in Literature, but it was the St. Lucian poet and playwright Derek Walcott who won by one vote. * Gilbert Gratiant : a pioneer of literature Martinican Creole, writing : ''Fab' Compè Zicaque'', ''Poèmes en vers faux'', ''Sel et Sargasses''. * Simonne Henry-Valmore : ethno-psychoanalyst and essayist. She won the prix Frantz Fanon in 1988 for "''Dieu en exil''". She co-wrote "''Aimé Césaire, le nègre inconsolé''" with Roger Toumson in 1992, then "''objet perdu''" in 2013. * Fabienne Kanor, novelist, awarded the Prix RFO du livre in 2007 for her novel "Humus". In 2014, she won the Prix Carbet de la Caraïbe et du Tout-Monde, Prix Carbet De la Caraïbe for her novel "Faire l'aventure". * Viktor Lazlo : novellist, singer and actor * Étienne Léro : co-author of the literary journal ''Simone Yoyotte#Légitime Défense, Légitime défense'' and the journal ''Tropiques'' * Yva Léro : novellist, Yva Léro authored "''La Plaie''", "''Peau d'ébène''" and "''Doucherie''". * Georges-Henri Léotin : novelist in French and Martinician Creole. He is the author of "''Memwè la tè"'', "''Mango vèt''", and "''Bèlè li sid''". * Marie-Hélène Léotin, historian and executive advisor to the Territorial Collectivity of Martinique in charge of Heritage and Culture, she is the author of "''Habiter le monde, Martinique 1946-2006''" ; * Térèz Léotin : writer in French and Martinican Creole. She is the author of the novels "''Le génie de la mer''", "''La panthère''" et "''Un bonheur à crédit''". * André Lucrèce : sociologist and writer author of ''La pluie de Dieu'', ''Civilisés et énergumènes'', and ''Société et modernité'' * J. Q. Louison : poet and author of the fantasy novel series ''Le Crocodile assassiné'', ''Le Canari brisé'' and ''L'Ère du serpent''. * Marie-Thérèse Julien-Lung-Fou : Martinican writer best known for her collections of "créole tales" published in three volumes in 1979: "''Contes mes''", "''Contes diaboliques, fabliaux''" and "''Contes animaux, proverbes, titimes ou devinettes''". She also wrote the essay entitled "''Le Carnaval aux Antilles''". * Marcel Manville : essayist, and winner of the Frantz Fanon Prize in 1992 for his essay ''Les Antilles sans fard''. * René Maran : novellist awarded the prix Goncourt in 1921 ''for Batouala'', ''Un homme pareil aux autres'' * Georges Mauvois : novelist, playwright he won the Casa de las Américas Prize 2004 for ''Ovando ou Le magicien de Saint-Domingue'', ''Agénor Cacoul'', ''Man Chomil''. * Alfred Melon-Degras, writer, poet and academic. He is the author of"''Le silence''", "''Battre le rappel''" and "''Avec des si, avec des mains''". * René Ménil, philosopher and essayist. In 1999, he received the Frantz Fanon Prize for his essay "''Antilles déjà jadis''".He was also co-founder in 1932 of the journal ''Simone Yoyotte#Légitime Défense, Légitime Défense'' and with Aimé Césaire of the cultural review ''Tropiques'' in 1941. He is the author of "''Tracées : Identité, négritude, esthétique aux Antilles''" and "''Pour l'émancipation et l'identité du peuple martiniquais''". René Ménil, and with Aimé Césaire, Césaire, Frantz Fanon, Fanon and Édouard Glissant, Glissant is one of Martinique's greatest thinkers. * Monchoachi : the pen name of André Pierre-Louis, a writer in French and Martinician Creole, he won the Carbet Prize and the prix Max Jacob, Max-Jacob in 2003. His works include ''L'Espère-geste'', ''Lakouzémi'', ''Nostrom'' and ''Lémistè'' * Paulette Nardal : co-founder of the journal, ''La Revue du Monde Noir'' in 1932 and one of the inspirations of the négritude movement * Jeanne Nardal : Writer, philosopher and essayist, sister of Paulette Nardal * Armand Nicolas : Martinican historian. He is the author of "''Histoire de la Martinique''", "''La révolution antiesclavagiste de mai 1848 à La Martinique''", and "L'Insurrection du Sud à la Martinique, septembre 1870". * Gaël Octavia, writer, playwright * Xavier Orville : novelist, who won the Frantz Fanon prize in 1993. He wrote ''Le Corps absent de Prosper Ventura'', ''Le Parfum des belles de nuit''. * Gilbert Pago : historian and author of "''1848 : Chronique de l'abolition de l'esclavage en Martinique''", "L'insurrection de Martinique 1870-1871", and "Lumina Sophie dite Surprise (1848-1879) : insurgée et bagnarde". * Roger Parsemain : Poet and novelist. He is the author of "''L'œuvre des volcans''", "''l'absence du destin''" and "''Il chantait des boléros''". * Eric Pézo, Writer and novelist in French and Martinican Creole, author of the novels : "''L'amour sinon rien''"; in Martinician Creole, "''lanmou épi sé tout''", "''Marie-Noire''", and "''Passeurs de rives''" and "''Lasotjè''", a work of poetry. * Daniel Picouly : writer, tv host and winner of the Prix Renaudot for ''L’Enfant Léopard'' * Vincent Placoly : winner of the prix Frantz Fanon in 1991. Author of ''Une journée torride'', ''La vie et la mort de Marcel Gonstran'', ''L'eau-de-mort guildive'' * Alain Rapon, novelist and storyteller. He is the author of the novel "''La Présence de l’Absent''" and received the Prix littéraire des Caraïbes in 1983. He is also the author of "''Ti soleil''", "''Ti-Fène et la rivière qui chante''", "''Itinéraire d’un Esprit perdu''" and "''Danse, petit nègre danse''". * Clément Richer : Martinican novelist and author of "''L'homme de la Caravelle''". In 1941 and 1948 he was awarded the Prix Paul Flat by the Académie française for his novel "''Le dernier voyage de Pembroke''" and "''La croisière de la Priscilla''" and the Prix Marianne in 1939. His novel "''Ti Coyo et son requin''" has been translated into English, German, Spanish, Danish and Dutch and adapted for film by Italo Calvino as Tiko and the Shark. * Jean-Marc Rosier : writer in French and Martinican Creole. He won the prix Sonny Rupaire for his novel in Creole, "''An lavi chimérik''" in 1999, then the Prix Carbet de la Caraïbe et du Tout-Monde, prix Carbet de la Caraïbe for his novel "''Noirs néons''" in 2008 and in the poetry category of the prix Fetkann Maryse Condé for "''Urbanîle''" in 2015. * Julienne Salvat : writer, poet, she is the author of ''Feuillesonge'', ''La lettre d'Avignon'' * Juliette Sméralda : sociologist, author of ''L'Indo-Antillais entre Noirs et Békés'', ''Peau noire cheveu crépu, l'histoire d'une aliénation'' * Daniel Thaly : Martinican poet, and librarian of the Schœlcher Library from 1939-1945. * Raphaël Tardon : writer, author of "''La Caldeira''" and "''Starkenfirst''", which received the grand prix littéraire des Antilles in 1948. In 1967, Raphaël Tardon was posthumously awarded the Prix littéraire des Caraïbes in recognition of his life's work. * International Day Against Homophobia, Transphobia and Biphobia, Louis-Georges Tin : essayist and academic, the author of ''Esclavage et réparations : Comment faire face aux crimes de l'histoire'' and author of a dictionary that documents the history of the treatment of homosexuals in all regions of the world. * Simone Yoyotte : She was the only woman to participate in producing the literary journal ''Légitime Défense'' published in 1932 by young Martinican intellectuals in Paris and considered one of the founding acts of the Négritude movement. * Joseph Zobel : A novelist, and winner of the Frantz Fanon Prize in 1994. He is the author of : ''La Rue Cases-Nègres''


Other personalities

* Hippolyte Morestin, doctor, associate professor of anatomy and specialist in reconstructive surgery * Raymond Garcin, neurologist, former member of Académie Nationale de Médecine * Georges Le Breton, Doctor of Dental Surgery, former President of the Académie Nationale de Chirurgie dentaire * Robert Attuly, Doctor of Law, Judge and former trial judge at the Court of Cassation (France), Court of Cassation * Harry Roselmack, journalist * Karine Baste-Régis, journalist


Energy

Martinique is part of the zones not interconnected to the continental metropolitan network (ZNI), which must therefore produce the electricity they consume themselves. For this reason, the ZNI have specific legislation on electricity production and Distribution (mathematics), distribution. Martinique's energy mix is marked by a very strong importance of thermal Energy development, energy production. At the same time, the island's electricity consumption has decreased slightly. These results can be attributed to the information and awareness-raising efforts of the regions, the Agency for the Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) and energy companies in favor of energy savings, but also to the context of demographic decline of the territory. Despite these results, the control of the Territory's electricity consumption remains a central issue, given the Territory's low energy potential compared to other overseas territories, such as
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe (; ; gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and voca ...
and Réunion, Reunion. Martinique and its inhabitants are therefore faced with a twofold need: to further strengthen the control of electricity consumption and at the same time develop Renewable energy, renewable energies to reduce environmental pollution due to thermal electricity production.


Renewable energies

The exploitation of renewable energies in Martinique started late, as the characteristics of the island were previously considered unfavorable for their Development economics, development. However, the efforts of the population and energy suppliers are moving towards a higher proportion of renewable energies in Martinique's future energy mix. Article 56 of the Grenelle I Law No. 2009-967 3 August 2009, on the implementation of the Grenelle Environment Forum, sets out the provisions for Overseas France, overseas: in the case of Martinique, the energy objective is to reach 50% renewable energy in final Consumption (economics), consumption by 2020. Energy autonomy is planned for 2030. As Martinique's electricity distribution grid is not interconnected with neighboring islands, let alone with the mainland's metropolitan grid, the decree of 23 April 2008, applies to the management of so-called intermittent energies: wind, Photovoltaics, photovoltaic and marine: any solar and wind power production facility with a capacity exceeding 3 kWp and not equipped with a storage system is liable to be disconnected from the grid by the grid manager once the threshold of 30% of random active power injected into the grid has been reached. Thus, the achievement of the objectives of the Grenelle I law is subject to the development of Structures with a maximum power of 3 kWp or less, or to the incorporation of storage devices in production facilities.


Water

90% of the water distributed by Martinique's drinking water network comes from Rainwater intakes in five catchment areas. Thus, although there is no shortage of water, the situation becomes very critical in the Lenten period, with abstractions leading to the drying up of several rivers. Water resources are abundant but unevenly distributed: Four municipalities (Saint-Joseph, Gros-Morne, le Lorrain and Fort-de-France) provide 85% of Martinique's drinking water. There is no water catchment in the south of the island. The water consumed in the South comes exclusively from abstractions from the North and the Center (mainly from the Blanche River which flows into the Lézarde, the Capot, and the Dumauzé). Thus, 60% of the total is extracted from a single river (the Lézarde and its tributary, the Blanche river). This concentration of abstractions can constitute a risk in a crisis situation, such as a drought for example.


Health


Regional Health Agency

A Regional Health Agency, regional health agency for Martinique (Agence régionale de santé Martinique) was set up in 2010. It is responsible for applying French health policy in the territory, managing public health and Health care in France#Health care system, health care regulations.


Healthcare Professionals

As of 1 January 2018, Martinique had a workforce of 1,091 doctors. For each 100,000 people of its population, there was a density of 141 General practitioner#France, general practitioners, 150 specialists, 53 dentists, 1,156 state certified nurses and 90 pharmacists. Self employed doctors are represented by URML Martinique, created under the Hospital, patients, health, territories bill. URML Martinique works in partnership with ARS Martinique, National Fund for Health Insurance, l’Assurance Maladie, the Ministry of Health and Local Authorities to manage regional health policy.


Health facilities

The University Hospital of Martinique (Le Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique) is a teaching hospital based in Fort de France, in an agreement with the University of the French Antilles. It is the largest French and English speaking University Hospital in the Caribbean, having more than 1600 beds. These include 680 Medical, 273 Surgical and 100 Obstetrics beds, with another 30 in its intensive care unit. The hospital operates a 24 hour emergency service.


Chlordecone controversy


Actions of the French Government

After the discovery of the toxicity of chlordecone, a dangerous insecticide, and the health risks it posed, the French state put in place certain measures to protect the Martinican and
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe (; ; gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar and voca ...
an populations, allocating nearly 100 million euros towards the implementation of these measures. The soils are regularly tested and subjected to strict regulations related to the standards of potability. Martinique is also subject to regular mapping processes to delineate highly contaminated areas. River fishing is also prohibited in order to limit health risks, as rivers represent high-risk contamination areas. Since 2008, the French state has developed three action plans establishing strategies to protect local populations, raise awareness regarding the effects of chlordecone, as well as to support the agriculture and fisheries sectors. A French parliamentary commission revealed in 2019 that more than 90% of Martinicans have been exposed to chlordecone, which was authorized for use between 1972 and 1993 in the banana plantations of the Antilles. The committee judged the three “Chlordecone Plans” launched by the State since 2008 to be inadequate; recommendations were provided via its rapporteur, Justine Benin Member of Parliament (France), MP, to address prevention and research into clean up methods for a fourth plan, scheduled for 2020. The parliamentary commission of inquiry called the French state into question for having authorized the sale of chlordecone as an insecticide, as its toxicity was known, but "responsibilities are shared with economic actors. Firstly, industrialists, but also groups of planters and certain elected officials."


Health Consequences

Chlordecone is known to have harmful effects on human health, with scientific research identifying it as an endocrine disruptor or hormonally-active chemical agent, as well as a probable carcinogen, particularly in relation to increasing chances of prostate cancer occurrence and recurrence. As an endocrine disruptor, chlordecone can also lead to delayed cognitive development in infants, an increased likelihood of pregnancy complications, and may disrupt the reproductive process. The chlordecone molecule has physical and chemical characteristics that allow it to remain for several centuries in soil, river-water and groundwater, thus spreading beyond the location of the banana plantations where this insecticide was initially administered. Although chlordecone has not been used since the 1990s, the health risks remain. Chlordecone contamination occurs through contaminated food and drink.


Local Community Response

In the streets of
Fort-de-France Fort-de-France (, , ; gcf, label=Martinican Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole languages, French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles. Its grammar a ...

Fort-de-France
, approximately 5,000 to 15,000 residents of Martinique demonstrated in protest on 27 March 2021, denouncing the possible statute of limitations on a complaint filed by civil parties for the use of chlordecone in causing life endangerment (''mise en danger de la vie d'autrui).'' The complaint was issued on 23 February 2006. The French government’s actions in response to the historical authorization of chlordecone are often criticized by residents of Martinique and local associations involved in the "Chlordecone Scandal." The lack of information transmitted to the population concerning the danger of chlordecone between 1993 and 2004 is one of the main concerns expressed. The civil complaint in 2006 was issued by several associations from the islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe, and was in response to the long-term impacts of government-authorized chlordecone use in polluting the islands’ natural environments and affecting the health of inhabitants.


COVID-19 Pandemic

Martinique's first cases of Coronavirus (COVID-19) were confirmed in March 2020. The pandemic has since put provision of health services under significant stress; as of 2 September 2021, Martinique had recorded an excess mortality at all ages, and of all causes since the week beginning 26 July 2021.


In popular culture

* In 1887, the artist Paul Gauguin lived in Martinique. Gauguin painted the tropical landscape and the native women. The Paul Gauguin Interpretation Centre (former Gauguin Museum) is dedicated to his stay on the island. * In the lyrics of Irving Berlin's 1933 song ''Heat Wave (Irving Berlin song), Heat Wave'', the dancer referred to by the title "came from the island of Martinique". * Various films have been set or filmed on Martinique, notably ''To Have and Have Not (film), To Have and Have Not'', the 1999 remake of ''The Thomas Crown Affair (1999 film), The Thomas Crown Affair'',''Concorde Affaire '79'' and ''Sugar Cane Alley''. * Mexican writer Caridad Bravo Adams wrote ''Corazón salvaje (novel), Corazón salvaje'' (published in 1957), which was set in Martinique. * Several novelists have use the island as a setting, such as Patrick Chamoiseau (''Solibo Magnificent''), Jean Rhys (''Wide Sargasso Sea''), Rex Bestle (''Martinique Island'') and Carolly Erickson (''The Secret Life of Josephine: Napoleon's Bird of Paradise''). *
Aimé Césaire Aimé Fernand David Césaire (; ; 26 June 1913 – 17 April 2008) was a Francophone and Martinican poet, an Afro-Caribbean author and politician from the region of Martinique. He was "one of the founders of the négritude movement in Francopho ...

Aimé Césaire
's seminal poem ''Cahier d'un retour au pays natal (Notebook of a Return to the Native Land)'' envisions the poet's imagined journey back to his homeland Martinique to find it in a state of colossal poverty and psychological inferiority due to the French colonial presence."Aimé Césaire", in Donald E. Herdeck (ed.), ''Caribbean Writers: A Bio-Bibliographical-Critical Encyclopedia'', Washington, DC: Three Continents Press, 1979, pp. 324–25. * Lafcadio Hearn in 1890 published a travel book titled ''Two Years in the French West Indies'', in which Martinique [Martinique Sketches] is its main topic; his descriptions of the island, people and history are lively observations of life before the Mont Pelèe eruption in 1902 that would change the island forever. The Library of America republished his works in 2009 entitled ''Hearn: American Writings''. * ''The Island: Martinique'' by John Edgar Wideman is a travel memoir of an African originated man visiting "a place built on slavery" and a "deeply personal journal of his romance with a Frenchwoman" (2003, National Geographic Society).


See also

* 2009 French Caribbean general strikes * Bibliography of Martinique * Index of Martinique-related articles * Le Tour de Yoles Rondes de Martinique * List of colonial and departmental heads of Martinique * Regional Council of Martinique


References


Further reading

* Forster, Elborg, Robert Forster, and Pierre Dessailes – ''Sugar and Slavery, Family and Race: The Letters and Diaries of Pierre Dessailes, Planter in Martinique, 1808–1856.'' * Gerstin, Julian and Dominique Cyrille – ''Martinique: Cane Fields and City Streets.'' * Haigh, Sam – ''An Introduction to Caribbean Francophone Writing: Guadeloupe and Martinique.'' * Heilprin, Angelo – ''Mont Pelee and the Tragedy of Martinique.'' * Heilprin, Angelo – ''The Tower of Pelee. New Studies of the Great Volcano of Martinique.'' * Kimber, Clarissa Therese – ''Martinique Revisited: The Changing Plant Geographies of a West Indian Island.'' * Lamont, Rosette C. and Richard Miller – ''New French Language Plays: Martinique, Quebec, Ivory Coast, Belgium.'' * Laguerre, Michel S. – ''Urban Poverty in the Caribbean: French Martinique as a Social Laboratory.'' * Murray, David A. B. – ''Opacity: Gender, Sexuality, Race and the 'Problem' of Identity in Martinique.'' * Slater, Mariam K. – ''The Caribbean Family: Legitimacy in Martinique.'' * Tomich, Dale W. – ''Slavery in the Circuit of Sugar: Martinique and the World Economy, 1830–1848.'' * Watts, David – ''The West Indies: Patterns of Development, Culture, and Environmental Change Since 1492.''


External links

; Government
Martinique : the island of flowers
– Official French website (in English)

– Official site
Regional Council of Martinique
– Official site ; General information * * ; Travel
Martinique Instamagique
– Travel Guide about Martinique
One Girl One World Guide to Martinique
– Travel Blog about Martinique
Martinique Tourism Authority
– Official site
Zananas Martinique
– Informations site * {{Authority control Martinique, Dependent territories in the Caribbean Overseas departments of France Island countries French Caribbean Windward Islands Member states of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States Outermost regions of the European Union Islands of France Regions of France French Union French-speaking countries and territories France geography articles needing translation from French Wikipedia Islands of Martinique