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are traditional
garden A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the cultivation, display, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The single feature identifying even the wildest wild garden A wildlife garden (or wild garden) is an Bioph ...

garden
s whose designs are accompanied by
Japanese aesthetics Japanese aesthetics comprise a set of ancient ideals that include '' wabi'' (transient and stark beauty), '' sabi'' (the beauty of natural patina and aging), and '' yūgen'' (profound grace and subtlety). These ideals, and others, underpin much of ...
and philosophical ideas, avoid artificial ornamentation, and highlight the natural landscape. Plants and worn, aged materials are generally used by Japanese
garden designer A garden designer is someone who designs the plan and features of gardens, either as an amateur or professional. The compositional elements of garden design and landscape design are: terrain, water feature, water, Garden design#Planting design, plan ...
s to suggest a natural landscape, and to express the fragility of existence as well as time's unstoppable advance. Ancient
Japanese art Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery Ancient history is the aggregate of past events Water is an important feature of many gardens, as are rocks and often gravel. Despite there being many attractive Japanese flowering plants, herbacious flowers generally play much less of a role in Japanese gardens than in the West, though seasonally flowering
shrub A shrub (often called a bush) is a small- to medium-sized perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the p ...

shrub
s and trees are important, all the more dramatic because of the contrast with the usual predominant green. Evergreen plants are "the bones of the garden" in Japan. Though a natural-seeming appearance is the aim, Japanese gardeners often shape their plants, including trees, with great rigour. Japanese literature on gardening goes back almost a thousand years, and several different styles of garden have developed, some with religious or philosophical implications. A characteristic of Japanese gardens is that they are designed to be seen from specific points. Some of the most significant different traditional styles of Japanese garden are the ("lake-spring-boat excursion garden"), which was imported from China during the
Heian period The is the last division of classical History of Japan, Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. It followed the Nara period, beginning when the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu, moved from the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto). It i ...
(794–1185). These were designed to be seen from small boats on the central lake. No original examples of these survive, but they were replaced by the "paradise garden" associated with
Pure Land Buddhism Pure Land Buddhism (; ja, 浄土仏教, translit=Jōdo bukkyō; ; vi, Tịnh Độ Tông), also referred to as Amidism in English, is a broad branch of Mahayana Buddhism in Shishoin Temple (Tokyo). A unique feature of Mahāyāna is the belie ...
, with a Buddha shrine on an island in the lake. Later large gardens are often in the , or promenade garden style, designed to be seen from a path circulating around the garden, with fixed stopping points for viewing. Specialized styles, often small sections in a larger garden, include the moss garden, the
dry garden The or Japanese rock garden, often called a zen garden, is a distinctive style of Japanese garden. It creates a miniature Style (visual arts)#Stylization, stylized landscape through carefully composed arrangements of rocks, water features, moss ...
with gravel and rocks, associated with
Zen Buddhism Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅, translit=zen; ko, text=선, translit=Seon; vi, text=Thiền) is a school A school is an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gai ...
, the or teahouse garden, designed to be seen only from a short pathway, and the , a very small urban garden. Most modern Japanese homes have little space for a garden, though the style of tiny gardens in passages and other spaces, as well as
bonsai Bonsai ( ja, 盆栽, , tray planting, ) is a Japanese version of the original traditional Chinese art ''penjing'' or ''penzai''. Unlike ''penjing'', which utilizes traditional techniques to produce entire natural sceneries in small pots that ...

bonsai
(in Japan always grown outside) and
houseplant A houseplant is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, c ...

houseplant
s mitigates this, and domestic garden tourism is very important. The Japanese tradition has long been to keep a well-designed garden as near as possible to its original condition, and many famous gardens appear to have changed little over several centuries, apart from the inevitable turnover of plants, in a way that is extremely rare in the West. Awareness of the Japanese style of gardening reached the West near the end of the 19th century, and was enthusiastically received as part of the fashion for
Japonisme Japonisme is a French term that refers to the popularity and influence of Japanese art Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including Jōmon pottery, ancient pottery, Japanese sculpture, sculpture, Ink wash painting, ink p ...
, and as Western gardening taste had by then turned away from rigid geometry to a more naturalistic style, of which the Japanese style was an attractive variant. There were immediately popular in the UK, where the climate was similar and Japanese plants grew well. Japanese gardens, typically a section of a larger garden, continue to be popular in the West, and many typical Japanese garden plants, such as and the many varieties of ''
Acer palmatum ''Acer palmatum'', commonly known as Japanese maple, palmate maple, or smooth Japanese maple (Japanese: ''irohamomiji'', , or ''momiji'', ), is a species of woody plant native to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , ...

Acer palmatum
'' or Japanese maple, are also used in all types of garden, giving a faint hint of the style to very many gardens.


History


Origins

The ideas central to Japanese gardens were first introduced to Japan during the
Asuka period The was a period in the history of Japan The first human inhabitants of the Japanese archipelago The Japanese archipelago (Japanese: 日本列島, ''Nihon rettō'') is a group of 6,852 islands that form the country of Japan , ima ...
(). Japanese merchants witnessed the gardens that were being built in China and brought many of the
Chinese garden The Chinese garden is a landscape garden style which has evolved over three thousand years. It includes both the vast gardens of the Chinese emperors Emperor of China, or ''Huáng dì'' was the monarch of China during the History of China#Im ...

Chinese garden
ing techniques and styles back home. Japanese gardens first appeared on the island of
Honshu , historically called , is the largest and most populous main island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the n ...
, the large central island of Japan. Their aesthetic was influenced by the distinct characteristics of the Honshu landscape: rugged volcanic peaks, narrow valleys, mountain streams with waterfalls and cascades, lakes, and beaches of small stones. They were also influenced by the rich variety of flowers and different species of trees, particularly evergreen trees, on the islands, and by the four distinct seasons in Japan, including hot, wet summers and snowy winters. Japanese gardens have their roots in the national religion of
Shinto Shinto () is a religion which originated in Japan. Classified as an East Asian religions, East Asian religion by Religious studies, scholars of religion, its practitioners often regard it as Japan's indigenous religion and as a nature religion. ...

Shinto
, with its story of the creation of eight perfect islands, and of the , the lakes of the gods. Prehistoric
Shinto shrine A is a structure whose main purpose is to house ("enshrine") one or more ''kami (often taken to mean "gods A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the ...

Shinto shrine
s to the , the gods and spirits, are found on beaches and in forests all over the island. They often took the form of unusual rocks or trees marked with cords of rice fiber () and surrounded with white stones or pebbles, a symbol of purity. The white gravel courtyard became a distinctive feature of Shinto shrines, Imperial Palaces, Buddhist temples, and
Zen garden The or Japanese rock garden, often called a zen garden, is a distinctive style of Japanese garden are traditional gardens whose designs are accompanied by Japanese aesthetics and philosophical ideas, avoid artificial ornamentation, and highli ...
s. Although its original meaning is somewhat obscure, one of the Japanese words for garden——came to mean a place that had been cleansed and purified in anticipation of the arrival of , and the Shinto reverence for great rocks, lakes, ancient trees, and other "dignitaries of nature" would exert an enduring influence on Japanese garden design. Japanese gardens were also strongly influenced by the Chinese philosophy of
Daoism Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of c ...
and
AmidaAmida can mean : Places and jurisdictions * Amida (Mesopotamia), now Diyarbakır, an ancient city in Asian Turkey; it is (nominal) seat of : ** the Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Amida ** the Latin titular Metropolitan see of Amida of the Roman ...
Buddhism, imported from China in or around 552 CE. Daoist legends spoke of five mountainous islands inhabited by the
Eight Immortals The Eight Immortals () are a group of legendary ''xian Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction betwe ...

Eight Immortals
, who lived in perfect harmony with nature. Each Immortal flew from his mountain home on the back of a crane. The islands themselves were located on the back of an enormous
sea turtle Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines Turtles are reptile Reptiles are tetrapod Tetrapods (; from Greek 'four' and 'foot') are four-limbed animals constitut ...

sea turtle
. In Japan, the five islands of the Chinese legend became one island, called Horai-zen, or Mount
Horai Penglai () is a legendary land of Chinese mythology Chinese mythology () is mythology Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common ...
. Replicas of this legendary mountain, the symbol of a perfect world, are a common feature of Japanese gardens, as are rocks representing turtles and cranes.


In antiquity

The earliest recorded Japanese gardens were the
pleasure garden Image:Rotunda at Ranleigh T Bowles 1754.jpg, 285px, An 18th century print showing the exterior of the Rotunda (architecture), Rotunda at Ranelagh Gardens and part of the grounds A pleasure garden today, insofar as the term is still used, usually me ...
s of the Emperors and nobles. They are mentioned in several brief passages of the , the first chronicle of Japanese history, published in 720 CE. In spring 74 CE, the chronicle recorded: "The
Emperor Keikō , also known as was the 12th legendary Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foa ...

Emperor Keikō
put a few carp into a pond, and rejoiced to see them morning and evening". The following year, "The Emperor launched a double-hulled boat in the pond of Ijishi at Ihare, and went aboard with his imperial concubine, and they feasted sumptuously together". In 486, the chronicle recorded that "The
Emperor Kenzō (450 — 2 June 487) was the 23rd legend, legendary Emperor of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (''Kunaichō'') 顕宗天皇 (23) retrieved 2013-8-29. according to the traditional List of Emperors of Japan, order of succession. No firm dates can ...

Emperor Kenzō
went into the garden and feasted at the edge of a winding stream". Chinese gardens had a very strong influence on early Japanese gardens. In or around 552 CE, Buddhism was officially installed from China, via Korea, into Japan. Between 600 and 612 CE, the Japanese Emperor sent four legations to the Court of the Chinese
Sui Dynasty The Sui dynasty (, ) was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Han Chinese, Han in the entirety of ...

Sui Dynasty
. Between 630 and 838 CE, the Japanese court sent fifteen more legations to the court of the
Tang Dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
. These legations, with more than five hundred members each, included diplomats, scholars, students, Buddhist monks, and translators. They brought back Chinese writing, art objects, and detailed descriptions of Chinese gardens. In 612 CE, the
Empress Suiko (554 – 15 April 628) was the 33rd emperor of Japan, monarch of Japan,Imperial Household Agency (''Kunaichō'') 推古天皇 (33)/ref> according to the traditional List of Emperors of Japan, order of succession. Suiko reigned from 593 until ...

Empress Suiko
had a garden built with an artificial mountain, representing Shumi-Sen, or
Mount Sumeru Mount Meru (Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Mount Sumeru
, reputed in Hindu and Buddhist legends to be located at the centre of the world. During the reign of the same Empress, one of her ministers, Soga no Umako, had a garden built at his palace featuring a lake with several small islands, representing the islands of the Eight Immortals famous in Chinese legends and
Daoist Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of China, Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the ''Tao'' (, Taoism#Spelling and pronunciation, or ''Dao''). In Taoism, the ''Tao'' is the source, pattern ...
philosophy. This Palace became the property of the Japanese Emperors, was named "The Palace of the Isles", and was mentioned several times in the , the "Collection of Countless Leaves", the oldest known collection of Japanese poetry.


Nara period (710–794)

The
Nara Period The of the history of Japan The first human inhabitants of the Japanese archipelago The Japanese archipelago (Japanese: 日本列島, ''Nihon rettō'') is a group of 6,852 islands that form the country of Japan , image_flag ...
is named after its capital city
Nara The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different jur ...
. The first authentically Japanese gardens were built in this city at the end of the 8th century. Shorelines and stone settings were naturalistic, different from the heavier, earlier continental mode of constructing pond edges. Two such gardens have been found at excavations, both of which were used for poetry-writing festivities. One of these gardens, the East Palace garden at
Heijō Palace was the imperial residence in the Japanese capital city Heijō-kyō , was the Capital of JapanThe current de facto capital of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered dee ...
, Nara, has been faithfully reconstructed using the same location and even the original
garden feature Garden features are physical elements, both natural and manmade, used in garden design Garden design is the art and process of designing and creating plans for layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Garden design may be done by the gard ...
s that had been excavated. It appears from the small amount of literary and archaeological evidence available that the Japanese gardens of this time were modest versions of the Imperial gardens of the Tang Dynasty, with large lakes scattered with artificial islands and artificial mountains. Pond edges were constructed with heavy rocks as embankment. While these gardens had some Buddhist and Daoist symbolism, they were meant to be pleasure gardens, and places for festivals and celebrations. Recent archaeological excavations in the ancient capital of Nara have brought to light the remains of two 8th-century gardens associated with the Imperial Court, a pond and stream garden - the To-in - located within the precinct of the Imperial Palace and a stream garden - Kyuseki - found within the modern city. They may be modeled after Chinese gardens, but the rock formations found in the To-in would appear to have more in common with prehistoric Japanese stone monuments than with Chinese antecedents, and the natural, serpentine course of the Kyuseki stream garden may be far less formal than what existed in Tang China. Whatever their origins, both the To-in and Kyuseki clearly anticipate certain developments in later Japanese gardens.


Heian period (794–1185)

In 794 CE, at the beginning of the
Heian period The is the last division of classical History of Japan, Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. It followed the Nara period, beginning when the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu, moved from the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto). It i ...
(794-1185 CE), the Japanese court moved its capital to
Heian-kyō Heian-kyō was one of several former names for the city now known as Kyoto. It was the official capital of Japan for over one thousand years, from 794 to 1868 with an interruption in 1180. Emperor Kanmu established it as the capital in 794, mov ...
(present-day
Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu, Kyoto forms a part of the Keihanshin, Keihanshin metropolitan area along w ...

Kyoto
). During this period, there were three different kinds of gardens: palace gardens and the gardens of nobles in the capital, the gardens of villas at the edge of the city, and the gardens of temples. The architecture of the palaces, residences and gardens in the Heian period followed Chinese practice. Houses and gardens were aligned on a north-south axis, with the residence to the north and the ceremonial buildings and main garden to the south, there were two long wings to the south, like the arms of an armchair, with the garden between them. The gardens featured one or more lakes connected by bridges and winding streams. The south garden of the imperial residences had a uniquely Japanese feature: a large empty area of white sand or gravel. The Emperor was the chief priest of Japan, and the white sand represented purity, and was a place where the gods could be invited to visit. The area was used for religious ceremonies and dances for the welcoming of the gods. The layout of the garden itself was strictly determined according to the principles of traditional Chinese
geomancy Geomancy (Greek language, Greek: γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, rocks, or sand. The most prevalent form of divinator ...
, or
Feng Shui Feng shui, also known as Chinese geomancy Geomancy (Greek language, Greek: γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, ro ...

Feng Shui
. The first known book on the art of the Japanese garden, the (''Records of Garden Keeping''), written in the 11th century, said: The Imperial gardens of the Heian period were
water garden Water garden or aquatic garden, is a term sometimes used for gardens, or parts of gardens, where any type of water feature in the park of Château de Bagatelle, Bagatelle, France. Image:GaylordNationalComputerizedMusicalWaterFeature.jpg, upCom ...
s, where visitors promenaded in elegant lacquered boats, listening to music, viewing the distant mountains, singing, reading poetry, painting, and admiring the scenery. The social life in the gardens was memorably described in the classic Japanese novel ''
The Tale of Genji is a classic work of Japanese literature Early works of Japanese literature were heavily influenced by cultural contact with China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of c ...
'', written in about 1005 by
Murasaki Shikibu was a Japanese novelist, poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of langu ...

Murasaki Shikibu
, a lady-in-waiting to the Empress. The traces of one such artificial lake, Osawa no ike, near the
Daikaku-ji is a Shingon Buddhism, Shingon Buddhist temple in Ukyō-ku, Kyoto, Ukyō-ku, a western Wards of Japan, ward in the city of Kyoto, Japan. The site was originally a residence of Emperor Saga (785–842 CE), and later various emperors conducted t ...
temple in Kyoto, still can be seen. It was built by the
Emperor Saga Image:Koku Saitcho shounin.jpg, ''Cry for noble Saichō'' (哭最澄上人), which was written by Emperor Saga for Saichō's death. Saga was a scholar of the Chinese language, Chinese classics. He was also renowned as a skillful calligraphy, calli ...
, who ruled from 809 to 823, and was said to be inspired by
Dongting Lake Dongting Lake () is a large, shallow lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situa ...
in China.Danielle Ellisseeff, ''Jardins japonais'', p. 16 A scaled-down replica of the
Kyoto Imperial Palace The is the former ruling palace of the Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Fo ...
of 794, the , was built in Kyoto in 1895 to celebrate the 1100th birthday of the city. The south garden is famous for its
cherry blossom A cherry blossom is a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (ge ...

cherry blossom
in spring, and for azaleas in the early summer. The west garden is known for its irises in June, and the large east garden lake recalls the leisurely boating parties of the 8th century. Near the end of the Heian period, a new garden architecture style appeared, created by the followers of
Pure Land Buddhism Pure Land Buddhism (; ja, 浄土仏教, translit=Jōdo bukkyō; ; vi, Tịnh Độ Tông), also referred to as Amidism in English, is a broad branch of Mahayana Buddhism in Shishoin Temple (Tokyo). A unique feature of Mahāyāna is the belie ...
. These were called "Paradise Gardens", built to represent the legendary Paradise of the West, where the Amida Buddha ruled. These were built by noblemen who wanted to assert their power and independence from the Imperial household, which was growing weaker. The best surviving example of a Paradise Garden is
Byōdō-in is a Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are a ...

Byōdō-in
in
Uji is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can ...

Uji
, near Kyoto. It was originally the villa of (966–1028), who married his daughters to the sons of the Emperor. After his death, his son transformed the villa into a temple, and in 1053 built the Hall of Phoenix, which still stands. The Hall is built in the traditional style of a Chinese
Song Dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
temple, on an island in the lake. It houses a gilded statue of the
Amitābha Amitābha (), also known as Amida or Amitāyus, is a celestial buddha according to the scriptures of Mahayana in Shishoin Temple (Tokyo). A unique feature of Mahāyāna is the belief that there are multiple Buddhas which are currently teaching ...
Buddha, looking to the west. In the lake in front of the temple is a small island of white stones, representing Mount Horai, the home of the Eight Immortals of the Daoists, connected to the temple by a bridge, which symbolized the way to paradise. It was designed for mediation and contemplation, not as a pleasure garden. It was a lesson in Daoist and Buddhist philosophy created with landscape and architecture, and a prototype for future Japanese gardens. Notable existing or recreated Heian gardens include: *
Daikaku-ji is a Shingon Buddhism, Shingon Buddhist temple in Ukyō-ku, Kyoto, Ukyō-ku, a western Wards of Japan, ward in the city of Kyoto, Japan. The site was originally a residence of Emperor Saga (785–842 CE), and later various emperors conducted t ...
*
Byōdō-in is a Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are a ...

Byōdō-in
*
Kyoto Imperial Palace The is the former ruling palace of the Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Fo ...
* Jōruri-ji File:Osawaike spring Kyoto 001 JPN.jpg, Osawa lake in Kyoto was part of the old imperial gardens of the
Emperor Saga Image:Koku Saitcho shounin.jpg, ''Cry for noble Saichō'' (哭最澄上人), which was written by Emperor Saga for Saichō's death. Saga was a scholar of the Chinese language, Chinese classics. He was also renowned as a skillful calligraphy, calli ...
(809–823). File:Miniature Model of HigashiSanjoDono.jpg, Model of a residence and garden at Heian-kyō (Kyoto), around 1000. Heian-jingu shinen09bs3216.jpg, A 19th-century scaled-down reconstruction of the Heian-jingū, the first
Kyoto Imperial Palace The is the former ruling palace of the Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Fo ...
garden, as it was in 794. File:Heian-jingu shinen IMG 5748 0-25.JPG, Stepping stones in the garden of the first Kyoto Imperial Palace. These stones were originally part of a 16th-century bridge over the
Kamo River The is located in Kyoto Prefecture is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in ...

Kamo River
, which was destroyed by an earthquake. File:Oike-Niwa.JPG, Recreated garden of the old
Kyoto Imperial Palace The is the former ruling palace of the Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Fo ...


Kamakura and Muromachi periods (1185–1573)

The weakness of the Emperors and the rivalry of feudal warlords resulted in two civil wars (1156 and 1159), which destroyed most of Kyoto and its gardens. The capital moved to
Kamakura is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be ...

Kamakura
, and then in 1336 back to the Muromachi quarter of Kyoto. The Emperors ruled in name only; real power was held by a military governor, the ''
shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns were usually the ''de facto'' rulers of th ...
''. During this period, the Government reopened relations with China, which had been broken off almost three hundred years earlier. Japanese monks went again to study in China, and Chinese monks came to Japan, fleeing the Mongol invasions. The monks brought with them a new form of Buddhism, called simply
Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅, translit=zen; ko, text=선, translit=Seon; vi, text=Thiền) is a school A school is an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gai ...

Zen
, or "meditation". Japan enjoyed a renaissance in religion, in the arts, and particularly in gardens. The term zen garden appears in English writing in the 1930s for the first time, in Japan ''zen teien'', or ''zenteki teien'' comes up even later, from the 1950s. It applies to a
Song China The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kuan ...
-inspired composition technique derived from ink-painting. The composition or construction of such small, scenic gardens have no relation to religious Zen. Many famous temple gardens were built early in this period, including , built in 1398, and Ginkaku-ji, The Silver Pavilion, built in 1482. In some ways they followed Zen principles of spontaneity, extreme simplicity and moderation, but in other ways they were traditional Chinese Song-Dynasty Temples; the upper floors of the Golden Pavilion were covered with gold leaf, and they were surrounded by traditional water gardens. The most notable garden style invented in this period was the zen garden,
dry garden The or Japanese rock garden, often called a zen garden, is a distinctive style of Japanese garden. It creates a miniature Style (visual arts)#Stylization, stylized landscape through carefully composed arrangements of rocks, water features, moss ...
, or Japanese
rock garden A rock garden, also known as a rockery or an alpine garden, is a garden design, small field or plot of ground designed to feature and emphasize a variety of Rock (geology), rocks, stones, and boulders. The standard layout for a rock garden c ...

rock garden
. One of the finest examples, and one of the best-known of all Japanese gardens is Ryōan-ji in Kyoto. This garden is just 9 meters wide and 24 meters long, composed of white sand carefully raked to suggest water, and fifteen rocks carefully arranged, like small islands. It is meant to be seen from a seated position on the porch of the residence the abbot of the monastery. There have been many debates about what the rocks are supposed to represent, but, as garden historian Gunter Nitschke wrote, "The garden at Ryōan-ji does not symbolize. It does not have the value of representing any natural beauty that can be found in the world, real or mythical. I consider it as an abstract composition of "natural" objects in space, a composition whose function is to incite mediation." Several of the famous zen gardens of Kyoto were the work of one man;
Musō Soseki was a Rinzai The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅, translit=zen; ko, text=선, translit=Seon; vi, text=Thiề ...
(1275–1351). He was a monk, a ninth-generation descendant of the
Emperor Uda was the 59th emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''co ...
and a formidable court politician, writer and organizer, who armed and financed ships to open trade with China, and founded an organization called the Five Mountains, made up of the most powerful Zen monasteries in Kyoto. He was responsible for the building of the zen gardens of
Nanzen-ji , or Zuiryusan Nanzen-ji, formerly , is a Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅, translit=zen; ko, text=선, translit=Seon; vi, text=Thiền) is a school A school is an educational institution An educational institut ...

Nanzen-ji
; Saihō-ji (The Moss Garden); and
Tenryū-ji , formally known as , is the head temple of the Tenryū-ji branch of the Rinzai The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅 ...
. Notable gardens of the Kamakura and Muromachi Periods include: *
Kinkaku-ji , officially named , is a Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅, translit=zen; ko, text=선, translit=Seon; vi, text=Thiền) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism that originated in China China, officially the People's Repu ...

Kinkaku-ji
(the Golden Pavilion) *
Ginkaku-ji __NOTOC__ , officially named , is a Zen temple in the Sakyo ward of Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu ...
(the Silver Pavilion) *
Nanzen-ji , or Zuiryusan Nanzen-ji, formerly , is a Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅, translit=zen; ko, text=선, translit=Seon; vi, text=Thiền) is a school A school is an educational institution An educational institut ...

Nanzen-ji
* Saihō-ji (The Moss Garden) *
Tenryū-ji , formally known as , is the head temple of the Tenryū-ji branch of the Rinzai The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅 ...
*
Daisen-in is a sub-temple of Daitoku-ji is a Buddhist temple, one of fourteen autonomous branches of the Rinzai The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen Zen ( zh, t= ...

Daisen-in
Ginkaku-ji after being restored in 2008.jpg,
Ginkaku-ji __NOTOC__ , officially named , is a Zen temple in the Sakyo ward of Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu ...
, or the Silver Pavilion, in Kyoto, was (and is) a Zen Buddhist temple (1482). File:Ginkaku-ji with sand garden.JPG, The zen rock garden of Ginkaku-ji features a miniature mountain shaped like Mount Fuji. Daisen-in1.jpg, The garden of
Daisen-in is a sub-temple of Daitoku-ji is a Buddhist temple, one of fourteen autonomous branches of the Rinzai The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen Zen ( zh, t= ...

Daisen-in
Kyoto (1513). NanzenjiNanzenin teien.jpg,
Nanzen-ji , or Zuiryusan Nanzen-ji, formerly , is a Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅, translit=zen; ko, text=선, translit=Seon; vi, text=Thiền) is a school A school is an educational institution An educational institut ...

Nanzen-ji
garden, Kyoto, built by
Musō Soseki was a Rinzai The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅, translit=zen; ko, text=선, translit=Seon; vi, text=Thiề ...
. Not all zen gardens were made of rock and sand; monks here contemplated a forest scene. File:Tenryuji Kyoto05s3s4592.jpg,
Tenryū-ji , formally known as , is the head temple of the Tenryū-ji branch of the Rinzai The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅 ...
garden in Kyoto. The Sogen pond, created by Musō Soseki, is one of the few surviving features of the original garden.


Momoyama period (1568–1600)

The
Momoyama periodMomoyama may refer to: History *Azuchi–Momoyama period The is the final phase of the in Japanese history from 1568 to 1600. The Azuchi–Momoyama period began with Oda Nobunaga entering into Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese language, Japanese: ...
was short, just 32 years, and was largely occupied with the wars between the ''
daimyō were powerful Japanese magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. In reference to the Middle Age ...
s'', the leaders of the feudal Japanese clans. The new centers of power and culture in Japan were the fortified castles of the ''daimyōs'', around which new cities and gardens appeared. The characteristic garden of the period featured one or more ponds or lakes next to the main residence, or ''
shoin is a type of audience hall in Japanese architecture has been typified by wooden structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Sliding doors (''fusuma In Japanese architecture has been typified by w ...

shoin
'', not far from the castle. These gardens were meant to be seen from above, from the castle or residence. The ''daimyōs'' had developed the skills of cutting and lifting large rocks to build their castles, and they had armies of soldiers to move them. The artificial lakes were surrounded by beaches of small stones and decorated with arrangements of boulders, with natural stone bridges and
stepping stones Stepping stones or stepstones are sets of stones arranged to form a simple bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing ...

stepping stones
. The gardens of this period combined elements of a promenade garden, meant to be seen from the winding garden paths, with elements of the zen garden, such as artificial mountains, meant to be contemplated from a distance.Nitschke, ''Le jardin japonais'', p. 120. The most famous garden of this kind, built in 1592, is situated near the Tokushima castle on the island of
Shikoku is one of the five main islands of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the sout ...

Shikoku
. Its notable features include a bridge 10.5 meters long made of two natural stones. Another notable garden of the period still existing is Sanbō-in, rebuilt by
Toyotomi Hideyoshi was a Japanese samurai were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of History of Japan#Medieval Japan (1185–1573/1600), medieval and Edo period, early-modern Japan from the late 12th century to their abolition in 1876. ...

Toyotomi Hideyoshi
in 1598 to celebrate the festival of the cherry blossom and to recreate the splendor of an ancient garden. Three hundred garden-builders worked on the project, digging the lakes and installing seven hundred boulders in a space of 540 square meters. The garden was designed to be seen from the veranda of the main pavilion, or from the "Hall of the Pure View", located on a higher elevation in the garden. In the east of the garden, on a peninsula, is an arrangement of stones designed to represent the mythical Mount Horai. A wooden bridge leads to an island representing a crane, and a stone bridge connects this island to another representing a tortoise, which is connected by an earth-covered bridge back to the peninsula. The garden also includes a waterfall at the foot of a wooded hill. One characteristic of the Momoyama period garden visible at Sanbō-in is the close proximity of the buildings to the water. The Momoyama period also saw the development of the ''
chanoyu Japanese tea ceremony (known as or ) is a Culture of Japan, Japanese cultural activity involving the ceremonial preparation and presentation of , powdered green tea, the art of which is called . Zen Buddhism was a primary influence in the devel ...
'' (tea ceremony), the ''
chashitsu ''Chashitsu'' (, "tea room") in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It ...
'' (teahouse), and the ''
roji , lit. 'dewy ground', is the Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...
'' (tea garden). Tea had been introduced to Japan from China by Buddhist monks, who used it as a stimulant to keep awake during long periods of meditation. The first great tea master,
Sen no Rikyū , also known simply as Rikyū, is considered the historical figure with the most profound influence on ''chanoyu,'' the Japanese "Way of Tea", particularly the tradition of ''wabi-cha ''Wabi-cha'' (; ; ), is a style of Japanese tea ceremony pa ...
(1522–1591), defined in the most minute detail the appearance and rules of the tea house and tea garden, following the principle of "sober refinement and calm". Following Sen no Rikyū's rules, the teahouse was supposed to suggest the cottage of a hermit-monk. It was a small and very plain wooden structure, often with a thatched roof, with just enough room inside for two ''
tatami A is a type of mat A mat is a piece of fabric material that generally is placed on a floor or other flat surface. Mats serve a range of purposes including: * serving to clean items passed over it, such as a doormat, which removes dirt ...

tatami
'' mats. The only decoration allowed inside a scroll with an inscription and a branch of a tree. It did not have a view of the garden. The garden was also small, and constantly watered to be damp and green. It usually had a cherry tree or elm to bring color in the spring, but otherwise did not have bright flowers or exotic plants that would distract the attention of the visitor. A path led to the entrance of the teahouse. Along the path was waiting bench for guests and a privy, and a stone water-basin near the teahouse, where the guests rinsed their hands and mouths before entering the tea room through a small, square door called ''nijiri-guchi'', or "crawling-in entrance", which requires bending low to pass through. Sen no Rikyū decreed that the garden should be left unswept for several hours before the ceremony, so that leaves would be scattered in a natural way on the path. Notable gardens of the period include: * Tokushima Castle garden on the island of
Shikoku is one of the five main islands of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the sout ...

Shikoku
. * Tai-an tea house at Myōki-an Temple in
Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Kyōto'' ), officially , is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture in Japan. Located in the Kansai region on the island of Honshu, Kyoto forms a part of the Keihanshin, Keihanshin metropolitan area along w ...

Kyoto
, built in 1582 by
Sen no Rikyū , also known simply as Rikyū, is considered the historical figure with the most profound influence on ''chanoyu,'' the Japanese "Way of Tea", particularly the tradition of ''wabi-cha ''Wabi-cha'' (; ; ), is a style of Japanese tea ceremony pa ...
. * Sanbō-in at
Daigo-ji is a Shingon Buddhist temple A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
, in
Kyoto Prefecture is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. T ...
(1598) File:Tokushima Castle lordly Front Palace Garden02s3872.jpg, Garden at the Tokushima Castle, dominated by rocks File:Momiji Daigoji4.JPG, The garden at
Daigo-ji is a Shingon Buddhist temple A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
(1598) is famous for its cherry blossoms.


Edo period (1615–1867)

During the
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
, power was won and consolidated by the
Tokugawa clan The is a Japanese dynasty that was formerly a powerful ''daimyō were powerful Japanese magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, ...
, who became the Shoguns, and moved the capital to
Edo Edo ( ja, , , "bay-entrance" or "estuary"), also Romanization of Japanese, romanized as Jedo, Yedo or Yeddo, is the geographical renaming, former name of Tokyo. Edo, formerly a ''jōkamachi'' (castle town) centered on Edo Castle located in Musas ...

Edo
, which became
Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most populous Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan ...

Tokyo
. The Emperor remained in Kyoto as a figurehead leader, with authority only over cultural and religious affairs. While the political center of Japan was now Tokyo, Kyoto remained the cultural capital, the center for religion and art. The Shoguns provided the Emperors with little power, but with generous subsidies for building gardens. The Edo period saw the widespread use of a new kind of Japanese architecture, called
Sukiya-zukuri is one type of Japanese residential architectural style. ''Suki'' means refined, well cultivated taste and delight in elegant pursuits and refers to enjoyment of the exquisitely performed tea ceremony. The word originally denoted a building in wh ...
, which means literally "building according to chosen taste". The term first appeared at the end of the 16th century referring to isolated tea houses. It originally applied to the simple country houses of samurai warriors and Buddhist monks, but in the Edo period it was used in every kind of building, from houses to palaces. The Sukiya style was used in the most famous garden of the period, the
Katsura Imperial Villa The , or Katsura Detached Palace, is an Imperial residence with associated gardens A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, or enjoyment of plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, p ...
in Kyoto. The buildings were built in a very simple, undecorated style, a prototype for future Japanese architecture. They opened up onto the garden, so that the garden seemed entirely part of the building. Whether the visitor was inside or outside of the building, he always had a feeling he was in the center of nature. The garden buildings were arranged so that were always seen from a diagonal, rather than straight on. This arrangement had the poetic name ''ganko'', which meant literally "a formation of wild geese in flight". Most of the gardens of the Edo period were either promenade gardens or dry rock zen gardens, and they were usually much larger than earlier gardens. The promenade gardens of the period made extensive use of
borrowing of scenery ("shakkei") Borrowed scenery (借景; ja, shakkei, italic=yes; ) is the principle of "incorporating background landscape into the composition of a garden" found in traditional East Asian garden design. The term borrowing of scenery ("shakkei") is Chinese in o ...
. Vistas of distant mountains are integrated in the design of the garden; or, even better, building the garden on the side of a mountain and using the different elevations to attain views over landscapes outside the garden. Edo promenade gardens were often composed of a series of ''
meisho are sites in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat ...
'', or "famous views", similar to postcards. These could be imitations of famous natural landscapes, like
Mount Fuji , located on the island of Honshū , historically called , is the largest and most populous main island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country ...

Mount Fuji
, or scenes from Taoist or Buddhist legends, or landscapes illustrating verses of poetry. Unlike zen gardens, they were designed to portray nature as it appeared, not the internal rules of nature. *
Shugakuin Imperial Villa The , or Shugaku-in Detached Palace, is a set of gardens A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, or enjoyment of plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, predominantly photosynthet ...

Shugakuin Imperial Villa
*
Shisen-dō is a Buddhism, Buddhist temple of the Sōtō Zen sect in Sakyō-ku, Kyoto, Japan. It is registered as a historic site of Japan. It stands on the grounds of its founder, the Edo period intellectual Ishikawa Jōzan (1583–1672), who established t ...
(1641) * Suizen-ji Jōju-en, Suizen-ji * Hama Rikyu * Kōraku-en (Okayama) * Ritsurin Garden (Takamatsu, Kagawa, Takamatsu) * Koishikawa Kōrakuen Garden, Koishikawa Kōraku-en (
Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most populous Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan ...

Tokyo
) (1629) * Ninna-ji, Kyoto * Enman-in, Otsu * Sanzen-in, north of Kyoto * Sengan-en, Kagoshima (1658) * Chishaku-in, southeast of Kyoto * Jōju-in, in the temple of Kiyomizu, southeast of Kyoto (1688–1703) * Manshu-in, northeast of Kyoto (1656) *
Nanzen-ji , or Zuiryusan Nanzen-ji, formerly , is a Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅, translit=zen; ko, text=선, translit=Seon; vi, text=Thiền) is a school A school is an educational institution An educational institut ...

Nanzen-ji
, east of Kyoto (1688–1703) File:160319 Korakuen Okayama Japan04s3.jpg, Kōraku-en in Okayama, begun in 1700 File:150504 Ritsurin Park Takamatsu Kagawa pref Japan01s3.jpg, Ritsurin Garden in Takamatsu, begun in 1625 File:Shisendo DSC0480.jpg, The hermitage garden of the poet and scholar Ishikawa Jozan at
Shisen-dō is a Buddhism, Buddhist temple of the Sōtō Zen sect in Sakyō-ku, Kyoto, Japan. It is registered as a historic site of Japan. It stands on the grounds of its founder, the Edo period intellectual Ishikawa Jōzan (1583–1672), who established t ...
, built in 1641. It later became a temple. File:Ninnaji Kyoto16s3s4592.jpg, The north garden at Ninna-ji in Kyoto, a classic promenade garden File:Ninnaji Kyoto18s3s4320.jpg, The south garden at Ninna-ji, a zen rock garden File:Koishikawa Korakuen 060607.jpg, Koishikawa Kōrakuen Garden in Tokyo, begun in 1629, is now surrounded by office buildings. File:TofukujiReiunin1.jpg, The most famous view of Suizen-ji is a miniature mountain resembling Mount Fuji


Meiji period (1868–1912)

The Meiji period saw the modernization of Japan, and the re-opening of Japan to the west. Many of the old private gardens had been abandoned and left to ruin. In 1871, a new law transformed many gardens from the earlier Edo period into public parks, preserving them. Garden designers, confronted with ideas from the West experimented with western styles, leading to such gardens as Kyu-Furukawa Gardens, or Shinjuku Gyoen. Others, more in the north of Japan kept to Edo period blueprint design. A third wave was the naturalistic style of gardens, invented by captains of industry and powerful politicians like Aritomo Yamagata. Many gardeners soon were designing and constructing gardens catering to this taste. One of the gardens well-known for his technical perfection in this style was Ogawa Jihei VII, also known as ''Ueji''. Notable gardens of this period include: * Kyu-Furukawa Gardens * Kenroku-en, 18th and 19th centuries, finished in 1874. * Chinzan-so in Tokyo in 1877. * Murin-an in Kyoto, finished 1898. File:Kenrokuen10-r.jpg, Kenroku-en in Kanazawa File:Chinzan-so4.jpg, Chinzan-so in Tokyo File:Murin-an, Kyoto - IMG 5104.JPG, Murin-an in Kyoto


Modern Japanese gardens (1912 to present)

During the Showa period (1926–1989), many traditional gardens were built by businessmen and politicians. After World War II, the principal builders of gardens were no longer private individuals, but banks, hotels, universities and government agencies. The Japanese garden became an extension of the landscape architecture with the building. New gardens were designed by landscape architects, and often used modern building materials such as concrete. Some modern Japanese gardens, such as Tōfuku-ji, designed by Mirei Shigemori, were inspired by classical models. Other modern gardens have taken a much more radical approach to the traditions. One example is Awaji Yumebutai, a garden on the island of Awaji Island, Awaji, in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan, designed by Tadao Ando. It was built as part of a resort and conference center on a steep slope, where land had been stripped away to make an island for an airport. File:TofukujiGarden1.jpg, Tōfuku-ji, A modern Japanese garden from 1934, designed by Mirei Shigemori, built on grounds of a 13th-century Zen temple in Kyoto File:Toufuku-ji hojyo7.JPG, The moss garden at Tōfuku-ji, Kyoto File:The Museum of Art Kochi06s3872.jpg, A contemporary Japanese garden at the Kochi Museum of Art File:Naoshima05.jpg, The garden at the Naoshima Fukutake Art Museum, using sculpture to imitate the form of island on the horizon File:Adachi Museum of Art Garden 02.jpg, Garden of the Adachi Museum of Art File:Awaji yumebutai01s3872.jpg, Awaji Yumebutai, a contemporary garden on the island of Awaji, Hyōgo (2000) File:Awaji yumebutai04s3200.jpg, Shell beach garden, part of the Awaji Yumebutai on the island of Awaji, Hyōgo (2000) File:Jissoin-Temple-Stone-Garden.JPG, Jissō-in rock garden in Iwakura (Kyoto), reformed in 2013.


Garden elements

Japanese gardens are distinctive in their symbolism of nature, with traditional Japanese gardens being very different in style from occidental gardens: "Western gardens are typically optimised for visual appeal while Japanese gardens are modelled with spiritual and philosophical ideas in mind." Japanese gardens are conceived as a representation of a natural setting, tying in to Japanese connections between the land and
Shinto Shinto () is a religion which originated in Japan. Classified as an East Asian religions, East Asian religion by Religious studies, scholars of religion, its practitioners often regard it as Japan's indigenous religion and as a nature religion. ...

Shinto
spiritualism, where spirits are commonly found in nature; as such, Japanese gardens tend to incorporate natural materials, with the aim of creating a space that captures the beauties of nature in a realistic manner. Traditional Japanese gardens can be categorized into three types: (hill gardens), (dry gardens) and gardens (tea gardens). The small space given to create these gardens usually poses a challenge for the gardeners. Due to the absolute importance of the arrangement of natural rocks and trees, finding the right material becomes highly selective. The serenity of a Japanese landscape and the simple but deliberate structures of the Japanese gardens are a unique quality, with the two most important principles of garden design being "scaled reduction and symbolization".


Water

Japanese gardens always feature water, either physically with a pond or stream, or symbolically, represented by white sand in a dry rock garden. In Buddhist symbolism, water and stone are thought of as yin and yang, two opposites that complement and complete each other. A traditional garden will usually have an irregular-shaped pond or, in larger gardens, two or more ponds connected by a channel or stream, and a cascade, a miniature version of Japan's famous mountain waterfalls. In traditional gardens, the ponds and streams are carefully placed according to Buddhist
geomancy Geomancy (Greek language, Greek: γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, rocks, or sand. The most prevalent form of divinator ...
, the art of putting things in the place most likely to attract good fortune. The rules for the placement of water were laid out in the first manual of Japanese gardens, the , in the 11th century. According to the , water should enter the garden from the east or southeast and flow toward the west, because the east is the home of the Green Dragon (), an ancient Chinese divinity adopted in Japan, and the west is the home of the White Tiger, the divinity of the east. Water flowing from east to west will carry away evil, and the owner of the garden will be healthy and have a long life. According to the , another favorable arrangement is for the water to flow from north, which represents water in Buddhist cosmology, to the south, which represents fire, which are opposites (yin and yang) and therefore will bring good luck. The recommends several possible miniature landscapes using lakes and streams: the "ocean style", which features rocks that appear to have been eroded by waves, a sandy beach, and pine trees; the "broad river style", recreating the course of a large river, winding like a serpent; the "marsh pond" style, a large still pond with aquatic plants; the "mountain torrent style", with many rocks and cascades; and the "rose letters" style, an austere landscape with small, low plants, gentle relief and many scattered flat rocks. Traditional Japanese gardens have small islands in the lakes. In sacred temple gardens, there is usually an island which represents Mount Penglai or Mount Hōrai, the traditional home of the
Eight Immortals The Eight Immortals () are a group of legendary ''xian Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction betwe ...

Eight Immortals
. The describes different kinds of artificial island which can be created in lakes, including the "mountainous island", made up of jagged vertical rocks mixed with pine trees, surrounded by a sandy beach; the "rocky island", composed of "tormented" rocks appearing to have been battered by sea waves, along with small, ancient pine trees with unusual shapes; the "cloud island", made of white sand in the rounded white forms of a cumulus cloud; and the "misty island", a low island of sand, without rocks or trees. A cascade or waterfall is an important element in Japanese gardens, a miniature version of the waterfalls of Japanese mountain streams. The describes seven kinds of cascades. It notes that if possible, a cascade should face toward the moon and should be designed to capture the moon's reflection in the water. It is also mentioned in that cascades benefit from being located in such a manner that they are half-hidden in shadows. File:Enjo-ji Garden 05.jpg, Lotus pond at Enjo-ji, a Heian period paradise garden (12th century) File:Motsuji yarimizu2.jpg, A winding stream at Mōtsū-ji garden in Hiraisumi File:697 Suizenji Pond.JPG, The spring-fed pond at Suizen-ji Jōju-en garden (1636), whose water was reputed to be excellent for making tea File:Youkoukan03s4592.jpg, Youkoukan Garden in Fukui Prefecture recreates a miniature beach and a mountain File:Horaijima-2.JPG, An island of weathered rocks and a single pine tree in Rikugi-en garden in Tokyo represents Mount Hōrai, the legendary home of the Eight Immortals. File:Keitakuen1.jpg, Cascade at Keitaku-en garden near Osaka File:Japense Garden Pond.jpg, alt=Japanese garden pond with acer (Japanese maple), Japanese garden pond with acer (Japanese maple)


Rocks and sand

Rock, sand and gravel are an essential feature of the Japanese garden. A vertical rock may represent Mount Horai, the legendary home of the Eight Immortals, or
Mount Sumeru Mount Meru (Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Mount Sumeru
of Buddhist teaching, or a carp jumping from the water. A flat rock might represent the earth. Sand or gravel can represent a beach, or a flowing river. Rocks and water also symbolize yin and yang ( and in Japanese) in Buddhist philosophy; the hard rock and soft water complement each other, and water, though soft, can wear away rock. Rough volcanic rocks () are usually used to represent mountains or as stepping stones. Smooth and round sedimentary rocks () are used around lakes or as stepping stones. Hard metamorphic rocks are usually placed by waterfalls or streams. Rocks are traditionally classified as tall vertical, low vertical, arching, reclining, or flat. Rocks should vary in size and color but from each other, but not have bright colors, which would lack subtlety. Rocks with strata or veins should have the veins all going in the same direction, and the rocks should all be firmly planted in the earth, giving an appearance of firmness and permanence. Rocks are arranged in careful compositions of two, three, five or seven rocks, with three being the most common. In a three-arrangement, a tallest rock usually represents heaven, the shortest rock is the earth, and the medium-sized rock is humanity, the bridge between heaven and earth. Sometimes one or more rocks, called ("nameless" or "discarded"), are placed in seemingly random locations in the garden, to suggest spontaneity, though their placement is carefully chosen. In ancient Japan, sand () and gravel () were used around Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples. Later it was used in the Japanese rock garden or Zen Buddhist gardens to represent water or clouds. White sand represented purity, but sand could also be gray, brown or bluish-black. File:Daitokuji-Zuihoin-Zuihotei-M1827.jpg, Rocks in the Garden of the Blissful Mountain at Daitoku-ji File:Toufuku-ji kaizandou3.JPG, Sand in checkerboard pattern at Tōfuku-ji, in Kyoto File:Toufuku-ji hojyo3.JPG, Tōfuku-ji garden in Kyoto File:MyoshinjiTaizoin3.jpg, Myōshin-ji garden File:Shitennoj honbo garden06s3200.jpg, Shitenno-ji garden. Note the three-rock composition in the center. File:Ankokuji04 960.jpg, Ankokuji garden in Hiroshima features rocks of different but harmonious sizes and colors File:Toufuku-ji hojyo5.JPG, Rock composition at Tōfuku-ji (1934) File:KoishikawaKorakuen8981.jpg, A large flat rock on an island in Koishikawa Kōrakuen Garden, Korakuen garden in Tokyo, which represents a turtle's head. File:Rock-garden-Negoro-temple-Japan.jpg, Combination of checkerboard pattern and watter patterns at the Negoro-Temple (Negoro-ji), Prefecture Wakayama. Selection and subsequent placement of rocks was and still is a central concept in creating an aesthetically pleasing garden by the Japanese. During the Heian period, the concept of placing stones as symbolic representations of islands – whether physically existent or nonexistent – began to take hold, and can be seen in the Japanese word , which is of "particular importance ... because the word contained the meaning 'island Furthermore, the principle of , or "obeying (or following) the request of an object", was, and still is, a guiding principle of Japanese rock design that suggests "the arrangement of rocks be dictated by their innate characteristics". The specific placement of stones in Japanese gardens to symbolically represent islands (and later to include mountains), is found to be an aesthetically pleasing property of traditional Japanese gardens. Thomas Heyd outlines some of the aesthetic principles of Japanese gardens in ''Encountering Nature'': Rock placement is a general "aim to portray nature in its essential characteristics" – the essential goal of all Japanese gardens. Furthermore, Heyd states: Such attention to detail can be seen at places such as Midori Falls in Kenroku-en Garden in Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture, as the rocks at the waterfall's base were changed at various times by six different . In Heian-period Japanese gardens, built in the Chinese model, buildings occupied as much or more space than the garden. The garden was designed to be seen from the main building and its verandas, or from small pavilions built for that purpose. In later gardens, the buildings were less visible. Rustic teahouses were hidden in their own little gardens, and small benches and open pavilions along the garden paths provided places for rest and contemplation. In later garden architecture, walls of houses and teahouses could be opened to provide carefully framed views of the garden. The garden and the house became one. File:Byodo-in Uji01pbs2640.jpg, The symmetrical and highly ornamental architecture of the Phoenix Hall in
Byōdō-in is a Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are a ...

Byōdō-in
Garden, Kyoto (1052) was inspired by Chinese Song dynasty architecture. File:Stone lantern Kenrokuen.jpg, The , a two-legged stone lantern that is one of the most well-known symbols of the Kenroku-en garden File:Urakuen Joan.jpg, A
chashitsu ''Chashitsu'' (, "tea room") in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It ...
or teahouse in Jo-an garden in Inuyama, Aichi, Inuyama, from 1618. The simple and unadorned zen teahouse style began to be used on all Japanese buildings, from garden pavilions to palaces. This teahouse was declared a National Treasure of Japan in 1951. File:Shoin.jpg, The architecture of the main house of the
Katsura Imperial Villa The , or Katsura Detached Palace, is an Imperial residence with associated gardens A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, or enjoyment of plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, p ...
(1619–1662) was inspired by the simplicity of the tea house.


Garden bridges

Bridges first appeared in the Japanese garden during the Heian period. At the
Byōdō-in is a Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are a ...

Byōdō-in
garden in Kyoto, a wooden bridge connects the Phoenix pavilion with a small island of stones, representing the Mount Penglai or Mount Horai, the island home of the Eight Immortals of
Daoist Taoism (), or Daoism (), is a philosophical and spiritual tradition of China, Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the ''Tao'' (, Taoism#Spelling and pronunciation, or ''Dao''). In Taoism, the ''Tao'' is the source, pattern ...
teaching, The bridge symbolized the path to paradise and immortality. Bridges could be made of stone (), or of wood, or made of logs with earth on top, covered with moss (); they could be either arched () or flat (). Sometimes if they were part of a temple garden, they were painted red, following the Chinese tradition, but for the most part they were unpainted. During the Edo period, when large promenade gardens became popular, streams and winding paths were constructed, with a series of bridges, usually in a rustic stone or wood style, to take visitors on a tour of the scenic views of the garden. File:Pawilon Feniksa3.JPG, The bridge at
Byōdō-in is a Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are a ...

Byōdō-in
temple (1052) represented the way to the island of the immortals, and paradise File:Tokushima Castle lordly Front Palace Garden04s3872.jpg, A bridge at Tokushima castle made of two stones resting on a third stone (1592). File:Kumamoto Suizenji-jojuen05n4272.jpg, Wood and stone bridge at Suizen-ji Jōju-en, Suizen-ji garden. The garden was begun in 1636. File:Ritsurin.JPG, Wooden bridge in Ritsurin Garden (between 1642 and 1745) File:Kenrokuen1.jpg, The Flying Geese Bridge in Kenroku-en garden (between 1822 and 1874). File:Korakuen 24.JPG, Zig-zag bridge, Zig-zag stone bridge in Koishikawa Kōrakuen File:Tenshaen.jpg, Rustic bridge at Tensha-en garden in Uwajima (1866) File:Sorakuen09n3200.jpg, A wooden bridge covered with earth and moss (dobashi) at Sorakuen File:Sankeien Rinshukaku and Teisha Bridge.jpg, A rare covered bridge from the Sankeien Garden in Yokohama


Stone lanterns and water basins

Japanese date back to the Nara period and the
Heian period The is the last division of classical History of Japan, Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. It followed the Nara period, beginning when the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu, moved from the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto). It i ...
. Originally they were located only at Buddhist temples, where they lined the paths and approaches to the temple, but in the Heian period they began to be used at Shinto shrines as well. According to tradition, during the
Momoyama periodMomoyama may refer to: History *Azuchi–Momoyama period The is the final phase of the in Japanese history from 1568 to 1600. The Azuchi–Momoyama period began with Oda Nobunaga entering into Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese language, Japanese: ...
they were introduced to the tea garden by the first great tea masters, and in later gardens they were used purely for decoration. In its complete and original form, a , like the pagoda, represents the five elements of Buddhist cosmology. The piece touching the ground represents , the earth; the next section represents , or water; or fire, is represented by the section encasing the lantern's light or flame, while (air) and (void or spirit) are represented by the last two sections, top-most and pointing towards the sky. The segments express the idea that after death our physical bodies will go back to their original, elemental form. Stone water basins () were originally placed in gardens for visitors to wash their hands and mouth before the tea ceremony. The water is provided to the basin by a bamboo pipe, or , and they usually have a wooden ladle for drinking the water. In tea gardens, the basin was placed low to the ground, so the drinker had to bend over to get water. File:HiroshimaShukkeienLantern7324.jpg, Lantern in Shukkei-en garden in Hiroshima. File:Korakuen 26.JPG, Lantern in Kōraku-en garden File:Tsukubai2.JPG, Water basin at Ryōan-ji, Kyoto File:Kenrokuen05-r.jpg, Stone water basin in Kenroku-en garden. File:Saikyoji26s4592.jpg, Stone water basin in Sakamotu, Ōtsu, Shiga File:Font at Tenryuji Temple.jpg, Water basin at
Tenryū-ji , formally known as , is the head temple of the Tenryū-ji branch of the Rinzai The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅 ...
Temple in Kyoto File:Kenroku-en-winter-lantern.jpg, Snow lanterns, like this one in Kenroku-en garden, have wide brims which catch the snow, to create picturesque scenes. File:Japanese Garden Stone Cistern Fountain NBG 6 LR.jpg, Stone water fountain and cistern at the Japanese Garden at Norfolk Botanical Garden, Norfolk, Virginia.


Garden fences, gates, and devices

File:Exterior wall katsura.jpg, The exterior wall of
Katsura Imperial Villa The , or Katsura Detached Palace, is an Imperial residence with associated gardens A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, or enjoyment of plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, p ...
, designed, like all the garden, for purity and simplicity File:Urakuen tea garden 02.jpg, Gate of the Urakuen tea garden, seen from inside File:Adachi Museum of Art05s4592.jpg, The traditional garden gate of the Adachi Museum of Art File:Shishiodoshi.gif, A is garden device, made of bamboo and wood, designed to scare away birds. As the bamboo tube fills with water, it clacks against a stone, empties, then fills with water again. File:Suikinkutsu in Enkoji.jpg, The suikinkutsu is a subtle garden instrument hidden beneath the gravel in some water basins.


Trees and flowers

Nothing in a Japanese garden is natural or left to chance; each plant is chosen according to aesthetic principles, either to hide undesirable sights, to serve as a backdrop to certain garden features, or to create a picturesque scene. Trees are carefully chosen and arranged for their autumn colors. Moss is often used to suggest that the garden is ancient. Flowers are also carefully chosen by their season of flowering. Formal flowerbeds are rare in older gardens, but more common in modern gardens. Some plants are chosen for their religious symbolism, such as the Indian lotus, lotus, sacred in Buddhist teachings, or the pine, which represents longevity. The trees are carefully trimmed to provide attractive scenes, and to prevent them from blocking other views of the garden. Their growth is also controlled, in a technique called , to give them more picturesque shapes, and to make them look more ancient. It has been suggested that the characteristic shape of pruned Japanese garden trees resemble trees found naturally in savannah landscapes. This resemblance has been used to motivate the so-called Savannah hypothesis. Trees are sometimes constrained to bend, in order to provide shadows or better reflections in the water. Very old pine trees are often supported by wooden crutches, or their branches are held by cords, to keep them from breaking under the weight of snow. In the late 16th century, a new art was developed in the Japanese garden; that of , the technique of trimming bushes into balls or rounded shapes which imitate waves. According to tradition this art was developed by Kobori Masakazu, Kobori Enshū (1579–1647), and it was most frequently practiced on azalea bushes. It was similar to the topiary gardens made in Europe at the same time, except that European topiary gardens tried to make trees look like geometric solid objects, while sought to make bushes look as if they were almost liquid, or in flowing natural shapes. It created an artistic play of light on the surface of the bush, and, according to garden historian Michel Baridon, "it also brought into play the sense of 'touching things' which even today succeeds so well in Japanese design." The most common trees and plants found in Japanese gardens are the azalea (), the camellia (), the oak (), the elm (), the Japanese apricot (), cherry (), maple (), the willow (), the ginkgo (), the Chamaecyparis obtusa, Japanese cypress (), the Japanese cedar (), pine (), and bamboo (). File:Chionin23n4272.jpg, The style of topiary plant sculpture known as in Chionin Garden. File:Chiran Samurai Residence02.jpg, sculpted trees and bushes at Chiran Samurai Residence. File:Sorakuen15st3200.jpg, Azaleas at Soraku-en Garden File:TenryujiMomiji.jpg, Bamboo and Japanese maple combined at
Tenryū-ji , formally known as , is the head temple of the Tenryū-ji branch of the Rinzai The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅 ...
Garden in Kyoto. File:Podocarpus macrophyllus,katori-city,japan.JPG, Cloud tree at Katori File:Yukitsuri-standalonepine-02-2006-03-03.jpg, Some ancient pine trees at Kenroku-en supported by cords in winter to keep their limbs from breaking File:Kenroku-en.jpg, Pine trees at Kenroku-en garden supported by braces to support the weight of snow without breaking File:Ritsurin park05s3200.jpg, Landscape in Ritsurin Garden File:Ritsurin park02s3200.jpg, ; trimmed bushes in Ritsurin Garden


Fish

The use of fish, particularly (colored carp), or goldfish as a decorative element in gardens was borrowed from the Chinese garden. Goldfish were developed in China more than a thousand years ago by selective breeding, selectively breeding Prussian carp for color mutations. By the Song dynasty (960–1279), yellow, orange, white and red-and-white colorations had been developed. Goldfish were introduced to Japan in the 16th century. Koi were developed from common carp (''Cyprinus carpio'') in Japan in the 1820s. Koi are domesticated common carp that are selected or culling, culled for color; they are not a different species, and will revert to the original coloration within a few generations if allowed to breed freely. In addition to fish, turtles are kept in some gardens. Natural environments in the gardens offer habitats that attract wild animals; frogs and birds are notable as they contribute with a pleasant soundscape. File:Onkamikoi.JPG, in the Ise Grand Shrine 2005. Six koi.jpg, File:Himeji Koukoen08s4592.jpg, Koi in Himeji Koko-en Garden File:Suizenji Carp.JPG, A large carp in the Suizen-ji Jōju-en, garden of Suizen-ji


Aesthetic principles

The early Japanese gardens largely followed the Chinese model, but gradually Japanese gardens developed their own principles and aesthetics. These were spelled out by a series of landscape gardening manuals, beginning with in the Heian Period (794–1185). The principles of sacred gardens, such as the gardens of Zen Buddhist temples, were different from those of pleasure or promenade gardens; for example, Zen Buddhist gardens were designed to be seen, while seated, from a platform with a view of the whole garden, without entering it, while promenade gardens were meant to be seen by walking through the garden and stopping at a series of view points. However, they often contain common elements and used the same techniques. *Miniaturisation: The Japanese garden is a miniature and idealized view of nature. Rocks can represent mountains, and ponds can represent seas. The garden is sometimes made to appear larger by placing larger rocks and trees in the foreground, and smaller ones in the background. * Concealment : The Zen Buddhist garden is meant to be seen all at once, but the promenade garden is meant to be seen one landscape at a time, like a scroll of painted landscapes unrolling. Features are hidden behind hills, trees groves or bamboo, walls or structures, to be discovered when the visitor follows the winding path. * : Smaller gardens are often designed to incorporate borrowed scenery, the view of features outside the garden such as hills, trees or temples, as part of the view. This makes the garden seem larger than it really is. * Asymmetry: Japanese gardens are not laid on straight axes, or with a single feature dominating the view. Buildings and garden features are usually placed to be seen from a diagonal, and are carefully composed into scenes that contrast right angles, such as buildings with natural features, and vertical features, such as rocks, bamboo or trees, with horizontal features, such as water.Young, ''The Art of the Japanese Garden'', p. 20. According to garden historians David and Michigo Young, at the heart of the Japanese garden is the principle that a garden is a work of art. "Though inspired by nature, it is an interpretation rather than a copy; it should appear to be natural, but it is not wild." Landscape gardener Seyemon Kusumoto wrote that the Japanese generate "the best of nature's handiwork in a limited space". There has been mathematical analysis of some traditional Japanese garden designs. These designs avoid contrasts, symmetries and groupings that would create points which dominate Visual spatial attention, visual attention. Instead, they create scenes in which visual Salience (neuroscience), salience is evenly distributed across the field of view. Stand-out colours, textures, objects, and groups are avoided. The size of objects, groupings, and the spacings between them are arranged to be self-similar at multiple spatial scales; that is, they produce similar patterns when scale (ratio), scaled up or down (zoomed in or out). This property is also seen in fractals and Fractal#Natural phenomena with fractal features, many natural scenes. This fractal-like self-similarity may be extended all the way down to the scale of surface textures (such as those of rocks and moss lawns). These textures are considered to express a aesthetic.


Differences between Japanese and Chinese gardens

Japanese gardens during the
Heian period The is the last division of classical History of Japan, Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. It followed the Nara period, beginning when the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu, moved from the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto). It i ...
were modeled upon Chinese gardens, but by the
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
there were distinct differences. *Architecture: Chinese gardens have buildings in the center of the garden, occupying a large part of the garden space. The buildings are placed next to or over the central body of water. The garden buildings are very elaborate, with much architectural decoration. In later Japanese gardens, the buildings are well apart from the body of water, and the buildings are simple, with very little ornament. The architecture in a Japanese garden is largely or partly concealed. * Viewpoint: Chinese gardens are designed to be seen from the inside, from the buildings, galleries and pavilions in the center of the garden. Japanese gardens are designed to be seen from the outside, as in the Japanese rock garden or zen garden; or from a path winding through the garden. * Use of rocks: in a Chinese garden, particularly in the Ming dynasty, scholar's rocks were selected for their extraordinary shapes or resemblance to animals or mountains, and used for dramatic effect. They were often the stars and centerpieces of the garden. In later Japanese gardens, rocks were smaller and placed in more natural arrangements, integrated into the garden. * Marine landscapes: Chinese gardens were inspired by Chinese inland landscapes, particularly Chinese lakes and mountains, while Japanese gardens often use miniaturized scenery from the Japanese coast. Japanese gardens frequently include white sand or pebble beaches and rocks which seem to have been worn by the waves and tide, which rarely appear in Chinese gardens.


Garden styles


''Chisen-shoyū-teien'' or pond garden

The ''chisen-shoyū-teien'' ("lake-spring-boat excursion garden") was imported from China during the
Heian period The is the last division of classical History of Japan, Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. It followed the Nara period, beginning when the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu, moved from the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto). It i ...
(794–1185). It is also called the ''shinden-zukuri'' style, after the architectural style of the main building. It featured a large, ornate residence with two long wings reaching south to a large lake and garden. Each wing ended in a pavilion from which guests could enjoy the views of the lake. Visitors made tours of the lake in small boats. These gardens had large lakes with small islands, where musicians played during festivals and ceremonies worshippers could look across the water at the Buddha. No original gardens of this period remain, but reconstructions can be seen at and
Daikaku-ji is a Shingon Buddhism, Shingon Buddhist temple in Ukyō-ku, Kyoto, Ukyō-ku, a western Wards of Japan, ward in the city of Kyoto, Japan. The site was originally a residence of Emperor Saga (785–842 CE), and later various emperors conducted t ...
temple in Kyoto. File:Lake at Heian Shrine, Kyoto.jpg, is a recreation of the old imperial pond garden of Kyoto.


The Paradise Garden

The Paradise Garden appeared in the late
Heian period The is the last division of classical History of Japan, Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. It followed the Nara period, beginning when the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu, moved from the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto). It i ...
, created by nobles belonging to the Amida Buddhism sect. They were meant to symbolize Paradise or the Pure Land (''Jōdo''), where the Buddha sat on a platform contemplating a lotus pond. These gardens featured a lake island called Nakajima, where the Buddha hall was located, connected to the shore by an arching bridge. The most famous surviving example is the garden of the Phoenix Hall of
Byōdō-in is a Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are a ...

Byōdō-in
Temple, built in 1053, in Uji, near Kyoto. Other examples are Jōruri-ji temple in Kyoto, Enro-ji temple in Nara Prefecture, the Hokongoin in Kyoto, Mōtsū-ji Temple in Hiraizumi, and Shiramizu Amidado Garden in Iwaki City. File:Byodo-in in Uji.jpg,
Byōdō-in is a Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are a ...

Byōdō-in
Temple in Uji, near Kyoto. File:Enjo-ji Garden 04.jpg, Enjō-ji Temple in Nara Prefecture is a good example of a paradise garden of the late Heian Period. File:Joruriji Hondo.jpg, Jōruri-ji, a paradise garden in Kyoto. The pond was dug by monks in 1150.


Karesansui dry rock gardens

Karesansui gardens (枯山水) or Japanese rock gardens, became popular in Japan in the 14th century thanks to the work of a Buddhist monk,
Musō Soseki was a Rinzai The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅, translit=zen; ko, text=선, translit=Seon; vi, text=Thiề ...
(1275–1351) who built zen gardens at the five major monasteries in Kyoto. These gardens have white sand or raked gravel in place of water, carefully arranged rocks, and sometimes rocks and sand covered with moss. Their purpose is to facilitate meditation, and they are meant to be viewed while seated on the porch of the residence of the ''hōjō'', the abbot of the monastery. The most famous example is Ryōan-ji temple in Kyoto. File:RosanjiTeien.jpg, Rosan-ji garden, Kyoto File:Zuihou-in2.JPG, Zuihō-in garden, Kyoto File:Daisen-in3.jpg,
Daisen-in is a sub-temple of Daitoku-ji is a Buddhist temple, one of fourteen autonomous branches of the Rinzai The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen Zen ( zh, t= ...

Daisen-in
, Kyoto


''Roji'', or tea gardens

The tea garden was created during the Muromachi period (1333–1573) and
Momoyama periodMomoyama may refer to: History *Azuchi–Momoyama period The is the final phase of the in Japanese history from 1568 to 1600. The Azuchi–Momoyama period began with Oda Nobunaga entering into Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese language, Japanese: ...
(1573–1600) as a setting for the Japanese tea ceremony, or ''chanoyu''. The style of garden takes its name from the ''
roji , lit. 'dewy ground', is the Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...
'', or path to the teahouse, which is supposed to inspire the visitor to meditation to prepare him for the ceremony. There is an outer garden, with a gate and covered arbor where guests wait for the invitation to enter. They then pass through a gate to the inner garden, where they wash their hands and rinse their mouth, as they would before entering a Shinto shrine, before going into the teahouse itself. The path is always kept moist and green, so it will look like a remote mountain path, and there are no bright flowers that might distract the visitor from his meditation. Early teahouses had no windows, but later teahouses have a wall which can be opened for a view of the garden. File:Jingu Chashitsu04.jpg, A teahouse and roji, or tea garden, at Ise Jingu. File:2002 kenrokuen hanami 0123.jpg, Traditional teahouse and tea garden at Kenroku-en Garden File:Urakuen tea garden 01.jpg, Garden of the Urakuen teahouse File:Keishun-in 4.JPG, Rustic gate of the Keishun-in garden teahouse in Kyoto


Kaiyū-shiki-teien, or promenade gardens

Promenade or stroll gardens (landscape gardens in the go-round style) appeared in Japan during the
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
(1600–1854), at the villas of nobles or warlords. These gardens were designed to complement the houses in the new ''sukiya-zukuri'' style of architecture, which were modeled after the teahouse. These gardens were meant to be seen by following a path clockwise around the lake from one carefully composed scene to another. These gardens used two techniques to provide interest: borrowed scenery ("shakkei"), which took advantage of views of scenery outside the garden such as mountains or temples, incorporating them into the view so the garden looked larger than it really was, and ''miegakure'', or "hide-and-reveal", which used winding paths, fences, bamboo and buildings to hide the scenery so the visitor would not see it until he was at the best view point. Edo period gardens also often feature recreations of famous scenery or scenes inspired by literature; Suizen-ji Jōju-en Garden in Kumamoto has a miniature version of
Mount Fuji , located on the island of Honshū , historically called , is the largest and most populous main island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country ...

Mount Fuji
, and Katsura Villa in Kyoto has a miniature version of the Ama-no-hashidate sandbar in Miyazu Bay, near Kyoto. The Rikugi-en Garden in Tokyo creates small landscapes inspired by eighty-eight famous Japanese poems. File:Shokin-tei seen from the Geppa-ro.jpg,
Katsura Imperial Villa The , or Katsura Detached Palace, is an Imperial residence with associated gardens A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, or enjoyment of plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, p ...
, the prototype for the promenade garden File:Shugakuin Imperial Villa.jpg, Shugaku-in Imperial Villa, completed in 1659, another classic example of a promenade garden of the Edo Period File:KoishikawaKorakuen8965.jpg, Two hills covered with trimmed bamboo grass which represent Mount Lu in China. This feature is in Koishikawa Kōrakuen Garden in Tokyo. File:Kumamoto Suizenji-jojuen04n4272.jpg, Suizen-ji Jōju-en Garden, begun in 1636, has a miniature replica of
Mount Fuji , located on the island of Honshū , historically called , is the largest and most populous main island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country ...

Mount Fuji
. The trees on the upper part of the hill are trimmed to be smaller, to make the mountain look taller.


Small urban gardens

Small gardens were originally found in the interior courtyards (''naka-niwa'', "inner garden") of
Heian period The is the last division of classical History of Japan, Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. It followed the Nara period, beginning when the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu, moved from the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto). It i ...
palaces, and were designed to give a glimpse of nature and some privacy to the residents of the rear side of the building. They were as small as one ''tsubo'', or about 3.3 square meters, whence the name ''tsubo-niwa''. During the
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
, merchants began building small gardens in the space behind their shops, which faced the street, and their residences, located at the rear. These tiny gardens were meant to be seen, not entered, and usually had a stone lantern, a water basin, stepping stones and a few plants. Today, ''tsubo-niwa'' are found in many Japanese residences, hotels, restaurants, and public buildings. A good example from the Meiji period is found in the villa of Murin-an in Kyoto. Totekiko is a famous courtyard rock garden.


Hermitage garden

A hermitage garden is a small garden usually built by a samurai or government official who wanted to retire from public life and devote himself to study or meditation. It is attached to a rustic house, and approached by a winding path, which suggests it is deep in a forest. It may have a small pond, a Japanese rock garden, and the other features of traditional gardens, in miniature, designed to create tranquility and inspiration. An example is the
Shisen-dō is a Buddhism, Buddhist temple of the Sōtō Zen sect in Sakyō-ku, Kyoto, Japan. It is registered as a historic site of Japan. It stands on the grounds of its founder, the Edo period intellectual Ishikawa Jōzan (1583–1672), who established t ...
garden in Kyoto, built by a bureaucrat and scholar exiled by the shogun in the 17th century. It is now a Buddhist temple.


Literature and art of the Japanese garden


Garden manuals

The first manual of Japanese gardening was the ''Sakuteiki'' ("Records of Garden Making"), probably written in the late eleventh century by Tachibana no Tohshitsuna (1028–1094). Citing even older Chinese sources, it explains how to organize the garden, from the placement of rocks and streams to the correct depth of ponds and height of cascades. While it was based on earlier Chinese garden principles, it also expressed ideas which were unique to Japanese gardens, such as islands, beaches and rock formations imitating Japanese maritime landscapes. Besides giving advice, ''Sakuteiki'' also gives dire warnings of what happens if the rules are not followed; the author warns that if a rock that in nature was in a horizontal position is stood upright in a garden, it will bring misfortune to the owner of the garden. And, if a large rock pointed toward the north or west is placed near a gallery, the owner of the garden will be forced to leave before a year passes. Another influential work about the Japanese garden, bonseki,
bonsai Bonsai ( ja, 盆栽, , tray planting, ) is a Japanese version of the original traditional Chinese art ''penjing'' or ''penzai''. Unlike ''penjing'', which utilizes traditional techniques to produce entire natural sceneries in small pots that ...

bonsai
and related arts was ''Rhymeprose on a Miniature Landscape Garden'' (around 1300) by the Zen monk Kokan Shiren, which explained how meditation on a miniature garden purified the senses and the mind and led to understanding of the correct relationship between man and nature. Other influential garden manuals which helped to define the aesthetics of the Japanese garden are ''Senzui Narabi ni Yagyo no Zu'' (Illustrations for Designing Mountain, Water and Hillside Field Landscapes), written in the fifteenth century, and ''Tsukiyama Teizoden'' (Building Mountains and Making Gardens), from the 18th century. The tradition of Japanese gardening was historically passed down from ''sensei'' to apprentice. The opening words of ''Illustrations for designing mountain, water and hillside field landscapes'' (1466) are "If you have not received the oral transmissions, you must not make gardens" and its closing admonition is "You must never show this writing to outsiders. You must keep it secret". These garden manuals are still studied today.


Gardens in literature and poetry

* ''
The Tale of Genji is a classic work of Japanese literature Early works of Japanese literature were heavily influenced by cultural contact with China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of c ...
'', the classic Japanese novel of the
Heian period The is the last division of classical History of Japan, Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. It followed the Nara period, beginning when the 50th emperor, Emperor Kanmu, moved from the capital of Japan to Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto). It i ...
, describes the role of the Japanese garden in court life. The characters attend festivals in the old Kyoto imperial palace garden, take boat trips on the lake, listen to music and watch formal dances under the trees. Gardens were often the subject of poems during the Heian period. A poem in one anthology from the period, the ''Kokin-Shu'', described the ''Kiku-shima'', or island of chrystanthemums, found in the Osawa pond in the great garden of the period called ''Saga-in''. :I had thought that here :only one chrysanthmum can grow. :Who therefore has planted :the other in the depths :of the pond of Osawa? Another poem of the Heian period, in the ''Hyakunin isshu,'' described a cascade of rocks, which simulated a waterfall, in the same garden: :The cascade long ago :ceased to roar, :But we continue to hear :The murmur :of its name.


Philosophy, painting, and the Japanese garden

In Culture of Japan, Japanese culture, garden-making is a high art, equal to the arts of calligraphy and ink painting. Gardens are considered three-dimensional textbooks of Daoism and Zen Buddhism. Sometimes the lesson is very literal; the garden of Saihō-ji featured a pond shaped like the Japanese character ''shin'' (心) or ''xīn'' in Chinese, the heart-spirit of Chinese philosophy, the newspaper character is 心 but it's the full cursive, the ''sousho'' style (草書) for ''shin'' that would be used; ''sousho'', this well-named "grass writing", would be appropriate for gardening purpose indeed, for in cursive writing the character shapes change depending on the context and of course, since it is cursive, depending on the person -that is to say that the character would be done in a single pencil stroke, it would match the state of mind and the context rather than the newspaper print. However, usually the lessons are contained in the arrangements of the rocks, the water and the plants. For example, the lotus flower has a particular message; Its roots are in the mud at the bottom of the pond, symbolizing the misery of the human condition, but its flower is pure white, symbolizing the purity of spirit that can be achieved by following the teachings of the Buddha. The Japanese rock gardens were intended to be intellectual puzzles for the monks who lived next to them to study and solve. They followed the same principles as the ''suiboku-ga'', the black-and-white Japanese inks paintings of the same period, which, according to Zen Buddhist principles, tried to achieve the maximum effect using the minimum essential elements. One painter who influenced the Japanese garden was Josetsu (1405–1423), a Chinese Zen monk who moved to Japan and introduced a new style of ink-brush painting, moving away from the romantic misty landscapes of the earlier period, and using asymmetry and areas of white space, similar to the white space created by sand in zen gardens, to set apart and highlight a mountain or tree branch or other element of his painting. He became chief painter of the Shogun and influenced a generation of painters and
garden designer A garden designer is someone who designs the plan and features of gardens, either as an amateur or professional. The compositional elements of garden design and landscape design are: terrain, water feature, water, Garden design#Planting design, plan ...
s. Japanese gardens also follow the principles of perspective of Japanese landscape painting, which feature a close-up plane, an intermediate plane, and a distant plane. The empty space between the different planes has a great importance, and is filled with water, moss, or sand. The garden designers used various optical tricks to give the garden the illusion of being larger than it really is, by
borrowing of scenery ("shakkei") Borrowed scenery (借景; ja, shakkei, italic=yes; ) is the principle of "incorporating background landscape into the composition of a garden" found in traditional East Asian garden design. The term borrowing of scenery ("shakkei") is Chinese in o ...
, employing distant views outside the garden, or using miniature trees and bushes to create the illusion that they are far away.


Noteworthy Japanese gardens


In Japan

The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (Japan), Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of the government of Japan designates the most notable of the nation's scenic beauty as Special Places of Scenic Beauty, under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties. As of March 2007, 29 sites are listed, more than a half of which are Japanese gardens (boldface entries specify World Heritage Sites): * Tōhoku region ** Mōtsū-ji Garden (Hiraizumi, Iwate) * Kantō region ** Kairaku-en (Mito, Ibaraki) ** Rikugi-en (Bunkyō, Tokyo) ** Kyu Hamarikyu Gardens (Chūō, Tokyo) * Chūbu region ** Kenroku-en (Kanazawa, Ishikawa) ** Ichijōdani Asakura Family Gardens (Fukui, Fukui) * Kansai region **
Byōdō-in is a Buddhist Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are a ...

Byōdō-in
Garden (Uji, Kyoto) ** Ginkaku-ji, Jisho-ji Garden (Kyoto, Kyoto) ** Nijō Castle Ninomaru Garden (Kyoto, Kyoto) ** Rokuon-ji Garden (Kyoto, Kyoto) ** Ryōan-ji Garden (Kyoto, Kyoto) **
Tenryū-ji , formally known as , is the head temple of the Tenryū-ji branch of the Rinzai The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅 ...
Garden (Kyoto, Kyoto) ** The garden of Sanbōin in
Daigo-ji is a Shingon Buddhist temple A temple (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...
(Kyoto, Kyoto) ** The moss garden of Saihō-ji (the "Moss Temple") (Kyoto, Kyoto) ** Daitoku-ji Garden (Kyoto, Kyoto) ** The garden of
Daisen-in is a sub-temple of Daitoku-ji is a Buddhist temple, one of fourteen autonomous branches of the Rinzai The Rinzai school ( ja, , Rinzai-shū, zh, t=臨濟宗, s=临济宗, p=Línjì zōng) is one of three sects of Zen Zen ( zh, t= ...

Daisen-in
in Daitoku-ji (Kyoto, Kyoto) ** Murin-an garden, Kyoto, Kyoto ** Negoro-ji Garden (Iwade, Wakayama) * Chūgoku region ** Adachi Museum of Art Garden (Yasugi, Shimane) ** Koraku-en, Kōraku-en (Okayama, Okayama) ** Matsue Vogel Park (Matsue) ** Shūraku-en (Tsuyama, Okayama, Tsuyama) *
Shikoku is one of the five main islands of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the sout ...

Shikoku
Region ** Ritsurin Garden (Takamatsu, Kagawa) ** Nakatsu Banshoen (Marugame, Kagawa) ** Tensha-en (Uwajima, Ehime) * Kyushu Region ** Suizen-ji Jōju-en (Kumamoto, Kumamoto) ** Sengan-en (Kagoshima, Kagoshima) * Ryūkyū Islands ** Shikina-en (Naha, Okinawa) However, the Education Minister is not eligible to have jurisdiction over any imperial property. These two gardens, administered by Imperial Household Agency, are also considered to be great masterpieces. *
Katsura Imperial Villa The , or Katsura Detached Palace, is an Imperial residence with associated gardens A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, or enjoyment of plant Plants are mainly multicellular organisms, p ...
* Shugaku-in Imperial Villa


In Taiwan

Several Japanese gardens were built during Japanese Taiwan period. * Taipei Guest House * Beitou Plum Garden in Beitou, Taipei * Beitou Museum in Beitou, Taipei * Nanmon-cho 323 in Zhongzheng District, Taipei * Drop of Water Memorial Hall in Tamsui, New Taipei City * Shoyoen in Kaohsiung


In English-speaking countries

The aesthetic of Japanese gardens was introduced to the English-speaking world by Josiah Conder (architect), Josiah Conder's ''Landscape Gardening in Japan'' (Kelly & Walsh, 1893). Conder was a British architect who had worked for the Japanese government and other clients in Japan from 1877 until his death. The book was published when the general trend of
Japonisme Japonisme is a French term that refers to the popularity and influence of Japanese art Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including Jōmon pottery, ancient pottery, Japanese sculpture, sculpture, Ink wash painting, ink p ...
, or Japanese influence in the arts of the West, was already well-established, and sparked the first Japanese gardens in the West. A second edition was required in 1912. Initially these were mostly sections of large private gardens, but as the style grew in popularity, many Japanese gardens were, and continue to be, added to public parks and gardens. Conder's principles have sometimes proved hard to follow: Samuel Newsom's ''Japanese Garden Construction'' (1939) offered Japanese aesthetic as a corrective in the construction of
rock garden A rock garden, also known as a rockery or an alpine garden, is a garden design, small field or plot of ground designed to feature and emphasize a variety of Rock (geology), rocks, stones, and boulders. The standard layout for a rock garden c ...

rock garden
s, which owed their quite separate origins in the West to the mid-19th century desire to grow alpines in an approximation of Alpine scree. According to the Garden History Society, Japanese landscape gardener Seyemon Kusumoto was involved in the development of around 200 gardens in the UK. In 1937 he exhibited a rock garden at the Chelsea Flower Show, and worked on the Burngreave Estate at Bognor Regis, and also on a Japanese garden at Cottered in Hertfordshire. The lush courtyards at Du Cane Court – an art deco block of flats in Balham, London, built between 1935 and 1938 – were designed by Kusumoto. All four courtyards there may have originally contained ponds. Only one survives, and this is stocked with koi. There are also several stone lanterns, which are meant to symbolise the illumination of one's path through life; similarly, the paths through the gardens are not straight. Japanese maple, Japanese anemone, cherry trees, evergreens, and bamboo are other typical features of Du Cane Court's gardens. According to David A. Slawson, many of the Japanese gardens that are recreated in the US are of "museum-piece quality". He also writes, however, that as the gardens have been introduced into the Western world, they have become more Americanized, decreasing their natural beauty.


Australia

* Adelaide Himeji Garden * Auburn Botanical Gardens, in Sydney, New South Wales * Lennox Gardens, Canberra Nara Peace Park in Lennox Gardens, Canberra * Cowra Japanese Garden and Cultural Centre, Cowra, New South Wales * Melbourne Zoo * Nerima Gardens, Ipswich, Queensland, Ipswich * Brisbane Botanic Gardens, Mount Coot-tha#Japanese Garden, "Tsuki-yama-chisen" Japanese Garden, Brisbane * University of Southern Queensland Japanese Garden, "Ju Raku En", Toowomba, Queensland


Canada

* Nitobe Memorial Garden, Vancouver, British Columbia * The University of Alberta Botanic Garden, Edmonton, Alberta, formerly named the Devonian Botanic Garden, which contains an extensive Japanese garden * Nikka Yuko Japanese Garden, Lethbridge, Alberta * The Japanese Garden and Pavilion, Montreal Botanical Garden, Quebec * Kariya Park, Mississauga, Ontario


United Kingdom

England * Compton Acres (garden), Compton Acres, Dorset * Dartington Hall, Devon * Hall Park, Leeds * Harewood House, Leeds * Holland Park, London * St Mawgan in Pydar, Cornwall * Tatton Park, Cheshire * School of Oriental and African Studies, London Northern Ireland * Sir Thomas and Lady Dixon Park, Belfast * Fujiyama Japanese Garden Scotland * Lauriston Castle, Edinburgh – garden opened 2002


Ireland

* The Japanese Gardens at the Irish National Stud, Kildare, Co. Kildare
Lafcadio Hearn Japanese Gardens
Tramore, County Waterford, Co. Waterford


United States

* Anderson Japanese Gardens (Rockford, Illinois) * Brooklyn Botanic Garden#The Japanese Hill-and-Pond Garden, Brooklyn Botanic Garden (Brooklyn, New York (state), New York) * Chicago Botanic Garden#Garden Facts, Chicago Botanic Garden (Glencoe, Illinois) * Earl Burns Miller Japanese Garden (California State University, Long Beach) * Frederik Meijer Gardens & Sculpture Park (The Richard & Helen DeVos Japanese Garden, Grand Rapids, Michigan) * Lotusland Japanese Garden at Ganna Walska Lotusland (Santa Barbara, California) * Fort Worth Japanese Garden at the Fort Worth Botanic Garden (Fort Worth, Texas) * Japanese Tea Garden (San Francisco, California), Japanese Tea Garden (San Francisco, California) * Hakone Gardens (Saratoga, California), used as a filming location for ''Memoirs of a Geisha (film), Memoirs of a Geisha'' * Japanese Gardens (Hayward, California), Hayward Japanese Gardens (Hayward, California), the oldest traditionally designed Japanese garden in California. * Japanese Garden of Peace at the National Museum of the Pacific War located in Fredericksburg, Texas. * The Huntington#Botanical gardens, The Huntington (San Marino, California) * Ro Ho En, Japanese Friendship Garden (Phoenix, Arizona) * Japanese Friendship Garden (Balboa Park) (San Diego, California) * Japanese Friendship Garden (Kelley Park) (San Jose, California) * Como Zoo and Conservatory#Marjorie McNeely Conservatory, Japanese Garden at Marjorie McNeely Conservatory (St Paul, Minnesota) * Maymont Park – Japanese Garden (Richmond, VA) * Minnesota Landscape Arboretum, Japanese garden at Minnesota Landscape Arboretum (near Chanhassen, Minnesota) * Kumamoto En (San Antonio, Texas) * Japanese Garden (Houston), Japanese Garden at Hermann Park in Houston, Texas * Morikami Museum and Japanese Gardens, Delray Beach, Florida * Normandale Japanese Garden (Bloomington, Minnesota) * Portland Japanese Garden (Portland, Oregon) * Seattle Japanese Garden at the Washington Park Arboretum (Seattle, Washington) * Kubota Garden (Seattle, Washington) * Storrier Stearns Japanese Garden (Pasadena, California) * The Japanese Garden (Los Angeles, California) * Mizumoto Japanese Stroll Garden (Springfield, Missouri) * Seiwa-en at the Missouri Botanical Garden (St. Louis, Missouri) * Shofuso Japanese House and Garden, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania * Taniguchi Japanese Garden (Austin, Texas) * Yuko-En on the Elkhorn (Georgetown, Kentucky) * Shigematsu Memorial Japanese Garden at Lansing Community College, Lansing, Michigan * Japanese Garden (Ashland, Oregon) * Japanese Garden at the Norfolk Botanical Garden (Norfolk, Virginia)


In other countries

* Argentina ** The Buenos Aires Japanese Gardens, of the Fundación Cultural Argentino Japonesa ** Jardín Japonés de Belén de Escobar. * Austria: ** Setagayapark, Ecke Gallmeyergasse,1190 Vienna – opened 1992 (garden designer Ken Nakajima) ** The Japanese Garden in Schlosspark Schönbrunn, Vienna – revitalized 1999 * Belgium ** Japanse tuin, Hasselt ** Jardin japonais Chevetogne Namur, Belgium, Namur * Brazil ** Parque Santos Dummont, São José dos Campos, São Paulo ** Bosque Municipal Fábio Barreto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo * Bulgaria: Japanese Garden at the Kempinski Hotel Zografski in Sofia; built in 1979 as a large-scale copy of the garden at the Hotel New Otani Tokyo, first and only Japanese Garden in the Balkans until 2004. * Chile: La Serena and Santiago. Built by the embassy of Japan. * Costa Rica: Lankester Botanical Gardens, operated by the University of Costa Rica, in Cartago (canton), Cartago canton. * France: ** The Departmental Museum of Albert Kahn (banker), Albert Kahn (Musée Albert-Kahn) in Boulogne-Billancourt has two Japanese Gardens. ** Japanese Garden at the UNESCO Head Quarters, created by Isamu Noguchi in 1958. ** Rising sun garden (Jardin du Soleil levant) in the Jardin botanique de Haute-Bretagne, Botanical garden of Upper Brittany. * Germany: ** in Augsburg (in the Botanischer Garten Augsburg), ** in Hamburg, ** in Leverkusen, ** in Kaiserslautern ** in Munich (in the Englischer Garten#Japanisches Teehaus, Englischer Garten). * Hungary: Small Japanese garden on Margaret Island, Budapest and another one in the Budapest Zoo and Botanical Garden. * India: Japanese Garden, Moti Jheel, Kanpur and Buddha Park, Indira Nagar, Kalianpur, Kanpur, Japanese Garden, Chandigarh, Chandigarh * Iran: Japanese Garden, in the National Botanical Garden of Iran. Established in 1995. * Israel: Kibbutz Heftziba * Mongolia: Juulchin street cnr Jigjidjav street, Ulaanbaatar, established in 2005 by a Mongolian sumo wrestler * Monaco: Japanese Garden, Monaco, Jardin Japonais, Larvotto * Netherlands: ** The Japanse Tuin of Clingendael park ** The ''Tsubo-en'' karesansui garden in Lelystad, a private modern Japanese zen (karesansui, dry rock) garden ** The Von Siebold Memorial Garden in LeidenConstructed in the Leiden University Botanical Hortus Garden https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7VBoQbBJ9eE * Nicaragua: Parque Japón Nicaragua, in Managua * Norway: Japanhagen in Milde, Bergen – opened 2005, part of the botanical garden of the University of Bergen – (landscape architect Haruto Kobayashi) * Philippines ** The Japanese Garden at Rizal Park in Ermita, Manila ** The Japanese Garden at Lake Caliraya in Cavinti, Laguna * Poland: ** The Japanese Garden, Wrocław, Japanese Garden in Wrocław – founded 1913, restored 1996–1997, destroyed by flood, restored 1999 ** The Japanese Garden in Przelewice, Pyrzyce County, Przelewice – a part of Dendrological Garden in Przelewice founded in 1933 * Russia: ** The Japanese Garden in Moscow – founded 1983, opened 1987 (landscape architect Ken Nakajima) ** Kare-sansui garden (枯山水) or Japanese rock garden in Irkutsk – opened 2012 (landscape architect Takuhiro Yamada), part of the Botanic Garden of the Irkutsk State University * Serbia: The Japanese Garden in Jevremovac, Botanical Garden Jevremovac – opened 2004 (landscape architects Vera and Mihailo Grbic) * Singapore: Japanese Garden, Singapore, Japanese Garden – a garden island located in Jurong Lake * Spain: Zen Gardens of the Autonomous University of Barcelona at the faculty of translation and interpretation * Sweden: ** Japanska Trädgården in Ronneby Brunnspark, Blekinge ** The "Japandalen" (Japan Valley) of Gothenburg Botanical Garden * Turkey: Eskisehir Anadolu University Japanese Botanical Garden * Uruguay: Japanese Garden, Montevideo, Jardín Japonés, Montevideo – opened 2001 by Sayako Kuroda, Princess Sayako


See also

* Japanese rock garden * Three Great Gardens of Japan * Roji-en Japanese Gardens * List of parks and gardens in Tokyo


Sources and citations


Bibliography

*Hugh Johnson (wine writer), Johnson, Hugh, ''Hugh Johnson on Gardening'', 1993, the Royal Horticultural Society/Reed International Books, () * Kuitert, Wybe (2017), ''Japanese Gardens and Landscapes, 1650–1950'', University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, () * Kuitert, Wybe (2002), ''Themes in the History of Japanese Garden Art'', Hawaii University Press, Honolulu,
Online as PDF
() * Kuitert, Wybe (1988), ''Themes, Scenes, and Taste in the History of Japanese Garden Art'

Japonica Neerlandica, Amsterdam, () * Young, David and Michiko (2005), ''The Art of the Japanese Garden'', Tuttle Publishing, Vermont and Singapore, () * Nitschke, Gunter (1999), ''Le Jardin japonais – Angle droit et forme naturelle'', Taschen publishers, Paris (translated from German into French by Wolf Fruhtrunk), () * , Éditions Robert Lafont, Paris, () * Murase, Miyeko (1996), ''L'Art du Japon'', La Pochothḕque, Paris, () * Elisseeff, Danielle (2010), ''Jardins japonais'', Ḗditions Scala, Paris, () * Klecka, Virginie (2011), ''Concevoir, Amenager, Decorer Jardins Japonais'', Rustica Editions, () * Slawson, David A. (1987), ''Secret Teachings in the Art of Japanese Gardens'', New York/Tokyo: Kodansha * Yagi, Koji (1982), ''A Japanese Touch for Your Home''. Kodansha * Miller, P. (2005), "The Japanese Garden: Gateway to the Human Spirit", ''International Journal of Humanities & Peace'', Vol. 21 Issue 1, Retrieved August 3, 2008 from: http://researchport.umd.edu * Kato, E. (2004), ''The Tea Ceremony and Women's Empowerment in Modern Japan'', RoutledgeCurzon, Retrieved August 3, 2008 from: http://www.netlibrary.com * Varely, P. (2000), ''Japanese Culture Fourth Edition'', The Maple – Vaile Book Manufacturing Group, Retrieved August 3, 2008 from: http://www.netlibrary.com * GoJapanGo (2008), Japanese Garden History, GNU Free Documentation License, Retrieved August 2, 2008 from
www.gojapango.com
* Gardens, Japan Guide (1996–2008), Retrieved August 3, 2008 from

* ''Kenkyusha's New Japanese–English Dictionary'', Kenkyusha Limited, Tokyo 1991, * ''The Compact Nelson Japanese–English Dictionary'', Charles E. Tuttle Company, Tokyo 1999,


External links


Japanese Gardens by State

Japanese Gardens by Map
* Japanese rock garden – Information on zen gardens * Sakuteiki on the oldest Japanese manual on landscape gardening
Japanese Gardens
65+ in Japan, others overseas
Japanese Gardens, Bowdoin College

Real Japanese Gardens
90 gardens in Japan {{authority control Japanese gardens, Landscape design history of Japan, Types of garden by country of origin Japanese style of gardening, *