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Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous
city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a permanent and s ...
in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Tele ...

Scotland
and the fourth-most populous city in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, as well as being the 27th largest city by population in
Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both and , and is bordered by the to the ...

Europe
. In 2020, it had an estimated population of 635,640.
Historically History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems are considered ...
part of
Lanarkshire Lanarkshire, also called the County of Lanark ( gd, Siorrachd Lannraig, sco, Lanrikshire), is a historic county, lieutenancy area Lieutenancy areas are the separate areas of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and ...
, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32
council areas of Scotland For Local government in Scotland, local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 areas designated as "council areas" ( gd, comhairlean), which are all governed by unitary authority, single-tier authorities designated as "councils". They ...
, and is governed by
Glasgow City Council Glasgow City Council is the local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and also an academic discipline ...
. It is situated on the
River Clyde River Clyde ( gd, Abhainn Chluaidh, , sco, Clyde Watter, or ) is a river that flows into the Firth of Clyde The Firth of Clyde is the mouth of the River Clyde. It is located on the west coast of Scotland and constitutes the deepest coastal ...
in the country's West Central Lowlands. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, and tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
bishopric In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
and
royal burgh A royal burgh was a type of Scottish burgh which had been founded by, or subsequently granted, a royal charter. Although abolished by law in 1975, the term is still used by many former royal burghs. Most royal burghs were either created by Scott ...
, and the later establishment of the
University of Glasgow , image_name = University_of_Glasgow_Coat_of_Arms.jpg , image_size = 150px , latin_name = Universitas Glasguensis , motto = la, Via, Veritas, Vita ''Via et veritas et vita'' (, ) is a Latin language, Latin phrase meaning "the way and the t ...

University of Glasgow
in the 15th century, it became a major centre of the
Scottish Enlightenment The Scottish Enlightenment ( sco, Scots Enlichtenment, gd, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th- and early-19th-century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By the eighteenth century, ...
in the 18th century. From the 18th century onwards, the city also grew as one of Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
and the
West Indies The West Indies are a subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inh ...
. With the onset of the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded rapidly to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals, textiles and engineering; most notably in the
shipbuilding Shipbuilding is the construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition o ...

shipbuilding
and
marine engineering Marine engineering includes the engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The di ...
industry, which produced many innovative and famous vessels. Glasgow was the "Second City of the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
" for much of the
Victorian era In the , the Victorian era was the of 's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the and preceded the , and its later half overlaps with the first part of the ' era of Continental Europe. There was ...
and the
Edwardian era The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history spanned the reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes expanded to the start of the First World War. The death of Queen Victoria in January 1901 marked the end of the Victor ...
. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew rapidly, reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. The population was greatly reduced following comprehensive
urban renewal File:Cabrini Green Housing Project.jpg, upright=1.35, 1999 photograph looking northeast on Chicago's Cabrini–Green Homes, Cabrini–Green Public housing, housing project, one of many urban renewal efforts Urban renewal (also called urban regene ...
projects in the 1960s which resulted in large-scale relocation of people to designated
new town New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of th ...
s, such as
Cumbernauld Cumbernauld (; sco, Cummernaud ; gd, Comar nan Allt, meeting of the streams) is a large town in North Lanarkshire North Lanarkshire ( sco, North Lanrikshire; gd, Siorrachd Lannraig a Tuath) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders ...
, Livingston,
East Kilbride East Kilbride (; gd, Cille Bhrìghde an Ear ) is the largest town in South Lanarkshire in Scotland and the country's List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, 6th-largest city or town by population. It was also designated Scotland's fi ...
and peripheral suburbs, followed by successive boundary changes. Over 985,200 people live in the
Greater Glasgow Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area (or conurbation). It does not relate to municipal government b ...
contiguous urban area, while the wider Glasgow City Region is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any
locality Locality may refer to: * Locality (association), an association of community regeneration organizations in England * Locality (linguistics) * Locality (settlement) * Suburbs and localities (Australia), in which a locality is a geographic subdivisi ...
in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Natives or inhabitants are known as Glaswegians, and are well known for their distinctive dialect and accent. Glasgow has the largest economy in Scotland and the third highest GDP per capita of any city in the UK. Glasgow's major cultural institutions - the
Burrell Collection Image:Wfm burrell collection.jpg, The museum building housing the Burrell Collection, with the entrance wing in the background to the left, and the glazed restaurant on the right looking onto the lawn The Burrell Collection is an art collection in ...
,
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is a museum and art gallery in Glasgow Glasgow, (, also , ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) with an estimated city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human ...

Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
, the
Royal Scottish National Orchestra The Royal Scottish National Orchestra (RSNO) ( gd, Orcastra Nàiseanta Rìoghail na h-Alba) is an international orchestra, based in Glasgow, Scotland. It is one of the five National performing arts companies of Scotland, national performing arts ...
,
Scottish Ballet Scottish Ballet is the national ballet company of Scotland and one of the five leading ballet companies of the United Kingdom, alongside the Royal Ballet, English National Ballet, Birmingham Royal Ballet and Northern Ballet. Founded in 1969, t ...
and
Scottish Opera Scottish Opera is the national opera company of Scotland, and one of the five national performing arts companies of Scotland. Founded in 1962 and based in Glasgow, it is the largest performing arts organisation in Scotland. History Scottish Oper ...
– enjoy international reputations. The city was the
European Capital of Culture A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members ha ...

European Capital of Culture
in 1990 and is notable for its
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...
,
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an int ...
,
media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliv ...
, music scene,
sports clubs 250px, A sport club in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, showing various paved and painted surfaces for futsal, basketball and volleyball, with two swimming pools in the foreground. A sports club or sporting club, sometimes athletics club or sports societ ...
and
transport connections Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the Motion, movement of humans, animals and cargo, goods from one location to another. In other words, the action of transport is defined as a particular movement ...
. It is the fifth-most visited city in the United Kingdom. The city hosted the
2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference The 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference, also known as COP26, is the 26th United Nations Climate Change conference. It is scheduled to be held in the city of Glasgow Glasgow, (, also , ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) with an e ...
(COP26) at its main events venue, the
SEC Centre The SEC Centre (originally known as the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre until 2017) is Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, ...
. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first
European ChampionshipsA European Championship is the top level International sport, international sports competition between Europe, European athletes or sports teams representing their respective countries or professional sports club, sports clubs. In the plural, the E ...
in 2018, and was one of the host cities for
UEFA Euro 2020 The 2020 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2020 or simply Euro 2020, is scheduled to be the 16th UEFA European Championship, the Anniversary#Latin-derived numerical names, quadrennial international men's ass ...
. The city is also well known in the sporting world for football, particularly the
Old Firm The Old Firm is the collective name for the Scottish football Football is a family of team sport A team is a Celtic and Rangers F.C.">Rangers, which are both based in Glasgow. The two clubs are by far the most successful and popular i ...
rivalry between
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
and Rangers.


Etymology

The name Glasgow is
Brittonic Brittonic or Brythonic may refer to: *Common Brittonic, or Brythonic, the Celtic language anciently spoken in Great Britain *Brittonic languages, a branch of the Celtic languages descended from Common Brittonic *Celtic Britons, Britons (Celtic peop ...
in origin, with a first element being ''glas'', meaning "grey-green, grey-blue", and the second ''*cöü'', "hollow" (c.f.
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
''glas-cau''), giving a meaning of "green-hollow". The green-hollow may refer to the ravine to the east of Glasgow Cathedral. It is often claimed that the name means "dear green place" or that "dear green place" is a translation from Gaelic, but this claim is mistaken. "The dear green place", however, remains an affectionate way of referring to the city. The settlement probably had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures; the modern name appears for the first time in the Gaelic period (1116), as ''Glasgu''. It is also recorded that the
King of Strathclyde The list of the kings of Strathclyde concerns the kings of Alt Clut, later Kingdom of Strathclyde, Strathclyde, a Brythonic languages, Brythonic kingdom in what is now western Scotland. The kingdom was ruled from Dumbarton Rock, ''Alt Clut'', the B ...
,
Rhydderch Hael Rhydderch Hael ( en, Rhydderch the Generous, floruit, fl. 580 – c. 614) was a ruler of Alt Clut, a Britons (Celtic people), Brittonic kingdom in the ''Hen Ogledd'' or "Old North" of Britain. He was one of the most famous kings in the ''Hen Ogledd' ...
, welcomed Saint Kentigern (also known as Saint Mungo), and procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the
Molendinar Burn The Molendinar Burn is a burn A burn is a type of injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degrades it away from its initial state. It can broadly be defi ...
where
Glasgow Cathedral Glasgow Cathedral (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European langua ...

Glasgow Cathedral
now stands, and making many converts. A large community developed around him and became known as ''Glasgu''.


History


Origins and development

The area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the
River Clyde River Clyde ( gd, Abhainn Chluaidh, , sco, Clyde Watter, or ) is a river that flows into the Firth of Clyde The Firth of Clyde is the mouth of the River Clyde. It is located on the west coast of Scotland and constitutes the deepest coastal ...
providing a natural location for fishing. The
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...

Romans
later built outposts in the area and, to protect Roman
Britannia Britannia () is the of as a helmeted female warrior holding a and shield. An image first used in , the ''Britannia'' was the name variously applied to the , , and the during the . Typically depicted reclining or seated with spear and shi ...

Britannia
from the Brittonic speaking (
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
)
Caledonians The Caledonians (; la, Caledones or '; grc-gre, Καληδῶνες, ''Kalēdōnes'') or the Caledonian Confederacy were a Brittonic-speaking ( Celtic) tribal confederacy in what is now Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is ...
, constructed the . Items from the wall, such as altars from
Roman forts In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Lati ...

Roman forts
like Balmuildy, can be found at the
Hunterian Museum The University of Glasgow's museum dedicated to William Hunter is the oldest museum in Scotland. It covers the Hunterian Museum, the Hunterian Art Gallery, the Mackintosh House, the Zoology Museum and the Anatomy Museum, all located in various bu ...
today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian
missionary A missionary is a member of a Religious denomination, religious group sent into an area to promote their faith or provide services, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.Thomas Hale 'On Being a Missio ...

missionary
Saint Mungo Kentigern ( cy, Cyndeyrn Garthwys; la, Kentigernus), known as Mungo, was a missionary in the Brittonic Kingdom of Strathclyde in the late sixth century, and the founder and patron saint A branch of Saint_Honorius_(Honoré)_is_the_patron_sai ...
in the 6th century. He established a church on the
Molendinar Burn The Molendinar Burn is a burn A burn is a type of injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degrades it away from its initial state. It can broadly be defi ...
, where the present
Glasgow Cathedral Glasgow Cathedral (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European langua ...

Glasgow Cathedral
stands, and in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre. Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The
Glasgow Fair The Glasgow Fair is a holiday usually held during the second half of July in Glasgow, Scotland. 'The Fair' is the oldest of similar holidays and dates to the 12th century. The fair's earliest incarnation occurred in 1190, when Jocelin of Glasgow, ...
reportedly began in 1190. The first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main north–south route over the river via
Glasgow Cross Glasgow Cross is at the hub of the ancient royal burgh and now city of Glasgow Glasgow, (, also , ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) with an estimated city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of H ...

Glasgow Cross
. The founding of the
University of Glasgow , image_name = University_of_Glasgow_Coat_of_Arms.jpg , image_size = 150px , latin_name = Universitas Glasguensis , motto = la, Via, Veritas, Vita ''Via et veritas et vita'' (, ) is a Latin language, Latin phrase meaning "the way and the t ...

University of Glasgow
in 1451 and elevation of the
bishopric In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth. Its early trade was in agriculture, brewing and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean.The City of Glasgow – The Third Statistical Account of Scotland, published 1958 Following the European Protestant
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...
and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of
Royal Burgh A royal burgh was a type of Scottish burgh A burgh is an autonomous The federal subject in Russia">Federal subjects of Russia">federal subject in Russia, close to borders of Finland. Picture of Petrozavodsk, the capital of the Republi ...
in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade, manufacturing and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, and then cotton and linen, products of the .
Daniel Defoe Daniel Defoe (; born Daniel Foe; c. 1660 – 24 April 1731) was an English writer, trader, journalist, pamphleteer and spy. He is most famous for his novel ''Robinson Crusoe'', published in 1719, which is claimed to be second only to the Bible i ...

Daniel Defoe
visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book ''
A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain#REDIRECT A Tour thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain {{Redirect category shell, {{R from move ...
'', that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, and best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, and the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the
Scottish Enlightenment The Scottish Enlightenment ( sco, Scots Enlichtenment, gd, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th- and early-19th-century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By the eighteenth century, ...
and Industrial Revolution.


Trading port

After the
Acts of UnionAct of Union may refer to: In Great Britain and Ireland * Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, passed during the reign of King Henry VIII to make Wales a part of the Kingdom of England (These laws are often referred to in the plural as the "Acts of Un ...
in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, and Glasgow became prominent as a hub of international trade to and from the Americas, especially in sugar, tobacco, cotton, and manufactured goods. Starting in 1668, the city's ''
Tobacco Lords The Tobacco Lords were a group of Scottish merchants and slave traders who in the 18th century made enormous fortunes by trading in tobacco village in Xanthi, Greece Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the '' Nicotiana'' genu ...
'' created a deep water port at
Port Glasgow Port Glasgow ( gd, Port Ghlaschu, ) is the second-largest town in the Inverclyde Inverclyde ( sco, Inerclyde, gd, Inbhir Chluaidh, , "mouth of the Clyde") is one of 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas used for local government in ...

Port Glasgow
about down the
River Clyde River Clyde ( gd, Abhainn Chluaidh, , sco, Clyde Watter, or ) is a river that flows into the Firth of Clyde The Firth of Clyde is the mouth of the River Clyde. It is located on the west coast of Scotland and constitutes the deepest coastal ...
, as the river from the city to that point was then too shallow for seagoing merchant ships. By the late 18th century more than half of the British tobacco trade was concentrated on the River Clyde, with over of tobacco being imported each year at its peak. At the time, Glasgow held a commercial importance as the city participated in the trade of sugar, tobacco and later cotton.


Industrialisation

The opening of the
Monkland Canal The Monkland Canal was a canal designed to bring coal from the mining areas of Monklands, Scotland, Monklands to Glasgow in Scotland. In the course of a long and difficult construction process, it was opened progressively as short sections were ...
and basin linking to the
Forth and Clyde Canal The Forth and Clyde Canal is a canal Canals are waterways channels Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path o ...

Forth and Clyde Canal
at
Port Dundas Port Dundas is an area of Glasgow, Scotland, located to the north of the city centre. It lies to the north of Cowcaddens, and to the west of Sighthill, Glasgow, Sighthill, with Hamiltonhill and Possilpark to the north-west. History The Port Dund ...
in 1795, facilitated access to the extensive iron-ore and coal mines in
Lanarkshire Lanarkshire, also called the County of Lanark ( gd, Siorrachd Lannraig, sco, Lanrikshire), is a historic county, lieutenancy area Lieutenancy areas are the separate areas of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and ...
. After extensive
river engineering River engineering is a discipline of civil engineering Civil engineering is a Regulation and licensure in engineering, professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturall ...
projects to dredge and deepen the River Clyde as far as Glasgow, shipbuilding became a major industry on the upper stretches of the river, pioneered by industrialists such as , John Elder, George Thomson, Sir William Pearce and
Sir Alfred Yarrow Sir Alfred Fernandez Yarrow, 1st Baronet, of Hindhead, Homestead (13 January 1842 – 24 January 1932) was a British shipbuilder who started a shipbuilding dynasty, Yarrow Shipbuilders. Origins Yarrow was born of humble origins in London Plan ...

Sir Alfred Yarrow
. The River Clyde also became an important source of inspiration for artists, such as
John Atkinson Grimshaw John Atkinson Grimshaw (6 September 1836 – 13 October 1893) was an English Victorian-era artist best known for his nocturnal scenes of urban landscapes.Alexander Robertson, ''Atkinson Grimshaw'', London, Phaidon Press, 1996 H. J. Dyos and Mi ...

John Atkinson Grimshaw
,
John Knox John Knox ( – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister Minister may refer to: * Minister (Christianity)Image:LutheranClergy.JPG, upA Lutheran minister wearing a Geneva gown and Bands (neckwear), bands. In many churches, ministers wear dis ...
, James Kay, Sir Muirhead Bone, Robert Eadie and L.S. Lowry, willing to depict the new industrial era and the modern world, as did
Stanley Spencer Sir Stanley Spencer, CBE Royal Academy of Arts, RA (30 June 1891 – 14 December 1959) was an English painter. Shortly after leaving the Slade School of Art, Spencer became well known for his paintings depicting Biblical scenes occurring as if ...
downriver at
Port Glasgow Port Glasgow ( gd, Port Ghlaschu, ) is the second-largest town in the Inverclyde Inverclyde ( sco, Inerclyde, gd, Inbhir Chluaidh, , "mouth of the Clyde") is one of 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas used for local government in ...

Port Glasgow
. Glasgow's population had surpassed that of Edinburgh by 1821. The development of civic institutions included the City of Glasgow Police in 1800, one of the first municipal police forces in the world. Despite the crisis caused by the City of Glasgow Bank's collapse in 1878, growth continued and by the end of the 19th century it was one of the cities known as the "Second City of the Empire" and was producing more than half Britain's tonnage of shipping and a quarter of all locomotives in the world. In addition to its pre-eminence in shipbuilding, engineering, industrial machinery, bridge building, chemicals, explosives, coal and oil industries it developed as a major centre in textiles, garment-making, carpet manufacturing, leather processing, furniture-making, pottery, food, drink and cigarette making; printing and publishing. Shipping, banking, insurance and professional services expanded at the same time. Glasgow became one of the first cities in Europe to reach a population of one million. The city's new trades and sciences attracted new residents from across the Lowlands of Scotland, Lowlands and the Highlands of Scotland, from Ireland and other parts of Britain and from Continental Europe. During this period, the construction of many of the city's greatest architectural masterpieces and most ambitious civil engineering projects, such as the Milngavie water treatment works, Glasgow Subway, Glasgow Corporation Tramways, Glasgow City Chambers, City Chambers, Mitchell Library and
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is a museum and art gallery in Glasgow Glasgow, (, also , ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) with an estimated city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human ...

Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
were being funded by its wealth. The city also held a series of List of world's fairs, International Exhibitions at Kelvingrove Park, in International Exhibition of Science, Art and Industry, 1888, Glasgow International Exhibition (1901), 1901 and Scottish Exhibition of National History, Art and Industry, 1911, with Britain's last major International Exhibition, the Empire Exhibition, Scotland 1938, Empire Exhibition, being subsequently held in 1938 at Bellahouston Park, which drew 13 million visitors. The 20th century witnessed both decline and renewal in the city. After World War I, the city suffered from the impact of the Post–World War I recession and from the later Great Depression in the United Kingdom, Great Depression, this also led to a rise of radical socialism and the "Red Clydeside" movement. The city had recovered by the outbreak of World War II. The city saw Strategic bombing, aerial bombardment by the Luftwaffe during the Clydebank Blitz, during the war, then grew through the post-war boom that lasted through the 1950s. By the 1960s, growth of industry in countries like Japan and West Germany, weakened the once pre-eminent position of many of the city's industries. As a result of this, Glasgow entered a lengthy period of relative economic decline and rapid de-industrialisation, leading to high unemployment, urban decay, population decline, welfare dependency and poor health for the city's inhabitants. There were active attempts at regeneration of the city, when the Glasgow Corporation published its controversial ''Bruce Report'', which set out a comprehensive series of initiatives aimed at turning round the decline of the city. The report led to a huge and radical programme of rebuilding and regeneration efforts that started in the mid-1950s and lasted into the late 1970s. This involved the mass demolition of the city's infamous slums and their replacement with large suburban housing estates and tower blocks. The city invested heavily in roads infrastructure, with an extensive system of arterial roads and motorways that bisected the central area. There are also accusations that the Scottish Office had deliberately attempted to undermine Glasgow's economic and political influence in post-war Scotland by diverting inward investment in new industries to other regions during the Silicon Glen boom and creating the New towns#United Kingdom, new towns of Cumbernauld, Glenrothes, Irvine, Livingston and
East Kilbride East Kilbride (; gd, Cille Bhrìghde an Ear ) is the largest town in South Lanarkshire in Scotland and the country's List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, 6th-largest city or town by population. It was also designated Scotland's fi ...
, dispersed across the Scottish Lowlands to halve the city's population base. By the late 1980s, there had been a significant resurgence in Glasgow's economic fortunes. The "Glasgow's miles better" campaign, launched in 1983, and opening of the
Burrell Collection Image:Wfm burrell collection.jpg, The museum building housing the Burrell Collection, with the entrance wing in the background to the left, and the glazed restaurant on the right looking onto the lawn The Burrell Collection is an art collection in ...
in 1983 and Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre in 1985 facilitated Glasgow's new role as a European centre for business services and finance and promoted an increase in tourism and inward investment. The latter continues to be bolstered by the legacy of the city's Glasgow Garden Festival in 1988, its status as
European Capital of Culture A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members ha ...

European Capital of Culture
in 1990, and concerted attempts to diversify the city's economy. However, it is the industrial heritage that serves as key tourism enabler. Wider economic revival has persisted and the ongoing Urban renewal, regeneration of inner-city areas, including the large-scale Clyde Waterfront Regeneration, has led to more affluent people moving back to live in the centre of Glasgow, fuelling allegations of gentrification. In 2008, the city was listed by Lonely Planet as one of the world's top 10 tourist cities. Despite Glasgow's economic renaissance, the East End of Glasgow, East End of the city remains the focus of social deprivation. A Glasgow Economic Audit report published in 2007 stated that the gap between prosperous and deprived areas of the city is widening. In 2006, 47% of Glasgow's population lived in the most deprived 15% of areas in Scotland, while the Centre for Social Justice reported 29.4% of the city's working-age residents to be "economically inactive". Although marginally behind the UK average, Glasgow still has a higher employment rate than Birmingham, Liverpool and Manchester. In 2008 the city was ranked at 43 for Personal Safety in the Mercer (consulting firm), Mercer index of top 50 safest cities in the world. The Mercer report was specifically looking at Quality of Living, yet by 2011 within Glasgow, certain areas were (still) "failing to meet the Scottish Air Quality Objective levels for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10)".


Sanitation

With the population growing, the first scheme to provide a public water supply was by the Glasgow Company in 1806. A second company was formed in 1812, and the two merged in 1838, but there was some dissatisfaction with the quality of the water supplied. The Gorbals Gravitation Water Company began supplying water to residents living to the south of the River Clyde in 1846, obtained from reservoirs, which gave 75,000 people a constant water supply, but others were not so fortunate, and some 4,000 died in an outbreak of cholera in 1848/1849. This led to the development of the Glasgow Corporation Water Works, with a project to raise the level of Loch Katrine and to convey clean water by gravity along a aqueduct to a holding reservoir at Milngavie, and then by pipes into the city. The project cost £980,000 and was opened by Queen Victoria in 1859. The engineer for the project was John Frederick Bateman, while James Morris Gale became the resident engineer for the city section of the project, and subsequently became Engineer in Chief for Glasgow Water Commissioners. He oversaw several improvements during his tenure, including a second aqueduct and further raising of water levels in Loch Katrine. Additional supplies were provided by Loch Arklet in 1902, by impounding the water and creating a tunnel to allow water to flow into Loch Katrine. A similar scheme to create a reservoir in Glen Finglas was authorised in 1903, but was deferred, and was not completed until 1965. Following the 2002 Glasgow floods, the waterborne parasite cryptosporidium was found in the reservoir at Milngavie, and so the new Milngavie water treatment works was built. It was opened by Elizabeth II, Queen Elizabeth in 2007, and won the 2007 Utility Industry Achievement Award, having been completed ahead of its time schedule and for £10 million below its budgeted cost. Good health requires both clean water and effective removal of sewage. The Caledonian Railway rebuilt many of the sewers, as part of a deal to allow them to tunnel under the city, and sewage treatment works were opened at Dalmarnoch in 1894, Dalmuir in 1904 and Shieldhall in 1910. The works experimented to find better ways to treat sewage, and a number of experimental filters were constructed, until a full activated sludge plant was built between 1962 and 1968 at a cost of £4 million. Treated sludge was dumped at sea, and Glasgow Corporation owned six sludge ships between 1904 and 1998, when the EU Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive ended the practice. The sewerage infrastructure was improved significantly in 2017, with the completion of a tunnel long, which provides of storm water storage. It will reduce the risk of flooding and the likelihood that sewage will overflow into the Clyde during storms. Since 2002, clean water provision and sewerage have been the responsibility of Scottish Water.


Heraldry

The coat of arms of the City of Glasgow was granted to the
royal burgh A royal burgh was a type of Scottish burgh which had been founded by, or subsequently granted, a royal charter. Although abolished by law in 1975, the term is still used by many former royal burghs. Most royal burghs were either created by Scott ...
by the Lord Lyon King of Arms, Lord Lyon on 25 October 1866. It incorporates a number of symbols and emblems associated with the life of Glasgow's patron saint, Mungo, which had been used on official seals prior to that date. The emblems represent Saint Mungo#Miracles, miracles supposed to have been performed by Mungo and are listed in the traditional rhyme: ::::''Here's the bird that never flew'' ::::''Here's the tree that never grew'' ::::''Here's the bell that never rang'' ::::''Here's the fish that never swam'' St Mungo is also said to have preached a sermon containing the words ''Lord, Let Glasgow flourish by the preaching of the word and the praising of thy name''. This was abbreviated to "Let Glasgow Flourish" and adopted as the city's motto. In 1450, John Stewart, the first Lord Provost of Glasgow, left an endowment so that a "St Mungo's Bell" could be made and tolled throughout the city so that the citizens would pray for his soul. A new bell was purchased by the magistrates in 1641 and that bell is still on display in the People's Palace, Glasgow, People's Palace Museum, near Glasgow Green. The supporters are two salmon bearing rings, and the crest is a half length figure of Saint Mungo. He wears a bishop's mitre and liturgical vestments and has his hand raised in "the act of benediction". The original 1866 grant placed the crest atop a helm, but this was removed in subsequent grants. The current version (1996) has a gold mural crown between the shield and the crest. This form of coronet, resembling an embattled city wall, was allowed to the four area councils with city status. The arms were re-matriculated by the City of Glasgow District Council on 6 February 1975, and by the present area council on 25 March 1996. The only change made on each occasion was in the type of coronet over the arms.


Government and politics


Local government

File:Susan Aitken, Glasgow City Council.jpg, Councillor Susan Aitken, the leader of Glasgow City Council since 2017 Although Glasgow Municipal corporation, Corporation had been a pioneer in the Municipal socialism, municipal socialist movement from the late-nineteenth century, since the Representation of the People Act 1918, Glasgow increasingly supported Left-wing politics, left-wing ideas and politics at a national level. The Politics of Glasgow, city council was controlled by the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party for over thirty years, since the decline of the Progressives (Scotland), Progressives. Since 2007, when local government elections in Scotland began to use the single transferable vote rather than the First-past-the-post voting, first-past-the-post system, the dominance of the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party within the city started to decline. As a result of the 2017 United Kingdom local elections, the Scottish National Party, SNP was able to form a minority administration ending Labour's thirty-seven years of uninterrupted control. In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the German Revolution of 1918–19, the city's frequent strikes and militant organisations caused serious alarm at Her Majesty's Government, Westminster, with one Battle of George Square, uprising in January 1919 prompting the Liberal Party (UK), Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, to deploy 10,000 soldiers and tanks on the city's streets. A Battle of George Square, huge demonstration in the city's George Square on 31 January ended in violence after the Riot Act was read. Industrial action at the shipyards gave rise to the "Red Clydeside" epithet. During the 1930s, Glasgow was the main base of the Independent Labour Party. Towards the end of the twentieth century, it became a centre of the struggle against the Poll tax (Great Britain), poll tax; which was introduced in Scotland a whole year before the rest of the United Kingdom and also served as the main base of the Scottish Socialist Party, another left-wing political party in Scotland. The city has not had a Conservative Party (UK), Conservative MP since the 1982 Glasgow Hillhead by-election, 1982 Hillhead by-election, when the Social Democratic Party, SDP took the seat, which was in Glasgow's most affluent area. The fortunes of the Conservative Party continued to decline into the twenty-first century, winning only one of the 79 councillors on Glasgow City Council in 2012, despite having been the controlling party (as the Progressives (Scotland), Progressives) from 1969 to 1972 when Sir Donald Liddle was the last non-Labour Lord Provost of Glasgow, Lord Provost. Glasgow is represented in both the Parliament of the United Kingdom, House of Commons in London, and the Scottish Parliament in Holyrood, Edinburgh. At Westminster, it is represented by seven Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Members of Parliament (MPs), all elected at least once every five years to represent individual constituencies, using the first-past-the-post system of voting. In Holyrood, Glasgow is represented by sixteen Member of the Scottish Parliament, Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs), of whom nine are elected to represent individual constituencies once every four years using first-past-the-post, and seven are elected as additional regional members, by proportional representation. Since the 2016 Scottish Parliament election, Glasgow is represented at Holyrood by 9 Scottish National Party MSPs, 4 Scottish Labour Party, Labour MSPs, 2 Scottish Conservative Party, Conservative MSPs and 1 Scottish Green Party, Scottish Green MSP. In the European Parliament, the city formed part of the Scotland (European Parliament constituency), Scotland constituency, which elected six Member of the European Parliament, Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) prior to Brexit.


Central government

Since Glasgow is covered and operates under two separate central governments, the devolved Scottish Parliament and UK Government, they determine various matters that Glasgow City Council is not responsible for.


Scottish Parliament

The Glasgow (Scottish Parliament electoral region), Glasgow electoral region of the Scottish Parliament covers the Glasgow City council area, a north-western part of South Lanarkshire and a small eastern portion of Renfrewshire. It elects nine of the parliament's 73 first past the post constituency members and seven of the 56 Mixed member proportional representation, additional members. Both kinds of member are known as Member of the Scottish Parliament, Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSPs). The system of election is designed to produce a form of proportional representation. The first past the post seats were created in 1999 with the names and boundaries of then existing Palace of Westminster, Westminster (House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Commons) constituencies. In 2005, the number of Westminster Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Members of Parliament (MPs) representing Scotland was cut to 59, with new constituencies being formed, while the existing number of Member of the Scottish Parliament, MSPs was retained at Holyrood. In the 2011 Scottish Parliament election, the boundaries of the Glasgow region were redrawn. Currently, the nine Scottish Parliament constituencies in the Glasgow electoral region are: * Glasgow Anniesland (Scottish Parliament constituency), Glasgow Anniesland * Glasgow Cathcart (Scottish Parliament constituency), Glasgow Cathcart * Glasgow Kelvin (Scottish Parliament constituency), Glasgow Kelvin * Glasgow Maryhill and Springburn (Scottish Parliament constituency), Glasgow Maryhill and Springburn * Glasgow Pollok (Scottish Parliament constituency), Glasgow Pollok * Glasgow Provan (Scottish Parliament constituency), Glasgow Provan * Glasgow Shettleston (Scottish Parliament constituency), Glasgow Shettleston * Glasgow Southside (Scottish Parliament constituency), Glasgow Southside * Rutherglen (Scottish Parliament constituency), Rutherglen At the 2021 Scottish Parliament election, all nine of these constituencies were won by Scottish National Party (SNP) candidates. On the regional vote, the Glasgow electoral region is represented by four Scottish Labour, Labour MSPs, two Scottish Conservative Party, Conservative MSPs and one Scottish Green Party, Green MSP.


UK Westminster Parliament

Following reform of constituencies of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom (Palace of Westminster, Westminster) in 2005, which reduced the number of Scottish Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Members of Parliament (MPs), the current Westminster constituencies representing Glasgow are: * Glasgow Central (UK Parliament constituency), Glasgow Central * Glasgow East (UK Parliament constituency), Glasgow East * Glasgow North (UK Parliament constituency), Glasgow North * Glasgow North East (UK Parliament constituency), Glasgow North East * Glasgow North West (UK Parliament constituency), Glasgow North West * Glasgow South (UK Parliament constituency), Glasgow South * Glasgow South West (UK Parliament constituency), Glasgow South West Following the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, in which 53.49% of the electorate of Glasgow voted in favour of Scottish independence; the Scottish National Party, SNP won every constituency in the city at the 2015 United Kingdom general election, 2015 general election, including a record-breaking 39.3% swing from Labour to SNP in the seat of Glasgow North East (UK Parliament constituency), Glasgow North East. In the 2017 United Kingdom general election, 2017 snap election, Glasgow was represented by 6 Scottish National Party MPs and 1 Labour MP; the Glasgow North East constituency which had a record 39.3% swing from Labour to SNP at the previous general election, was regained by Paul Sweeney of the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party, who narrowly defeated sitting SNP MP Anne McLaughlin by 242 votes. Since the 2019 United Kingdom general election, 2019 snap election, Glasgow has been represented by 7 Scottish National Party MPs; the Glasgow North East constituency, was regained by Anne McLaughlin of the Scottish National Party, resulting in the same clean sweep as in 2015 United Kingdom general election, 2015 general election.


Referendums

In the Scottish independence referendum, Glasgow voted "Yes" by a margin of 2014 Scottish independence referendum#By area, 53.5% to 46.5%. In the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Brexit referendum, results varied from constituency to constituency. Glasgow North recorded the biggest remain vote with 78% opting to stay in the EU whilst in Glasgow East this figure dropped to 56%. The city as a whole voted to remain in the EU, by 66.6% to 33.3%.


Voter turnout

Voter turnout has often been lower in Glasgow than in the rest of the United Kingdom. In the Referendum of 2014 turnout was 75%, the lowest in Scotland; in the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, Brexit referendum the city's voters, while joining the rest of Scotland in voting to remain part of the EU, again had a low turnout of 56.2%, although SNP MP Angus Robertson placed this in the historical context of traditional low turnout in Glasgow. In the 2015 general election, the six Scottish constituencies with the lowest turnout were all in Glasgow; turnout further decreased in the 2017 election, when five of the city's seven seats reported a lowered turnout.


Geography

Glasgow is located on the banks of the River Clyde, in Strathclyde, West Central Scotland. Its second most important river is the River Kelvin, Kelvin whose name was used in creating the title of William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Baron Kelvin the renowned physicist and thereby ended up as the Kelvin, SI unit of temperature. On older maps Glasgow is shown within the area of the pre-1975 county of
Lanarkshire Lanarkshire, also called the County of Lanark ( gd, Siorrachd Lannraig, sco, Lanrikshire), is a historic county, lieutenancy area Lieutenancy areas are the separate areas of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and ...
; from 1975 to 1996 it appears within Strathclyde Region; more recent maps generally show Glasgow as one of 32 Subdivisions of Scotland, Council Areas in Scotland.


Location

Glasgow is located in the central belt of Scotland.


Climate

Despite its northerly latitude, similar to that of Moscow, Glasgow's climate is classified as Oceanic climate, oceanic (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''Cfb''). Data is available online for 3 official weather stations in the Glasgow area: Paisley, Abbotsinch and Bishopton. All are located to the west of the city, in neighbouring Renfrewshire. Owing to its westerly position and proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, Glasgow is one of Scotland's milder areas. Winter temperatures are usually higher than in most places of equal latitude away from the UK, due to the warming influence of the Gulf Stream. However, this results in less distinct seasons as compared to continental Western Europe. At Paisley, Renfrewshire, Paisley, the annual precipitation averages . Glasgow has been named as the rainiest city of the UK, having an average of 170 days of rain a year. Winters are cool and overcast, with a January mean of , though lows sometimes fall below freezing. Since 2000 Glasgow has experienced few very cold, snowy and harsh winters where temperatures have fallen much below freezing. The most extreme instances have however seen temperatures around in the area. Snowfall accumulation is infrequent and short-lived. The spring months (March to May) are usually mild and often quite pleasant. Many of Glasgow's trees and plants begin to flower at this time of the year and parks and gardens are filled with spring colours. During the summer months (June to August) the weather can vary considerably from day to day, ranging from relatively cool and wet to quite warm with the odd sunny day. Long dry spells of warm weather are generally quite scarce. Overcast and humid conditions without rain are frequent. Generally the weather pattern is quite unsettled and erratic during these months, with only occasional heatwaves. The warmest month is usually July, with average highs above . Summer days can occasionally reach up to 27 °C (81 °F), and very rarely exceed 30 °C (86 °F). Autumns are generally cool to mild with increasing precipitation. During early autumn there can be some settled periods of weather and it can feel pleasant with mild temperatures and some sunny days. The official Met Office data series goes back to 1959 and shows that there only have been a few warm and no hot summers in Glasgow, in stark contrast to areas further south in Great Britain and eastwards in Europe. The warmest month on record in the data series is July 2006, with an average high of and low of . Even this extreme event only matched a normal summer on similar parallels in continental Europe, underlining the maritime influences. The coldest month on record since the data series began is December 2010, during a severe Winter of 2010–11 in Great Britain and Ireland, cold wave affecting the British Isles. Even then, the December high was above freezing at with the low of . This still ensured Glasgow's coldest month of 2010 remained milder than the isotherm of normally used to determine continental climate normals. Temperature extremes have ranged from , at Abbotsinch in December 1995 to at Bishopton in June 2018.


Demographics

In the 1950s, the population of the City of Glasgow area peaked at 1,089,000. Glasgow was then one of the most densely populated cities in the world. After the 1960s, clearances of poverty-stricken inner city areas like the Gorbals and relocation to "New town#United Kingdom, new towns" such as
East Kilbride East Kilbride (; gd, Cille Bhrìghde an Ear ) is the largest town in South Lanarkshire in Scotland and the country's List of towns and cities in Scotland by population, 6th-largest city or town by population. It was also designated Scotland's fi ...
and
Cumbernauld Cumbernauld (; sco, Cummernaud ; gd, Comar nan Allt, meeting of the streams) is a large town in North Lanarkshire North Lanarkshire ( sco, North Lanrikshire; gd, Siorrachd Lannraig a Tuath) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders ...
led to population decline. In addition, the boundaries of the city were changed twice during the late-twentieth century, making direct comparisons difficult. The urban area continues to expand beyond the city council boundaries into surrounding suburban areas, encompassing around of all adjoining suburbs, if commuter towns and villages are included. There are two distinct definitions for the population of Glasgow: the Glasgow City Council Area which lost the districts of Rutherglen and Cambuslang to South Lanarkshire in 1996, and the
Greater Glasgow Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area (or conurbation). It does not relate to municipal government b ...
Urban Area which includes the conurbation around the city (however in the 2016 definitions the aforementioned Rutherglen and Cambuslang were included along with the likes of Paisley, Renfrewshire, Paisley, Clydebank, Newton Mearns, Bearsden and Stepps but not others with no continuity of populated postcodes – although in some cases the gap is small – the excluded nearby settlements including Barrhead, Erskine and Kirkintilloch plus a large swathe of Lanarkshire which had been considered contiguous with Glasgow in previous definitions: the 'List of cities and towns in Scotland, settlements' named Coatbridge & Airdrie, Hamilton and Motherwell & Wishaw, each containing a number of distinct smaller localities). Glasgow's population influx in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was related to economic expansion as well as internally generated growth with the vast majority of newcomers to the city from outside Scotland being from Ireland, especially the north western counties of County Donegal, Donegal, County Fermanagh, Fermanagh, County Tyrone, Tyrone and County Londonderry, Londonderry. In the 1881 UK Census, 83% of the population was born in Scotland, 13% in Ireland, 3% in England and 1% elsewhere. By 1911, the city was no longer gaining population by migration. The demographic percentages in the 1951 UK census were: born in Scotland 93%, Ireland 3%, England 3% and elsewhere 1%. In the early twentieth century, many Lithuanian people, Lithuanian refugees began to settle in Glasgow and at its height in the 1950s; there were around 10,000 in the Glasgow area. Many Italian Scots also settled in Glasgow, originating from provinces like Frosinone in Lazio and Lucca in north-west Tuscany at this time, many originally working as "Hokey pokey (ice cream), Hokey Pokey" men. In the 1960s and 1970s, many Asians also settled in Glasgow, mainly in the Pollokshields area. These number 30,000 Pakistani people, Pakistanis, 15,000 Indian people, Indians and 3,000 Bangladeshi people, Bangladeshis as well as Cantonese people, Chinese people, many of whom settled in the Garnethill area of the city. Since 2000, the UK government has pursued a policy of dispersal of Immigration to the United Kingdom since 1922, asylum seekers to ease pressure on social housing in the London area. The city is also home to some 8,406 (1.42%) Poles. Since the United Kingdom Census 2001 the population decline has been reversed. The population was static for a time; but due to migration from other parts of Scotland as well as immigration from overseas, the population has begun to grow. The population of the city council area was 593,245 in 2011 and around 2,300,000 people live in the Glasgow travel to work area. This area is defined as consisting of over 10% of residents travelling into Glasgow to work and is without fixed boundaries. The population density of London following the 2011 census was recorded as 5,200 people per square kilometre, while 3,395 people per square kilometre were registered in Glasgow. In 1931, the population density was , highlighting the "clearances" into the suburbs and new towns that were built to reduce the size of one of Europe's most densely populated cities. In 2005, Glasgow had the lowest life expectancy of any UK city at 72.9 years. Much was made of this during the 2008 Glasgow East by-election. In 2008, a World Health Organization report about health inequalities, revealing that male life expectancy varied from 54 years in Calton, Glasgow, Calton to 82 years in nearby Lenzie, East Dunbartonshire.


Areas and suburbs


City centre

The Glasgow city centre, city centre is bounded by High Street up to
Glasgow Cathedral Glasgow Cathedral (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European langua ...

Glasgow Cathedral
at Castle Street,
Glasgow Cross Glasgow Cross is at the hub of the ancient royal burgh and now city of Glasgow Glasgow, (, also , ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) with an estimated city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of H ...

Glasgow Cross
, Saltmarket including Glasgow Green and St Andrew's Square, Glasgow, St Andrew's Square to the east; Clyde Street and Broomielaw (along the River Clyde) to the south; and Charing Cross and Elmbank Street, beyond Blythswood Square to the west. The northern boundary (from east to west) follows Cathedral Street to North Hanover Street and George Square.


Retail and theatre district

The city centre is based on a grid plan, grid system of streets on the north bank of the River Clyde. The heart of the city is George Square, site of many of Public statues in Glasgow, Glasgow's public statues and the elaborate Victorian Glasgow City Chambers, headquarters of Politics of Glasgow, Glasgow City Council. To the south and west are the shopping precincts of Argyle Street, Glasgow, Argyle Street, Sauchiehall Street and Buchanan Street, the last featuring more upmarket retailers and winner of the Academy of Urbanism "Great Street Award" 2008. The collection of shops around these streets accumulate to become known as "The Style Mile". The main shopping areas include Buchanan Street, Buchanan Galleries, linking Buchanan Street and Sauchiehall Street, and the St. Enoch Centre linking Argyle Street and St Enoch Square), with the up-market Princes Square, which specifically features shops such as Ted Baker, Radley and Kurt Geiger. Buchanan Galleries and other city centre locales were chosen as locations for the 2013 film Under the Skin (2013 film), Under the Skin directed by Jonathan Glazer. Although the Glasgow scenes were shot with hidden cameras, star Scarlett Johansson was spotted around town. The Italian Centre in Ingram Street also specialises in designer labels. Glasgow's retail portfolio forms the UK's second largest and most economically important retail sector after Central London. The city centre is home to most of Glasgow's main cultural venues: the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, Glasgow City Hall, Theatre Royal, Glasgow, Theatre Royal (performing home of
Scottish Opera Scottish Opera is the national opera company of Scotland, and one of the five national performing arts companies of Scotland. Founded in 1962 and based in Glasgow, it is the largest performing arts organisation in Scotland. History Scottish Oper ...
and
Scottish Ballet Scottish Ballet is the national ballet company of Scotland and one of the five leading ballet companies of the United Kingdom, alongside the Royal Ballet, English National Ballet, Birmingham Royal Ballet and Northern Ballet. Founded in 1969, t ...
), the Pavilion Theatre (Glasgow), Pavilion Theatre, the King's Theatre, Glasgow, King's Theatre, Glasgow Film Theatre, Tron Theatre, Gallery of Modern Art, Glasgow, Gallery of Modern Art (GoMA), Mitchell Library and Theatre, the CCA Glasgow, Centre for Contemporary Arts, McLellan Galleries and the The Lighthouse (Glasgow), Lighthouse Museum of Architecture. Cineworld (Glasgow), The world's tallest cinema, the eighteen-screen Cineworld, is situated on Renfrew Street. The city centre is also home to four of Glasgow's higher education institutions: the University of Strathclyde, the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland, Glasgow School of Art and Glasgow Caledonian University, and to the largest college in Britain the City of Glasgow College in Cathedral Street.


Merchant City

This is the commercial and part-residential district of the Merchant City, a name coined by the historian Charles Oakley in the 1960s. This had started as a residential district of the wealthy city merchants involved in international trade and the textile industries in the 18th and early 19th centuries, with their warehouses nearby, including the
Tobacco Lords The Tobacco Lords were a group of Scottish merchants and slave traders who in the 18th century made enormous fortunes by trading in tobacco village in Xanthi, Greece Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the '' Nicotiana'' genu ...
from whom many of the streets take their name. With its mercantile wealth, and continuing growth even before the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, the city expanded by creating the New Town around George Square, soon followed by the New Town of Blythswood on Blythswood Hill which includes Blythswood Square. The original medieval centre around Glasgow Cross and the High Street was left behind. Glasgow Cross, situated at the junction of High Street (Glasgow), High Street, leading up to
Glasgow Cathedral Glasgow Cathedral (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European langua ...

Glasgow Cathedral
, Gallowgate, Trongate and Saltmarket was the original centre of the city, symbolised by its Mercat cross. Glasgow Cross encompasses the Tolbooth Steeple, all that remains of the original Glasgow Tolbooth, which was demolished in 1921. Moving northward up High Street towards Rottenrow and Townhead lies the 15th century
Glasgow Cathedral Glasgow Cathedral (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European langua ...

Glasgow Cathedral
and the Provand's Lordship. Due to growing industrial pollution levels in the mid-to-late 19th century, the area fell out of favour with residents. From the 1980s onwards, the Merchant City has been rejuvenated with luxury city centre flats and warehouse conversions. This regeneration has supported an increasing number of cafés and restaurants. The area is also home to a number of high end boutique style shops and some of Glasgow's most upmarket stores. The Merchant City is one centre of Glasgow's growing "cultural quarter", based on King Street, the Saltmarket and Trongate, and at the heart of the annual Merchant City Festival. The area has supported a growth in art galleries, the origins of which can be found in the late 1980s when it attracted artist-led organisations that could afford the cheap rents required to operate in vacant manufacturing or retail spaces. The artistic and cultural potential of the Merchant City as a "cultural quarter" was harnessed by independent arts organisations and
Glasgow City Council Glasgow City Council is the local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and also an academic discipline ...
, and the recent development of Trongate 103, which houses galleries, workshops, artist studios and production spaces, is considered a major outcome of the continued partnership between both. The area also contains a number of theatres and concert venues, including the Tron Theatre, the Old Fruitmarket, the Trades Hall, St. Andrew's in the Square, Merchant Square, and the Glasgow City Hall, City Halls.


International Financial Services District

To the western edge of the city centre, occupying the areas of Blythswood Hill and Anderston, lies Glasgow's financial district, known officially as the International Financial Services District (IFSD), although often irreverently nicknamed by the contemporary press as the "square kilometre" or "Wall Street on Clyde". Since the late 1980s the construction of many modern office blocks and high rise developments have paved the way for the IFSD to become one of the UK's largest financial quarters. With a reputation as an established financial services centre, coupled with comprehensive support services, Glasgow continues to attract and grow new business. Of the 10 largest general insurance companies in the UK, 8 have a base or head office in Glasgow — including Direct Line, Esure, AXA and Norwich Union. Key banking sector companies have also moved some of their services to commercial property in Glasgow – Resolution plc, Resolution, JPMorgan Chase, Barclays Wealth, Tesco Personal Finance, Morgan Stanley, Lloyds Banking Group, Clydesdale Bank, BNP Paribas, HSBC, Santander UK, Santander and the Royal Bank of Scotland. The Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Ministry of Defence have several departments and Peel Group, Clydeport, the Glasgow Stock Exchange, Student Loans Company, Scottish Executive Enterprise, Transport and Lifelong Learning Department, BT Group, Scottish Friendly. Scottish Qualifications Authority and Scottish Enterprise also have their headquarters in the district. Royal Dutch Shell also have one of their six worldwide Shared Business Centres located in the IFSD. Hilton Worldwide, Hilton have a corporate office based in the area.


West End

Glasgow's West End grew firstly to and around Blythswood Square and Garnethill, extending then to Woodlands Hill and A82 road, Great Western Road. It is a district of elegant townhouses and tenements with cafés, tea rooms, bars, boutiques, upmarket hotels, clubs and restaurants in the hinterland of Kelvingrove Park, the
University of Glasgow , image_name = University_of_Glasgow_Coat_of_Arms.jpg , image_size = 150px , latin_name = Universitas Glasguensis , motto = la, Via, Veritas, Vita ''Via et veritas et vita'' (, ) is a Latin language, Latin phrase meaning "the way and the t ...

University of Glasgow
, Glasgow Botanic Gardens and the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, focused especially on the area's main thoroughfares of Argyle Street (Finnieston), Great Western Road and Byres Road. The area is popular with tourists and students. The West End includes residential areas of Hillhead, Dowanhill, Kelvingrove Park, Kelvingrove, Kelvinside, Hyndland, Broomhill, Glasgow, Broomhill, Scotstoun, Jordanhill, Kelvindale and Anniesland and, to an increasing extent, Partick. The name is also increasingly being used to refer to any area to the west of Charing Cross, Glasgow, Charing Cross. The West End is bisected by the River Kelvin, which flows from the Campsie Fells in the north and confluences with the River Clyde at Yorkhill Quay. The spire of George Gilbert Scott, Sir George Gilbert Scott's University of Glasgow, Glasgow University main building (the second largest Gothic Revival building in Great Britain) is a major landmark, and can be seen from miles around, sitting atop Gilmorehill. The university itself is the fourth oldest in the English-speaking world. Much of the city's student population is based in the West End, adding to its cultural vibrancy. The area is also home to the
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is a museum and art gallery in Glasgow Glasgow, (, also , ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) with an estimated city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human ...

Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
, Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery, Kelvin Hall museums and research facilities, stores, and community sport. Adjacent to the Kelvin Hall was the Glasgow Museum of Transport, Museum of Transport, which reopened in 2010 after moving to a new location on a former dockland site at Glasgow Harbour where the River Kelvin flows into the Clyde. The new building is built to a design by Zaha Hadid. The West End Festival, one of Glasgow's largest festivals, is held annually in June. Glasgow is the home of the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, SECC, Great Britain's largest exhibition and conference centre. On 30 September 2013, a major expansion of the SECC facilities at the former Queen's Dock by Foster and Partners officially opened – the 13,000 seat The Hydro, Hydro arena. Adjacent to the SECC at Queen's Dock is the Clydeside distillery, a Scotch whisky distillery that opened in 2017 in the former dock pump house.


East End

The East End extends from
Glasgow Cross Glasgow Cross is at the hub of the ancient royal burgh and now city of Glasgow Glasgow, (, also , ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) with an estimated city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of H ...

Glasgow Cross
in the City Centre of Glasgow, City Centre to the boundary with North Lanarkshire, North and South Lanarkshire. It is home to the Glasgow Barrowland market, popularly known as "The Barras", Barrowland Ballroom, Glasgow Green, and Celtic Park, home of Celtic F.C., Celtic FC. Many of the original sandstone tenements remain in this district. The East End was once a major industrial centre, home to Sir William Arrol & Co., James Templeton & Co and William Beardmore and Company. A notable local employer continues to be the Wellpark Brewery, home of Tennent's Lager. The Glasgow Necropolis Garden Cemetery was created by the Merchants House on a hill above the Glasgow Cathedral, cathedral in 1831. Routes curve through the landscape uphill to the high statue of John Knox at the summit. There are two late 18th century tenements in Gallowgate. Dating from 1771 and 1780, both have been well restored. The construction of Charlotte Street was financed by David Dale, whose former scale can be gauged by the one remaining house, now run by the National Trust for Scotland. Further along Charlotte Street there stands a modern Gillespie, Kidd & Coia building of some note. Once a school, it has been converted into offices. Surrounding these buildings are a series of innovative housing developments conceived as "Homes for the Future", part of a project during the city's year as UK City of Architecture and Design in 1999. East of Glasgow Cross is St Andrew's in the Square, the oldest post-Reformation church in Scotland, built in 1739–1757 and displaying a Presbyterian grandeur befitting the church of the city's wealthy Tobacco Lords, tobacco merchants. Also close by is the more modest Scottish Episcopal Church, Episcopalian St Andrew's-by-the-Green, the oldest Episcopal church in Scotland. The Episcopalian St Andrew's was also known as the "Whistlin' Kirk" due to it being the first church after the Reformation to own an organ. Overlooking Glasgow Green is the façade of Templeton On The Green, featuring vibrant polychrome, polychromatic brickwork intended to evoke the Doge's Palace, Venice, Doge's Palace in Venice. The extensive Tollcross, Glasgow, Tollcross Park was originally developed from the estate of James Dunlop, the owner of a local steelworks. His large Scots Baronial Style architecture, baronial mansion was built in 1848 by David Bryce, which later housed the city's Children's Museum until the 1980s. Today, the mansion is a sheltered housing complex. The new National Indoor Sports Arena and Sir Chris Hoy Velodrome, Scottish National Indoor Sports Arena, a modern replacement for the Kelvin Hall, is in Dalmarnock. The area was the site of the Olympic Village, Athletes' Village for the 2014 Commonwealth Games, located adjacent to the new indoor sports arena. The ''East End Healthy Living Centre'' (EEHLC) was established in mid-2005 at Crownpoint Road with Lottery Funding and City grants to serve community needs in the area. Now called the ''Glasgow Club Crownpoint Sports Complex'', the centre provides service such as sports facilities, health advice, stress management, leisure and vocational classes. To the north of the East End lie the two large gasometers of Provan Gas Works, which stand overlooking Alexandra Park, Glasgow, Alexandra Park and a major interchange between the M8 and M80 motorway, M80 motorways.


South Side

Glasgow's South Side sprawls out south of the Clyde. The adjoining urban area includes some of Greater Glasgow's most affluent suburban towns, such as Newton Mearns, Clarkston, East Renfrewshire, Clarkston, and Giffnock, all of which are in East Renfrewshire, as well as Thorntonhall in South Lanarkshire. Newlands, Glasgow, Newlands and Dumbreck are examples of high-value residential districts within the city boundaries. There are many areas containing a high concentration of sandstone tenements, examples being Battlefield, Glasgow, Battlefield, Govanhill, Mount Florida and Shawlands. The large suburb of Pollokshields comprises both a quiet western part with undulating tree-lined boulevards lined with expensive villas, and a busier eastern part with a high-density grid of tenements and small shops. The south side also includes some post-war housing estates of various sizes such as Toryglen, Pollok, Castlemilk and Arden, Glasgow, Arden. The towns of Cambuslang and Rutherglen were included in the City of Glasgow district from 1975 to 1996, but are now in the South Lanarkshire council area. Although predominantly residential, the area does have several notable public buildings including, Charles Rennie Mackintosh's Scotland Street School Museum and House for an Art Lover; the
Burrell Collection Image:Wfm burrell collection.jpg, The museum building housing the Burrell Collection, with the entrance wing in the background to the left, and the glazed restaurant on the right looking onto the lawn The Burrell Collection is an art collection in ...
in Pollok Country Park; Alexander "Greek" Thomson's Holmwood House villa; the National Football Stadium Hampden Park in Mount Florida (home of Queen's Park F.C., Queens Park FC) and Ibrox Stadium (home of Rangers F.C., Rangers FC). The former docklands site at Pacific Quay on the south bank of the River Clyde, opposite the SECC, is the site of the Glasgow Science Centre and the headquarters of BBC Scotland and STV Group (Scotland), STV Group (owner of STV (TV network), STV), in a new purpose built digital media campus. In addition, several new bridges spanning the River Clyde have been built, including the Clyde Arc known by locals as the Squinty Bridge at Pacific Quay and others at Tradeston and Springfield Quay. The South Side also includes many public parks, including Linn Park, Glasgow, Scotland, Linn Park, Queen's Park, Glasgow, Queen's Park, and Bellahouston Park and several golf clubs, including the championship course at Haggs Castle. The South Side is also home to the large Pollok Country Park, which was awarded the accolade of Europe's Best Park 2008. The southside also directly borders Rouken Glen, Rouken Glen Park in neighbouring Giffnock. Pollok Park is Glasgow's largest park and until the early 2000s was the only country park in the city's boundary. In the early 2000s the Dams to Darnley Country Park was designated, although half of the park is in East Renfrewshire. As of 2021 the facilities at the still new park are quite lacking. Govan is a district and former burgh in the south-western part of the city. It is situated on the south bank of the River Clyde, opposite Partick. It was an administratively independent Police Burgh from 1864 until it was incorporated into the expanding city of Glasgow in 1912. Govan has a legacy as an engineering and
shipbuilding Shipbuilding is the construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition o ...

shipbuilding
centre of international repute and is home to one of two BAE Systems Surface Ships, BAE Systems Surface Ships shipyards on the River Clyde and the precision engineering firm, Thales Optronics. It is also home to the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, one of the largest hospitals in the country, and the maintenance depot for the Glasgow Subway system. The wider Govan area includes the districts of Ibrox, Glasgow, Ibrox, Cessnock, Glasgow, Cessnock, Kinning Park and Kingston, Glasgow, Kingston.


North Glasgow

North Glasgow extends out from the north of the city centre towards the affluent suburbs of Bearsden, Milngavie and Bishopbriggs in East Dunbartonshire and Clydebank in West Dunbartonshire. The area also contains some of the city's poorest residential areas. Possilpark is one such district, where levels of unemployment and drug abuse continue to be above the national average. Much of the housing in areas such as Possilpark and Hamiltonhill have fallen into a state of disrepair in recent years. This has led to large-scale redevelopment of much of the poorer housing stock in north Glasgow, and the wider regeneration of many areas, such as Ruchill, which have been transformed; many run-down tenements have now been refurbished or replaced by modern housing estates. Much of the housing stock in north Glasgow is rented social housing, with a high proportion of high-rise tower blocks, managed by the North Glasgow Housing Association trading as NG Homes and Glasgow Housing Association. Maryhill consists of well maintained traditional sandstone tenements. Although historically a working class area, its borders with the upmarket West End of the city mean that it is relatively wealthy compared to the rest of the north of the city, containing affluent areas such as Maryhill Park and North Kelvinside. Maryhill is also the location of Firhill Stadium, home of Partick Thistle F.C. since 1909. The Scottish Junior Football Association, junior team, Maryhill F.C. are also located in this part of north Glasgow. The
Forth and Clyde Canal The Forth and Clyde Canal is a canal Canals are waterways channels Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of the path o ...

Forth and Clyde Canal
passes through this part of the city, and at one stage formed a vital part of the local economy. It was for many years polluted and largely unused after the decline of heavy industry, but recent efforts to regenerate and re-open the canal to navigation have seen it rejuvenated, including art campuses at Port Dundas. Sighthill, Glasgow, Sighthill was home to Scotland's largest asylum seeker community but the area is now regenerated as part of the Youth Olympic Games bid. A huge part of the economic life of Glasgow was once located in Springburn, where the Saracen Foundry, engineering works of firms like Charles Tennant and locomotive workshops employed many Glaswegians. Indeed, Glasgow dominated this type of manufacturing, with 25% of all the world's locomotives being built in the area at one stage. It was home to the headquarters of the North British Locomotive Company. Today part of the Glasgow Works continues in use as a railway maintenance facility, all that is left of the industry in Springburn. It is proposed for closure in 2019.


Culture

The city has many amenities for a wide range of cultural activities, from curling to opera and ballet and from Association football, football to art appreciation; it also has a large selection of museums that include those devoted to transport, religion, and modern art. Many of the city's cultural sites were celebrated in 1990 when Glasgow was designated
European Capital of Culture A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members ha ...

European Capital of Culture
. The city's principal municipal library, the Mitchell Library, has grown into one of the largest public reference library, libraries in Europe, currently housing some 1.3 million books, an extensive collection of newspapers and thousands of photographs and maps. Of academic libraries, Glasgow University Library started in the 15th century and is one of the oldest and largest libraries in Europe, with unique and distinctive collections of international status. Most of Scotland's national arts organisations are based in Glasgow, including
Scottish Opera Scottish Opera is the national opera company of Scotland, and one of the five national performing arts companies of Scotland. Founded in 1962 and based in Glasgow, it is the largest performing arts organisation in Scotland. History Scottish Oper ...
,
Scottish Ballet Scottish Ballet is the national ballet company of Scotland and one of the five leading ballet companies of the United Kingdom, alongside the Royal Ballet, English National Ballet, Birmingham Royal Ballet and Northern Ballet. Founded in 1969, t ...
, National Theatre of Scotland,
Royal Scottish National Orchestra The Royal Scottish National Orchestra (RSNO) ( gd, Orcastra Nàiseanta Rìoghail na h-Alba) is an international orchestra, based in Glasgow, Scotland. It is one of the five National performing arts companies of Scotland, national performing arts ...
, BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and Scottish Youth Theatre. Glasgow has its own "Poet Laureate", a post created in 1999 for Edwin Morgan (poet), Edwin Morgan and occupied by Liz Lochhead from 2005 until 2011, when she stood down to take up the position of Scots Makar. Jim Carruth was appointed to the position of Poet Laureate for Glasgow in 2014 as part of the 2014 Commonwealth Games legacy. In 2013, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, PETA declared Glasgow to be the most vegan-friendly city in the UK.


Recreation

Glasgow is home to a variety of theatres including the King's Theatre, Glasgow, King's Theatre, the Theatre Royal, Glasgow, Theatre Royal and the Citizens Theatre and is home to many museums and art galleries, the largest and most famous being the
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is a museum and art gallery in Glasgow Glasgow, (, also , ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) with an estimated city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human ...

Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
, the Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery, the Gallery of Modern Art, Glasgow, Gallery of Modern Art (GoMA) and the
Burrell Collection Image:Wfm burrell collection.jpg, The museum building housing the Burrell Collection, with the entrance wing in the background to the left, and the glazed restaurant on the right looking onto the lawn The Burrell Collection is an art collection in ...
. Most of the museums and galleries in Glasgow are publicly owned and free to enter. The city has hosted many exhibitions over the years, including The Glasgow Garden Festival in 1988, being the UK City of Architecture 1999,
European Capital of Culture A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members ha ...

European Capital of Culture
1990, National City of Sport 1995–1999 and European Capital of Sport 2003. Glasgow has also hosted the Royal National Mòd, National Mòd no less than twelve times since 1895.List of Mod's places
for each year on Sabhal Mòr Ostaig website
In addition, unlike the older and larger Edinburgh Festival (where all Edinburgh's main festivals occur in the last three weeks of August), Glasgow's festivals fill the calendar. Festivals include the Glasgow International Comedy Festival, Glasgow International, Glasgow International Festival of Visual Art, Glasgow International Jazz Festival, Celtic Connections,
Glasgow Fair The Glasgow Fair is a holiday usually held during the second half of July in Glasgow, Scotland. 'The Fair' is the oldest of similar holidays and dates to the 12th century. The fair's earliest incarnation occurred in 1190, when Jocelin of Glasgow, ...
, Glasgow Film Festival, West End Festival, Merchant City Festival, Glasgay! Festival, Glasgay, and the World Pipe Band Championships.


Music scene

The city is home to numerous orchestras, ensembles and bands including those of
Scottish Opera Scottish Opera is the national opera company of Scotland, and one of the five national performing arts companies of Scotland. Founded in 1962 and based in Glasgow, it is the largest performing arts organisation in Scotland. History Scottish Oper ...
,
Scottish Ballet Scottish Ballet is the national ballet company of Scotland and one of the five leading ballet companies of the United Kingdom, alongside the Royal Ballet, English National Ballet, Birmingham Royal Ballet and Northern Ballet. Founded in 1969, t ...
,
Royal Scottish National Orchestra The Royal Scottish National Orchestra (RSNO) ( gd, Orcastra Nàiseanta Rìoghail na h-Alba) is an international orchestra, based in Glasgow, Scotland. It is one of the five National performing arts companies of Scotland, national performing arts ...
, BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra and related to the Royal Conservatoire of Scotland, the National Youth Orchestra of Scotland and the Universities and Colleges. Choirs of all type are well supported. Glasgow has many live music venues, pubs, and clubs. Some of the city's more well-known venues include the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, OVO Hydro, The OVO Hydro, the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, SECC, Glasgow Cathouse, The Art School, King Tut's Wah Wah Hut (where Oasis (band), Oasis were spotted and signed by Glaswegian record mogul Alan McGee), the Queen Margaret Union (who have Kurt Cobain's footprint locked in a safe), Barrowland Ballroom, the Barrowland, a ballroom converted into a live music venue as well as The Garage, Glasgow, The Garage, which is the largest nightclub in Scotland. More recent mid-sized venues include O2 ABC Glasgow, ABC, destroyed in the art school fire of 15 June 2018, and the O2 Academy Glasgow, O2 Academy, which play host to a similar range of acts. There are also a large number of smaller venues and bars, which host many local and touring musicians, including Stereo, 13th Note and Nice N Sleazy. Most recent recipient of the SLTN Music Pub of the Year award was Bar Bloc, awarded in November 2011. In 2010, Glasgow was named the UK's fourth "most musical" city by PRS for Music. Glasgow is also the "most mentioned city in the UK" in song titles, outside London according, to a chart produced by PRS for music, with 119, ahead of closest rivals Edinburgh who received 95 mentions Since the 1980s, the success of bands such as The Blue Nile, Gun (band), Gun, Simple Minds, Del Amitri, Texas (band), Texas, Hipsway, Love & Money, Idlewild (band), Idlewild, Deacon Blue, Orange Juice (band), Orange Juice, Lloyd Cole and the Commotions, Teenage Fanclub, Belle and Sebastian, Camera Obscura (band), Camera Obscura, Franz Ferdinand (band), Franz Ferdinand, Mogwai, Travis (band), Travis, and Primal Scream has significantly boosted the profile of the Glasgow music scene, prompting ''Time Magazine'' to liken Glasgow to Detroit during its 1960s Motown heyday. More recent successes include The Fratellis, Chvrches, Rustie, Vukovi, Glasvegas and Twin Atlantic. The city of Glasgow was appointed a UNESCO City of Music on 20 August 2008 as part of the Creative Cities Network. Glasgow's contemporary dance music scene has been spearheaded by Slam (band), Slam, and their record label Soma Quality Recordings, with their Pressure club nights attracting DJs and clubbers from around the world, which was previously held at The Arches (Glasgow), The Arches but following that venue's closure due to claims of unsafe level of drug use has moved to Sub Club. The MOBO Awards were held at the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, SECC on 30 September 2009, making Glasgow the first out-of-London city to host the event since its launch in 1995. On 9 November 2014, Glasgow hosted the 2014 MTV Europe Music Awards at OVO Hydro, The OVO Hydro, it was the second time Scotland hosted the show since 2003 in Edinburgh and overall the fifth time that the United Kingdom has hosted the show since 2011 in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The event was hosted by Nicki Minaj and featured performances from Ariana Grande, Enrique Iglesias, Ed Sheeran, U2 and Slash (musician), Slash.


Media

There have been hundreds of films made about Glasgow or in Glasgow. Both BBC Scotland and STV (TV network), STV have their headquarters in Glasgow. Television programs filmed in Glasgow include ''Rab C. Nesbitt'', ''Taggart (series), Taggart'', ''Tutti Frutti (1987 TV series), Tutti Frutti'', ''High Times (TV series), High Times'', ''River City'', ''City Lights (1984 TV series), City Lights'', ''Chewin' the Fat'', ''Still Game'' and ''Lovesick (TV series), Lovesick''. Most recently the long-running series ''Question Time (TV series), Question Time'' and the early evening quiz programme ''Eggheads (TV series), Eggheads'' moved its production base to the city. Most National Lottery game shows are also filmed in Glasgow. children's game show ''Copycats'' is filmed there, and the Irish/UK programme ''Mrs. Brown's Boys'' is filmed at BBC Scotland. The Scottish press publishes various newspapers in the city such as the ''Evening Times'', ''The Herald (Glasgow), The Herald'', ''Sunday Herald, The Sunday Herald'', the ''Sunday Mail (Scotland), Sunday Mail'' and the ''Daily Record (Scotland), Daily Record''. Scottish editions of Trinity Mirror and News International titles are printed in the city. STV Group (Scotland), STV Group is a Glasgow-based media conglomerate with interests in television, and publishing advertising. STV Group owns and operates both Scottish ITV franchises (Central Scotland and Grampian), both branded STV (TV network), STV. Glasgow also had its own television channel, STV Glasgow, which launched in June 2014, which also shows some of Glasgow's own programs filmed at the STV headquarters in Glasgow. Shows included ''The Riverside Show'', ''Scottish Kitchen'', ''City Safari'', ''Football Show'' and ''Live at Five''. STV Glasgow merged with STV Edinburgh to form STV2 in April 2017 which eventually closed in June 2018. Various radio stations are also located in Glasgow. BBC Radio Scotland, the national radio broadcaster for Scotland, is located in the BBC's Glasgow headquarters alongside its BBC Radio nan Gaidheal, Gaelic-language sister station, which is also based in Stornoway. Bauer Radio owns the principal commercial radio stations in Glasgow: 102.5 Clyde 1, Clyde 1 and 1152 Clyde 2, Clyde 2, which can reach over 2.3 million listeners. In 2004, STV Group plc (then known as SMG plc) sold its 27.8% stake in Scottish Radio Holdings to the broadcasting group EMAP for £90.5 million. Other stations broadcasting from Glasgow include 105.2 Smooth Radio, Real Radio and 96.3 Rock Radio, which are all owned by GMG Radio. Global Radio's Central Scotland radio station Capital FM Scotland also broadcast from studios in Glasgow. The city has a strong community radio sector, including Celtic Music Radio, Subcity Radio, Radio Magnetic, Sunny Govan Radio, AWAZ FM and Insight Radio.


Religion

Glasgow is a city of significant religious diversity. The Church of Scotland and the Roman Catholicism in Scotland, Roman Catholic Church are the two largest Christian denominations in the city. There are 147 congregations in the Church of Scotland's Presbytery of Glasgow (Church of Scotland), Presbytery of Glasgow (of which 104 are within the city boundaries, the other 43 being in adjacent areas). Within the city boundaries there are 65 parishes of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Glasgow and four parishes of the Diocese of Motherwell. The city has four Christian cathedrals:
Glasgow Cathedral Glasgow Cathedral (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European langua ...

Glasgow Cathedral
, of the Church of Scotland; St Andrew's Cathedral, Glasgow, St Andrew's Cathedral, of the Roman Catholic Church; St. Mary's Cathedral, Glasgow, St Mary's Cathedral, of the Scottish Episcopal Church, and St Luke's Orthodox Cathedral, Glasgow, St Luke's Cathedral, of the Greek Orthodox Church. The Baptist Church and Salvation Army are well represented. The Protestant churches are the largest in number, including Baptist, Episcopalian, Methodist and Presbyterian. 32% of the population follow the Protestant Church of Scotland whilst 29% following the Roman Catholic Church, according to the 2001 census (Christians overall form 65%). Much of the city's Roman Catholic population are those of Irish-Scots, Irish ancestry. The divisions between the two denominations and their respective communities play a major part in sectarianism in Glasgow, in a similar nature to that of Northern Ireland, although not segregated territorially as in Belfast. Biblical Unitarianism, Biblical unitarians are represented by three Christadelphian ecclesias, referred to geographically, as "South", "Central" and "Kelvin". The Sikh community is served by four Gurdwaras. Two are situated in the West End (''Central Gurdwara Singh Sabha'' in Sandyford, Glasgow, Sandyford and ''Guru Nanak Sikh Temple'' in Kelvinbridge) and two in the Southside area of Pollokshields (''Guru Granth Sahib Gurdwara'' and ''Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Gurdwara''). In 2013, Scotland's first purpose-built Gurdwara opened in a massive opening ceremony. Built at a cost of £3.8M, it can hold 1,500 worshippers. Central Gurdwara is currently constructing a new building in the city. There are almost 10,000 Sikhs in Scotland and the majority live in Glasgow. Glasgow Central Mosque in the Gorbals district is the largest mosque in Scotland and, along with twelve other mosques in the city, caters for the city's Muslim population, estimated to number 33,000. Glasgow also has a Hindu mandir. Glasgow has seven synagogues, including the Romanesque-revival Garnethill Synagogue in the city centre. Glasgow currently has the seventh largest Jewish population in the United Kingdom after London, Manchester, Leeds, Gateshead, Brighton and Bournemouth but once had a Jewish population second only to London, estimated at 20,000 in the Gorbals alone. In 1993, the St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art opened in Glasgow. It is believed to be the only public museum to examine all the world's major religious faiths.


Language

Glasgow is Scotland's main locus of Scottish Gaelic, Gaelic language use outside the Highlands and Islands. In 2011, 5,878 residents of the city over age 3 spoke Gaelic, amounting to 1.0% of the population. Of Scotland's 25 largest cities and towns, only Inverness, the unofficial capital of the Scottish Highlands, Highlands, has a larger percentage of Gaelic speakers. In the
Greater Glasgow Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area (or conurbation). It does not relate to municipal government b ...
area there were 8,899 Gaelic-speakers or 0.8% of the population. Both the Gaelic language television station BBC Alba and the Gaelic language radio station BBC Radio nan Gàidheal have studios in Glasgow, their only locations outside the Highlands and Islands.


Architecture

Very little of
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
Glasgow remains; the two main landmarks from this period being the 15th century Provand's Lordship and 13th century St. Mungo's Cathedral, although the original medieval street plan (along with many of the street names) on the eastern side of the city centre has largely survived intact. Also in the 15th century began the building of Cathcart Castle, completed C.1450 with an impressive view over the landscape in all directions. It was at this castle Mary Queen of Scots supposedly spent the night before her defeat at the Battle of Langside in May 1568. The castle was demolished in 1980 for safety reasons. The vast majority of the central city area as seen today dates from the 19th century. As a result, Glasgow has an impressive heritage of Victorian architecture: the Glasgow City Chambers; the main building of the
University of Glasgow , image_name = University_of_Glasgow_Coat_of_Arms.jpg , image_size = 150px , latin_name = Universitas Glasguensis , motto = la, Via, Veritas, Vita ''Via et veritas et vita'' (, ) is a Latin language, Latin phrase meaning "the way and the t ...

University of Glasgow
, designed by George Gilbert Scott, Sir George Gilbert Scott; and the
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is a museum and art gallery in Glasgow Glasgow, (, also , ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) with an estimated city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human ...

Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum
, designed by John William Simpson (architect), Sir John W. Simpson, are notable examples. The city is notable for architecture designed by the Glasgow School, the most notable exponent of that style being Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Mackintosh was an architect and designer in the Arts and Crafts Movement and the main exponent of Art Nouveau in the United Kingdom, designing numerous noted Glasgow buildings such as the Glasgow School of Art, Willow Tearooms and the Scotland Street School Museum. A hidden gem of Glasgow, also designed by Mackintosh, is the Queen's Cross Church, Glasgow, Queen's Cross Church, the only church by the renowned artist to be built. Another architect who has had an enduring impact on the city's appearance is Alexander Thomson, with notable examples including the Holmwood House villa, and likewise Sir John James Burnet, awarded the R.I.B.A's Royal Gold Medal for his lifetime's service to architecture. The buildings reflect the wealth and self-confidence of the residents of the "Second City of the Empire". Glasgow generated immense wealth from trade and the industries that developed from the Industrial Revolution. The shipyards,
marine engineering Marine engineering includes the engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The di ...
, steel making, and heavy industry all contributed to the growth of the city. Many of the city's most impressive buildings were built with red or blond sandstone, but during the industrial era those colours disappeared under a pervasive black layer of soot and pollutants from the Furnace (house heating), furnaces, until the Clean Air Act 1956, Clean Air Act was introduced in 1956. In recent years many of these buildings have been cleaned and restored to their original appearance. There are over 1,800 listed buildings in the city, of architectural and historical importance, and 23 Conservation Areas extending over 1,471 hectares. Such areas include the Central Area, Dennistoun, the West End, Pollokshields – the first major planned garden suburb in Britain – Newlands and the village of Carmunnock. Modern buildings in Glasgow include the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, and along the banks of the Clyde are the Glasgow Science Centre, OVO Hydro, The OVO Hydro and the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, whose Clyde Auditorium was designed by Norman Foster (architect), Sir Norman Foster, and is colloquially known as the "Armadillo". In 2006 Zaha Hadid won a competition to design the new Glasgow Museum of Transport, Museum of Transport. Hadid's museum opened on the waterfront in 2011 and has been renamed the Riverside Museum to reflect the change in location and to celebrate Glasgow's rich industrial heritage stemming from the Clyde. Glasgow's impressive historical and modern architectural traditions were celebrated in 1999 when the city was designated UK City of Architecture and Design, winning the accolade over Liverpool and Edinburgh.


Economy

Glasgow has the largest economy in Scotland and is at the hub of the metropolitan area of West Central Scotland. Glasgow also has the third highest GDP Per capita of any city in the UK (after London and Edinburgh). The city itself sustains more than 410,000 jobs in over 12,000 companies. Over 153,000 jobs were created in the city between 2000 and 2005 – a growth rate of 32%. Glasgow's annual economic growth rate of 4.4% is now second only to that of London. In 2005, over 17,000 new jobs were created, and 2006 saw private-sector investment in the city reaching £4.2 billion, an increase of 22% in a single year. 55% of the residents in the
Greater Glasgow Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area (or conurbation). It does not relate to municipal government b ...
area commute to the city every day. Once dominant export orientated manufacturing industries such as shipbuilding and other heavy engineering have been gradually replaced in importance by more diversified forms of economic activity, although major manufacturing firms continue to be headquartered in the city, such as Aggreko, Weir Group, Jim McColl, Clyde Blowers, James Howden, Howden, Linn Products, Firebrand Games, William Grant & Sons, Whyte and Mackay, The Edrington Group, British Polar Engines and Albion Motors. Glasgow was once one of the most significant cities in the UK for manufacturing, which generated a great deal of the city's wealth; the most prominent industry being shipbuilding based on the River Clyde. Although Glasgow owed much of its economic growth to the shipbuilding industry, which still continues today in the form of Ferguson Marine and BAE Systems Maritime - Naval Ships' two shipyards, the city has its roots in the tobacco trade and is noted to have "risen from its medieval slumber" from trade in tobacco, pioneered by figures such as John Glassford. The city was also noted for its locomotive construction industry—led by firms such as the North British Locomotive Company—which grew during the 19th century before entering a decline in the 1960s. Whilst manufacturing has declined, Glasgow's economy has seen significant relative growth of tertiary sector of the economy, tertiary sector industries such as financial and business services (centred around the International Financial Services District on the Broomielaw, once a stretch of riverside warehouses replaced by modern office blocks), communications, biosciences, creative industries, healthcare, higher education, retail and tourism. Glasgow is now the second most popular foreign tourist destination in Scotland (fifth in the UK) and offers Scotland's largest retail centre. Between 1998 and 2001, the city's financial services sector grew at a rate of 30%, making considerable gains on Edinburgh, which has historically been the centre of the Scottish financial sector. Glasgow is now one of Europe's sixteen largest financial centres, with a growing number of Blue chip (stock market), Blue chip financial sector companies establishing significant operations or headquarters in the city. The 1990s and first decade of the 21st century saw substantial growth in the number of call centres based in Glasgow. In 2007 roughly 20,000 people, a third of all call centre employees in Scotland, were employed by Glasgow call centres. This growth and its high use of recruitment agencies to hire graduates as temporary workers has led to accusations of exploitative practices such as long hours, poor pay and lack of job security by the Trades Union Congress, TUC and other union bodies. In recent years some call centres have taken steps to rectify this criticism. The city's main manufacturing industries include companies involved in; shipbuilding, engineering, construction, brewing and distilling, printing and publishing, chemicals and textiles as well as newer growth sectors such as optoelectronics, software development and biotechnology. Glasgow forms the western part of the Silicon Glen high tech sector of Scotland with consumer electronics companies such as RHA Audio, RHA Technologies headquartered.


Transport


Public transport

Glasgow has a large urban transport system, mostly managed by the Strathclyde Partnership for Transport (SPT). The city has many bus services; since Bus deregulation in the United Kingdom, bus deregulation almost all are provided by private operators, though SPT part-funds some services. The principal bus operators within the city are: First Glasgow, McGill's Bus Services, Stagecoach West Scotland and Glasgow Citybus. The main bus terminal in the city is Buchanan bus station. Glasgow has the most extensive commuter rail, urban rail network in the UK outside London, with rail services travelling to a large part of the Strathclyde, West of Scotland. Most lines were electrified under British Rail. All trains running within Scotland, including the local Glasgow trains, are operated by Abellio ScotRail, who owns the franchise as determined by the Scottish Government. Glasgow Central railway station, Central station and Glasgow Queen Street railway station, Queen Street station are the two main railway terminals. Glasgow Central is the terminus of the long West Coast Main Line from Euston railway station, London Euston, as well as TransPennine Express services from Manchester and CrossCountry services from Birmingham, Bristol, Plymouth and various other destinations in England. Glasgow Central is also the terminus for suburban services on the south side of Glasgow, Ayrshire and Inverclyde, as well as being served by the cross city link from Dalmuir to Motherwell. Most other services within Scotland – the main line to Edinburgh, plus services to Aberdeen, Dundee, Inverness and the Western Highlands – operate from Queen Street station. The city's suburban network is currently divided by the River Clyde and the Crossrail Glasgow initiative has been proposed to link them; it is currently awaiting funding from the Scottish Government. The city is linked to Edinburgh by Glasgow to Edinburgh Lines, four direct railway links. In addition to the suburban rail network, SPT operates the Glasgow Subway. The Subway is the United Kingdom's only completely underground rapid transit, metro system and is generally recognised as the world's third oldest underground railway after the London Underground and the Budapest Metro. Both railway and subway stations have a number of park and ride facilities. As part of the wider regeneration along the banks of the River Clyde, a bus rapid transit system called Clyde Fastlink is operational between Glasgow City Centre to the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital.


Shipping

Global-ship-management is carried out by maritime and logistics firms in Glasgow, in client companies employing over 100,000 seafarers. This reflects maritime skills over many decades and the training and education of deck officers and marine engineers from around the world at the City of Glasgow College, Nautical Campus, from which graduate around one third of all such graduates in the United Kingdom. The main operational dock within Glasgow operated by Peel Group, Clydeport is the King George V Dock, Glasgow, King George V Dock, near Braehead. Since the advent of Containerization, containerisation, most other facilities, such as Hunterston Terminal, are located in the deep waters of the Firth of Clyde#Shipping in the Firth, Firth of Clyde, which together handle some 7.5 million tonnes of cargo each year. Longer distant commercial sea shipping from Glasgow occurs regularly to many European destinations, including Mediterranean and Baltic ports via passage through the Sea of the Hebrides. Leisure and tourist sailing is important, at marinas and towns of the Clyde, including the PS Waverley, PS ''Waverley'', the world's last operational seagoing paddle steamer, paddle-steamer.


Roads

The main M8 motorway passes around the city centre and connects with the M77 motorway, M77, M74 motorway, M74, M73 motorway, M73 and M80 motorway, M80 motorways, all of which pass within the city's boundaries. The A82 road, A82 connects Glasgow to Argyll and Bute, Argyll and the western Scottish Highlands, Highlands. The A74(M) and M74 motorways, M74 runs directly south towards Carlisle, Cumbria, Carlisle. Other strategic roads in the city include the Glasgow East End Regeneration Route, East End Regeneration Route, which provides easier access to areas of the East End, linking the M8 to the extended M74.


Airports

The city has three international airports within 45 minutes travel of the city centre, as well as a centrally located seaplane terminal. Two are dedicated to Glasgow while the third is Edinburgh International which, as it is situated on the west side of Edinburgh, is relatively close to Glasgow. These airports are Glasgow Airport (GLA) ( west of the city centre) in Renfrewshire, Glasgow Prestwick Airport (PIK) ( southwest) in Ayrshire, Edinburgh Airport (EDI), ( east) in Edinburgh and Glasgow Seaplane Terminal, by the Glasgow Science Centre on the River Clyde. There are also several smaller, domestic and private airports around the city. There is a heliport, Glasgow City Heliport, located at Stobcross Quay on the banks of the Clyde. All of the international airports are easily accessible by public transport, with GLA and EDI directly linked by a bus routes from the main bus station and a direct rail connection to PIK from Glasgow Central Station. A series of proposals to provide a direct rail link to Glasgow International Airport have ended unsuccessfully, beginning with the Glasgow Airport Rail Link in 2009. As of 2019, local authorities have approved plans for a "Glasgow Metro", including a connection to the International Airport.


Housing

Glasgow is known for its tenements; the red and blond sandstone buildings are some of the most recognisable features of the city. These were the most popular form of housing in 19th- and 20th-century Glasgow, and remain the most common form of dwelling in Glasgow today. Tenements are commonly bought by a wide range of social types and are favoured for their large rooms, high ceilings and original period features. The Hyndland area of Glasgow became the first tenement conservation area in the UK and includes some tenement houses with as many as six bedrooms. Like many cities in the UK, Glasgow witnessed the construction of high-rise housing in tower blocks in the 1960s, along with large overspill estates on the periphery of the city, in areas like Pollok, Nitshill, Castlemilk, Easterhouse, Milton, Glasgow, Milton and Drumchapel. These were built to replace the decaying inner-city tenement buildings originally built for workers who migrated from the surrounding countryside, the Highlands, and the rest of the United Kingdom, particularly Ireland, to feed the local demand for labour. The massive demand at that time outstripped the pace of new building, and many originally fine tenements often became overcrowded and unsanitary. Many degenerated into infamous slums, such as the Gorbals. Efforts to improve this housing situation, most successfully with the City Improvement Trust in the late 19th century, cleared the slums of the old town areas such as the Trongate, High Street (Glasgow), High Street and
Glasgow Cross Glasgow Cross is at the hub of the ancient royal burgh and now city of Glasgow Glasgow, (, also , ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) with an estimated city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of H ...

Glasgow Cross
. Subsequent
urban renewal File:Cabrini Green Housing Project.jpg, upright=1.35, 1999 photograph looking northeast on Chicago's Cabrini–Green Homes, Cabrini–Green Public housing, housing project, one of many urban renewal efforts Urban renewal (also called urban regene ...
initiatives, such as those motivated by the Bruce Report, entailed the comprehensive demolition of slum tenement areas, the development of New towns in the United Kingdom, new towns on the periphery of the city, and the construction of tower blocks. The policy of tenement demolition is now considered to have been short-sighted, wasteful and largely unsuccessful. Many of Glasgow's worst tenements were refurbished into desirable accommodation in the 1970s and 1980s and the policy of demolition is considered to have destroyed many fine examples of a "universally admired architectural" style. The Glasgow Housing Association took ownership of the housing stock from the city council on 7 March 2003, and has begun a £96 million clearance and demolition programme to clear and demolish many of the high-rise flats.


Healthcare

Medical care is mainly provided by NHS Scotland and is directly administered by NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde. Major hospitals, including those with Emergency department, Accident & Emergency provision, are: the Western Infirmary, Gartnavel General Hospital, Glasgow Royal Infirmary and the Glasgow Dental Hospital and School, Dental Hospital in the city Centre, Stobhill Hospital in the North and the Glasgow Victoria Infirmary, Victoria Infirmary and Queen Elizabeth University Hospital in the South Side. Gartnavel Royal Hospital and The Priory are the two major psychiatric hospitals based in Glasgow. The Queen Elizabeth University Hospital (QEUH) Campus is a 1,677-bed acute hospital located in Govan in the south-west of Glasgow. The hospital is built on the site of the former Southern General Hospital and opened at the end of April 2015. The hospital comprises a newly built 1,109-bed adult hospital, a 256-bed children's hospital and two major A&E departments, one for adults and one for children in addition to buildings retained from the former hospital. The QEUH is the Regional Major Trauma Centre for the west of Scotland and is also the largest hospital campus in Europe. There is also an emergency telephone service provided by NHS 24 and 24-hour access to general practitioners through out-of-hours centres. Paramedic services are provided by the Scottish Ambulance Service and supported by voluntary bodies like the St. Andrew's Ambulance Association. A strong Teaching hospital, teaching tradition is maintained between the city's main hospitals and the University of Glasgow Medical School. All pharmacies provide a wide range of services including minor ailment advice, emergency hormonal contraception, public health advice, some provide oxygen and needle exchange. There are private clinics and hospitals at the Nuffield Health, Nuffield in the west end and Ross Hall in the south side of the city.


Education

Glasgow is a major centre of higher and academic research, with the following universities and colleges within of the city centre: *
University of Glasgow , image_name = University_of_Glasgow_Coat_of_Arms.jpg , image_size = 150px , latin_name = Universitas Glasguensis , motto = la, Via, Veritas, Vita ''Via et veritas et vita'' (, ) is a Latin language, Latin phrase meaning "the way and the t ...

University of Glasgow
* University of Strathclyde * Glasgow Caledonian University * University of the West of Scotland * Glasgow School of Art, The Glasgow School of Art * Royal Conservatoire of Scotland * City of Glasgow College * Glasgow Clyde College * Glasgow Kelvin College * West College Scotland In 2011 Glasgow had 53,470 full-time students aged 18–74 resident in the city during term time, more than any other city in Scotland and the fifth-highest number in the United Kingdom outside London. The majority of those who live away from home reside in Shawlands, Dennistoun and the West End of the city. The City Council operates 29 secondary schools, 149 primary schools and three specialist schools – the Dance School of Scotland, Bellahouston Academy#Glasgow School of Sport, Glasgow School of Sport and the Glasgow Gaelic School (''Sgoil Ghàidhlig Ghlaschu''), the only secondary school in Scotland to teach exclusively in Scottish Gaelic, Gaelic. Outdoor Education facilities are provided by the city council at the Blairvadach Centre, near Helensburgh. Jordanhill School is operated directly by the Scottish Government. Glasgow also has a number of Independent schools, including The High School of Glasgow, founded in 1124 and the oldest school in Scotland; Hutchesons' Grammar School, founded in 1639 and one of the oldest school institutions in Britain; and others such as Craigholme School (closed 2020), Glasgow Academy, Kelvinside Academy and St. Aloysius' College, Glasgow, St. Aloysius' College.


Sport


Football

The world's first international Association football, football match was held in 1872 at the West of Scotland Cricket Club's Hamilton Crescent ground in the Partick area of the city. The match, between Scotland national football team, Scotland and England national football team, England finished 0–0. Glasgow was the first city (since joined by Liverpool in 1985, Madrid in 1986, 2014, 2016 and 2018, Milan in 1994 and London in 2019) to have had two football teams in European finals in the same season: in 1967,
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
competed in the UEFA Champions League, European Cup final with rivals Rangers competing in the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, Cup Winners' Cup final. Rangers were the first football club from the United Kingdom to reach a European final, doing so in 1961 European Cup Winners' Cup Final, 1961. They have also won more domestic top-tier league titles than any other football club in the world (currently 55). Celtic were the first non-Latin club to win the European Cup, under the management of Jock Stein in 1966–67 European Cup, 1967, before Manchester United F.C., Manchester United the following year. Celtic also went on to reach another European Cup Final in 1970 European Cup Final, 1970, losing to Feyenoord, and also the final of the UEFA Europa League, UEFA Cup in 2003 UEFA Cup Final, 2003, where they lost an enthralling match which finished 3–2 to Portuguese club FC Porto, Porto. Rangers also reached the final of the same competition in 2008 UEFA Cup Final, 2008, where they lost to FC Zenit Saint Petersburg, Zenit Saint Petersburg of Russia. Hampden Park, which is Scotland's national football stadium, holds the European record for attendance at a football match: 149,547 saw Scotland beat England 3–1 in 1937, in the days before leading British stadia became All-seater stadium, all-seated. Hampden Park has hosted the final of the UEFA Champions League on three occasions, most recently in 2002 and hosted the UEFA Cup Final in 2007. Celtic Park (60,411 seats) is located in the east end of Glasgow, and Ibrox Stadium (50,817 seats) on the south side. Glasgow has four professional football clubs, who all play in the SPFL:
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
, Rangers, Partick Thistle F.C., Partick Thistle, and Queen's Park F.C., Queen's Park (after their move from amateur status in November 2019). Prior to this, Glasgow had two other professional teams: Clyde F.C., Clyde (since moved to
Cumbernauld Cumbernauld (; sco, Cummernaud ; gd, Comar nan Allt, meeting of the streams) is a large town in North Lanarkshire North Lanarkshire ( sco, North Lanrikshire; gd, Siorrachd Lannraig a Tuath) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders ...
) and Third Lanark A.C., Third Lanark (liquidated in 1967), plus four others active in the league in the 19th century: Thistle F.C., Thistle, Cowlairs F.C., Cowlairs, Northern F.C., Northern and Linthouse F.C., Linthouse. There are a number of West of Scotland Football League clubs within the city as well, such as Pollok F.C., Pollok, Maryhill F.C., Maryhill, Benburb F. C., Benburb, Ashfield F.C., Ashfield, Glasgow Perthshire F.C., Glasgow United F.C., Glasgow United (formerly Shettleston Juniors), and Petershill F.C., Petershill, plus numerous amateur teams. The history of football in the city, as well as the status of the
Old Firm The Old Firm is the collective name for the Scottish football Football is a family of team sport A team is a Celtic and Rangers F.C.">Rangers, which are both based in Glasgow. The two clubs are by far the most successful and popular i ...
, attracts many visitors to football matches in the city throughout the season. The Scottish Football Association, the national governing body, and the Scottish Football Museum are based in Glasgow, as are the Scottish Professional Football League, Scottish Junior Football Association and Scottish Amateur Football Association. The Glasgow Cup was a once popular tournament, which was competed for by Rangers, Celtic, Clyde, Partick Thistle and Queen's Park. The competition is now played for by the youth sides of the five teams. Glasgow is also home to six women's football teams. Currently, Glasgow City F.C., Glasgow City are the champions of the Scottish Women's Premier League. Other local teams include Glasgow Girls F.C., Glasgow Girls and the women's sections of the men's clubs: Celtic F.C. Women, Celtic and Rangers L.F.C., Rangers play in the top division.


Rugby union

Glasgow has a professional rugby union club, the Glasgow Warriors, which plays in the European Rugby Champions Cup and Pro14 alongside teams from Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Italy and South Africa. The Warriors current home is Scotstoun Stadium and has been since 2012, previously they played at Firhill Stadium. They have won the Melrose 7s in both 2014 and 2015 and were also crowned champions of the Pro12 at the end of the 2014/15 season after beating Irish side Munster in Belfast. In the Scottish League, Glasgow Hawks RFC was formed in 1997 by the merger of two of Glasgow's oldest clubs: Glasgow Academicals RFC, Glasgow Academicals and Glasgow High Kelvinside (GHK). Despite the merger, the second division teams of Glasgow Academicals and Glasgow High Kelvinside re-entered the Scottish rugby league in 1998. South of Glasgow, in East Renfrewshire, in the suburb of Giffnock, is based another of Glasgow area's most prominent clubs Glasgow Hutchesons Aloysians RFC (GHA). GHA was formed in 2002 with the merger of two of Glasgow's leading clubs at the time, Glasgow Southern RFC and Hutchesons Aloysians RFC. Cartha Queens Park RFC, Cartha Queen's Park play at Dumbreck, within the city. Glasgow was also home to one of the oldest rugby clubs in Scotland, West of Scotland F.C., which was formed in 1865, and was a founding member of the Scottish Rugby Union. The club was originally based in Partick at Hamilton Crescent but is now based outside the city, at Burnbrae, Milngavie in East Dunbartonshire.


Rugby league

The Easterhouse Panthers based in the East End of Glasgow are a rugby league team who play in the Rugby League Conference Scotland Division. Scotstoun Stadium has also hosted many rugby league tournaments/events.


Ice hockey

The City of Glasgow has a number of ice rinks, and a temporary one is set up in George Square in the Christmas period. From 1966 to 1986, the Glasgow Dynamos played at Crossmyloof Ice Rink. Since October 2010 a team called the Glasgow Clan based in the nearby Braehead Arena in Renfrewshire has played in the professional Elite Ice Hockey League alongside three other Scottish teams, the Fife Flyers, Dundee Stars and the Edinburgh Capitals. This is the first time that a top level ice hockey team has represented Glasgow.


Swimming

The Arlington Baths Club was founded in 1870. It is situated in the Woodlands, Glasgow, Woodlands area of the city and is still in use today. It is believed the club's first Baths Master William Wilson (aquatics), William Wilson invented water polo at the club. The Arlington inspired other Swimming Clubs and the Western Baths, which opened in 1876, is also still in existence in nearby Hillhead. Most of Glasgow's Victorian and Edwardian Municipal Pools have been closed or demolished, with the city council investing in large new leisure centres such as Tollcross International Swimming Centre, Tollcross, Springburn, Gorbals, Scotstoun and Bellahouston. A community group is however hoping to re-open Govanhill Baths, on the city's southside.


Basketball

Glasgow hosts Scotland's only professional basketball team, the Glasgow Rocks, who compete in the British Basketball League. Previously based in Renfrewshire's Braehead Arena and the 1,200-seat Kelvin Hall, the team has been based at the Emirates Arena since the 2012/13 season.


Other sports

Major international sporting arenas include the Kelvin Hall and Scotstoun Sports Centre. In 2003 the National Academy for Badminton was completed in Scotstoun. In 2003, Glasgow was also given the title of European Capital of Sport. Glasgow is also host to many cricket clubs including Clydesdale Cricket Club who have been title winners for the Scottish Cup many times. This club also acted as a neutral venue for a One Day International match between India national cricket team, India and Pakistan national cricket team, Pakistan in 2007, but due to bad weather it was called off. Smaller sporting facilities include an abundance of outdoor playing fields, as well as golf clubs such as Haggs Castle and artificial ski slopes. Between 1998 and 2004, the Scottish Claymores American football team played some or all of their home games each season at Hampden Park and the venue also hosted World Bowl XI. Glasgow Green and the Gorbals are home to a number of rowing (sport), rowing clubs, some with open membership the rest belonging to universities or schools. Historically, rowing races on the
River Clyde River Clyde ( gd, Abhainn Chluaidh, , sco, Clyde Watter, or ) is a river that flows into the Firth of Clyde The Firth of Clyde is the mouth of the River Clyde. It is located on the west coast of Scotland and constitutes the deepest coastal ...
here attracted huge crowds of spectators to watch regattas in the late 19th century and early 20th century; before football caught the public imagination. Two of Glasgow's rowing clubs separately claim that it was their members who were among the founders of Rangers Football Club. Motorcycle speedway racing was first introduced to Glasgow in 1928 and is currently staged at Ashfield Stadium in the North of the city. The home club, Glasgow Tigers (speedway), Glasgow Tigers, compete in the SGB Championship, the second tier of motorcycle speedway in Britain. Glasgow is also one of five places in Scotland that hosts the final of the Scottish Cup of Shinty, better known as the Camanachd Cup. This is usually held at Old Anniesland. Once home to numerous Shinty clubs, there is now only one senior club in Glasgow, Glasgow Mid-Argyll, as well as two university sides from University of Strathclyde and
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University of Glasgow
. Glasgow Glasgow bid for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics, bid to host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics but lost to Buenos Aires in the 4 July 2013 vote. Glasgow was the host of the 2018 European Sports Championships along with Berlin (hosts of the 2018 European Athletics Championships).


2014 Commonwealth Games

On 9 November 2007, Glasgow was selected to be the host city of the 2014 Commonwealth Games. The games were held at a number of existing and newly constructed sporting venues across the city, including a refurbished Hampden Park, Kelvingrove Park, Kelvin Hall, and the OVO Hydro at the Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre, SECC. The opening ceremony was held at Celtic Park. 2014 was the third time the Games have been held in Scotland.


Major incidents and tragedies

* 5 April 1902 – 1902 Ibrox disaster – 25 spectators died and more than 500 were injured when a new wooden stand at the Ibrox Park (1887–99), Ibrox Park stadium collapsed during an England–Scotland football rivalry, England–Scotland match. * 1960s/1970s – Many perished at three major blazes: the Cheapside Street whisky bond fire in Cheapside Street, Anderston (1960, 19 killed); the James Watt Street fire (1968, 22 killed); and the Kilbirnie Street fire (1972, seven killed). * 2 January 1971 – 1971 Ibrox disaster – 66 people were killed in a crush, as supporters attempted to vacate the stadium. * 11 May 2004 – Stockline Plastics factory explosion – The ICL Plastics factory (commonly referred to as Stockline Plastics factory), in the Woodside district of Glasgow, exploded. Nine people were killed, including two company directors, and 33 injured – 15 seriously. The four-storey building was largely destroyed. * 30 June 2007 – 2007 Glasgow International Airport attack – Two jihadist terrorists—Bilal Abdullah and Kafeel Ahmed—Vehicle-ramming attack, deliberately drove a Jeep Cherokee Sport utility vehicle, SUV loaded with propane cylinders into the glass doors of a crowded terminal at Glasgow International Airport in an attempted suicide attack. A Hostile vehicle mitigation, concrete security pillar blocked the car from entering the terminal. The two perpetrators were both apprehended; Ahmed died of burn wounds sustained in the attack, while Abdullah was convicted in Woolwich Crown Court of conspiracy to murder through terrorism and was sentenced to at least 32 years' imprisonment.UK bomb plot doctor jailed for 32 years
, CNN (17 December 2008).
The perpetrators were also linked to a 2007 London car bombs, failed car bombing in London the previous day. Ahmed's brother Sabeel Ahmed pleaded guilty to failing to disclose information about an act of terrorism and was deported. * 29 November 2013 – 2013 Glasgow helicopter crash – A Eurocopter EC135-T2+ police helicopter (operated by Bond Air Services for Police Scotland) crashed on top of The Clutha Vaults Bar in Glasgow City Centre, killing all aboard the helicopter (the pilot and two crew members) and seven people in the pub. The cause of the crash was fuel starvation due to pilot error. * 23 May 2014 – Glasgow School of Art#2014 fire, Glasgow School of Art blaze – A fire tore through the historic and world-renowned Glasgow School of Art Mackintosh building, that was designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh. Around a tenth of the structure and 30% of its contents were destroyed, including the prized Mackintosh Library. There were no deaths but a few were treated for minor smoke inhalation. The Scottish Fire and Rescue were praised for their quick response and plan to effectively tackle the fire. It was later found after a fire investigation that gases inside a projector had overheated and ignited. * 22 December 2014 – 2014 Glasgow bin lorry crash – Six people were killed and many were seriously injured when a bin lorry careened out of control and collided with pedestrians, vehicles, and buildings, on Queen Street, Glasgow, before crashing into the Millennium Hotel. The subsequent fatal accident inquiry established that the driver had suffered a "neurocardiogenic Syncope (medicine), syncope" (fainting) episode that caused him to lose control of his vehicle. * 29 December 2014 – first Ebola virus case in Scotland – Pauline Cafferkey, a nurse returning to Glasgow from Kerry Town treatment centre, Sierra Leone, West Africa where she had been a volunteer caring for patients infected with the Ebola virus was taken into isolation after testing positive for the virus. She was not diagnosed before leaving Sierra Leone. * 15 June 2018 – Glasgow School of Art#2018 fire, A fire once again broke out in the partially restored Glasgow School of Art, causing extensive damage. The School was widely criticised for failing to install an effective modern sprinkler system in a timely manner. Emergency services received the first call at 11:19 pm BST, and 120 firefighters and 20 fire engines were dispatched to the fire. No casualties were reported. The cause of the fire is as yet unknown.


Namesake area on Mars

There is an area on Planet Mars which NASA has named Glasgow, after Scotland's largest city. The Curiosity (rover), Mars rover Curiosity, which landed on the planet in August 2012, has drilled at the site.


Twin towns and sister cities

Glasgow is Sister city, twinned with various cities. * Nuremberg, Germany (since 1985) * Rostov-on-Don, Russia (since 1986) * Dalian, China (since 1997) * Havana, Cuba (since 2002) * Turin, Italy (since 2003) * Marseille, France (since 2006) * Lahore, Pakistan (since 2006) * Bethlehem, Palestine (since 2007) * Pittsburgh, USA (since 2020)


Partnerships

The city is also in a partnership with: * Oulu, Finland * Berlin, Germany * Santiago, Chile


Notable people


Notes


References


Citations


Bibliography

* * Butt, John, and George Gordon, eds. ''Strathclyde: Changing Horizons'' (1985) * * Cowan, J. "From Glasgow's Treasure Chest" (1951) * * * Cunnison, J. and JBS Gilfillan, ''The City of Glasgow'', The Third Statistical Account of Scotland (1958) * Daiches, David. ''Glasgow'' (1982), scholarly history * Doak, A M and Young, A M. "Glasgow at a Glance" (1983) * Gibb, Andrew. ''Glasgow: The Making of a City'' (1983) * Gomme, A H and Walker, D. "Architecture of Glasgow" (1987) * Horsey, M. "Tenements & Towers: Glasgow Working-Class Housing 1890–1990" (1990) * Hume, John. "Industrial Archaeology of Glasgow" (1974) * * Maver, Irene. ''Glasgow'' (2000) * Malcolm, Sandra. "Old Glasgow and The Clyde: From the Archives of T. and R. Annan" (2005) * McKean, Charles. "Central Glasgow: An Illustrated Architectural Guide" (1993) * Oakley, Charles. ''The Second City'' (1975) * Small, G P. "Greater Glasgow: An Illustrated Architectural Guide" (2008) * Urquhart, Gordon R. "Along Great Western Road: An Illustrated History of Glasgow's West End" (2000) * Williamson, Elizabeth et al. ''Glasgow'' (The Buildings of Scotland) (1999) * Worsdall, Frank. "The Tenement: A Way of Life" (1979) * Worsdall, Frank. "The City That Disappeared: Glasgow's Demolished Architecture" (1981) * Worsdall, Frank. "The Victorian City: Selection of Glasgow's Architecture" (1988)


External links

*
Glasgow districts map and other Glasgow maps
*
Glasgow City Council



TheGlasgowStory

National Library of Scotland: Scottish Screen Archive (archive films relating to Glasgow)
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