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russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto =
""
Kyrgyz Respublikasy
( en, "Kyrgyz Republic") , national_anthem = Кыргыз Республикасынын Мамлекеттик Гимни
( en, "National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic")
, image_map = Kyrgyzstan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Kyrgyzstan (dark green) , capital =
Bishkek Bishkek ( ky, Бишкек, Bişkek, بىشکەک, ), formerly Pishpek and Frunze (russian: Фрунзе), is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic). Bishkek is also the administrative centre of the Chuy Regi ...

Bishkek
, coordinates = , largest_city = capital , official_languages =
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...
, languages_type = Co-official , languages_sub = , languages =
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
, languages2_type =
Spoken language A spoken language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions between self an ...
s , languages2 = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2019 , religion = , demonym = Kyrgyz , government_type =
Unitary Unitary may refer to: * Unitary construction, in automotive design a common term for unibody (unitary body/chassis) construction * Lethal Unitary Chemical Agents and Munitions (Unitary), as chemical weapons opposite of Binary * Unitarianism, in Chr ...
presidential President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...

republic
, leader_title1 =
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
, leader_name1 =
Sadyr Japarov Sadyr Nurgozhoevich Japarov (; ky, Садыр Нургожоевич Жапаров, translit=Sadyr Nurghozhoyevich Zhaparov; born 6 December 1968) is a KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz ...
, leader_title2 = Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers , leader_name2 = Akylbek Japarov , leader_title3 = Toraga of Jogorku Kenesh , leader_name3 =
Talant Mamytov Talant Turdumamatovich Mamytov ( ky, Талант Турдумамат уулу Мамытов, Talant Turdumamat uulu Mamıtov; russian: Талант Турдумаматович Мамытов; born 14 March 1976) is a member of the Supreme Co ...

Talant Mamytov
, legislature = Supreme Council , sovereignty_type =
Formation Formation may refer to: Linguistics * Back-formation, the process of creating a new lexeme by removing or affixes * Word formation, the creation of a new word by adding affixes Mathematics and science * Cave formation or speleothem, a secondary m ...
, established_event1 = Kyrgyz Khaganate , established_date1 = 840 , established_event2 =
From From may refer to: * From, a preposition * From (SQL) and Email#Message header, From: (email message header), in computing * FromSoftware, a Japanese video game company * Full range of motion, the travel in a range of motion * Martin Severin From ...
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
, established_date2 = 27 November 1917 , established_event3 =
Kirghiz SSR Kirghizia, officially the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz SSR; ky, Кыргыз Советтик Социалисттик Республикасы ''Qırğız Sovettik Socialisttik Respublikası''; russian: Киргизская Сов ...
, established_date3 = 5 December 1936 , established_event4 = From the
USSR The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a socialist state that spanned Eurasia during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a Federation, federal union of multiple national Republics of ...
, established_date4 = 31 August 1991 , established_event5 = CIS Accession , established_date5 = 21 December 1991 , established_event6 = Recognized , established_date6 = , established_event7 = Admitted to the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
, established_date7 = 2 March 1992 , area_km2 = 199,951 , area_rank = 85th , percent_water = 3.6 , population_estimate = 6,586,600 , population_census = 5,362,800 , population_estimate_year = 2020 , population_estimate_rank = 110th , population_census_year = 2009 , population_density_km2 = 27.4 , population_density_sq_mi = 71 , population_density_rank = 176th , GDP_PPP = $35.324 billion , GDP_PPP_year = 2019 , GDP_PPP_rank = 127th , GDP_PPP_per_capita = $5,470 , GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 134th , GDP_nominal = $8.455 billion , GDP_nominal_year = 2019 , GDP_nominal_rank = 141st , GDP_nominal_per_capita = $1,309 , GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 158th , Gini = 27.7 , Gini_year = 2018 , Gini_change = increase , Gini_ref = , HDI = 0.697 , HDI_year = 2019 , HDI_change = increase , HDI_ref = , HDI_rank = 120th , currency =
Kyrgyzstani som The som (KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China ...
(c) , currency_code = KGS , time_zone = KGT , utc_offset = +6 , time_zone_DST = , drives_on = right , calling_code = +996 , iso3166code = KG , cctld = .kg , today = Kyrgyzstan ( ky, Кыргызстан, Kyrgyzstan; russian: Кыргызстан), more rarely called ''Kirghizia'' (russian: Киргизия), officially the Kyrgyz Republic ( ky, Кыргыз Республикасы, Kyrgyz Respublikasy; russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika), is a mountainous
landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign s ...
in
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
. Kyrgyzstan is bordered by
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
to
the north North is a cardinal direction or compass point. North or The North may also refer to: Places * North, South Carolina, a town in the United States * North (London sub region), a sub-region of the London Plan * Northern Canada or the North, northe ...
,
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
to the west,
Tajikistan ) , image_map = Tajikistan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , capital = Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest ...

Tajikistan
to the south, and China to the east. Its
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and
largest city The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, ...
is
Bishkek Bishkek ( ky, Бишкек, Bişkek, بىشکەک, ), formerly Pishpek and Frunze (russian: Фрунзе), is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic). Bishkek is also the administrative centre of the Chuy Regi ...

Bishkek
. Ethnic
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
make up the majority of the country's six million people, followed by significant minorities of
Uzbeks The Uzbeks ( uz, , , , ) are a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish langua ...
and
Russians , native_name_lang = ru , image = , caption = Wedding ceremony in the national Russian tradition. , population = 134 million , popplace = 117,319,000 , region1 = , pop1 = 7,170,00 ...

Russians
. The
Kyrgyz language Kyrgyz (; autonym: , tr. ''Qırğız tili'', ) is a Turkic languages, Turkic language of the Kipchak languages, Kipchak branch spoken in Central Asia. Kyrgyz is the official language of Kyrgyzstan and a significant minority language in the K ...
is closely related to other
Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe and Southern Europe to Central Asia, East Asia, North Asia (Siberia), and Western Asia. The Turkic langu ...

Turkic languages
, although
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
remains spoken and is a co-official language. Ninety percent of Kyrgyzstan's population are Muslim, with the majority of its population following
Sunni Islam Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, ...
. In addition to its Turkic origins, Kyrgyz culture bears elements of
Iranic The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples are a diverse Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (S ...
,
Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * Mongolian alphabet * Mongo ...

Mongolian
and
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...

Russian
influence. Kyrgyzstan's history spans a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by its highly mountainous terrain, Kyrgyzstan has been at the crossroads of several great civilizations as part of the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
along with other commercial routes. Inhabited by a succession of tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically fallen under larger domination.
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...
nomads A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, Nomadic pastoralism, pastoral nomads (owning lives ...

nomads
, who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as the
First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
and
Second Turkic Khaganate The Second Turkic Khaganate ( otk, 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰:𐰃𐰠, Türük el, State of the Turks, , known as ''Turk Bilge Qaghan country'' ( otk, 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰝:𐰋𐰃𐰠𐰏𐰀:𐰴𐰍𐰣:𐰃𐰠𐰭𐰀, Türük Bilgä Qaγan eli) in Bai ...
s, have inhabited the country throughout its history. In the 13th century, Kyrgyzstan was conquered by the
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian people, East Asian ethnic group indigenous peoples, native to the Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Mongolia an ...
; it regained independence, but was later invaded by
Kalmyks The Kalmyks (Kalmyk Oirat, Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, ''Xaľmgud'', Mongolian language, Mongolian: Халимагууд, ''Halimaguud''; russian: Калмыки, translit=Kalmyki, archaism, archaically anglicism, anglicised as ''Calmucks'') are ...
,
Manchus The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
and
Uzbeks The Uzbeks ( uz, , , , ) are a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish langua ...
. In 1876, it became part of the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
, and in 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was formed to become a constituent republic of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. Following
Mikhail Gorbachev Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician, lawyer, and statesman. The List of leaders of the Soviet Union, eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union, he was the General Secretary of the ...

Mikhail Gorbachev
's democratic reforms in the USSR, in 1990 pro-independence candidate
Askar Akayev Askar Akayevich Akayev ( ky, Аскар Акаевич Акаев, script=Latn, italic=no, Asqar Aqayeviç Aqayev; ; born 10 November 1944) is a Kyrgyz politician who served as President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 until being overthrown in the Marc ...

Askar Akayev
was elected president. On 31 August 1991, Kyrgyzstan declared independence from Moscow and a democratic government was established. Kyrgyzstan attained sovereignty as a nation state after the
breakup of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal disintegration ...
in 1991. After independence, Kyrgyzstan was officially a
unitary Unitary may refer to: * Unitary construction, in automotive design a common term for unibody (unitary body/chassis) construction * Lethal Unitary Chemical Agents and Munitions (Unitary), as chemical weapons opposite of Binary * Unitarianism, in Chr ...
presidential republic A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, ...
, then between 2010 and 2021 was officially a
unitary Unitary may refer to: * Unitary construction, in automotive design a common term for unibody (unitary body/chassis) construction * Lethal Unitary Chemical Agents and Munitions (Unitary), as chemical weapons opposite of Binary * Unitarianism, in Chr ...
parliamentary republic A parliamentary republic is a republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and med ...
, although it gradually developed an executive president and was governed as a
semi-presidential republic A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter being responsible to the legislature of the state. It differs from a parlia ...
before reverting to a presidential system in 2021. Throughout its existence, the country has continued to endure ethnic conflicts, revolts, economic troubles, transitional governments and political conflict. Kyrgyzstan is a member of the
Commonwealth of Independent States The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, translit=Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG) is a regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Euro ...

Commonwealth of Independent States
, the
Eurasian Economic Union The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU)EAEU is the acronym is used in thorganisation’s website However, many media outlets use the acronym EEU. is an economic union of states located in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the Europea ...

Eurasian Economic Union
, the
Collective Security Treaty Organization The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; russian: Организация Договора о коллективной безопасности, Organizatsiya Dogovora o kollektivnoy bezopasnosti) is an intergovernmental military alli ...
, the
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation russian: Шанхайская организация сотрудничества , image = , caption = , logo = SCO logo.svg , map = SCO MAP 10 July 2015 - Including two new permanent me ...
, the
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ar, منظمة التعاون الإسلامي, Munaẓẓama at-Taʿāwun al-ʾIslāmiyy; french: Organisation de la coopération islamique), formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference ...
, the
Turkic Council The Turkic Council, officially the Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States, is an international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relation ...

Turkic Council
, the Türksoy community and the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
. It is a
developing country A developing country is a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a perman ...
ranked 120th in the
Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
, and the second poorest country in Central Asia. The country's
transition economy A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment, production and the allocation of capital goods takes place accor ...
is heavily dependent on deposits of
gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...

gold
,
coal Coal is a combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , ...

coal
and
uranium Uranium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elem ...

uranium
.


Etymology

''Kyrgyz'' is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word for "forty", about the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero who united forty regional clans against the
Uyghurs The Uyghurs ( or ; ; ; zh, s=, t=, p=Wéiwú'ěr, IPA: ), alternatively spelled Uighurs, Uyghers, Uygurs or Uigurs, are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group originating from and culturally affiliated with the general region of Central Asi ...

Uyghurs
. Literally, Kyrgyz means "We are forty". At the time, in the early ninth century AD, the Uyghurs dominated much of Central Asia (including Kyrgyzstan), Mongolia, and parts of modern-day Russia and China. ''
-Stan The suffix -stan ( fa, ـستان, translit=stân after a vowel; estân or istân after a consonant) has the meaning of ''"a place abounding in"'' or ''"a place where anything abounds"'' in Persian language. It appears in the names of many regio ...
'' is a suffix in
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
meaning "place of" or "country". The 40-ray sun on the
flag of Kyrgyzstan The flag of Kyrgyzstan ( ky, Кыргыз Республикасынын Мамлекеттик Туусу, Qırğız Respublikasının Mamlekettik Tuusu, The State Flag of the Kyrgyz Republic) consists of a red field charged with a yellow sun tha ...

flag of Kyrgyzstan
is a reference to those same forty tribes and the graphical element in the sun's center depicts the wooden crown, called tunduk, of a
yurt A traditional yurt (from the ) or ger () is a portable, round tent covered with skins or and used as a dwelling by several distinct in the . The structure consists of an angled assembly or latticework of wood or for walls, a door frame, rib ...

yurt
—a portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. The country's official name is ''"Kyrgyz Republic,"'' used in international arenas and foreign relations. In the English-speaking world, the spelling ''Kyrgyzstan'' is commonly used, while its former name ''Kirghizia'', is rarely used.


History


Early history

According to David C. King,
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
were early settlers in present-day Kyrgyzstan. The
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...
Khaganate in 840 AD. From the tenth century the Kyrgyz migrated as far as the
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,; dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan- ...

Tian Shan
range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years. In the 12th century the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated south. The Kyrgyz peacefully became a part of the Mongol Empire in 1207.
Issyk Kul Lake Issyk-Kul (also Ysyk-Köl, ky, Ысык-Көл, translit=Ysyk-Köl, ; russian: Иссык-Куль, ) is an endorheic lake in the Northern Tian Shan mountains in Eastern Kyrgyzstan. It is the List of lakes by depth, seventh-deepest lake in the wo ...
was a stopover on the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
, a land route for traders, merchants, and other travelers from the Far East to Europe. Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the 17th century by the Mongols, in the mid-18th century by the Manchurian
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
, and in the early 19th century by the Uzbek
Khanate of Kokand The Khanate of Kokand ( fa, ; ''Khānneshin-e Khoqand'', chg, ''Khoqand Khānligi'') was a Central Asia, Central Asian polity in Fergana Valley, Central Asia that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of eastern Uzbekistan, modern Kyr ...
.


Russian conquest

In the late nineteenth century, the eastern part of what is today Kyrgyzstan, mainly the
Issyk-Kul Region Isıq-Köl Region ( ky, Ысык-Көл облусу, Isıq-Köl oblusu, ىسىق-كۅل وبلاستى) is one of the regions of Kyrgyzstan. Its capital is Karakol. It is surrounded by Almaty Region, Kazakhstan Kazakhstan,, * russian: ...
, was ceded to the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
by Qing China through the
Treaty of TarbagataiThe Treaty of Tarbagatai (or Chuguchak; ) of 7 October 5 September Old Style, O.S.1864 was a border protocol between Qing dynasty, Qing China and the Russian Empire that defined most of the western extent of their border in central Asia, between ...
. The territory, then known in Russian as "Kirghizia", was formally incorporated into the Empire in 1876. The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts, and many of the Kyrgyz opted to relocate to the
Pamir Mountains The Pamir Mountains are a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form, structure, and alignme ...

Pamir Mountains
and
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
. In addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion against Russian rule in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz later to migrate to China. Since many ethnic groups in the region were (and still are) split between neighboring states at a time when borders were more porous and less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better; this might mean better rains for pasture or better government during oppression.


Soviet Kyrgyzstan

Soviet power was initially established in the region in 1919, and the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the
Russian SFSR The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links=no, Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya ...
(the phrase Kara-Kirghiz was used until the mid-1920s by the Russians to distinguish them from the
Kazakhs The Kazakhs (also spelled Qazaqs; Kazakh language, Kazakh: , , , , , ; the English language, English name is transliteration, transliterated from Russian language, Russian; russian: Казахи) are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group who ...

Kazakhs
, who were also referred to as Kirghiz). On 5 December 1936, the
Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic Kirghizia, officially the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz SSR; ky, Кыргыз Советтик Социалисттик Республикасы ''Qırğız Sovettik Socialisttik Respublikası''; russian: Киргизская Сов ...
was established as a constituent
Union Republic The Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the Union Republics ( rus, Сою́зные Респу́блики, r=Soyúznye Respúbliki) were ethnically based administrative units of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U ...
of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. During the 1920s, Kyrgyzstan developed considerably in cultural, educational, and social life. Literacy was greatly improved, and a great focus was put on Kyrgyz
national identity National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one or more states or to one or more nations A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the lo ...
. Economic and social development also was notable. The early years of
glasnost In the Russian language Russian (, tr. ''russkiy yazyk'') is an East Slavic language The East Slavic languages constitute one of the three regional subgroups of Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic langu ...
had little effect on the political climate in Kyrgyzstan. However, the Republic's press was permitted to adopt a more liberal stance and to establish a new publication, ''Literaturny Kirghizstan'', by the Union of Writers. Unofficial political groups were forbidden, but several groups that emerged in 1989 to deal with the acute housing crisis were permitted to function. According to the last Soviet census in 1989, ethnic Kyrgyz made up only 22% of the residents of the northern city of (now Bishkek), while more than 60% were Russians, Ukrainians, and people from other Slavic nations. Nearly 10% of the capital's population were Jewish (a rather unique fact, for almost any place in the Soviet Union, except the
Jewish Autonomous Oblast The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (JAO; russian: Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, ; yi, ייִדישע אװטאָנאָמע געגנט, ; )In standard Yiddish: , ''Yidishe Oytonome Gegnt'' is a federal subject The fed ...

Jewish Autonomous Oblast
). In June 1990, ethnic tensions between
Uzbeks The Uzbeks ( uz, , , , ) are a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish langua ...
and Kyrgyz surfaced in the
Osh Oblast Osh Region ( ky, Ош облусу, ''Oş oblusu/Osh oblusu'', وش وبلاستى) is a region ('' oblast'') of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic, also known as Kirghizia (in Russian), is a landlocked country in Central A ...
(southern Kyrgyzstan), where Uzbeks form a minority of the population. The tensions between Kyrgyzs and Uzbeks in Osis led to 186 deaths. Attempts to appropriate Uzbek Collective farming, collective farms for housing development triggered the Osh riots (1990), Osh Riots. A state of emergency and curfew were introduced and
Askar Akayev Askar Akayevich Akayev ( ky, Аскар Акаевич Акаев, script=Latn, italic=no, Asqar Aqayeviç Aqayev; ; born 10 November 1944) is a Kyrgyz politician who served as President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 until being overthrown in the Marc ...

Askar Akayev
, the youngest of five sons born into a family of collective farm workers (in northern Kyrgyzstan), was elected president in October of that same year. By then, the Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyzstan Democratic Movement (KDM) had developed into a significant political force with support in Parliament. On 15 December 1990, the Supreme Soviet voted to change the republic's name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. The following January, Akayev introduced new government structures and appointed a new cabinet composed mainly of younger, reform-oriented politicians. In February 1991, the name of the capital, Frunze, was changed back to its pre-revolutionary name of Bishkek. Despite these political moves toward independence, economic realities seemed to work against secession from the Soviet Union. In a referendum on the preservation of the Soviet Union in March 1991, 88.7% of the voters approved the proposal to retain the Soviet Union as a "renewed federation". Nevertheless, secessionist forces pushed Kyrgyzstan's independence through in August of that same year. On 19 August 1991, when the State Committee on the State of Emergency, State Emergency Committee assumed power in Moscow, there was an attempt to depose Akayev in Kyrgyzstan. After the coup collapsed the following week, Akayev and Vice President German Kuznetsov announced their resignations from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and the entire bureau and secretariat resigned. This was followed by the Supreme Soviet vote declaring independence from the Soviet Union on 31 August 1991 as the Republic of Kyrgyzstan.


Independence

In October 1991, Akayev ran unopposed and was elected president of the new independent Republic by direct ballot, receiving 95 percent of the votes cast. Together with the representatives of seven other Republics that same month, he signed the Treaty of the New Economic Community. Finally, on 21 December 1991, Kyrgyzstan joined with the other four Central Asian Republics to formally enter the new
Commonwealth of Independent States The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; russian: Содружество Независимых Государств, СНГ, translit=Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv, SNG) is a regional intergovernmental organization in Eastern Euro ...

Commonwealth of Independent States
. Kyrgyzstan gained full independence a few days later on 25 December 1991. The following day, on 26 December 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. In 1992, Kyrgyzstan joined the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). On 5 May 1993, the official name changed from the Republic of Kyrgyzstan to the Kyrgyz Republic. In 2005, a popular uprising known as the "Tulip Revolution", took place after the parliamentary elections in March 2005, forced President
Askar Akayev Askar Akayevich Akayev ( ky, Аскар Акаевич Акаев, script=Latn, italic=no, Asqar Aqayeviç Aqayev; ; born 10 November 1944) is a Kyrgyz politician who served as President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 until being overthrown in the Marc ...

Askar Akayev
's resignation on 4 April 2005. Opposition leaders formed a coalition, and a new government was formed under President Kurmanbek Bakiyev and Prime Minister Feliks Kulov. The nation's capital was looted during the protests. Political stability appeared to be elusive, however, as various groups and factions allegedly linked to organized crime jockeyed for power. Three of the 75 members of Parliament elected in March 2005 were assassinated, and another member was assassinated on 10 May 2006 shortly after winning his murdered brother's seat in a by-election. All four are reputed to have been directly involved in major illegal business ventures. On 6 April 2010, 2010 Kyrgyzstan revolution, civil unrest broke out in the town of Talas, Kyrgyzstan, Talas after a demonstration against government corruption and increased living expenses. The protests became violent, spreading to Bishkek by the following day. Protesters attacked President Bakiyev's offices, as well as state-run radio and television stations. There were conflicting reports that Interior Minister Moldomusa Kongatiyev had been beaten. On 7 April 2010, President Bakiyev imposed a state of emergency. Police and special services arrested many opposition leaders. In response, protesters took control of the internal security headquarters (former KGB headquarters) and a state television channel in the capital, Bishkek. Reports by Kyrgyzstan government officials indicated that at least 75 people were killed and 458 hospitalized in bloody clashes with police in the capital. Reports say that at least 80 people died as a result of clashes with police. A transition government, led by former foreign minister Roza Otunbayeva, by 8 April 2010 had taken control of Media of Kyrgyzstan, state media and government facilities in the capital, but Bakiyev had not resigned from office. President Bakiyev returned to his home in Jalal-Abad and stated his terms of resignation at a press conference on 13 April 2010. On 15 April 2010, Bakiyev left the country and flew to neighboring
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
, along with his wife and two children. The country's provisional leaders announced that Bakiyev signed a formal letter of resignation prior to his departure. Prime Minister Daniar Usenov accused Russia of supporting the protests; this accusation was denied by Russian Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin. Opposition members also called for the closing of the US-controlled Manas Air Base. Russia's President Dmitry Medvedev ordered measures to ensure the safety of Russian nationals and tighten security around Russian sites in Kyrgyzstan to protect them against possible attacks. The 2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes occurred between the two main ethnic groups—the Uzbeks and Kyrgyz—in Osh, the second-largest city in the country, on 11 June 2010. The clashes incited fears that the country could be heading towards a civil war. Finding it difficult to control the situation, Otunbayeva, the interim leader, sent a letter to the Russian president, Dimitry Medvedev, asking him to send Russian troops to help the country control the situation. Medvedev's Press Attaché, Natalya Timakova, said in a reply to the letter, "It is an internal conflict and for now Russia does not see the conditions for taking part in its resolution". The clashes caused a shortage of food and other essential commodities with more than 200 killed and 1,685 people hurt, . The Russian government, however, said it would be sending humanitarian aid to the troubled nation. According to local sources, there was a clash between two local gangs and it did not take long for the violence to spread to the rest of the city. There were also reports that the armed forces supported ethnic Kyrgyz gangs entering the city, but the government denied the allegations. The riots spread to neighboring areas, and the government declared a state of emergency in the entire southern Jalal-Abad region. To control the situation, the interim government gave special shoot-to-kill powers to the security forces. The Russian government decided to send a battalion to the country to protect Russian facilities. Otunbayeva accused the family of Bakiyev of "instigating the riots". AFP reported "a veil of smoke covering the whole city". Authorities in neighboring
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
said at least 30,000 Uzbeks had crossed the border to escape the riots. Osh became relatively calm on 14 June 2010, but Jalal-Abad witnessed sporadic incidents of arson. The entire region was still under a state of emergency as Uzbeks were reluctant to leave their houses for fear of attacks by the mobs. The
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
decided to send an envoy to assess the situation. Temir Sariyev, deputy chief of the interim government, said there were local clashes and that it was not possible [for the government] to fully control the situation. He added that there were not sufficient security forces to contain the violence. Media agencies reported on 14 June 2010 that the Russian government was considering a request by the Kyrgyz government. An emergency meeting of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) was held on the same day (14 June) to discuss the role it could play in helping to end the violence. Ethnic violence waned, according to the Kyrgyz government, by 15 June 2010 and Kyrgyz president Roza Otunbayeva held a news conference that day and declared that there was no need for Russia to send in troops to quell the violence. There were at least 170 people left dead by 15 June 2010 but Pascale Meige Wagner of the International Committee of the Red Cross said the [official] death toll was an underestimate. The UN High Commissioner told reporters in Geneva that evidence suggested that the violence seemed to have been staged up. Ethnic Uzbeks threatened to blow up an oil depot in Osh if they failed to get guarantees of protection. The United Nations said it believed that the attacks were "orchestrated, targeted and well-planned". Kyrgyz officials told the media that a person suspected to be behind the violence in Jalal-Abad had been detained. On 2 August 2010, a Kyrgyz government commission began investigating the causes of the clashes. Members of the National Commission, led by former parliament speaker Abdygany Erkebaev, met with people from the predominantly ethnic Uzbek villages of Mady, Shark, and Kyzyl-Kyshtak in the Kara-Suu district of Osh Oblast. This National Commission, including representatives of many ethnic groups, was established by a presidential decree. President Roza Otunbayeva also said in August 2010 that an international commission would be formed to investigate the clashes. The international commission conducted an extensive investigation and prepared a report – The Independent international commission of inquiry into the events in southern Kyrgyzstan in June 2010 (KIC). It stated that "The Provisional Government, which had assumed power two months before the events, either failed to recognize or underestimated the deterioration in inter-ethnic relations in southern Kyrgyzstan". The KIC concluded that the "Provisional Government had the responsibility to ensure that the security forces were adequately trained and appropriately equipped to deal with situations of civil unrest" but were unable to take necessary measures. As of today, Kyrgyzstan celebrates its Independence Day annually on August 31, the anniversary of its declaration of independence in 1991. Since independence, Kyrgyzstan has made developments such as creating genuinely free news media and fostering an active political opposition. In late April 2021, a Water conflict, conflict over water escalated into one of the most serious 2021 Kyrgyzstan–Tajikistan conflict, border clashes between Kyrgyzstan and
Tajikistan ) , image_map = Tajikistan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , capital = Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest ...

Tajikistan
since independence in 1991.


Geography

Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country in
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
, bordering
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
, China,
Tajikistan ) , image_map = Tajikistan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , capital = Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest ...

Tajikistan
and
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
. It lies between latitudes 39th parallel north, 39° and 44th parallel north, 44° N, and longitudes 69th meridian east, 69° and 81st meridian east, 81° E. It is farther from the sea than any other individual country, and all its rivers flow into endorheic basin, closed drainage systems which do not reach the sea. The mountainous region of the
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,; dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan- ...

Tian Shan
covers over 80% of the country (Kyrgyzstan is occasionally referred to as "the Switzerland of Central Asia", as a result), with the remainder made up of valleys and basins. Issyk-Kul Lake, or Ysyk-Köl in Kyrgyz Language, Kyrgyz, in the north-eastern Tian Shan is the largest lake in Kyrgyzstan and the second largest mountain lake in the world after Titicaca. The lowest point is in Kara Darya, Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) at 132 meters and the highest peaks are in the Kakshaal-Too range, forming the Chinese border. Peak Jengish Chokusu, at , is the highest point and is considered by geologists to be the northernmost peak over in the world. Heavy snowfall in winter leads to spring floods which often cause serious damage downstream. The runoff from the mountains is also used for hydro-electricity. Kyrgyzstan has significant deposits of metals including
gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...

gold
and rare-earth metals. Due to the country's predominantly mountainous terrain, less than 8% of the land is cultivated, and this is concentrated in the northern lowlands and the fringes of the Fergana Valley.
Bishkek Bishkek ( ky, Бишкек, Bişkek, بىشکەک, ), formerly Pishpek and Frunze (russian: Фрунзе), is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic). Bishkek is also the administrative centre of the Chuy Regi ...

Bishkek
in the north is the capital and largest city, with 937,400 inhabitants (). The second city is the ancient town of Osh, located in the Fergana Valley near the border with Uzbekistan. The principal river is the Kara Darya, which flows west through the Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan. Across the border in Uzbekistan it meets another major Kyrgyz river, the Naryn River, Naryn. The confluence forms the Syr Darya, which originally flowed into the Aral Sea. , it no longer reaches the sea, as its water is withdrawn upstream to irrigate cotton fields in
Tajikistan ) , image_map = Tajikistan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , capital = Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest ...

Tajikistan
,
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
, and southern
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
. The Chu River also briefly flows through Kyrgyzstan before entering Kazakhstan. Kyrgyzstan contains seven terrestrial ecosystems: Tian Shan montane conifer forests, Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe, Gissaro-Alai open woodlands, Tian Shan foothill arid steppe, Pamir alpine desert and tundra, Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows, and Central Asian northern desert. It had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 8.86/10, ranking it 13th globally out of 172 countries.


Climate

The climate varies regionally. The low-lying Fergana Valley in the southwest is subtropical climate, subtropical and extremely hot in summer, with temperatures reaching The northern foothills are temperate climate, temperate and the
Tian Shan The Tian Shan,; dng, Тянсан, ; otk, 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, ; tr, Tanrı Dağı; mn, Тэнгэр уул, ; ug, تەڭرىتاغ, , ; kk, Тәңіртауы / Алатау, , ; ky, Теңир-Тоо / Ала-Тоо, , ; uz, Tyan- ...

Tian Shan
varies from dry continental climate, continental to polar climate, depending on elevation. In the coldest areas temperatures are sub-zero for around 40 days in winter, and even some desert areas experience constant snowfall in this period. In the lowlands the temperature ranges from around in January to in July.


Climate change


Enclaves and exclaves

There is one Enclave and exclave, exclave, the tiny village of Barak, Kyrgyzstan, Barak (population 627), in the Fergana Valley. The village is surrounded by Uzbekistan, Uzbek territory. It is located on the road from Osh (Kyrgyzstan) to Khodjaabad (Uzbekistan) about north-west from the Kyrgyz–Uzbek border in the direction of Andijan. Barak is administratively part of Kara-Suu District in Kyrgyzstan's Osh Region. There are four Uzbek enclave and exclave, enclaves within Kyrgyzstan. Two of them are the towns of Sokh District, Sokh, with an area of and a population of 42,800 in 1993—although some estimates go as high as 70,000 (99% are Tajik people, Tajiks, the remainder
Uzbeks The Uzbeks ( uz, , , , ) are a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish langua ...
); and Shohimardon, Shakhimardan (also known as Shahimardan, Shohimardon, or Shah-i-Mardan, area and a population of 5,100 in 1993; 91% are Uzbeks, the remainder
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
); the other two are the tiny territories of Chong-Kara (roughly long by wide) and Jangy-ayyl (a dot of land barely across). Chong-Kara is on the Sokh river, between the Uzbek border and the Sokh enclave. Jangy-ayyl is about east of Batken, in a northward projection of the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border near Khalmion. There are also two enclaves belonging to
Tajikistan ) , image_map = Tajikistan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , capital = Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest ...

Tajikistan
: Vorukh (exclave area between , population estimated between 23,000 and 29,000, 95% Tajiks and 5% Kyrgyz, distributed among 17 villages), located south of Isfara on the right bank of the river Karavshin, and a small settlement near the Kyrgyz railway station of Kairagach.


Politics


Political system

The 1993–2010 Constitution of Kyrgyzstan, 1993 constitution defines the form of government as a democratic unicameral republic. The executive branch includes a president and prime minister. The parliament currently is unicameral. The judicial branch comprises a Supreme Court, local courts and a Chief Prosecutor. In March 2002, in the southern district of Aksy, five people protesting the arbitrary arrest and detention, arbitrary arrest of an opposition politician were shot dead by police, sparking nationwide protests. President
Askar Akayev Askar Akayevich Akayev ( ky, Аскар Акаевич Акаев, script=Latn, italic=no, Asqar Aqayeviç Aqayev; ; born 10 November 1944) is a Kyrgyz politician who served as President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 until being overthrown in the Marc ...

Askar Akayev
initiated a constitutional reform process which initially included the participation of a broad range of government, civil and social representatives in an open dialogue, leading to a February 2003 referendum marred by voting irregularities. The amendments to the constitution approved by the referendum resulted in stronger control by the president and weakened the parliament and the Constitutional Court. Parliamentary elections for a new, 75-seat unicameral legislature were held on 27 February and 13 March 2005, but were widely viewed as corrupt. The subsequent protests led to a bloodless coup on 24 March 2005, after which Akayev fled the country with his family and was replaced by acting president Kurmanbek Bakiyev (see: Tulip Revolution). On 10 July 2005, acting president Bakiyev won the Kyrgyz presidential election, 2005, presidential election in a landslide, with 88.9% of the vote, and was inaugurated on 14 August. However, initial public support for the new administration substantially declined in subsequent months as a result of its apparent inability to solve the corruption problems that had plagued the country since its independence from the Soviet Union, along with the murders of several members of parliament. Large-scale protests against president Bakiyev took place in Bishkek in April and November 2006, with opposition leaders accusing the president of failing to live up to his election promises to reform the country's constitution and transfer many of his presidential powers to parliament. Kyrgyzstan is also a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), a league of 56 participating states committed to peace, transparency, and the protection of human rights in Eurasia. As an OSCE participating State, Kyrgyzstan's international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate of the U.S. Helsinki Commission. In December 2008, the state-owned broadcast Kyrgyz Television, KTRK announced that it would require prior submission of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty programmes, which KTRK are required to retransmit according to a 2005 agreement. KTRK had stopped retransmitting RFE/RL programming in October 2008, a week after it failed to broadcast an RFE/RL programme called 'Inconvenient Questions' which covered the October elections, claiming to have lost the missing material. President Bakiyev had criticised this programme in September 2008, while KTRK told RFE/RL that its programming was too negative. Reporters Without Borders, which ranks Kyrgyzstan 111th out of 173 countries on its Press Freedom Index, strongly criticised the decision. On 3 February 2009, President Kurmanbek Bakiyev announced the imminent closure of the Manas Air Base, the only US military base remaining in Central Asia. The closure was approved by Parliament on 19 February 2009 by a vote of 78–1 for the government-backed bill. However, after much behind-the-scenes negotiation between Kyrgyz, Russian and American diplomats, the decision was reversed in June 2009. The Americans were allowed to remain under a new contract, whereby rent would increase from $17.4 million to $60 million annually. Kyrgyzstan is among the fifty countries in the world with the highest perceived level of corruption: the 2016 Corruption Perception Index for Kyrgyzstan is 28 on a scale of 0 (most corrupt) to 100 (least corrupt). In 2010 another revolution erupted in the country (see: 2010 Kyrgyzstani revolution, April uprising). President Kurmanbek Bakiyev together with his relatives including his son Maxim Bakiyev, Maksim and brother Janish Bakiyev, Janish—were forced to flee to Kazakhstan and then sought asylum in Belarus. Roza Otunbayeva, who was appointed interim president, announced that she did not intend to run for the Kyrgyz presidential election, 2011, Presidential elections in 2011. The election was held in November and won by the then-Prime Minister Almazbek Atambayev, leader of the Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan, Social Democratic Party, and Atambayev was sworn in as president on 1 December 2011. Omurbek Babanov was appointed prime minister on the same day and was confirmed on 23 December 2011. In October 2017, Sooronbay Jeenbekov, a former prime minister backed by incumbent Almazbek Atambayev, was elected as the new President of Kyrgyzstan. On 7 August 2019, the Special Forces of Kyrgyzstan launched an operation against the residence of former President Almazbek Atambayev, supposedly based on charges of corruption made against him. In a meeting of the Security Council of Kyrgyzstan, Security Council, President Jeenbekov accused Atambayev of violating the constitution. In October 2020, President Sooronbay Jeenbekov resigned after protests caused by irregularities in parliamentary 2020 Kyrgyz parliamentary election, elections on 4 October 2020. In January 2021,
Sadyr Japarov Sadyr Nurgozhoevich Japarov (; ky, Садыр Нургожоевич Жапаров, translit=Sadyr Nurghozhoyevich Zhaparov; born 6 December 1968) is a KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz ...
was elected as the new president after winning the presidential 2021 Kyrgyz presidential election, election by landslide. In April 2021, the majority of voters approved in the constitutional 2021 Kyrgyz constitutional referendum, referendum a new constitution that will give new powers to the president, significantly strengthening the power of the presidency.


Military

The armed forces of Kyrgyzstan were formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union and consist of the Kyrgyz Army, Land Forces, Kyrgyz Air Force, Air Forces, Internal Troops of Kyrgyzstan, internal troops, National Guard (Kyrgyzstan), National Guard, and the Kyrgyzstan Frontier Force, border guard. The military works with the US Armed Forces, which leased a facility named the Transit Center at Manas at Manas International Airport near Bishkek until June 2014. In recent years, the armed forces have begun developing better relations with Russia including signing modernization deals worth $1.1bn and partaking in more exercises with Russian troops. The Agency of National Security (Kyrgyzstan), Agency of National Security works with the military and serves similar purposes to its Soviet predecessor, the KGB. It oversees an elite counterterrorism special forces unit known as "Alfa", the same name used by other former Soviet countries, including Russia and
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
. The police are commanded by the Ministry of the Interior Affairs, along with the border guard.


Human rights

Kyrgyzstan is classified as a "hybrid regime" in the Democracy Index, ranking 107th out of 167 for 2020. Kyrgyzstan was also ranked "not free" in the 2021 Freedom in the World report with a score of 28/100. In 2020, it was ranked "partly free" with a score of 39/100. After the installment of a more democratic government, many human rights violations still take place. The country is performing well compared to other states in Central Asia and the freedom of the press is still improving. In a move that alarmed human-rights groups, dozens of prominent Uzbek religious and community leaders were arrested by security forces following the 2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes, 2010 South Kyrgyzstan riots, including journalist and human-rights activist Azimzhan Askarov. A law banning women under the age of 23 from traveling abroad without a parent or guardian, with the purpose of "increased morality and preservation of the gene pool" passed in the Kyrgyz parliament in June 2013. American diplomats expressed concern in October 2014 when Kyrgyzstan lawmakers passed a law that imposes jail terms on LGBT rights in Kyrgyzstan, gay-rights activists and others, including journalists, who create “a positive attitude toward non-traditional sexual relations.” Kyrgyzstani activist and journalist Azimzhan Askarov was sentenced to life in prison in 2010. On 24 January 2017, a Kyrgyz court has reinstated a sentence of life imprisonment for Askarov.


Administrative divisions

Kyrgyzstan is divided into seven Regions of Kyrgyzstan, regions ( ky, облустар). The regions are subdivided into 44 Districts of Kyrgyzstan, districts ( ky, аймактар, ;). The districts are further subdivided into rural districts at the lowest level of administration, which include all rural settlements (''aýyl ökmötü'') and villages without an associated municipal government. The cities of
Bishkek Bishkek ( ky, Бишкек, Bişkek, بىشکەک, ), formerly Pishpek and Frunze (russian: Фрунзе), is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic). Bishkek is also the administrative centre of the Chuy Regi ...

Bishkek
and Osh have status "state importance" and do not belong to any region. Each region is headed by an akim (regional governor) appointed by the president. District akims are appointed by regional akims. The regions, and independent cities, are as follows, with subdivisions: # Bishkek, City of Bishkek ## Lenin District, Bishkek, Lenin District ## Oktyabr District, Bishkek, Oktyabr District ## Birinchi May District, Bishkek, Birinchi May District ## Sverdlov District, Bishkek, Sverdlov District # Batken Region ## Batken District ## Kadamjay District ## Leylek District # Chuy Region ## Alamüdün District ## Chuy District, Çüy District ## Jayyl District, Jaýyl District ## Kemin District ## Moskva District, Kyrgyzstan, Moskva District ## Panfilov District, Kyrgyzstan, Panfilov District ## Sokuluk District, Soquluq District ## Ysyk-Ata District, Ysyq-Ata District # Jalal-Abad Region ## Aksy District ## Ala-Buka District ## Bazar-Korgon District ## Chatkal District ## Nooken District ## Suzak District ## Toguz-Toro District ## Toktogul District # Naryn Region ## Ak-Talaa District ## At-Bashy District ## Jumgal District ## Kochkor District ## Naryn District # Osh Region ## Alay District ## Aravan District ## Chong-Alay District ## Kara-Kulja District ## Kara-Suu District ## Nookat District ## Özgön District # Talas Region ## Bakay-Ata District ## Kara-Buura District ## Manas District ## Talas District, Kyrgyzstan, Talas District #
Issyk-Kul Region Isıq-Köl Region ( ky, Ысык-Көл облусу, Isıq-Köl oblusu, ىسىق-كۅل وبلاستى) is one of the regions of Kyrgyzstan. Its capital is Karakol. It is surrounded by Almaty Region, Kazakhstan Kazakhstan,, * russian: ...
## Ak-Suu District ## Issyk-Kul District ## Jeti-Ögüz District ## Tong District ## Tüp District # Osh, City of Osh


Economy

The National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic serves as the central bank of Kyrgyzstan. Kyrgyzstan was the ninth poorest country in the former
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, and is today the second poorest country in
Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north, including the former Soviet Union, Soviet republics of the Sov ...

Central Asia
after Tajikistan. 22.4% of the country's population lives below the poverty line. Despite the backing of major Western lenders, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, Kyrgyzstan has had economic difficulties following independence. Initially, these were a result of the breakup of the Soviet trade bloc and resulting loss of markets, which impeded the republic's transition to a demand economy. The government has reduced expenditures, ended most price subsidies and introduced a value-added tax. Overall, the government appears committed to the transition to a market economy. Through economic stabilization and reform, the government seeks to establish a pattern of long-term consistent growth. Reforms led to Kyrgyzstan's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 20 December 1998. The Kyrgyz economy was severely affected by the collapse of the Soviet Union and the resulting loss of its vast market. In 1990, some 98% of Kyrgyz exports went to other parts of the Soviet Union. Thus, the nation's economic performance in the early 1990s was worse than any other former Soviet republic except war-torn Armenia, Azerbaijan and
Tajikistan ) , image_map = Tajikistan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , capital = Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest ...

Tajikistan
, as factories and state farms collapsed with the disappearance of their traditional markets in the former Soviet Union. While economic performance has improved considerably in the last few years, and particularly since 1998, difficulties remain in securing adequate Fiscal Policy, fiscal revenues and providing an adequate social safety net. Remittances of around 800,000 Kyrgyz migrants working in Russia contribute to the economy however in recent years, remittances have decreased. Agriculture is an important sector of the economy in Kyrgyzstan (see agriculture in Kyrgyzstan). By the early 1990s, the private agricultural sector provided between one-third and one-half of some harvests. In 2002, agriculture accounted for 35.6% of GDP and about half of employment. Kyrgyzstan's terrain is mountainous, which accommodates livestock raising, the largest agricultural activity, so the resulting wool, meat and dairy products are major commodities. Main crops include wheat, sugar beets, potatoes, cotton, tobacco, vegetables, and fruit. As the prices of imported agrichemicals and petroleum are so high, much farming is being done by hand and by horse, as it was generations ago. Agricultural processing is a key component of the industrial economy as well as one of the most attractive sectors for foreign investment. Kyrgyzstan is rich in mineral resources but has negligible petroleum and natural gas reserves; it imports petroleum and gas. Among its mineral reserves are substantial deposits of
coal Coal is a combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , ...

coal
,
gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...

gold
,
uranium Uranium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elem ...

uranium
, antimony, and other valuable metals. Metallurgy is an important industry, and the government hopes to attract foreign investment in this field. The government has actively encouraged foreign involvement in extracting and processing gold from the Kumtor Gold Mine and other regions. The country's plentiful water resources and mountainous terrain enable it to produce and export large quantities of hydroelectric energy. The principal exports are nonferrous metals and minerals, woollen goods and other agricultural products, electric energy and certain engineering goods. Imports include petroleum and natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, most machinery, wood and paper products, some foods and some construction materials. Its leading trade partners include Germany, Russia, China,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
, and
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan (, ; uz, Ozbekiston, italic=yes, ), officially the Republic of Uzbekistan ( uz, Ozbekiston Respublikasi, italic=yes), is a doubly landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, ter ...

Uzbekistan
. After Beijing launched the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in 2013, China has expanded its economic presence and initiated a number of sizable infrastructure projects in Kyrgyzstan. In regards to telecommunication infrastructure, Kyrgyz Republic ranks last in Central Asia in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index (NRI) – an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies. Kyrgyz Republic ranked number 118 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, unchanged from 2013 (see Networked Readiness Index). Kyrgyzstan is ranked 78th among countries for economic freedom by the Heritage Institute. The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have a significant negative impact on the Kyrgyz economy that is reliant on services, remittances and natural resources. As a result, in order to mitigate the economic shock and preserve much of the development progress achieved in recent years the World Bank will provide support by financing several projects in the country.


Tourism

One of the most popular tourist destination points in Kyrgyzstan is the lake Issyk-Kul. Numerous hotels, resorts and boarding houses are located along its northern shore. The most popular beach zones are in the city of Cholpon-Ata and the settlements nearby, such as Kara-Oi (Dolinka), Bosteri and Korumdy. The number of tourists visiting the lake was more than a million a year in 2006 and 2007. However, due to the economic and political instability in the region, the number has declined in recent years.


Science and technology

The headquarters of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences is located in Bishkek, where several research institutes are located. Kyrgyz researchers are developing useful technologies based on natural products, such as heavy metal remediation for purifying waste water. Kyrgyzstan was ranked 94th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 90th in 2019.


Demographics

Kyrgyzstan's population is estimated at 6,586,600 in August 2020. Of those, 34.4% are under the age of 15 and 6.2% are over 65. The country is rural: only about one-third of the population live in urban areas. The average population density is 25 people per km2.


Ethnic groups

The nation's largest ethnic group are the
KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...

Kyrgyz
, a Turkic peoples, Turkic people, who comprise 73.3% of the population. Other ethnic groups include
Russians , native_name_lang = ru , image = , caption = Wedding ceremony in the national Russian tradition. , population = 134 million , popplace = 117,319,000 , region1 = , pop1 = 7,170,00 ...

Russians
(5.6%) concentrated in the north and
Uzbeks The Uzbeks ( uz, , , , ) are a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish langua ...
(14.6%) living in the south. Small but noticeable minorities include Dungans (1.1%), Uyghur people, Uyghurs (1.1%), Tājik people, Tajiks (1.1%),
Kazakhs The Kazakhs (also spelled Qazaqs; Kazakh language, Kazakh: , , , , , ; the English language, English name is transliteration, transliterated from Russian language, Russian; russian: Казахи) are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group who ...

Kazakhs
(0.7%), and Ukrainians (0.5%) and other smaller ethnic minorities (1.7%). The country has over 80 ethnic groups. The Kyrgyz have historically been semi-nomadic herders, living in round tents called
yurt A traditional yurt (from the ) or ger () is a portable, round tent covered with skins or and used as a dwelling by several distinct in the . The structure consists of an angled assembly or latticework of wood or for walls, a door frame, rib ...

yurt
s and tending sheep, horses and yaks. This nomadic tradition continues to function seasonally (see transhumance) as herding families return to the high mountain pasture (or ''jailoo'') in the summer. The sedentary Uzbeks and Tajiks traditionally have farmed lower-lying irrigated land in the Fergana valley. Kyrgyzstan has undergone a pronounced change in its ethnic composition since independence. The percentage of ethnic Kyrgyz has increased from around 50% in 1979 to over 70% in 2013, while the percentage of ethnic groups, such as Russians, Ukrainians, Germans and Tatars dropped from 35% to about 7%. Since 1991, a large number of Germans in Kyrgyzstan, Germans, who in 1989 numbered 101,000 persons, have emigrated to Germany.


Languages

KyrgyzKyrgyz, Kirghiz or Kyrgyzstani may refer to: *Things related to Kyrgyzstan *Kyrgyz people *Kyrgyz language *Kyrgyz culture *Kyrgyz cuisine *Yenisei Kirghiz *The Fuyu Kyrgyz language, Fuyü Gïrgïs language in Northeastern China {{Disambig Languag ...
is the state language of Kyrgyzstan.
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
is additionally an official language. Kyrgyzstan is one of five former Soviet republics to have Russian as a de jure official language, along with Russia, Belarus,
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
, and
Tajikistan ) , image_map = Tajikistan (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , capital = Dushanbe Dushanbe ( tg, Душанбе, ; ; russian: Душанбе) is the Capital city, capital and largest ...

Tajikistan
. After the division of the Soviet Union into countries, Kyrgyz was adopted as the "state language" of Kyrgyzstan in 1991. Kyrgyzstan adopted Russian as an "official language" in 1997. The languages have different legal statuses. Kyrgyz is a Turkic languages, Turkic language of the Kipchak languages, Kipchak branch, closely related to Kazakh language, Kazakh, Karakalpak language, Karakalpak, and Nogay language, Nogay Tatar. It was written in the Arabic alphabet until the twentieth century. The Latin alphabet, Latin script was introduced and adopted on Stalin's orders in 1928, and was subsequently replaced by Cyrillic script#Kyrgyz, Cyrillic script in 1941. A reformed Perso-Arabic alphabet, created by Kyrgyz intellectual and scientist: Kasym Tynystanov, is the official script of the Kyrgyz language in the People's Republic of China. As a result of the pending language reform in neighboring Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan will be the only independent Turkic languages, Turkic-speaking country in a few years that exclusively uses the Cyrillic alphabet. In 2009, 4.1 million people spoke Kyrgyz as native or second language and 2.5 million spoke Russian as native or second language. Uzbek language, Uzbek is the second most common native language with 700,000 native speakers. Russian TV media enjoy enormous popularity in Kyrgyzstan, especially in the Russian-speaking Bishkek, city of Bishkek and the Chuy Region. Russian media outlets have an enormous impact on public opinion in Kyrgyzstan, especially in areas such as human rights and international political developments. Many business and political affairs are carried out in Russian. Until recently, Kyrgyz remained a language spoken at home and was rarely used during meetings or other events. However, most parliamentary meetings today are conducted in Kyrgyz, with simultaneous interpretation available for those not speaking Kyrgyz.


Urban centres


Religion

Islam is the dominant religion of Kyrgyzstan. The CIA World Factbook estimates that as of 2017, 90% of the population is Muslim, with the majority being Sunni; 7% are Christian, including 3% Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodoxy, and the remainder are other religions. A 2009 Pew Research Center report indicated 86.3% of Kyrgyzstan's population adhering to Islam. The great majority of Muslims are Sunni, adhering to the Hanafi, Hanafi school of thought, although a 2012 Pew survey report showed that only 23% of respondents to a questionnaire chose to identify themselves as Sunni, with 64% volunteering that they were "just a Muslim". There are a few Ahmadiyya Muslims, though unrecognised by the country. During Soviet times, state atheism was encouraged. Today, however, Kyrgyzstan is a secular state, although Islam has exerted a growing influence in politics. For instance, there has been an attempt to arrange for officials to travel on ''hajj'' (the pilgrimage to Mecca) under a tax-free arrangement. While Islam in Kyrgyzstan is more of a cultural background than a devout daily practice for many, public figures have expressed support for restoring religious values. For example, human rights ombudsman Tursunbay Bakir-Ulu noted, "In this era of independence, it is not surprising that there has been a return to spiritual roots not only in Kyrgyzstan, but also in other post-communist republics. It would be immoral to develop a market-based society without an ethical dimension." Additionally, Bermet Akayeva, the daughter of
Askar Akayev Askar Akayevich Akayev ( ky, Аскар Акаевич Акаев, script=Latn, italic=no, Asqar Aqayeviç Aqayev; ; born 10 November 1944) is a Kyrgyz politician who served as President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 until being overthrown in the Marc ...

Askar Akayev
, the former President of Kyrgyzstan, stated during a July 2007 interview that Islam is increasingly taking root across the nation. She emphasized that many mosques have recently been built and that the Kyrgyz are increasingly devoting themselves to Islam, which she noted was "not a bad thing in itself. It keeps our society more moral, cleaner." There is a contemporary Sufi order present which adheres to a somewhat different form of Islam than the orthodox Islam. The other faiths practiced in Kyrgyzstan include Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox and Orthodox Church of Ukraine, Ukrainian Orthodox versions of Christianity, practiced primarily by
Russians , native_name_lang = ru , image = , caption = Wedding ceremony in the national Russian tradition. , population = 134 million , popplace = 117,319,000 , region1 = , pop1 = 7,170,00 ...

Russians
and Ukrainians respectively. A community of 5000 to 10,000 Jehovah's Witnesses gather in both Kyrgyz and Russian-speaking congregations, as well as some Chinese- and Turkish-speaking groups. A small minority of ethnic Germans are also Christian, mostly Lutheran Church, Lutheran and Anabaptist as well as a Roman Catholic community of approximately 600. A few Animism, Animistic traditions survive, as do influences from Buddhism such as the tying of prayer flags onto sacred trees, though some view this practice rooted within Sufi Islam. There are also a small number of Bukharian Jews living in Kyrgyzstan, but during the collapse of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
most fled to other countries, mainly the United States and Israel. In addition, there is a small community of Ashkenazi Jews, who fled to the country from eastern Europe during the Second World War. On 6 November 2008, the Kyrgyzstan parliament unanimously passed a law increasing the minimum number of adherents for recognizing a religion from 10 to 200. It also outlawed "aggressive action aimed at proselytism", and banned religious activity in schools and all activity by unregistered organizations. It was signed by President Kurmanbek Bakiyev on 12 January 2009. There have been several reported police raids against peaceful minority religious meetings, as well as reports of officials planting false evidence, but also some court decisions in favour of religious minorities.


Culture


Traditions

* ''Manas (epic), Manas'', an epic poem * ''Komuz'', a three-stringed lute * ''Tush kyiz'', large, elaborately embroidered wall hangings * ''Shirdak'', flat cushions made in shadow-pairs * Other textiles, especially made from felt * ''Ala kachuu'', "bride kidnapping", traditional form of marriage in Kyrgyzstan * Falconry Illegal, but still practiced, is the tradition of bride kidnapping. It is debatable whether bride kidnapping is actually traditional. Some of the confusion may stem from the fact that arranged marriages were traditional, and one of the ways to escape an arranged marriage was to arrange a consensual "kidnapping."


Flag

The 40-rayed yellow sun in the center of Flag of Kyrgyzstan, the national flag represent the 40 tribes that once made up the entirety of Kyrgyz culture before the intervention of Russia during the rise of the Soviet Union. The lines inside the sun represent the crown or tündük (Kyrgyz түндүк) of a yurt, a symbol replicated in many facets of Kyrgyz architecture. The red portion of the flag represents peace and openness of Kyrgyzstan. Under Soviet rule and before 1992, it had the flag of the Soviet Union with two big blue stripes and a white thin stripe in the middle.


Public holidays

In addition to celebrating the New Year each 1 January, the Kyrgyz observe the traditional New Year festival Nowruz on the vernal equinox. This spring holiday is celebrated with feasts and festivities such as the horse game Buzkashi, Ulak Tartish. This is the list of public holidays in Kyrgyzstan: * 1 January – New Year's Day * 7 January – Orthodox Christmas * 23 February – Fatherland Defender's Day * 8 March – Women's Day * 21–23 March – Nowruz, Nooruz Mairamy, Persian New Year (spring festival) * 7 April – Day of National Revolution * 1 May – Labor Day * 5 May – Constitution Day * 8 May – Remembrance Day * 9 May – Victory Day (9 May), Victory Day * 31 August – Independence Day * 7–8 November – Days of History and Commemoration of Ancestors Two additional Muslim holidays ''Eid-al-Fitr, Orozo Ayt'' and ''Eid-al-Adha, Qurman (or Qurban) Ayt'' are defined by the lunar calendar.


Sports

Association football, Football is the most popular sport in Kyrgyzstan. The official governing body is the Football Federation of Kyrgyz Republic, which was founded in 1992, after the split of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
. It administers the Kyrgyzstan national football team. Wrestling is also very popular. In the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, two athletes from Kyrgyzstan won medals in Greco-Roman wrestling: Kanatbek Begaliev (silver) and Ruslan Tyumenbayev (bronze). Ice hockey was not as popular in Kyrgyzstan until the first Kyrgyzstan Championship (ice hockey), Ice Hockey Championship was organized in 2009. In 2011, the Kyrgyzstan men's national ice hockey team won 2011 Asian Winter Games Premier Division dominating in all six games with six wins. It was the first major international event that Kyrgyzstan's ice hockey team took part in. The Kyrgyzstan men's ice hockey team joined the IIHF in July 2011. Bandy is becoming increasingly popular in the country. The Kyrgyz national team took Kyrgyzstan's first medal at the Asian Winter Games, when they captured the bronze. They played in the Bandy World Championship 2012, their first appearance in that tournament. Martial Arts: Valentina Shevchenko (fighter), Valentina Shevchenko is a Kyrgyzstani–Peruvian professional mixed martial artist who competes in the Flyweight (MMA), women's flyweight division of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), where she is the current UFC Women's Flyweight Championship, Women's Flyweight champion. Boxing: Dmitry Bivol is a Kyrgyzstani Professional Boxer from Tokmok, who competes in the Light Heavyweight Division. Since 2017, he has held the World Boxing Association Light Heavyweight Title. As of August 2019, Bivol is ranked as the world's best active light-heavyweight by the Transnational Boxing Rankings Board and BoxRec, and third by The Ring Magazine. Kyrgyzstan's national basketball team had its best performance at the official 1995 Asian Basketball Championship where the team surprisingly finished ahead of favorites such as Iran national basketball team, Iran, Philippines men's national basketball team, Philippines and Jordan national basketball team, Jordan.


Horse riding

The traditional national sports reflect the importance of horse riding in Kyrgyz culture. Very popular, as in all of Central Asia, is ''Buzkashi, Ulak Tartysh'', a team sports, team game resembling a cross between polo and rugby football, rugby in which two teams of riders wrestle for possession of the headless carcass of a goat, which they attempt to deliver across the opposition's goal line, or into the opposition's goal: a big tub or a circle marked on the ground. Other popular games on horseback include: * ''At Chabysh'' – a long-distance horse race, sometimes over a distance of more than 50 km * ''Jumby Atmai'' – a large bar of precious metal (the "jumby") is tied to a pole by a thread and contestants attempt to break the thread by shooting at it, while at a gallop * ''Kyz Kuumai'' – a man chases a girl in order to win a kiss from her, while she gallops away; if he is not successful she may in turn chase him and attempt to beat him with her "kamchi" (horsewhip) * ''Oodarysh'' – two contestants wrestle on horseback, each attempting to be the first to throw the other from his horse * ''Tyin Emmei'' – picking up a coin from the ground at full gallop


Education

The school system in Kyrgyzstan includes primary (grades 1 to 4, some schools have optional 0 grade), secondary (grades 5 to 9) and high (grades 10 to 11) divisions within one school. Children are usually accepted to primary schools at the age of 6 or 7. It is required that every child finishes 9 grades of school and receives a certificate of completion. Grades 10–11 are optional, but it is necessary to complete them to graduate and receive a state-accredited school diploma. To graduate, a student must complete the 11-year school course and pass 4 mandatory state exams in writing, maths, history and a foreign language. There are 77 public schools in Bishkek (capital city) and more than 200 in the rest of the country. There are 55 higher educational institutions and universities in Kyrgyzstan, out of which 37 are state institutions. In September 2016, the University of Central Asia was launched in Naryn, Kyrgyzstan.


Libraries

Kyrgyzstan is home to 1,066 libraries. The National Library of the Kyrgyz Republic is the oldest library in the country, which was established in 1934. Kyrgyz Libraries are working towards expanding access to communities, evident in projects such as the signing of the Marrakesh VIP Treaty and the Open access Portal.


Transport

Transport in Kyrgyzstan is severely constrained by the country's alpine topography. Roads have to snake up steep valleys, cross passes of altitude and more, and are subject to frequent mudslides and snow avalanches. Winter travel is close to impossible in many of the more remote and high-altitude regions. Additional problems come from the fact that many roads and railway lines built during the Soviet Union, Soviet period are today intersected by international boundaries, requiring time-consuming border formalities to cross where they are not completely closed. Horses are still a much-used transport option, especially in more rural areas; Kyrgyzstan's road infrastructure is not extensive, so horses are able to reach locations that motor vehicles cannot, and they do not require expensive, imported fuel.


Airports

At the end of the Soviet period there were about 50 airports and airstrips in Kyrgyzstan, many of them built primarily to serve military purposes in this border region so close to China. Only a few of them remain in service today. The Kyrgyzstan Air Company provides air transport to China, Russia, and other local countries. * Manas International Airport near
Bishkek Bishkek ( ky, Бишкек, Bişkek, بىشکەک, ), formerly Pishpek and Frunze (russian: Фрунзе), is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic). Bishkek is also the administrative centre of the Chuy Regi ...

Bishkek
is the main international airport, with services to Moscow, Tashkent, Almaty, Urumqi, Istanbul, Baku, and Dubai. * Osh Airport is the main air terminal in the south of the country, with daily connections to Bishkek, and services to Moscow, Krasnoyarsk, Almaty and more international places. * Jalal-Abad Airport is linked to Bishkek by daily flights. The national flag carrier, Kyrgyzstan, operates flights on BAe-146 aircraft. During the summer months, a weekly flight links Jalal-Abad with the Issyk-Kul Region. * Other facilities built during the Soviet era are either closed down, used only occasionally or restricted to military use (e.g., Kant Air Base near Bishkek, which is used by the Russian Air Force).


Banned airline status

Kyrgyzstan appears on the European Union's List of air carriers banned in the European Union, list of prohibited countries for the certification of airlines. This means that no airline that is registered in Kyrgyzstan may operate services of any kind within the European Union, due to safety standards that fail to meet European regulations. No EU airline has flights to Kyrgyzstan (as of 2020). Travel between the European Union and Kyrgyzstan includes changing aircraft, most often in Moscow or Istanbul.


Railways

The Chuy Valley in the north and the Ferghana valley in the south were endpoints of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
's rail system in Central Asia. Following the emergence of independent post-Soviet states, the rail lines which were built without regard for administrative boundaries have been cut by borders, and traffic is therefore severely curtailed. The small bits of rail lines within Kyrgyzstan, about ( broad gauge) in total, have little economic value in the absence of the former bulk traffic over long distances to and from such centres as Tashkent, Almaty, and the cities of Russia. There are vague plans about extending rail lines from Balykchy in the north and/or from Osh in the south into China, but the cost of construction would be enormous.


Rail links with adjacent countries

* Transport in Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan – yes –
Bishkek Bishkek ( ky, Бишкек, Bişkek, بىشکەک, ), formerly Pishpek and Frunze (russian: Фрунзе), is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic). Bishkek is also the administrative centre of the Chuy Regi ...

Bishkek
branch – same gauge * Transport in Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan – yes – Osh branch – same gauge * Transport in Tajikistan, Tajikistan – no – same gauge * Transport in the People's Republic of China, China – no – Break of gauge 1524 mm/1435 mm


Highways

With support from the Asian Development Bank, a major road linking the north and southwest from
Bishkek Bishkek ( ky, Бишкек, Bişkek, بىشکەک, ), formerly Pishpek and Frunze (russian: Фрунзе), is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic). Bishkek is also the administrative centre of the Chuy Regi ...

Bishkek
to Osh has recently been completed. This considerably eases communication between the two major population centres of the country—the Chuy Valley in the north and the Fergana Valley in the South. An offshoot of this road branches off across a 3,500 meter mountain pass, pass into the Talas Valley in the northwest. Plans are now being formulated to build a major road from Osh into China. * ''total:'' (including of expressways) * ''paved:'' (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads) * ''unpaved:'' (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)


Ports and harbours

* Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye) on Issyk Kul Lake.


See also

* Outline of Kyrgyzstan * Index of Kyrgyzstan-related articles * Chinghiz Aitmatov


Notes


References


Further reading

* ''Historical Dictionary of Kyrgyzstan'' by Rafis Abazov * ''Kyrgyzstan: Central Asia's Island of Democracy?'' by John Anderson * ''Kyrgyzstan: The Growth and Influence of Islam in the Nations of Asia and Central Asia'' by Daniel E. Harmon * ''Lonely Planet Guide: Central Asia'' by Paul Clammer, Michael Kohn and Bradley Mayhew * ''Odyssey Guide: Kyrgyz Republic'' by Ceri Fairclough, Rowan Stewart and Susie Weldon *
Politics of Language in the Ex-Soviet Muslim States: Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan
' by Jacob M. Landau and Barbara Kellner-Heinkele. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 2001. * ''Kyrgyzstan: Traditions of Nomads'' by V. Kadyrov, Rarity Ltd., Bishkek, 2005.
Cities in Kyrgyzstan

Bishkek city of Kyrgyzstan

Osh city of Kyrgyzstan

Jalal-Abad city of Kyrgyzstan


External links

; Government
President of Kyrgyzstan
official site
Government of Kyrgyzstan
official site
Parliament of Kyrgyzstan
official site

; General information
Country Profile
from BBC News
Kyrgyzstan
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency.
Kyrgyzstan
at ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''


Key Development Forecasts for Kyrgyzstan
from International Futures ;Maps * {{Authority control Kyrgyzstan, History of the Kyrgyz people Central Asian countries Landlocked countries Member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Member states of the United Nations Member states of the Turkic Council Republics Russian-speaking countries and territories States and territories established in 1991 1991 establishments in Asia Countries in Asia Members of the International Organization of Turkic Culture