HOME

TheInfoList




High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), also known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2, is a
video compression standard A video coding format (or sometimes video compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmission of digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Har ...
designed as part of the
MPEG-H MPEG-H is a group of international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food, the World Health Organization Guidelines in health, or Internation ...
project as a successor to the widely used
Advanced Video Coding Advanced Video Coding (AVC), also referred to as H.264 or MPEG-4 MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. It was introduced in late 1998 and designated a standard for a group of audio and video codin ...
(AVC, H.264, or
MPEG-4 MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression Compression may refer to: Physical science *Compression (physics), size reduction due to forces *Compression member, a structural element such as a column *Compressibility, susceptibility to compression ...
Part 10). In comparison to AVC, HEVC offers from 25% to 50% better
data compression In signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analysing, modifying, and synthesizing signals such as audio signal processing, sound, image processing, images, and scientific measurements. Signal ...
at the same level of
video quality Video quality is a characteristic of a video passed through a video transmission or processing system that describes perceived video degradation (typically, compared to the original video). Video processing systems may introduce some amount of dist ...
, or substantially improved video quality at the same
bit rate In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable ''R'') is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. The bit rate is expressed in the unit Data rate units, bit per second unit (symbol: ''bit/s'' ...
. It supports resolutions up to 8192×4320, including
8K UHD 8K resolution refers to an image or display resolution with a width of approximately 8,000 pixels. 8K UHD () is the highest resolution defined in the Rec. 2020 ( UHDTV) standard. 8K display resolution Display may refer to: Technology * Displa ...
, and unlike the primarily 8-bit AVC, HEVC's higher fidelity Main 10 profile has been incorporated into nearly all supporting hardware. While AVC uses the integer
discrete cosine transform A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a finite sequence of data points In statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to ...
(DCT) with 4×4 and 8×8 block sizes, HEVC uses integer DCT and DST transforms with varied block sizes between 4×4 and 32×32. The
High Efficiency Image Format High Efficiency Image File Format (HEIF) is a container format for storing individual images and image sequences. The standard covers multimedia files that can also include other media streams, such as timed text, audio and video. HEIF can sto ...
(HEIF) is based on HEVC. , HEVC is used by 43% of video developers, and is the second most widely used
video coding format A video coding format (or sometimes video compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmission of digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Ha ...
after AVC.


Concept

In most ways, HEVC is an extension of the concepts in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. Both work by comparing different parts of a frame of video to find areas that are redundant, both within a single frame and between consecutive frames. These redundant areas are then replaced with a short description instead of the original pixels. The primary changes for HEVC include the expansion of the pattern comparison and difference-coding areas from 16×16 pixel to sizes up to 64×64, improved variable-block-size segmentation, improved "intra" prediction within the same picture, improved
motion vector In video compression, a motion vector is the key element in the motion estimation process. It is used to represent a macroblock in a picture based on the position of this macroblock (or a similar one) in another picture, called the reference pic ...
prediction and motion region merging, improved
motion compensation Motion compensation is an algorithmic technique used to predict a frame in a video, given the previous and/or future frames by accounting for motion of the camera and/or objects in the video. It is employed in the encoding of video data for video ...
filtering, and an additional filtering step called sample-adaptive offset filtering. Effective use of these improvements requires much more signal processing capability for compressing the video, but has less impact on the amount of computation needed for decompression. HEVC was standardized by the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC), a collaboration between the
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task w ...
/
IECIEC may refer to: Businesses and organisations * International Electrotechnical Commission The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: ''Commission électrotechnique internationale'') is an international standards organizati ...
MPEG The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is an alliance of working group A working group, or working party, is a group of experts working together to achieve specified goals. The groups are domain-specific and focus on discussion or activit ...
and
ITU-T Study Group 16 The ITU-T Study Group 16 (SG16) is a statutory group of the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmissi ...
VCEG The Video Coding Experts Group or Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG, also known as Question 6) is a working group of the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) concerned with video coding standards. It is responsible for standardizat ...
. The ISO/IEC group refers to it as MPEG-H Part 2 and the ITU-T as H.265. The first version of the HEVC standard was ratified in January 2013 and published in June 2013. The second version, with multiview extensions (MV-HEVC), range extensions (RExt), and scalability extensions (SHVC), was completed and approved in 2014 and published in early 2015. Extensions for 3D video (3D-HEVC) were completed in early 2015, and extensions for screen content coding (SCC) were completed in early 2016 and published in early 2017, covering video containing rendered graphics, text, or animation as well as (or instead of) camera-captured video scenes. In October 2017, the standard was recognized by a
Primetime Emmy Engineering Award A Primetime Emmy Engineering Award is an award given most years by the Television Academy, also known as the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (ATAS). It is a Primetime Emmy Award given specifically for Outstanding Achievement in Engineering De ...
as having had a material effect on the technology of television. HEVC contains technologies covered by
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using, or selling an invention for a limited period of years in exchange for publishing an sufficiency of disclosure, enabling disclo ...

patent
s owned by the organizations that participated in the JCT-VC. Implementing a device or software application that uses HEVC may require a license from HEVC patent holders. The ISO/IEC and ITU require companies that belong to their organizations to offer their patents on
reasonable and non-discriminatory licensing Reasonable and non-discriminatory (RAND) terms, also known as fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory (FRAND) terms, denote a voluntary licensing commitment that standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards develo ...
(RAND) terms. Patent licenses can be obtained directly from each patent holder, or through patent licensing bodies, such as
MPEG LA MPEG LA is an American company based in Denver Denver () is a List of municipalities in Colorado#Consolidated city and county, consolidated city and county, the List of capitals in the United States#State capital, capital, and List of muni ...
, HEVC Advance, and Velos Media. The combined licensing fees currently offered by all of the patent licensing bodies are higher than for AVC. The licensing fees are one of the main reasons HEVC adoption has been low on the web and is why some of the largest tech companies (
Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες ''Amazónes'', singular Ἀμαζών ''Amazōn'') are portrayed in a number of ancient Greek, ancient epic poems and legends, such as the ...
,
AMD Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * M ...
,
Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...
,
ARM In human anatomy, the arm is the part of the upper limb The upper Limb (anatomy), limbs or upper extremities are the forelimbs of an upright posture, upright-postured tetrapod vertebrate, extending from the scapulae and clavicles down to and incl ...
,
Cisco Cisco Systems, Inc. (Cisco) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multina ...
,
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
,
Intel Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personalit ...

Intel
,
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
,
Mozilla Mozilla (stylized as moz://a) is a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any a ...

Mozilla
,
Netflix Netflix, Inc. is an American subscription The subscription business model is a business model in which a customer In sales Sales are activities related to selling or the number of goods sold in a given targeted time period. Th ...

Netflix
,
Nvidia Nvidia CorporationOfficially written as NVIDIA and stylized in its logo as nVIDIA with the lowercase "n" the same height as the uppercase "VIDIA"; formerly stylized as ''n''VIDIA with a large italicized lowercase "n" on products from the mid 19 ...
, and more) have joined the
Alliance for Open Media The Alliance for Open Media (AOMedia) is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public ...
, which finalized a royalty-free alternative video coding format
AV1 AOMedia Video 1 (AV1) is an , initially designed for video transmissions over the Internet. It was developed as a successor to by the (AOMedia), a consortium founded in 2015 that includes semiconductor firms, providers, video content prod ...

AV1
on March 28, 2018.


History

The HEVC format was jointly developed by more than a dozen organisations across the world. The majority of active patent contributions towards the development of the HEVC format came from five organizations:
Samsung Electronics Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (; lit. "tristar electronics", sometimes shortened to SEC and stylized as SΛMSUNG) is a South Korean multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in ...
(4,249 patents),
General Electric General Electric Company (GE) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate incorporated in New York State and headquartered in Boston. Until 2021, the company operated through GE Aviation, aviat ...
(1,127 patents), M&K Holdings (907 patents), NTT ( patents), and
JVC Kenwood , stylized as JVCKENWOOD, is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational electronics company headquartered in Yokohama, Japan. It was formed from the merger of JVC, Victor Company of Japan, Ltd (JVC) and Kenwood Corporation on October 1, 2 ...

JVC Kenwood
(628 patents). Other patent holders include
Fujitsu is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational information and communications technology equipment and services corporation, established in 1935 and headquartered in Tokyo. Fujitsu is the world's sixth-largest Information technology, I ...

Fujitsu
,
Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...
,
Canon Canon or Canons may refer to: Places * Canon, Georgia Canon is a city in Franklin County, Georgia, Franklin and Hart County, Georgia, Hart counties in the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. The population was 804 at the 2010 census. His ...
,
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of ...

Columbia University
,
KAIST The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) is a national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture ...
,
Kwangwoon University Kwangwoon University (Abbreviated to Kwangwoon, KW and KWU) is a comprehensive, coeducational and private research university in Seoul (Wolgye Dong, Nowon District, Nowon-gu), South Korea, offering undergraduate degree, undergraduate and graduate ...

Kwangwoon University
,
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hi ...

MIT
,
Sungkyunkwan University Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU or simply ''Seongdae'', Hangeul: 성균관대학교; Hanja: 成均館大學校) is a private comprehensive research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is ...

Sungkyunkwan University
,
Funai is a Japanese consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, ...

Funai
,
Hikvision Hangzhou Hikvision Digital Technology Co., Ltd., often shortened to Hikvision, is a Chinese, partially state-owned, manufacturer and supplier of video surveillance equipment for civilian and military purposes, headquartered in Hangzhou, Zhejiang ...
,
KBS KBS may refer to: Places *KBS Tuff, Kenyan archaeological site *Kellogg Biological Station *Kent Business School, University of Kent, UK Radio and television *Kansas Broadcasting System, network of KWCH, Wichita, Kansas, US *Korean Broadcasting Sy ...
, KT and
NEC is a Japanese multinational information technology and electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active d ...
.


Previous work

In 2004, the ITU-T
Video Coding Experts Group The Video Coding Experts Group or Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG, also known as Question 6) is a working group of the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) concerned with video coding standards. It is responsible for standardiza ...
(VCEG) began a major study of technology advances that could enable creation of a new video compression standard (or substantial compression-oriented enhancements of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard). In October 2004, various techniques for potential enhancement of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC standard were surveyed. In January 2005, at the next meeting of VCEG, VCEG began designating certain topics as "Key Technical Areas" (KTA) for further investigation. A software codebase called the KTA codebase was established for evaluating such proposals. The KTA software was based on the Joint Model (JM) reference software that was developed by the MPEG & VCEG Joint Video Team for H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. Additional proposed technologies were integrated into the KTA software and tested in experiment evaluations over the next four years. Two approaches for standardizing enhanced compression technology were considered: either creating a new standard or creating extensions of H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. The project had tentative names ''H.265'' and ''H.NGVC'' (Next-generation Video Coding), and was a major part of the work of VCEG until its evolution into the HEVC joint project with MPEG in 2010. The preliminary requirements for NGVC were the capability to have a
bit rate In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable ''R'') is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. The bit rate is expressed in the unit Data rate units, bit per second unit (symbol: ''bit/s'' ...
reduction of 50% at the same subjective image quality compared with the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC High profile and computational complexity ranging from 1/2 to 3 times that of the High profile. NGVC would be able to provide 25% bit rate reduction along with 50% reduction in complexity at the same perceived video quality as the High profile, or to provide greater bit rate reduction with somewhat higher complexity. The
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task w ...
/
IECIEC may refer to: Businesses and organisations * International Electrotechnical Commission The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: ''Commission électrotechnique internationale'') is an international standards organizati ...
Moving Picture Experts Group The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is an alliance of working group A working group, or working party, is a group of experts working together to achieve specified goals. The groups are domain-specific and focus on discussion or activi ...
(MPEG) started a similar project in 2007, tentatively named ''High-performance Video Coding''. An agreement of getting a bit rate reduction of 50% had been decided as the goal of the project by July 2007. Early evaluations were performed with modifications of the KTA reference software encoder developed by VCEG. By July 2009, experimental results showed average bit reduction of around 20% compared with AVC High Profile; these results prompted MPEG to initiate its
standardization Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments. Standardization ...
effort in collaboration with VCEG.


Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding

MPEG and VCEG established a Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) to develop the HEVC standard.


Standardization

A formal joint Call for Proposals on video compression technology was issued in January 2010 by VCEG and MPEG, and proposals were evaluated at the first meeting of the MPEG & VCEG Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC), which took place in April 2010. A total of 27 full proposals were submitted. Evaluations showed that some proposals could reach the same visual quality as AVC at only half the bit rate in many of the test cases, at the cost of 2–10× increase in computational complexity, and some proposals achieved good subjective quality and bit rate results with lower computational complexity than the reference AVC High profile encodings. At that meeting, the name ''High Efficiency Video Coding'' (HEVC) was adopted for the joint project. Starting at that meeting, the JCT-VC integrated features of some of the best proposals into a single software codebase and a "Test Model under Consideration", and performed further experiments to evaluate various proposed features. The first working draft specification of HEVC was produced at the third JCT-VC meeting in October 2010. Many changes in the coding tools and configuration of HEVC were made in later JCT-VC meetings. On January 25, 2013, the ITU announced that HEVC had received first stage approval (consent) in the ITU-T Alternative Approval Process (AAP). On the same day, MPEG announced that HEVC had been promoted to Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) status in the MPEG standardization process. On April 13, 2013, HEVC/H.265 was approved as an ITU-T standard. The standard was formally published by the ITU-T on June 7, 2013 and by the ISO/IEC on November 25, 2013. On July 11, 2014, MPEG announced that the 2nd edition of HEVC will contain three recently completed extensions which are the multiview extensions (MV-HEVC), the range extensions (RExt), and the scalability extensions (SHVC). On October 29, 2014, HEVC/H.265 version 2 was approved as an ITU-T standard. It was then formally published on January 12, 2015. On April 29, 2015, HEVC/H.265 version 3 was approved as an ITU-T standard. On June 3, 2016, HEVC/H.265 version 4 was consented in the ITU-T and was not approved during a vote in October 2016. On December 22, 2016, HEVC/H.265 version 4 was approved as an ITU-T standard.


Patent licensing

On September 29, 2014,
MPEG LA MPEG LA is an American company based in Denver Denver () is a List of municipalities in Colorado#Consolidated city and county, consolidated city and county, the List of capitals in the United States#State capital, capital, and List of muni ...
announced their HEVC license which covers the essential patents from 23 companies. The first 100,000 "devices" (which includes software implementations) are royalty free, and after that the fee is $0.20 per device up to an annual cap of $25 million. This is significantly more expensive than the fees on AVC, which were $0.10 per device, with the same 100,000 waiver, and an annual cap of $6.5 million. MPEG LA does not charge any fee on the content itself, something they had attempted when initially licensing AVC, but subsequently dropped when content producers refused to pay it. The license has been expanded to include the profiles in version 2 of the HEVC standard. When the MPEG LA terms were announced, commenters noted that a number of prominent patent holders were not part of the group. Among these were
AT&T AT&T Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...

AT&T
,
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
,
Nokia Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia Oyj, referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational for ...

Nokia
, and
Motorola Motorola, Inc. () was an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational sta ...

Motorola
. Speculation at the time was that these companies would form their own licensing pool to compete with or add to the MPEG LA pool. Such a group was formally announced on March 26, 2015 as HEVC Advance. The terms, covering 500 essential patents, were announced on July 22, 2015, with rates that depend on the country of sale, type of device, HEVC profile, HEVC extensions, and HEVC optional features. Unlike the MPEG LA terms, HEVC Advance reintroduced license fees on content encoded with HEVC, through a revenue sharing fee. The initial HEVC Advance license had a maximum royalty rate of US$2.60 per device for Region 1 countries and a content royalty rate of 0.5% of the revenue generated from HEVC video services. Region 1 countries in the HEVC Advance license include the United States, Canada, European Union, Japan, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, and others. Region 2 countries are countries not listed in the Region 1 country list. The HEVC Advance license had a maximum royalty rate of US$1.30 per device for Region 2 countries. Unlike MPEG LA, there was no annual cap. On top of this, HEVC Advance also charged a royalty rate of 0.5% of the revenue generated from video services encoding content in HEVC. When they were announced, there was considerable backlash from industry observers about the "unreasonable and greedy" fees on devices, which were about seven times that of the MPEG LA's fees. Added together, a device would require licenses costing $2.80, twenty-eight times as expensive as AVC, as well as license fees on the content. This led to calls for "content owners band together and agree not to license from HEVC Advance". Others argued the rates might cause companies to switch to competing standards such as
Daala Daala is a video coding format under development by the Xiph.Org Foundation under the lead of Timothy B. Terriberry mainly sponsored by the Mozilla Corporation. Like Theora and Opus codec, Opus, Daala is available free of any royalties and its re ...
and
VP9 VP9 is an open Open or OPEN may refer to: Music * Open (band) Open is a band. Background Drummer Pete Neville has been involved in the Sydney/Australian music scene for a number of years. He has recently completed a Masters in screen mus ...
. On December 18, 2015, HEVC Advance announced changes in the royalty rates. The changes include a reduction in the maximum royalty rate for Region 1 countries to US$2.03 per device, the creation of annual royalty caps, and a waiving of royalties on content that is free to end users. The annual royalty caps for a company is US$40 million for devices, US$5 million for content, and US$2 million for optional features. On February 3, 2016,
Technicolor SA Technicolor SA, formerly Thomson SARL and Thomson Multimedia, is a French multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A compa ...
announced that they had withdrawn from the HEVC Advance
patent pool In patent law A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things th ...
and would be directly licensing their HEVC patents. HEVC Advance previously listed 12 patents from Technicolor. Technicolor announced that they had rejoined on October 22, 2019. On November 22, 2016, HEVC Advance announced a major initiative, revising their policy to allow software implementations of HEVC to be distributed directly to consumer mobile devices and personal computers royalty free, without requiring a patent license. On March 31, 2017, Velos Media announced their HEVC license which covers the essential patents from Ericsson, Panasonic, Qualcomm Incorporated, Sharp, and Sony. the MPEG LA HEVC patent list is 164 pages long.


Patent holders

The following organizations currently hold the most active patents in the HEVC patent pools listed by
MPEG LA MPEG LA is an American company based in Denver Denver () is a List of municipalities in Colorado#Consolidated city and county, consolidated city and county, the List of capitals in the United States#State capital, capital, and List of muni ...
and HEVC Advance.


Versions

Versions of the HEVC/H.265 standard using the ITU-T approval dates. * Version 1: (April 13, 2013) First approved version of the HEVC/H.265 standard containing Main, Main10, and Main Still Picture profiles. * Version 2: (October 29, 2014) Second approved version of the HEVC/H.265 standard which adds 21 range extensions profiles, two scalable extensions profiles, and one multi-view extensions profile. * Version 3: (April 29, 2015) Third approved version of the HEVC/H.265 standard which adds the 3D Main profile. * Version 4: (December 22, 2016) Fourth approved version of the HEVC/H.265 standard which adds seven screen content coding extensions profiles, three high throughput extensions profiles, and four scalable extensions profiles. * Version 5: (February 13, 2018) Fifth approved version of the HEVC/H.265 standard which adds additional SEI messages that include omnidirectional video SEI messages, a Monochrome 10 profile, a Main 10 Still Picture profile, and corrections to various minor defects in the prior content of the Specification. * Version 6: (June 29, 2019) Sixth approved version of the HEVC/H.265 standard which adds additional SEI messages that include SEI manifest and SEI prefix messages, and corrections to various minor defects in the prior content of the Specification. * Version 7: (November 29, 2019) Seventh approved version of the HEVC/H.265 standard which adds additional SEI messages for fisheye video information and annotated regions, and also includes corrections to various minor defects in the prior content of the Specification. * Version 8: As of August 2021 Version 8 is in "Additional Review" status while Version 7 is in force.


Implementations and products


2012

On February 29, 2012, at the 2012
Mobile World Congress MWC Barcelona (formerly but still commonly referred to as Mobile World Congress) is an annual trade show A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or trade exposition) is an exhibition organized so that companies A company, abbrevia ...
,
Qualcomm Qualcomm () is an American multinational corporation headquartered in San Diego, California, and Delaware General Corporation Law, incorporated in Delaware. It creates semiconductors, software, and services related to wireless technology. It ow ...

Qualcomm
demonstrated a HEVC decoder running on an Android tablet, with a
Qualcomm Snapdragon Snapdragon is a suite of system on a chip A system on a chip (SoC; or This article uses the convention that SoC is pronounced . Therefore, it uses the convention "an" for the indefinite article Indefinite may refer to: * the opposite ...
S4 dual-core processor running at 1.5 GHz, showing H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and HEVC versions of the same video content playing side by side. In this demonstration, HEVC reportedly showed almost a 50% bit rate reduction compared with H.264/MPEG-4 AVC.


2013

On February 11, 2013, researchers from
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private land-grant research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, hi ...

MIT
demonstrated the world's first published HEVC ASIC decoder at the
International Solid-State Circuits Conference International Solid-State Circuits Conference is a global forum for presentation of advances in solid-state electrical network, circuits and System-on-a-chip, Systems-on-a-Chip. The Conference offers a unique opportunity for engineers working at ...
(ISSCC) 2013. Their chip was capable of decoding a 3840×2160p at 30 fps video stream in real time, consuming under 0.1 W of power. On April 3, 2013,
Ateme Ateme S.A. is a multinational company that specializes in video delivery, namely software for video compression based on H.265 is the eighth letter of the Latin alphabet. H may also refer to: Musical symbols * H number, reference mechanis ...
announced the availability of the first open source implementation of a HEVC software player based on the OpenHEVC decoder and GPAC video player which are both licensed under
LGPL The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is a free-software license published by the Free Software Foundation (FSF). The license allows developers and companies to use and integrate a software component released under the LGPL into their own ...
. The OpenHEVC decoder supports the Main profile of HEVC and can decode 1080p at 30 fps video using a single core CPU. A live transcoder that supports HEVC and used in combination with the GPAC video player was shown at the ATEME booth at the NAB Show in April 2013. On July 23, 2013,
MulticoreWare MulticoreWare Inc is a software development company, offering products and services related to HEVC High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), also known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2, is a video coding format, video compression standard designed as pa ...
announced, and made the
source code In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and ...

source code
available for the
x265 x265 is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs on a daily bas ...
HEVC Encoder Library under the GPL v2 license. On August 8, 2013,
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone , commonly known as NTT, is a Japanese telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication o ...
announced the release of their HEVC-1000 SDK software encoder which supports the Main 10 profile, resolutions up to 7680×4320, and frame rates up to 120 fps. On November 14, 2013,
DivX DivX is a brand of video codec A video codec is software or Computer hardware, hardware that data compression, compresses and Uncompressed video, decompresses digital video. In the context of video compression, ''codec'' is a portmanteau of '' ...
developers released information on HEVC decoding performance using an Intel i7 CPU at 3.5 GHz with 4 cores and 8 threads. The DivX 10.1 Beta decoder was capable of 210.9 fps at 720p, 101.5 fps at 1080p, and 29.6 fps at 4K. On December 18, 2013, ViXS Systems announced shipments of their XCode (not to be confused with Apple's Xcode
IDE #REDIRECT IDE IDE, iDE, or Ide may refer to: Organisations * ''Institut für Dokumentologie und Editorik'', a German think tank for the application of digital methods on historical documents * Institute of Developing Economies, a semi-governmental ...
for MacOS) 6400 SoC which was the first SoC to support the Main 10 profile of HEVC.


2014

On April 5, 2014, at the NAB show, eBrisk Video, Inc. and Altera Corporation demonstrated an FPGA-accelerated HEVC Main10 encoder that encoded 4Kp60/10-bit video in real-time, using a dual-Xeon E5-2697-v2 platform. On August 13, 2014, Ittiam Systems announces availability of its third generation H.265/HEVC codec with 4:2:2 12-bit support. On September 5, 2014, the
Blu-ray Disc Association The Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) is the industry consortium A consortium (plural: consortia) is an association Association may refer to: *Club (organization), an association of two or more people united by a common interest or goal *Trade as ...
announced that the 4K
Blu-ray Disc The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of elec ...

Blu-ray Disc
specification would support HEVC-encoded 4K video at 60 fps, the
Rec. 2020 ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 2020 or BT.2020, defines various aspects of ultra-high-definition television Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDT ...
color space,
high dynamic range High dynamic range (HDR) is a dynamic range higher than usual. The term is often used in discussing display devices, photography Photography is the art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light, either electronic ...
( PQ and HLG), and 10-bit
color depth Color depth or colour depth (see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country and within different regions of the same country, there are only slight regional variations in English orthography ...
. 4K Blu-ray Discs have a data rate of at least 50 Mbit/s and disc capacity up to 100 GB. 4K Blu-ray Discs and players became available for purchase in 2015 or 2016. On September 9, 2014,
Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...
announced the
iPhone 6 The iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus are smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logic ...

iPhone 6
and
iPhone 6 Plus The iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They are the List of iOS devices, eighth generation of the iPhone, succeeding the iPhone 5S, and were announced on September 9, 2014 and released on September ...
which support HEVC/H.265 for FaceTime over cellular. On September 18, 2014, Nvidia released the GeForce GTX 980 (GM204) and GTX 970 (GM204), which includes
Nvidia NVENC NVIDIA NVENC (short for NVIDIA Encoder) is a feature in Nvidia graphics cards that performs video encoding, offloading this compute-intensive task from the CPU A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor, main processor ...
, the world's first HEVC hardware encoder in a discrete graphics card. On October 31, 2014,
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...

Microsoft
confirmed that
Windows 10 Windows 10 is a major release of the Windows NT Windows NT is a proprietary {{Short pages monitor : The maximum bit rate of the profile is based on the combination of bit depth, chroma sampling, and the type of profile. For bit depth the maximum bit rate increases by 1.5× for 12-bit profiles and 2× for 16-bit profiles. For chroma sampling the maximum bit rate increases by 1.5× for 4:2:2 profiles and 2× for 4:4:4 profiles. For the Intra profiles the maximum bit rate increases by 2×. : The maximum frame rate supported by HEVC is 300 fps. : The MaxDpbSize is the maximum number of pictures in the decoded picture buffer.


Decoded picture buffer

Previously decoded pictures are stored in a decoded picture buffer (DPB), and are used by HEVC encoders to form predictions for subsequent pictures. The maximum number of pictures that can be stored in the DPB, called the DPB capacity, is 6 (including the current picture) for all HEVC levels when operating at the maximum picture size supported by the level. The DPB capacity (in units of pictures) increases from 6 to 8, 12, or 16 as the picture size decreases from the maximum picture size supported by the level. The encoder selects which specific pictures are retained in the DPB on a picture-by-picture basis, so the encoder has the flexibility to determine for itself the best way to use the DPB capacity when encoding the video content.


Containers

MPEG has published an amendment which added HEVC support to the
MPEG transport stream MPEG transport stream (MPEG-TS, MTS) or simply transport stream (TS) is a standard digital container format A container format (informally, sometimes called a wrapper) is a file format that allows multiple data streams to be embedded int ...
used by
ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards are an American set of standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable and satellite networks. It is largely a replacement for the analog NTSC standard and, like that ...
, DVB, and
Blu-ray Disc The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of elec ...

Blu-ray Disc
; MPEG decided not to update the
MPEG program stream Program stream (PS or MPEG-PS) is a container format for multiplexing digital audio, video and more. The PS format is specified in MPEG-1 Part 1 (ISO/IEC 11172-1) and MPEG-2 Part 1, Systems (ISO/IEC standard 13818-1/ITU-T H.222.0). The MPEG-2 Pro ...
used by
DVD-Video DVD-Video is a consumer video format used to store digital video on DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc data storage format invented and developed in 1995 and releas ...

DVD-Video
. MPEG has also added HEVC support to the
ISO base media file format ISO/IEC base media file format (ISOBMFF) defines a general structure for time-based multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interact ...
. HEVC is also supported by the MPEG media transport standard. Support for HEVC was added to
Matroska The Matroska Multimedia Container is a free, open-standard container format, a file format ogg-file: 154 kilobytes. A file format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. It specifies how bits are use ...

Matroska
starting with the release of MKVToolNix v6.8.0 after a patch from DivX was merged. A draft document has been submitted to the
Internet Engineering Task Force The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is an open standards organization, which develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the technical standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP). It has no formal ...
which describes a method to add HEVC support to the
Real-time Transport Protocol The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks. RTP is used in communication and entertainment systems that involve streaming media, such as telephony, video teleconference applications ...
. Using HEVC's intra frame encoding, a still-image coded format called
Better Portable Graphics Better Portable Graphics (BPG) is a file format ogg-file: 154 kilobytes. A file format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. It specifies how bits are used to encode information in a digital storage m ...
(BPG) has been proposed by the programmer
Fabrice Bellard Fabrice Bellard () is a French computer programmer A computer programmer, sometimes called a software developer, a programmer or more recently a coder (especially in more informal contexts), is a person who creates computer software Softw ...

Fabrice Bellard
. It is essentially a wrapper for images coded using the HEVC Main 4:4:4 16 Still Picture profile with up to 14 bits per sample, although it uses an abbreviated header syntax and adds explicit support for
Exif Exchangeable image file format (officially Exif, according to JEIDA/JEITA/CIPA specifications) is a standard that specifies the formats for image An image (from la, imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception Visual pe ...
,
ICC profile In color management, an ICC profile is a set of data that characterizes a color input or output device, or a color space, according to standards promulgated by the International Color Consortium (ICC). Profiles describe the color attributes of a ...
s, and XMP metadata.


Patent license terms

License terms and fees for HEVC patents, compared with its main competitors:


Provision for costless software

As with its predecessor AVC, software distributors that implement HEVC in products must pay a price per distributed copy. While this licensing model is unproblematic for paid software, it is an obstacle to most
free and open-source software Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built ...
, which is meant to be freely distributable. In the opinion of
MulticoreWare MulticoreWare Inc is a software development company, offering products and services related to HEVC High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), also known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2, is a video coding format, video compression standard designed as pa ...
, the developer of
x265 x265 is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs on a daily bas ...
, enabling royalty-free software encoders and decoders is in the interest of accelerating HEVC adoption. HEVC Advance made an exception that specifically waives the royalties on software-only implementations (both decoders and encoders) when not bundled with hardware. However, the exempted software is not free from the licensing obligations of other patent holders (e.g. members of the MPEG LA pool). While the obstacle to free software is no concern in for example TV broadcast networks, this problem, combined with the prospect of future collective lock-in to the format, makes several organizations like Mozilla (see
OpenH264 OpenH264 is a free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions. Free softw ...
) and the
Free Software Foundation Europe The Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE) is an '' eingetragener Verein'' (registered voluntary association) under German law The law of Germany (german: das Recht Deutschlands), that being the modern German legal system (german: Deutsches Re ...
wary of royalty-bearing formats for internet use. Competing formats intended for internet use (VP9 and AV1) are intended to steer clear of these concerns by being royalty free (provided there are no third-party claims of patent rights). : Regardless of how the software is licensed from the software authors (see
software licensing A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law, all software is copyright protected, in both source c ...
), if what it does is patented, its use remains bound by the patent holders' rights unless the use of the patents has been authorized by a license.


Versatile Video Coding

In October 2015, MPEG and VCEG formed Joint Video Exploration Team (JVET) to evaluate available compression technologies and study the requirements for a next-generation video compression standard. The new algorithm should have 30-50% better compression rate for the same perceptual quality, with support for lossless and subjectively lossless compression. It should also support YCbCr 4:4:4, 4:2:2 and 4:2:0 with 10 to 16 bits per component, BT.2100 wide color gamut and high dynamic range (HDR) of more than 16 stops (with peak brightness of 1000, 4000 and 10000 nits), auxiliary channels (for depth, transparency, etc.), variable and fractional frame rates from 0 to 120 Hz, scalable video coding for temporal (frame rate), spatial (resolution), SNR, color gamut and dynamic range differences, stereo/multiview coding, panoramic formats, and still picture coding. Encoding complexity of 10 times that of HEVC is expected. JVET issued a final "Call for Proposals" in October 2017, with the first working draft of the Versatile Video Coding (VVC) standard released in April 2018. The VVC standard was finalized on 6 July 2020.


See also

*
UHDTV Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K resolution#Resolutions, 4K UHD and 8K resolution#Resolutions, 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an ...
– digital television formats with resolutions of 4K / 2160p (3840×2160) and 8K / 4320p (7680×4320) **
Rec. 2020 ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 2020 or BT.2020, defines various aspects of ultra-high-definition television Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDT ...
– ITU-R Recommendation for UHDTV with standard dynamic range **
Rec. 2100 ITU-R Recommendation BT.2100, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 2100 or BT.2100, introduced High-dynamic-range video, high-dynamic-range television (HDR-TV) by recommending the use of the perceptual quantizer (PQ) or hybrid log–g ...
– ITU-R Recommendation for HDTV and UHDTV with
high dynamic range High dynamic range (HDR) is a dynamic range higher than usual. The term is often used in discussing display devices, photography Photography is the art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light, either electronic ...
*Image file formats based on HEVC **
Better Portable Graphics Better Portable Graphics (BPG) is a file format ogg-file: 154 kilobytes. A file format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. It specifies how bits are used to encode information in a digital storage m ...
– a file format for images based on HEVC **
High Efficiency Image File Format High Efficiency Image File Format (HEIF) is a container format for storing individual images and image sequences. The standard covers multimedia files that can also include other media streams, such as timed text, audio and video. HEIF can st ...
– a file format for images and image sequences based on HEVC *
Comparison of video codecsΑ video codec is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, physical hardware, from which the system ...
*
List of open-source codecs This is a listing of open-source codecs—that is, open-source software Implementation#Computer_science, implementations of audio coding format, audio or video coding format, video coding formats. Many of the codecs listed implement media formats t ...
**
x265 x265 is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs on a daily bas ...
– an open-source software implementation of HEVC * List of multimedia (audio/video) codecs ** H.264/MPEG-4 AVC – the video standard predecessor of HEVC **
AV1 AOMedia Video 1 (AV1) is an , initially designed for video transmissions over the Internet. It was developed as a successor to by the (AOMedia), a consortium founded in 2015 that includes semiconductor firms, providers, video content prod ...
– an open format developed by the
Alliance for Open Media The Alliance for Open Media (AOMedia) is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public ...
as a successor to VP9 and a competitor to HEVC **
VP9 VP9 is an open Open or OPEN may refer to: Music * Open (band) Open is a band. Background Drummer Pete Neville has been involved in the Sydney/Australian music scene for a number of years. He has recently completed a Masters in screen mus ...
– an
open format An open format is a file format A file format is a way that information is encoded for storage in a . It specifies how s are used to encode information in a digital storage medium. File formats may be either or and may be either unpublis ...
developed by
Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational stat ...

Google
as a competitor to HEVC **
Daala Daala is a video coding format under development by the Xiph.Org Foundation under the lead of Timothy B. Terriberry mainly sponsored by the Mozilla Corporation. Like Theora and Opus codec, Opus, Daala is available free of any royalties and its re ...
– an open format that is being developed by
Mozilla Foundation The Mozilla Foundation (stylized as moz://a) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized an ...
and Xiph.Org Foundation as a competitor to HEVC ** Dirac (video compression format) – an open format that is being developed by the
BBC Research & Development BBC Research & Development is the technical research department of the BBC. Function It has responsibility for researching and developing advanced and emerging media technologies for the benefit of the corporation, and wider UK and European med ...
as a competitor to HEVC **
Thor (video codec)Thor is a royalty free video codecA video codec is software or Computer hardware, hardware that data compression, compresses and Uncompressed video, decompresses digital video. In the context of video compression, ''codec'' is a portmanteau of ''enc ...
– an open format that is being developed by
Cisco Cisco Systems, Inc. (Cisco) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multin ...

Cisco
as a competitor to HEVC * LCEVC – differential overlays that can improve performance


References


Bibliography

* * * * ::Related slides: * ::Related slides: *


External links


Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute's HEVC website

ITU web page for Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC)

Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) publications on HEVC

ITU-T Recommendation H.265: High Efficiency Video Coding
{{MPEG Computer file formats Graphics file formats High-definition television Lossy compression algorithms MPEG-H Open standards covered by patents Ultra-high-definition television Video codecs Video compression Videotelephony ITU-T recommendations ITU-T H Series Recommendations H.26x IEC standards ISO standards