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The Hudson Valley (also known as the Hudson River Valley) comprises the valley of the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
and its adjacent communities in the U.S. state of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
. The region stretches from the
Capital District A capital district, capital region or capital territory is normally a specially designated administrative division where a country's seat of government is located. As such, in a Federation, federal model of government, no State (administrative div ...
including Albany and
Troy Troy (Greek language, Greek: Τροία) or Ilium (Greek language, Greek: Ίλιον) was an ancient city located at Hisarlik in present-day Turkey, south-west of Çanakkale. It is known as the setting for the Greek mythology, Greek myth of the ...
south to
Yonkers Yonkers () is a city in Westchester County, New York Westchester County is located in the U.S. state of New York. It is the seventh most populated county in New York and the most populated north of New York City. According to the 2010 U.S. ...
in
Westchester County Westchester County is located in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North ...

Westchester County
, bordering
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
.


History


Pre-Columbian era

The Hudson Valley was inhabited by indigenous peoples ages before Europeans arrived. The
Lenape The Lenape (, , or Lenape ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands include Native American tribes The term ...
,
Wappinger The Wappinger () were an Eastern Algonquian The Eastern Algonquian languages constitute a subgroup of the Algonquian languages. Prior to European contact, Eastern Algonquian consisted of at least 17 languages, whose speakers collectively occupie ...
, and
Mahican The Mohican ( or , alternate spelling: Mahican) are an Eastern Algonquian The Eastern Algonquian languages constitute a subgroup of the Algonquian languages. Prior to European contact, Eastern Algonquian consisted of at least 17 languages, w ...
branches of the
Algonquins Algonquin people are an Indigenous people of Eastern Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic t ...
lived along the river, mostly in peace with the other groups. The lower Hudson River was inhabited by the Lenape, The Lenape people waited for the explorer
Giovanni da Verrazzano Giovanni da Verrazzano ( , , often misspelled Verrazano in English; 1485–1528) was an Italian (Florentine) explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery Discovery may refer to: * Discovery (observation) Di ...
onshore, traded with
Henry Hudson Henry Hudson ( 1565 – disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process ...
, and sold the island of
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
. Further north, the Wappingers lived from Manhattan Island up to
Poughkeepsie Poughkeepsie ( , officially the City of Poughkeepsie, separate from the Town of Poughkeepsie around it) is a city in the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al ju ...
. They lived a similar lifestyle to the Lenape, residing in various villages along the river. They traded with both the Lenape to the south and the Mahicans to the north. The Mahicans lived in the northern valley from present-day
Kingston Kingston may refer to: Places * List of places called Kingston, including the four most populated: ** Kingston, Jamaica ** City of Kingston, Victoria, Australia ** Kingston, Ontario, Canada ** Kingston upon Thames, England Animals * Kingston (ho ...
to
Lake Champlain , native_name_lang = , image = Champlainmap.svg , caption = Lake Champlain-River Richelieu watershed , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = , location = New York (state), New York/Vermont in the United States; and Quebec in Canada , ...

Lake Champlain
, with their capital located near present-day Albany. The Algonquins in the region lived mainly in small clans and villages throughout the area. One major fortress was called Navish, which was located at
Croton Point Croton Point Park is a Westchester County, New York, Westchester County park in the village of Croton-on-Hudson, New York, Croton-on-Hudson. The park has several public attractions including a miniature aircraft airport, boat launch, tent and RV ca ...
, overlooking the Hudson River. Other fortresses were located in various locations throughout the
Hudson Highlands The Hudson Highlands are mountains on both sides of the Hudson River in New York (state), New York state lying primarily in Putnam County, New York, Putnam County on its east bank and Orange County, New York, Orange County on its west. They contin ...
.


Hudson River exploration

In 1497,
John Cabot John Cabot ( it, Giovanni Caboto ; 1450 – 1500) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian la ...

John Cabot
traveled along the coast and claimed the entire country for England; he is credited with the
Old World The Old World consists of Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of 's total su ...
's discovery of continental North America. Between then and about 1609, exploration took place around
New York Bay New York Bay is the large body of water surrounding the river mouth, mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean. It is shared by the states of New York (state), New York and New Jersey in the United States. A New York Harbo ...
, but not into the Hudson Valley. In 1609, the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
financed English navigator
Henry Hudson Henry Hudson ( 1565 – disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process ...
in his attempt to search for the
Northwest Passage File:The Arctic Regions, showing the North-West Passage as determined by Cap. R. McClure and other Arctic Voyagers. 1856. CTASC.jpg, Two maps of arctic regions published in 1856 on a single sheet as part of ''The Royal Illustrated Atlas of Moder ...

Northwest Passage
. During this attempt, Henry Hudson decided to sail his ship up the river that would later be named after him. As he continued up the river, its width expanded, into Haverstraw Bay, leading him to believe he had successfully reached the Northwest Passage. He docked his ship on the western shore of Haverstraw Bay and claimed the territory as the first
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
settlement in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
. He also proceeded upstream as far as present-day Troy before concluding that no such strait existed there.


Colonization

After Henry Hudson realized that the Hudson River was not the
Northwest Passage File:The Arctic Regions, showing the North-West Passage as determined by Cap. R. McClure and other Arctic Voyagers. 1856. CTASC.jpg, Two maps of arctic regions published in 1856 on a single sheet as part of ''The Royal Illustrated Atlas of Moder ...

Northwest Passage
, the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
began to examine the region for potential trading opportunities. Dutch explorer and merchant
Adriaen Block Adriaen (Arjan) Block (c. 1567 – buried April 27, 1627) was a Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flem ...
led voyages there between 1611 and 1614, which led the Dutch to determine that fur trade would be profitable in the region. As such, the Dutch established the colony of
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly ...
. The Dutch settled three major fur-trading outposts in the colony, along the river, south to north:
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the most dense ...
, Wiltwyck, and
Fort Orange Fort Orange ( nl, Fort Oranje) was the first permanent New Netherland settlements, Dutch settlement in New Netherland; the present-day city of Albany, New York, Albany, New York (state), New York developed at this site. It was built in 1624 as ...

Fort Orange
. New Amsterdam later became known as
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
, Wiltwyck became
Kingston Kingston may refer to: Places * List of places called Kingston, including the four most populated: ** Kingston, Jamaica ** City of Kingston, Victoria, Australia ** Kingston, Ontario, Canada ** Kingston upon Thames, England Animals * Kingston (ho ...
, and Fort Orange became Albany. In 1664, the British invaded New Netherland via the port of New Amsterdam. New Amsterdam and New Netherland as a whole was surrendered to the British, and renamed New York. Under British colonial rule, the Hudson Valley became an agricultural hub, with manors being developed on the east side of the river. At these manors, landlords rented out land to their tenants, letting them take a share of the crops grown while keeping and selling the rest of the crops. Tenants were often kept at a subsistence level so that the landlord could minimize his costs. They also held immense political power in the colony due to driving such a large proportion of the agricultural output. Meanwhile, land west of Hudson River contained smaller landholdings with many small farmers living off the land. A large crop grown in the region was grain, which was largely shipped downriver to New York City, the colony's main seaport, for export back to Great Britain. In order to export the grain, colonial merchants were given monopolies to grind the grain into flour and export it. Grain production was also at high levels in the Mohawk River Valley.


Revolutionary War

The Hudson River was a key river during the
Revolutionary WarRevolutionary War(s) may refer to: * American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the armed conflict between Great Britain and 13 of its North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America * French Revolution ...
. The Hudson's connection to the Mohawk River allowed travelers to get to the Great Lakes and the
Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and b ...

Mississippi River
eventually. In addition, the river's close proximity to Lake George and Lake Champlain would allow the British navy to control the water route from
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the second-most populous city in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and w ...

Montreal
to New York City. In doing so, the British, under General
John Burgoyne General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral ...

John Burgoyne
's strategy, would be able to cut off the patriot hub of
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography G ...

New England
(which is on the eastern side of the Hudson River) and focus on rallying the support of loyalists in the South and Mid-Atlantic regions. The British knew that total occupation of the colonies would be unfeasible, which is why this strategy was chosen. As a result of the strategy, numerous battles were fought along the river, including several in the Hudson Valley.


Industrial Revolution

In the early 19th century, popularized by the stories of
Washington Irving Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American short-story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century. He is best known for his short stories " Rip Van Winkle" (1819) and " The Lege ...

Washington Irving
, the Hudson Valley gained a reputation as a somewhat gothic region inhabited by the remnants of the early days of the Dutch colonization of New York (see "
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" is a gothic story by American author Washington Irving Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American short-story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th ...
"). The area is associated with the
Hudson River School The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by Romanticism. The paintings typically depict the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area, ...
, a group of American
Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of that era ** Romantic poetry, of that era ** Romanticism in science, of that er ...
painters who worked from about 1830 to 1870. Following the building of the
Erie Canal The Erie Canal is a canal that traverses east–west through upstate New York, upstate New York (state), New York, eastern United States, as part of the cross-state route of the New York State Canal System (formerly known as the New York State ...

Erie Canal
, the area became an important industrial center. The canal opened the Hudson Valley and New York City to commerce with the Midwest and
Great Lakes The Great Lakes also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, is a series of large interconnected freshwater lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land ...

Great Lakes
regions. However, in the mid 20th century, many of the industrial towns went into decline. The first railroad in New York, the
Mohawk and Hudson RailroadMohawk may refer to: Related to Native Americans * Mohawk people, an indigenous people of North America (Canada and New York) *Mohawk language Mohawk (; ''Kanienʼkéha'', " anguageof the Flint Place") is an Iroquoian language currently spoken ...
, opened in 1831 between Albany and
Schenectady Schenectady () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...
on the Mohawk River, enabling passengers to bypass the slowest part of the Erie Canal. The Hudson Valley proved attractive for railroads, once technology progressed to the point where it was feasible to construct the required bridges over tributaries. The Troy and Greenbush Railroad was chartered in 1845 and opened that same year, running a short distance on the east side between Troy and Greenbush, now known as East Greenbush (east of Albany). The
Hudson River Railroad The New York Central Railroad was a railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transpo ...
was chartered the next year as a continuation of the Troy and Greenbush south to New York City, and was completed in 1851. In 1866 the Hudson River Bridge opened over the river between Greenbush and Albany, enabling through traffic between the Hudson River Railroad and the New York Central Railroad west to . When the
Poughkeepsie Bridge The Walkway over the Hudson (also known as the Poughkeepsie Bridge, Poughkeepsie Railroad Bridge, Poughkeepsie–Highland Railroad Bridge, and High Bridge) is a steel Steel is an alloy of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carb ...

Poughkeepsie Bridge
opened in 1889, it became the longest single-span bridge in the world. The New York, West Shore and Buffalo Railway began at
Weehawken Terminal Weehawken Terminal was the waterfront intermodal terminal on the North River (Hudson River) in Weehawken, New Jersey Weehawken is a Township (New Jersey), township in the North Hudson, New Jersey, northern part of Hudson County, New Jersey, ...
and ran up the west shore of the Hudson as a competitor to the merged
New York Central and Hudson River Railroad The New York Central Railroad was a railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transpo ...
. Construction was slow, and was finally completed in 1884; the New York Central purchased the line the next year. During the Industrial Revolution, the Hudson River became a major location for production. The river allowed for fast and easy transport of goods from the interior of the Northeast to the coast. Hundreds of factories were built around the Hudson, in towns including Poughkeepsie, Newburgh, Kingston, and Hudson. The North Tarrytown Assembly (later owned by
General Motors General Motors Company (GM) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinat ...

General Motors
), on the river in Sleepy Hollow, was a large and notable example. The river links to the Erie Canal and Great Lakes, allowing manufacturing in the Midwest, including automobiles in Detroit, to use the river for transport. With industrialization came new technologies for transport, including steamboats for faster transport. In 1807, the ''
North River Steamboat The ''North River Steamboat'' or ''North River'', colloquially known as the ''Clermont'', is widely regarded as the world's first vessel to demonstrate the viability of using steam propulsion for commercial water transportation. Built in 1807, the ...
'' (later known as Clermont), became the first commercially successful steamboat. It carried passengers between New York City and Albany along the Hudson River. Tourism became a major industry as early as 1810. With convenient steamboat connections in New York City, and numerous attractive hotels in romantic settings, tourism became an important industry. Early guidebooks were providing suggestions on their itinerary. Middle-class people who read
James Fenimore Cooper James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was an American writer of the first half of the 19th century. His historical romances depicting colonist and Indigenous characters from the 17th to the 19th centuries created a ...

James Fenimore Cooper
's novels, or saw the paintings of the Hudson River School, were especially attracted.


Geology and physiography

The Hudson River valley runs primarily north to south down the eastern edge of New York State, cutting through a series of rock types including
Triassic The Triassic ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...

Triassic
sandstones and redbeds in the south and much more ancient
Precambrian The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pꞒ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic The Phanerozoic Eon is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale The geologi ...

Precambrian
gneiss Gneiss ( ) is a common and widely distributed type of metamorphic rock. Gneiss is formed by high-temperature and high-pressure metamorphic processes acting on formations composed of igneous Igneous rock (derived from the Latin Latin (, or ...

gneiss
in the north (and east). In the Hudson Highlands, the river enters a
fjord In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδ ...

fjord
cut during previous ice ages. To the west lie the extensive Appalachian highlands. In the Tappan Zee region, the west side of the river has high cliffs produced by an erosion-resistant
diabase Diabase (), also called dolerite () or microgabbro, is a mafic A mafic mineral or rock is a silicate mineral Silicate minerals are rock-forming mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a so ...

diabase
; the cliffs range from in height. The Hudson Valley is one physiographic section of the larger
Ridge-and-Valley The Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, also called the Ridge and Valley Province or the Valley and Ridge Appalachians, are a Physiographic regions of the world, physiographic province of the larger Appalachian Mountains, Appalachian division and are ...
province, which in turn is part of the larger
AppalachianAppalachian may refer to: * The Appalachian Mountains, a major mountain range in eastern United States and Canada * The Appalachian Trail, a hiking trail in the eastern United States * The people of Appalachia and their culture ** Appalachian Americ ...

Appalachian
physiographic division. The northern portions of the Hudson Valley fall within the Eastern Great Lakes and Hudson Lowlands Ecoregion. During the last ice age, the valley was filled by a large glacier that pushed south as far as
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic ...
. Near the end of the last ice age, the Great Lakes drained south down the Hudson River, from a large glacial lake called Lake Iroquois.
Lake Ontario Lake Ontario (french: Lac Ontario) is one of the five Great Lakes The Great Lakes also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, is a series of large interconnected freshwater lakes in the mid-east region ...

Lake Ontario
is the remnant of that Lake. Large sand deposits remain from where Lake Iroquois drained into the Hudson; these are now part of the
Rome Sand Plains Rome Sand Plains is a pine barrens about west of the city center of Rome, New York, Rome in Oneida County, New York, Oneida County in central New York (state), New York. It consists of a mosaic of sand dunes rising about above low peat bogs that ...
. Due to its resemblance, the Hudson River often has been described as "America's Rhine." In 1939, the magazine ''
Life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities A bubble of exhaled gas in water In common usage and classical mechanics, a physical object or physical body (or simply an object or body) is a collection of matter within a ...
'' described the river as such, comparing it to the stretch of the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
in Central and Western Europe.


Major industries


Agriculture

The Hudson Valley has a long agricultural history, as it was settled with agriculture being its main industry. Around the 1700s,
tenant farming A tenant farmer is one who resides on land owned by a landlord A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, land, or real estate which is Renting, rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called a Leasehold estat ...
was highly practiced. The farms' main products were grains (predominantly wheat), though
hops Hops are the flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plants with a similar ...

hops
,
maple syrup Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their trunks and roots before winter; t ...

maple syrup
, vegetables, dairy products, honey, wool, livestock, and tobacco were produced there. The region became the
breadbasket The breadbasket of a country or of a region is an area which, because of the richness of the soil Soil (often stylized as SOiL) is an American rock band that was formed in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map ...
of colonial America, given that the surrounding New England and Catskills areas were more mountainous and had rockier soils. In the late 1800s, most farms transitioned from tenant farming to being family-owned, with more incentive to improve the land. Grain production moved west to the
Genesee Valley The Genesee River is a tributary A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river d ...
, and so Hudson Valley farms specialized, especially in
viticulture Viticulture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...

viticulture
, berries, and orchard cultivation. Agriculture began to decline in the 19th century, and rapidly declined in the 20th century. By the 1970s, the United States' culinary revolution began, and the Hudson Valley began to lead the farm-to-table movement, the local food movement, and . The fertile
Black Dirt Region The Black Dirt Region is located in southern Orange County, New York, Orange County, New York (state), New York and northern Sussex County, New Jersey, Sussex County, New Jersey. It is mostly located in the western section of the Warwick (town), N ...

Black Dirt Region
of the Wallkill and Schoharie valleys also began to be farmed. Dairy farms are predominant, though fruit, vegetable, poultry, meat, and maple syrup production is also common. Orchard cultivation is common in Orange, Ulster, Dutchess, and Columbia counties.


Winemaking

The Hudson Valley is one of the oldest winemaking and grape-growing regions in the United States, with its first vineyards planted in 1677 in current-day New Paltz. The region has experienced a resurgence in winemaking in the 21st century. Many wineries are located in the Hudson Valley, offering wine-tasting and other tours. Numerous s are held in the Hudson Valley, with themes often varying by season. Rhinebeck is home to the Hudson Valley Wine & Food Fest, hosted at the Dutchess County Fairgrounds. The region has sunlight, moisture, chalky soil, and drainage conducive to grape growing, especially grapes used in Champagne.


Tech Valley

Tech Valley Tech Valley began as a marketing name for the eastern part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, ...
is a marketing name for the eastern part of New York State, including the Hudson Valley and the
Capital District A capital district, capital region or capital territory is normally a specially designated administrative division where a country's seat of government is located. As such, in a Federation, federal model of government, no State (administrative div ...
. Originated in 1998 to promote the greater Albany area as a
high-tech High technology (high tech) or frontier technology (frontier tech) is technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of Art techni ...

high-tech
competitor to regions such as
Silicon Valley Silicon Valley is a region in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S ...

Silicon Valley
and
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
, it has since grown to represent the counties in New York between
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
's
Westchester County Westchester County is located in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North ...

Westchester County
plants in the south and the Canada–US border to the north. The area's high technology ecosystem is supported by technologically focused
academic institutions Academic institution is an educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. They p ...

academic institutions
including
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute () (RPI) is a private university, private research university in Troy, New York, with additional campuses in Rensselaer at Hartford, Hartford and Groton, Connecticut. It was established in 1824 by Stephen Van R ...
and the
State University of New York Polytechnic Institute The State University of New York Polytechnic Institute (SUNY Polytechnic Institute or SUNY Poly) is a public university with campuses in the town of Marcy in the Utica–Rome metropolitan area and Albany, New York. It is part of the State Univer ...
. Tech Valley encompasses 19 counties straddling both sides of the
Adirondack Northway Interstate 87 (I-87) is a north–south intrastate Interstate Highway located within the U.S. state of New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New ...
and the
New York Thruway The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway and colloquially "the Thruway") is a system of controlled-access highways spanning within the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. It is operated by the New York S ...
, and with heavy , has experienced significant growth in the
computer hardware Computer hardware includes the physical parts of a computer, such as the computer case, case, central processing unit (CPU), Computer monitor, monitor, Computer mouse, mouse, Computer keyboard, keyboard, computer data storage, graphics card, so ...

computer hardware
industry, with great strides in the
nanotechnology Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havi ...

nanotechnology
sector,
digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a subatomic particle In physica ...
design, and water- and electricity-dependent manufacturing, involving companies including IBM in Armonk and its
Thomas J. Watson Research Center The Thomas J. Watson Research Center is the headquarters for IBM Research IBM Research is the research and development division for IBM, an American Multinational corporation, multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, ...
in
YorktownYorktown or York Town may refer to: Places Australia *York Town, Tasmania United Kingdom * York Town, also known as Yorktown (and sometimes Yorkshiretown), a part of Camberley, Surrey (adjoining Sandhurst) *York, North Yorkshire United States *Yor ...
,
GlobalFoundries GlobalFoundries Inc. (GF or GloFo) is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinationa ...
in
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisi ...
, and others. Westchester County has developed a burgeoning
biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad area of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Phy ...

biotechnology
sector in the 21st century, with over US$1 billion in planned private investment as of 2016, earning the county the nickname ''Biochester''.


Regions

The Hudson Valley is divided into three regions: Upper, Middle, and Lower. The following is a list of the counties within the Hudson Valley sorted by region.Silverman, B ''et al''; ''Frommer's New York State'' Frommer's 2009, p196 The Lower Hudson Valley is typically considered part of the
Downstate New York Downstate New York is the southern portion of New York State New York is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), ...
region due to its geographical and cultural proximity to
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. Lower Hudson * Putnam * Rockland *
Westchester Westchester may refer to: __NOTOC__ Geography *Westchester Station, Nova Scotia, Canada United States *Westchester, Connecticut *Westchester, Florida *Westchester, Illinois *Westchester, Indiana *Westchester, Los Angeles, California *Westchester Co ...
Mid-Hudson * Dutchess *
Orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
*
Ulster Ulster (; ga, Ulaidh or ''Cúige Uladh'' ; sco, label=Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots, Ulstèr or ''Ulster'') is one of the four traditional Irish provinces of Ireland, provinces, in the north of Ireland. It is made up of nine Counties ...
Upper Hudson/
Capital District A capital district, capital region or capital territory is normally a specially designated administrative division where a country's seat of government is located. As such, in a Federation, federal model of government, no State (administrative div ...
*
Albany Albany, derived from the Gaelic name for Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the C ...
*
Columbia Columbia may refer to: * Columbia (personification), the historical female national personification of the United States, and a poetic name for the Americas Places North America Natural features * Columbia Plateau, a geologic and geographic regio ...
* Greene * Rensselaer


Infrastructure

Major interstates in the Hudson Valley include Interstate 87 (part of the
New York State Thruway The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway and colloquially "the Thruway") is a system of controlled-access highways spanning within the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. It is operated by the New York S ...
), a small section of
Interstate 95 Interstate 95 (I-95) is the main north–south Interstate Highway System, Interstate Highway on the East Coast of the United States, running from U.S. Route 1 in Florida, U.S. Route 1 (US 1) in Miami, Florida to the Houlton–Woodstock ...
in Southeastern Westchester County,
Interstate 287 Interstate 287 (I-287) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway in the US states of New Jersey and New York (state), New York. It is a partial beltway around New York City, serving the northern half of New Jersey and the counties of Rockland County ...
serving Westchester and Rockland Counties, Interstate 84 serving Putnam, Dutchess, and Orange Counties, and
Interstate 684 Interstate 684 (I-684) is a north–south Interstate Highway in the state of New York in the United States. There is also a short portion in Connecticut with no junctions. The highway connects I-84 with I-287 and the Hutchinson River ...
serving Westchester and Putnam Counties.
parkway A parkway is a landscaped thoroughfare A thoroughfare is a primary passage or way as a transit route through regularly trafficked areas whether by road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places ...
s in the region include the
Bronx River Parkway The Bronx River Parkway (sometimes abbreviated as the Bronx Parkway) is a long parkway A parkway is a landscaped thoroughfare.''"parkway."''Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.mer ...

Bronx River Parkway
, the
Cross County Parkway The Cross County Parkway (CCP) is a parkway in lower Westchester County, New York, in the United States. The parkway is a critical east–west connection throughout Westchester, having full interchanges with every major north–south highw ...
, the
Hutchinson River Parkway The Hutchinson River Parkway (known colloquially as The Hutch) is a north–south parkway in southern New York in the United States. It extends for from the massive Bruckner Interchange in the Throggs Neck section of the Bronx The Bronx () ...

Hutchinson River Parkway
, the
Sprain Brook Parkway The Sprain Brook Parkway (also known as The Sprain) is a long north–south parkway in Westchester County, New York, United States. It begins at an interchange with the Bronx River Parkway in the city of Yonkers, New York, Yonkers, and en ...
, and the
Saw Mill River Parkway The Saw Mill River Parkway (also known as the Saw Mill Parkway or the Saw Mill) is a north–south parkway A parkway is a landscaped thoroughfare.''"parkway."''Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http ...
serving solely Westchester County, the
Taconic State Parkway The Taconic State Parkway (often called the Taconic or the TSP and known administratively as New York State Route 987G or NY 987G) is a parkway between Kensico Dam and Chatham, the longest in the U.S. state of New York. It follows a ...

Taconic State Parkway
serving Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess, and Columbia Counties, and the
Palisades Interstate Parkway The Palisades Interstate Parkway (PIP) is a limited-access highway A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual-carriageway, expressway, and partial controlled access highway, is a highway or ...
serving Rockland and a very small portion of southwestern Orange County.
New York State Route 17 New York State Route 17 (NY 17) is a major state highway A state highway, state road, or state route (and the equivalent provincial highway, provincial road, or provincial route) is usually a road that is either ''numbered'' or ''m ...
operates as a freeway in much of Orange County and will be designated Interstate 86 in the future. Hudson River crossings in the Hudson Valley region from south to north include the Tappan Zee Bridge between South Nyack in Rockland County and
Tarrytown Tarrytown is a administrative divisions of New York#Village, village in the administrative divisions of New York#Town, town of Greenburgh, New York, Greenburgh in Westchester County, New York, United States. It is located on the eastern bank of t ...
in Westchester County, the
Bear Mountain Bridge The Bear Mountain Bridge, ceremonially named the Purple Heart Veterans Memorial Bridge, is a toll suspension bridge in New York State. It carries US 6 and US 202 across the Hudson River The Hudson River is a river A river ...
between
Peekskill Peekskill, is a city in Westchester County, New York. Peekskill is situated on a bay along the east side of the Hudson River, across from Jones Point. The population was 23,583 during the 2010 census. The area was an early American industr ...
in Westchester County and Fort Montgomery in Orange County, the Newburgh-Beacon Bridge between Newburgh (city), New York, Newburgh in Orange County and Beacon, New York, Beacon in Dutchess County, the Mid-Hudson Bridge between Poughkeepsie, New York, Poughkeepsie in Dutchess County and Highland, Ulster County, New York, Highland in Ulster County, the Kingston-Rhinecliff Bridge between Rhinecliff, New York, Rhinecliff in Dutchess County and Kingston (city), New York, Kingston in Ulster County, and the Rip Van Winkle Bridge between Hudson, New York, Hudson in Columbia County and Catskill, New York, Catskill in Greene County. The Walkway Over the Hudson is a pedestrian bridge which parallels the Mid-Hudson Bridge and was formerly a railroad bridge. NY Waterway operates the Haverstraw-Ossining Ferry between Haverstraw, New York, Haverstraw in Rockland County and Ossining (village), New York, Ossining in Westchester County, as well as ferry service between Newburgh (city), New York, Newburgh in Orange County and Beacon, New York, Beacon in Dutchess County. Intercity and commuter bus transit are provided by Rockland Coaches in Rockland County, Short Line (bus company), Short Line in Orange and Rockland Counties, and Leprechaun Lines in Orange and Dutchess Counties. There are also several local bus providers, including the Bee-Line Bus System in Westchester County and Transport of Rockland in Rockland County. The Hudson Valley is served by two airports with commercial airline service: Westchester County Airport (HPN) near White Plains, New York, White Plains and Stewart International Airport (SWF) near Newburgh (town), New York, Newburgh.


Rail service

Commuter rail service in the region is provided by Metro-North Railroad (operated by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority). Metro-North operates three rail lines east of the Hudson River to Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan, from east to west they are the New Haven Line (serving southeast Westchester County), the Harlem Line (serving Central and Eastern Westchester, Putnam, and Dutchess Counties), and the Hudson Line (Metro-North), Hudson Line (serving western Westchester, Putnam, and Dutchess Counties). West of the Hudson, New Jersey Transit operates two lines rail service under contract with Metro-North Railroad to Hoboken Terminal: the Pascack Valley Line (serving central Rockland County) and the Port Jervis Line (serving western Rockland County and Orange County). Amtrak serves Yonkers (Metro-North station), Yonkers, Croton-Harmon (Metro-North station), Croton-Harmon, Poughkeepsie (Metro-North station), Poughkeepsie, Rhinecliff-Kingston station, Rhinecliff-Kingston, and Hudson station (New York), Hudson along the eastern shores of the Hudson River, as well as New Rochelle (Metro-North station), New Rochelle in southeastern Westchester County.


Sports

The Hudson Valley Renegades is a minor league baseball team affiliated with the New York Yankees. The team is a member of the Mid-Atlantic League and plays at Dutchess Stadium in Fishkill, New York, Fishkill. The Rockland Boulders of the independent Canadian American Association of Professional Baseball, Can-Am League play in Rockland County. Kingston Stockade FC is a soccer team representing the Hudson Valley in the National Premier Soccer League (NPSL), a national semi-professional league at the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid. They compete in the North Atlantic conference of the NPSL's Northeast region, and began their first season in May 2016.


References


Informational notes


Citations


Further reading

* * * * Jacobs, Jaap and L.H. Roper (eds.) (2014). ''The Worlds of the Seventeenth-Century Hudson Valley.'' Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. * * * * Scheltema, Gajus and Westerhuijs, Heleen (eds.),''Exploring Historic Dutch New York''. New York: Museum of the City of New York/Dover Publications, 2011. * * Vernon, Benjamin. ''The History of the Hudson River Valley'' (New York: Overlook, 2016. xiv, 625 pp. * * *


External links


Hudson Valley Directory
at hudsonvalleydirectory.com
Hudson River Valley Greenway
at hudsongreenway.ny.gov
Hudson River Valley Heritage
digital collection of historical materials, at hrvh.org
Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area
at hudsonrivervalley.com {{Authority control Hudson Valley, Physiographic sections Upstate New York Regions of New York (state) River valleys of the United States Valleys of New York (state) Landforms of Westchester County, New York Landforms of Rockland County, New York Landforms of Putnam County, New York Landforms of Dutchess County, New York Landforms of Orange County, New York Landforms of Ulster County, New York Landforms of Sullivan County, New York Landforms of Columbia County, New York Landforms of Greene County, New York Landforms of Rensselaer County, New York Landforms of Albany County, New York