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Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for
single-seater An open-wheel car (formula car, or often single-seater car in British English) is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body, and usually having only one seat. Open-wheel cars contrast with street cars, Sports car racing, sports cars, Stoc ...
formula racing cars sanctioned by the
Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA; en, International Automobile Federation) is an association established on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users. To the general public, the ...
(FIA). The World Drivers' Championship, which became the FIA Formula One World Championship in 1981, has been one of the premier forms of racing around the world since its inaugural season in 1950. The word ''formula'' in the name refers to the set of rules to which all participants' cars must conform. A Formula One season consists of a series of races, known as ''Grands Prix'', which take place worldwide on both purpose-built
circuitsCircuit may refer to: Science and technology Electrical engineering * Electrical circuit, a complete electrical network with a closed-loop giving a return path for current ** Analog circuit, uses continuous signal levels ** Balanced circuit, p ...
and closed public roads. A points system is used at Grands Prix to determine two annual World Championships: one for drivers, the other for constructors. Each driver must hold a valid Super Licence, the highest class of racing licence issued by the FIA. The races must run on tracks graded "1" (formerly "A"), the highest grade-rating issued by the FIA.
Formula One car ; which used a secret innovation to exploit the effects of downforce, known as the "double-diffuser Diffuser may refer to: Aerodynamics * Diffuser (automotive), a shaped section of a car's underbody which improves the car's aerodynamic prop ...
s are the fastest regulated road-course
racing car Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Auto racing has existed since the invention of the automobile. Races of various sorts were organ ...
s in the world, owing to very high cornering speeds achieved through the generation of large amounts of aerodynamic
downforce Downforce is a downwards created by the features of a vehicle. If the vehicle is a car, the purpose of downforce is to allow the car to travel faster by increasing the vertical force on the tires, thus creating more . If the vehicle is a fixed- ...

downforce
. The cars underwent major changes in 2017, allowing wider front and rear wings, and wider
tyres A tire (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American En ...

tyres
, resulting in peak cornering forces near 6.5 lateral and top speeds of around . , the hybrid engines are limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000
rpm Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, r/min, or with the notation min−1) is the number of turns in one minute The minute is a unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the ...
; the cars are very dependent on electronics and
aerodynamics Aerodynamics, from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is appr ...
,
suspension Suspension or suspended may refer to: Science and engineering * Suspension (topology), in mathematics * Suspension (dynamical systems), in mathematics * Suspension of a ring, in mathematics * Suspension (chemistry), small solid particles suspended ...
and
tyres A tire (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American En ...

tyres
.
Traction control A traction control system (TCS), also known as ASR (from german: Antriebsschlupfregelung, lit=drive slippage regulation), is typically (but not necessarily) a secondary function of the electronic stability control Electronic stability control (ESC) ...
, launch control, and automatic shifting, plus other electronic driving aids, were first banned in , reintroduced in , and have more recently been banned since and , respectively. With the average annual cost of running a team – designing, building, and maintaining cars, pay, transport – being approximately
US$ The United States dollar (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, ...
 million, its financial and political battles are widely reported. On 23 January 2017,
Liberty Media Liberty Media Corporation (commonly referred to as Liberty Media or just Liberty) is an American mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media (communication), media technology, technologies that reach a large audience via mass ...
completed the acquisition of the
Formula One Group The Formula One Group is a group of companies responsible for the promotion Promotion may refer to: Marketing * Promotion (marketing), one of the four marketing mix elements, comprising any type of marketing communication used to inform or pe ...
, from private-equity firm
CVC Capital Partners CVC Capital Partners is a private equity and investment advisory firm with approximately US$111 billion in secured commitments since inception across European and Asian private equity, credit and growth funds. As of 2019, CVC managed US$75 billio ...
for $8 billion.


History

The Formula One series originated with the
European ChampionshipA European Championship is the top level International sport, international sports competition between Europe, European athletes or sports teams representing their respective countries or professional sports club, sports clubs. In the plural, the E ...
of
Grand Prix motor racing Grand Prix motor racing, a form of motorsport Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive Sports, sporting events which primarily involve the use of motor vehicles, motorised vehicles, w ...
of the 1920s and 1930s. The
formula In , a formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically, as in a mathematical formula or a . The informal use of the term ''formula'' in science refers to the . The plural of ''formula'' can be either ''formulas'' (from the mos ...
consists of a set of rules that all participants' cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon during 1946 with the first non-championship races taking place that year. The first Formula 1 race was the 1946 Turin Grand Prix. A number of Grand Prix racing organisations had laid out rules for a world championship before
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, but due to the suspension of racing during the conflict, the World Drivers' Championship did not become formalised until 1947. The first world championship race took place at
Silverstone Silverstone is a village and Civil parishes in England, civil parish in Northamptonshire, England. It is about from Towcester on the former A43 road, A43 main road, from the M1 motorway junction 15A and about from the M40 motorway junction 1 ...

Silverstone
in the United Kingdom in 1950.
Giuseppe Farina Emilio Giuseppe Farina, also known as Giuseppe Antonio "Nino" Farina, (; 30 October 1906 – 30 June 1966) was an Italian racing driver and first official Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of i ...
in his
Alfa Romeo Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. () is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance lang ...
won the first World Championship for Drivers in , narrowly defeating his teammate
Juan Manuel Fangio Juan Manuel Fangio (American Spanish: , ; 24 June 1911 – 17 July 1995), nicknamed ''El Chueco'' ("the bowlegged" or "bandy legged one") or ''El Maestro'' ("The Master" or "The Teacher"), was an racing car driver. He dominated the first ...

Juan Manuel Fangio
. However, Fangio won the title in , , , , and (his record of five World Championship titles stood for 45 years until
Michael Schumacher Michael Schumacher (; ; born 3 January 1969) is a German former racing driver who competed in Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-seater An open-wheel car (f ...

Michael Schumacher
took his sixth title in 2003). Fangio's streak was interrupted (after an injury) by two-time champion
Alberto Ascari Alberto Ascari (; 13 July 1918 – 26 May 1955) was an Italy, Italian racing driver and twice Formula One List of Formula One World Drivers' Champions, World Champion. He was a multitalented racer who competed in motorcycle racing before switchi ...

Alberto Ascari
of
Ferrari Ferrari (; ) is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in , Italy. Founded by in 1939 out of the race division as ''Auto Avio Costruzioni'', the company built in 1940, and produced its first Ferrari-badged car in 1947. acquire ...

Ferrari
. A championship for constructors followed in 1958. Although the UK's
Stirling Moss Sir Stirling Craufurd Moss (17 September 1929 – 12 April 2020) was a British Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-seater An open-wheel car (formula car ...

Stirling Moss
was able to compete regularly, he was never able to win the world championship and has been described by ''The Independent'' as "The greatest driver to never win the world championship". In a seven-year span between 1955 and 1961, Moss finished as championship runner-up four times and in third place the other three times. Fangio, however, achieved the record of winning 24 of the 52 races he entered - a record that holds to this day. National championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held by promoters for many years, but due to the increasing cost of competition, the last of these occurred in 1983. This period featured teams managed by road-car manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Ferrari,
Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz (), commonly referred to as just Mercedes, is a German luxury automotive brand, marque. Mercedes-Benz and subsidiary Mercedes-Benz AG – of Daimler AG – are headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Mercedes-Ben ...
, and
Maserati Maserati S.p.A. () is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regi ...
. The first seasons featured pre-war cars like Alfa's
158 Year 158 ( CLVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday A common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an addition ...
. They were front-engined, with narrow tyres and 1.5-litre supercharged or 4.5-litre naturally aspirated engines. The and World Championships were run to
Formula Two Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, also called Formula 2, is a type of Open-wheel car, open-wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009 FIA Formula Two Championship season, 2 ...
regulations, for smaller, less powerful cars, due to concerns over the lack of Formula One cars available. When a new Formula One formula for engines limited to 2.5 litres was reinstated to the world championship for 1954, Mercedes-Benz introduced the advanced W196. This featured innovations such as
desmodromic valve :''In general mechanical terms, the word ''desmodromic'' is used to refer to mechanisms that have different controls for their actuation in different directions.'' A desmodromic valve is a reciprocating engine poppet valve A poppet valve (als ...
s and
fuel injection Fuel injection is the introduction of in an , most commonly s, by the means of an . This article focuses on fuel injection in reciprocating piston and rotary piston engines. All s use fuel injection, and many s use fuel injection of one kin ...
, as well as enclosed streamlined bodywork. Mercedes drivers won the championship for two years, before the team withdrew from all motorsport in the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster.


British dominance

An era of British dominance was ushered in by
Mike Hawthorn John Michael Hawthorn (10 April 1929 – 22 January 1959) was a British racing driver. He became the United Kingdom's first Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-s ...
and
Vanwall Vanwall was a motor racing Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing compe ...
's championship wins in
1958 Events January * – The (EEC) comes into being. * – The is formed. * ** 's completes the third overland journey to the , the first to use powered vehicles. ** (launched on October 4, 1957) falls to Earth from its orbit, and ...
, although Stirling Moss had been at the forefront of the sport without ever securing the world title. Between Hawthorn,
Jim Clark James Clark Jr. Order of the British Empire, OBE (4 March 1936 – 7 April 1968) was a Formula One drivers from the United Kingdom, British Formula One racing driver from Scotland, who won two List of Formula One World Drivers' Champions, Wor ...

Jim Clark
,
Jackie Stewart Sir John Young Stewart (born 11 June 1939) is a British former Formula One racing driver from Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the n ...
,
John Surtees John Surtees, (11 February 1934 – 10 March 2017) was a British Grand Prix motorcycle racing, Grand Prix motorcycle road racing, road racer and Formula One driver. He was a four-time 500 cc motorcycle World Champion – winning that title ...

John Surtees
and
Graham Hill Norman Graham Hill (15 February 1929 – 29 November 1975) was a British racing driver and team owner, who was the Formula One List of Formula One World Drivers' Champions, World Champion twice, winning in and as well as being runner up on th ...
, British drivers won nine Drivers' Championships and British teams won fourteen Constructors' Championship titles between 1958 and 1974.


Technological developments

The first major technological development,
Bugatti Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car automotive industry, manufacturer of high performance vehicle, high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then-German Empire, German city of Molsheim, Alsace by the Italian-born industrial ...

Bugatti
's re-introduction of
mid-engined In automotive engineering Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and naval architecture, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of Mechanical engineering, mechanical, Electrical engineering, electrical, Elec ...
cars (following
Ferdinand Porsche Ferdinand Porsche (3 September 1875 – 30 January 1951) was a German Bohemian German Bohemians (german: Deutschböhmen und Deutschmährer, i.e. German Bohemians and German Moravians), later known as Sudeten Germans, were ethnic Germa ...

Ferdinand Porsche
's pioneering
Auto Union Auto Union AG, Chemnitz Chemnitz (; cs, Saská Kamenice; from 1953 to 1990: ''Karl-Marx-Stadt'' ) is the third largest city in the German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group ...

Auto Union
s of the 1930s), occurred with the Type 251, which was unsuccessful. Australian
Jack Brabham Sir John Arthur Brabham (2 April 1926 – 19 May 2014) was an Australian racing driver who was Formula One World Champion in , , and . He was a founder of the Brabham Brabham is the common name for Motor Racing Developments Ltd., a B ...
, world champion during , , and , soon proved the mid-engined design's superiority. By , all regular competitors had switched to mid-engined cars. The
Ferguson P99 The Ferguson P99 was a four-wheel drive Grand Prix car built by Ferguson Research Ltd. It was raced on behalf of the company by the Rob Walker Racing Team. Officially named as Ferguson Climax, it derived its P99 name from its Harry Ferguson Researc ...
, a four-wheel drive design, was the last front-engined F1 car to enter a world championship race. It was entered in the 1961 British Grand Prix, the only front-engined car to compete that year. During , Lotus introduced a car with an aluminium-sheet
monocoque Monocoque (), also called structural skin, is a structural system in which loads are supported by an object's external skin, in a manner similar to an egg shell. The word ''monocoque'' is a French language, French term for "single shell". First u ...
chassis instead of the traditional design. This proved to be the greatest technological breakthrough since the introduction of mid-engined cars. During ,
Team Gunston Team Gunston was a Privateer (motorsport), privateer team founded by Rhodesian racing driver John Love (racing driver), John Love to enter his own cars in Formula One and sports car racing between 1962 and 1975. He also entered cars under his own n ...
were the first to run cigarette sponsorship on their cars, which ran in orange, brown and gold colours in the South African Grand Prix on 1 January 1968, five months before Lotus painted an
Imperial Tobacco Imperial Brands plc, formerly Imperial Tobacco Group plc, is a British multinational tobacco village in Xanthi, Greece Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the '' Nicotiana'' genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank ...

Imperial Tobacco
livery on their cars, thus introducing
sponsorship Sponsoring something (or someone) is the act of supporting an event, activity, person, or organization financially or through the provision of products or services. The individual or group that provides the support, similar to a Benefactor (law), ...
to the sport. Aerodynamic
downforce Downforce is a downwards created by the features of a vehicle. If the vehicle is a car, the purpose of downforce is to allow the car to travel faster by increasing the vertical force on the tires, thus creating more . If the vehicle is a fixed- ...

downforce
slowly gained importance in car design with the appearance of
aerofoil An airfoil (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English ...

aerofoil
s during the late 1960s. During the late 1970s, Lotus introduced ground-effect aerodynamics (previously used on Jim Hall's Chaparral 2J during 1970) that provided enormous downforce and greatly increased cornering speeds. So great were the aerodynamic forces pressing the cars to the track (up to five times the car's weight), extremely stiff springs were needed to maintain a constant
ride height Ride height or ground clearance is the amount of space between the base of an automobile tire A tire (American English) or tyre (British English) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a Rim (wheel), wheel's rim to transfer a vehic ...
, leaving the suspension virtually solid, depending entirely on the tyres for any small amount of cushioning of the car and driver from irregularities of the road surface.


Big business

Beginning in the 1970s,
Bernie Ecclestone Bernard Charles Ecclestone (born 28 October 1930) is a British business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term characteristic ...

Bernie Ecclestone
rearranged the management of Formula One's commercial rights; he is widely credited with transforming the sport into the multibillion-dollar business it now is. When Ecclestone bought the Brabham team during 1971, he gained a seat on the
Formula One Constructors' Association The Formula One Constructors' Association (FOCA) was an organization of the chassis A chassis (, ; plural ''chassis'' from French châssis ) is the load-bearing framework of an artificial object, which structurally supports the object in it ...
and during 1978 he became its president. Previously, the circuit owners controlled the income of the teams and negotiated with each individually; however, Ecclestone persuaded the teams to "hunt as a pack" through FOCA. He offered Formula One to circuit owners as a package, which they could take or leave. In return for the package, almost all that was required was to surrender trackside advertising. The formation of the
Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile (FISA) was the sport governing body for motor racing events, in particular Formula One. The organization's origins dated from 1922, when the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) delegated ...
(FISA) during 1979 set off the
FISA–FOCA war The FISA–FOCA war was a political battle contested throughout the early 1980s by two now defunct representative organizations in Formula One motor racing, the Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile (FISA) and the Formula One Constructors ...
, during which FISA and its president
Jean-Marie Balestre Jean-Marie Balestre (9 April 1921 – 27 March 2008) was a French auto racing executive administrator, who became President of the Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile (FISA) was the sp ...
argued repeatedly with FOCA over television revenues and technical regulations. ''The Guardian'' said that Ecclestone and
Max Mosley Max Rufus Mosley (born 13 April 1940) is a British former racing driver, lawyer and the former president of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), a non-profit association that represents the interests of motoring organisations ...
"used to wage a guerrilla war with a very long-term aim in view". FOCA threatened to establish a rival series, boycotted a Grand Prix and FISA withdrew its sanction from races. The result was the 1981
Concorde Agreement The Concorde Agreement is a contract between the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA; en, International Automobile Federation) is an association established on 20 June 1904 to represe ...
, which guaranteed technical stability, as teams were to be given reasonable notice of new regulations. Although FISA asserted its right to the TV revenues, it handed the administration of those rights to FOCA. FISA imposed a ban on ground-effect aerodynamics during . By then, however,
turbocharged A turbocharger (technically a turbosupercharger), colloquially known as turbo, is a turbine-driven, forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's power output by forcing extra compressed air into the combustion chamber. ...

turbocharged
engines, which
Renault Groupe Renault ( , , , also known as the Renault Group in English; legally Renault S.A.) is a French multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinati ...
had pioneered in , were producing over and were essential to be competitive. By , a BMW turbocharged engine achieved a flash reading of pressure, estimated to be over in qualifying for the . The next year, power in race trim reached around , with boost pressure limited to only 4.0 bar. These cars were the most powerful
open-wheel An open-wheel car (formula car, or often single-seater car in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in Histor ...
circuit racing cars ever. To reduce engine power output and thus speeds, the FIA limited fuel tank capacity in , and boost pressures in , before banning turbocharged engines completely in . The development of electronic driver aids began during the 1980s. Lotus began to develop a system of
active suspensionAn active suspension is a type of automotive suspension on a vehicle. It uses an onboard system to control the vertical movement of the vehicle's wheels relative to the chassis A chassis (, ; plural ''chassis'' from French châssis ) is the lo ...

active suspension
, which first appeared during 1982 on the . By 1987, this system had been perfected and was driven to victory by
Ayrton Senna Ayrton Senna da Silva (; 21 March 1960 – 1 May 1994) was a Brazilian racing driver Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Auto ...

Ayrton Senna
in the
Monaco Grand Prix The Monaco Grand Prix (french: Grand Prix de Monaco) is a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sanctio ...
that year. In the early 1990s, other teams followed suit and semi-automatic gearboxes and
traction control A traction control system (TCS), also known as ASR (from german: Antriebsschlupfregelung, lit=drive slippage regulation), is typically (but not necessarily) a secondary function of the electronic stability control Electronic stability control (ESC) ...
were a natural progression. The FIA, due to complaints that technology was determining the outcome of races more than driver skill, banned many such aids for the season. This resulted in cars that were previously dependent on electronic aids becoming very "twitchy" and difficult to drive. Observers felt the ban on driver aids was in name only, as they "proved difficult to police effectively". The teams signed a second Concorde Agreement during 1992 and a third in 1997. On the track, the
McLaren McLaren Racing Limited is a British motor racing Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racin ...

McLaren
and
Williams Williams may refer to: People * Williams (surname), a surname English in origin, but popular in Wales, 3rd most common in the United Kingdom Places Astronomy * Williams (lunar crater) * Williams (Martian crater) Australia *Williams, Western A ...
teams dominated the 1980s and 1990s, with Brabham also being competitive during the early part of the 1980s, winning two Drivers' Championships with
Nelson Piquet Nelson Piquet Souto Maior (, born 17 August 1952), known as Nelson Piquet, is a Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At ...
. Powered by
Porsche Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, usually shortened to Porsche (; see #Pronunciation, below), is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs and sedans, headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...

Porsche
,
Honda is a Japanese Public company, public multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate manufacturer of automobiles, motorcycles, and power equipment, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. Honda has been the worl ...
, and Mercedes-Benz, McLaren won sixteen championships (seven constructors' and nine drivers') in that period, while Williams used engines from
Ford Ford commonly refers to: * Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company, commonly known as Ford, is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit (strait) , nicknames ...
, Honda, and Renault to also win sixteen titles (nine constructors' and seven drivers'). The rivalry between racers Ayrton Senna and
Alain Prost Alain Marie Pascal Prost (born 24 February 1955) is a French retired racing driver Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Auto raci ...
became F1's central focus during and continued until Prost retired at the end of . Senna
died (1906) Death is the permanent, Irreversible process, irreversible cessation of all biological process, biological functions that sustain a living organism. Brain death is sometimes used as a legal definition of death. The remains of a previ ...
at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix after crashing into a wall on the exit of the notorious curve Tamburello. The FIA worked to improve the sport's safety standards since that weekend, during which
Roland Ratzenberger Roland Ratzenberger (; 4 July 1960 – 30 April 1994) was an Austrian racing driver who raced in sports prototype, British Formula 3000, Super Formula Championship, Japanese Formula 3000 and Formula One. He died in a crash during qualifying for t ...
also lost his life in an accident during Saturday qualifying. No driver died of injuries sustained on the track at the wheel of a Formula One car for 20 years until the 2014 Japanese Grand Prix, where
Jules Bianchi Jules Lucien André Bianchi (; 3 August 1989 – 17 July 2015) was a French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, Ré ...
collided with a recovery vehicle after
aquaplaning Aquaplaning or hydroplaning by the tires of a road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or by some form o ...

aquaplaning
off the circuit, dying nine months later from his injuries. Since 1994, three track marshals have lost their lives, one at the
2000 Italian Grand Prix The 2000 Italian Grand Prix (formally the LXXI Gran Premio Campari d'Italia) was a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing ...
, the second at the 2001 Australian Grand Prix and the third at the 2013 Canadian Grand Prix. Since the deaths of Senna and Ratzenberger, the FIA has used safety as a reason to impose rule changes that otherwise, under the
Concorde Agreement The Concorde Agreement is a contract between the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA; en, International Automobile Federation) is an association established on 20 June 1904 to represe ...
, would have had to be agreed upon by all the teams – most notably the changes introduced for . This so-called 'narrow track' era resulted in cars with smaller rear tyres, a narrower track overall, and the introduction of grooved tyres to reduce mechanical grip. The objective was to reduce cornering speeds and to produce racing similar to rainy conditions by enforcing a smaller
contact patch Colorized tire footprint pressure distribution Contact patch is the portion of a vehicle's tire A tire (American English) or tyre (British English) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a Rim (wheel), wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's ...
between tyre and track. This, according to the FIA, was to reduce cornering speeds in the interest of safety. Results were mixed, as the lack of mechanical grip resulted in the more ingenious designers clawing back the deficit with aerodynamic grip – pushing more force onto the tyres through wings and aerodynamic devices, which in turn resulted in less overtaking as these devices tended to make the wake behind the car turbulent or 'dirty', preventing other cars from following closely due to their dependence on 'clean' air to make the car stick to the track. The grooved tyres also had the unfortunate side effect of initially being of a harder compound to be able to hold the grooved tread blocks, which resulted in spectacular accidents in times of aerodynamic grip failure, as the harder compound could not grip the track as well. Drivers from McLaren, Williams, Renault (formerly Benetton), and Ferrari, dubbed the "Big Four", won every World Championship from to . The teams won every Constructors' Championship from to , as well as placing themselves as the top four teams in the Constructors' Championship in every season between 1989 and 1997, and winning every race but one (the
1996 Monaco Grand Prix The 1996 Monaco Grand Prix (formally the LIV Grand Prix Automobile de Monaco) was a Formula One motor race held at Circuit de Monaco, Monaco on 19 May 1996. It was the sixth race of the 1996 Formula One season. The race was run in wet weather, ...
) between 1988 and 1997. Due to the technological advances of the 1990s, the cost of competing in Formula One increased dramatically. This increased financial burdens, combined with the dominance of four teams (largely funded by big car manufacturers such as Mercedes-Benz), caused the poorer independent teams to struggle not only to remain competitive, but to stay in business, and forced several teams to withdraw.


Manufacturers' return

Michael Schumacher and Ferrari won five consecutive Drivers' Championships (2000–2004) and six consecutive Constructors' Championships (1999–2004). Schumacher set many new records, including those for Grand Prix wins (91, since beaten by
Lewis Hamilton Sir Lewis Carl Davidson Hamilton (born 7 January 1985) is a Formula One drivers from the United Kingdom, British racing driver. He currently competes in Formula One for Mercedes-Benz in Formula One, Mercedes, having previously driven for M ...

Lewis Hamilton
), wins in a season (thirteen of eighteen), and most Drivers' Championships (seven, tied with Lewis Hamilton as of 2021). Schumacher's championship streak ended on 25 September 2005, when Renault driver
Fernando Alonso Fernando Alonso Díaz (; born 29 July 1981) is a Spanish racing driver currently racing for Alpine Alpine may refer to: Places * Alps, a European mountain range * Alpine states, associated with the mountain range, or relating to any lofty mo ...

Fernando Alonso
became Formula One's youngest champion at that time (until Lewis Hamilton in and followed by
Sebastian Vettel Sebastian Vettel (; born 3 July 1987) is a Formula One drivers from Germany, German racing driver who competes in Formula One for Aston Martin in Formula One, Aston Martin, having previously driven for BMW Sauber, Scuderia Toro Rosso, Toro Rosso ...

Sebastian Vettel
in
2010 2010 was designated as: * * * *International Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures Pronunciation There is a debate among experts and the general public on how to pronounce specific years of the 21st century in English. The year 2010 is pr ...
). During 2006, Renault and Alonso won both titles again. Schumacher retired at the end of 2006 after sixteen years in Formula One, but came out of retirement for the 2010 season, racing for the newly formed
Mercedes Mercedes may refer to: People * Mercedes (name), a Spanish feminine name, including a list of people and fictional characters with the given name or last name Automobile-related * Mercedes (marque), the pre-1926 brand name of German automobile mo ...
works team, following the rebrand of
Brawn GP Brawn GP was a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale d ...
. During this period, the championship rules were changed frequently by the FIA with the intention of improving the on-track action and cutting costs.
Team orders In motor racing Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition. The te ...
, legal since the championship started during 1950, were banned during 2002, after several incidents, in which teams openly manipulated race results, generating negative publicity, most famously by Ferrari at the
2002 Austrian Grand Prix The 2002 Austrian Grand Prix (formally the XXVI Großer A1 Preis von Österreich) was a Formula One motor race held on 12 May 2002 at the Red Bull Ring, A1-Ring in Spielberg, Styria. It was the sixth round of the 2002 Formula One World Championsh ...
. Other changes included the qualifying format, the points scoring system, the technical regulations, and rules specifying how long engines and tyres must last. A "tyre war" between suppliers
Michelin Michelin (; ; full name: ) is a French multinational tyre Tyre may refer to: * Tire, the outer part of a wheel Places * Tyre, Lebanon, a city ** See of Tyre, a Christian diocese seated in Tyre, Lebanon ** Tyre Hippodrome, a UNESCO World Herita ...
and
Bridgestone is a Japanese multinational auto and truck parts manufacturer founded in 1931 by in the city of Kurume, Fukuoka Prefecture, Fukuoka, Japan. The name Bridgestone comes from a calque translation and transposition of , meaning "stone bridge" in J ...
saw lap times fall, although, at the 2005 United States Grand Prix at Indianapolis, seven out of ten teams did not race when their Michelin tyres were deemed unsafe for use, leading to Bridgestone becoming the sole tyre supplier to Formula One for the 2007 season. During 2006, Max Mosley outlined a "green" future for Formula One, in which efficient use of energy would become an important factor. Starting in 2000, with Ford's purchase of
Stewart Grand Prix Stewart Grand Prix was a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-seater An open-wheel car (formula car, or often single-seater car in British English) is a car wit ...
to form the
Jaguar Racing Jaguar Racing is the name given to Jaguar Land Rover Jaguar Land Rover Automotive PLC is the holding company of Jaguar Land Rover Limited, and is a British Multinational corporation, multinational Automotive industry, automotive company which ...
team, new manufacturer-owned teams entered Formula One for the first time since the departure of
Alfa Romeo Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. () is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance lang ...
and Renault at the end of 1985. By 2006, the manufacturer teams – Renault,
BMW Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, commonly referred to as BMW (), is a German multinational corporation which produces luxury vehicle A luxury car is a car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most defi ...

BMW
,
Toyota is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational Automotive industry, automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture, Aichi, Japan. It was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda and incorporated on . Toyota is one of the larg ...
, Honda, and Ferrari – dominated the championship, taking five of the first six places in the Constructors' Championship. The sole exception was McLaren, which at the time was part-owned by
Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz (), commonly referred to as just Mercedes, is a German luxury automotive brand, marque. Mercedes-Benz and subsidiary Mercedes-Benz AG – of Daimler AG – are headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Mercedes-Ben ...

Mercedes-Benz
. Through the Grand Prix Manufacturers Association (GPMA), the manufacturers negotiated a larger share of Formula One's commercial profit and a greater say in the running of the sport.


Manufacturers' decline and return of the privateers

In 2008 and 2009,
Honda is a Japanese Public company, public multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate manufacturer of automobiles, motorcycles, and power equipment, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. Honda has been the worl ...
,
BMW Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, commonly referred to as BMW (), is a German multinational corporation which produces luxury vehicle A luxury car is a car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most defi ...
, and
Toyota is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational Automotive industry, automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi Prefecture, Aichi, Japan. It was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda and incorporated on . Toyota is one of the larg ...
all withdrew from Formula One racing within the space of a year, blaming the
economic recession In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods ...
. This resulted in the end of manufacturer dominance within the sport. The Honda F1 team went through a management buyout to become
Brawn GP Brawn GP was a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale d ...
with
Ross Brawn Ross James Brawn (born 23 November 1954) is a British Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sanction ...

Ross Brawn
and
Nick Fry Nicholas Richard Fry, (born 29 June 1956 in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synon ...
running and owning the majority of the organisation. Brawn GP laid off hundreds of employees, but eventually won the year's world championships. BMW F1 was bought out by the original founder of the team,
Peter Sauber Peter Sauber (born 13 October 1943) is a retired Swiss motorsport executive. He was the team principal and owner of various motorsports teams, most visibly the eponymous Sauber Motorsport, Sauber Formula One team. Motorsport career After being tr ...

Peter Sauber
. The
Lotus F1 Team Lotus F1 Team was a British Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sanctioned by the Fédération In ...
were another, formerly manufacturer-owned team that reverted to "privateer" ownership, together with the buy-out of the
Renault Groupe Renault ( , , , also known as the Renault Group in English; legally Renault S.A.) is a French multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinati ...
team by
Genii Capital Genii Capital (simply known as Genii and stylized as GƎИII) is an international financial advisory and investment firm, which specialises in brand management, promising technologies, motorsport and a wide spectrum of venture capitalism activi ...
investors. A link with their previous owners still survived, however, with their car continuing to be powered by a
Renault Groupe Renault ( , , , also known as the Renault Group in English; legally Renault S.A.) is a French multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinati ...
Power Unit until 2014. McLaren also announced that it was to reacquire the shares in its team from
Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz (), commonly referred to as just Mercedes, is a German luxury automotive brand, marque. Mercedes-Benz and subsidiary Mercedes-Benz AG – of Daimler AG – are headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Mercedes-Ben ...

Mercedes-Benz
(McLaren's partnership with Mercedes was reported to have started to sour with the road car project and tough F1 championships which included McLaren being found guilty of spying on Ferrari). Hence, during the 2010 season, Mercedes-Benz re-entered the sport as a manufacturer after its purchase of
Brawn GP Brawn GP was a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale d ...
, and split with McLaren after 15 seasons with the team. During the season of Formula One, the sport was gripped by the
FIA–FOTA dispute The FIA–FOTA dispute was a series of political clashes between the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and the now defunct Formula One Teams Association (FOTA) over proposed changes to the rules and regulations for the 2010 Formula ...
. The FIA President Max Mosley proposed numerous cost-cutting measures for the following season, including an optional budget cap for the teams; teams electing to take the budget cap would be granted greater technical freedom, adjustable front and rear wings and an engine not subject to a
rev limiter A rev limiter is a device fitted in modern vehicles that have internal combustion engines. They are intended to protect an engine by restricting its maximum rotational speed, measured in revolutions per minute Revolutions per minute (abbreviated ...
. The
Formula One Teams Association In science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictio ...
(FOTA) believed that allowing some teams to have such technical freedom would have created a 'two-tier' championship, and thus requested urgent talks with the FIA. However, talks broke down and FOTA teams announced, with the exception of Williams and
Force India Force India Formula One Team Limited, commonly known as Force India and later Sahara Force India, was a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-seater An open-w ...
, that 'they had no choice' but to form a breakaway championship series. On 24 June, an agreement was reached between Formula One's governing body and the teams to prevent a breakaway series. It was agreed teams must cut spending to the level of the early 1990s within two years; exact figures were not specified, and Max Mosley agreed he would not stand for re-election to the FIA presidency in October. Following further disagreements, after Max Mosley suggested he would stand for re-election, FOTA made it clear that breakaway plans were still being pursued. On 8 July, FOTA issued a press release stating they had been informed they were not entered for the 2010 season, and an FIA press release said the FOTA representatives had walked out of the meeting. On 1 August, it was announced FIA and FOTA had signed a new Concorde Agreement, bringing an end to the crisis and securing the sport's future until 2012. To compensate for the loss of manufacturer teams, four new teams were accepted entry into the 2010 season ahead of a much anticipated 'cost-cap'. Entrants included a reborn
Team Lotus Team Lotus was the motorsport sister company of English sports car manufacturer Lotus Cars Lotus Cars Limited is a British automotive company headquartered in , England. It manufactures s and noted for their light weight and fine charac ...
– which was led by a Malaysian consortium including
Tony Fernandes Anthony Francis Fernandes (born 30 April 1964) is a Malaysian entrepreneur. He is the founder of Tune Air Sdn. Bhd., who introduced the first budget no-frills airline, AirAsia, to Malaysians with the tagline "Now everyone can fly". Fernande ...

Tony Fernandes
, the boss of
Air Asia AirAsia Berhad () (stylized as ''airasia'') is a Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federation, federal constitutional monarchy consists of States and federal territories of Malaysia, thirteen states and three f ...

Air Asia
;
Hispania Racing HRT Formula 1 Team, formerly known as Campos Meta 1 and Hispania Racing, was a Spanish Formula One team founded by former driver Adrián Campos. It was sold to José Ramón Carabante before its debut in 2010 Formula One season, 2010, and then ...
– the first Spanish Formula One team; as well as
Virgin Racing Virgin Racing (subsequently Marussia Virgin Racing) was a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-seater An open-wheel car (formula car, or often single-seater ca ...
Richard Branson Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950) is a British business magnate, entrepreneur, investor, and author. In the 1970s he founded the Virgin Group, which today controls more than 400 companies in various fields. Branson expre ...

Richard Branson
's entry into the series following a successful partnership with Brawn the year before. They were also joined by the
US F1 Team US F1 Team was a proposed Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sanctioned by the Fédération Inter ...
, which planned to run out of the United States as the only non-European based team in the sport. Financial issues befell the squad before they even made the grid. Despite the entry of these new teams, the proposed cost-cap was repealed and these teams – who did not have the budgets of the midfield and top-order teams – ran around at the back of the field until they inevitably collapsed; HRT in 2012, Caterham (formerly Lotus) in 2014 and Manor (formerly Virgin then Marussia), having survived falling into administration in 2014, went under at the end of 2016. A major rule shake-up in saw the 2.4 litre naturally aspirated V8 engines replaced by 1.6 litre turbocharged hybrid power units. This prompted
Honda is a Japanese Public company, public multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate manufacturer of automobiles, motorcycles, and power equipment, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. Honda has been the worl ...
to return to the sport in 2015 as the championship's fourth engine manufacturer.
Mercedes Mercedes may refer to: People * Mercedes (name), a Spanish feminine name, including a list of people and fictional characters with the given name or last name Automobile-related * Mercedes (marque), the pre-1926 brand name of German automobile mo ...
emerged as the dominant force after the rule shake-up, with Lewis Hamilton winning the championship closely followed by his main rival and teammate,
Nico Rosberg Nico Erik Rosberg (born 27 June 1985) is a German-Finnish former racing driver who won the Formula One World Championship driving for Mercedes-AMG Petronas Motorsport. The only child of Finnish F1 World Champion Keke Rosberg Keijo Erik Ro ...
, with the team winning 16 out of the 19 races that season. In , Ferrari were the only challenger to Mercedes, with Vettel taking victory in the three Grands Prix Mercedes did not win. In the season,
Haas Haas may refer to: People * Haas (surname)Haas, also de Haas, is a German language, German and Dutch language, Dutch surname, also Jewish (Ashkenazic), usually from ''Hase'' or ''de Haas'', the German and Dutch words for "hare". Notable people with ...
joined the grid. The season began in dominant fashion for Nico Rosberg, winning the first 4 Grands Prix. His charge was halted by
Max Verstappen Max Emilian Verstappen (born 30 September 1997) is a Belgian Belgian may refer to: * Something of, or related to, Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe ...
, who took his maiden win in
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...
in his debut race for Red Bull. After that, the reigning champion Lewis Hamilton decreased the point gap between him and Rosberg to only one point, before taking the championship lead heading into the summer break. Following the break, the 1–2 positioning remained constant until an engine failure for Hamilton in
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...
left Rosberg in a commanding lead that he would not relinquish in the 5 remaining races. Having won the title by a mere 5 points, Rosberg retired from Formula One at season's end, becoming the first driver since
Alain Prost Alain Marie Pascal Prost (born 24 February 1955) is a French retired racing driver Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Auto raci ...
in 1993 to retire after winning the Drivers' Championship. Recent years have seen an increase in car manufacturer presence in the sport. After Honda's return as an engine manufacturer in 2015, Renault came back as a team in 2016 after buying back the
Lotus F1 Lotus F1 Team was a British Formula One racing team. The team competed under the Lotus name from until , following the renaming of the former Renault in Formula One, Renault team based at Enstone in Oxfordshire. The Lotus F1 Team was majority ...
team. In 2018,
Aston Martin Aston Martin Lagonda is a British independent manufacturer of luxury Luxury may refer to: *Luxury goods In economics, a luxury good (or upmarket good) is a good (economics), good for which demand (economics), demand increases more than w ...

Aston Martin
and
Alfa Romeo Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. () is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance lang ...

Alfa Romeo
became Red Bull and Sauber's title sponsors, respectively. Sauber was rebranded as
Alfa Romeo Racing Italian motor manufacturer Alfa Romeo has participated many times in Formula One. It currently participates as Alfa Romeo Racing Orlen while being operated by Sauber Motorsport, Sauber Motorsport AG. The brand has competed in motor racing as bo ...
for the 2019 season, while
Racing Point Racing Point F1 Team, which competed as BWT Racing Point F1 Team and commonly known as Racing Point, was a British motor racing team and constructor that Racing Point UK entered into the Formula One, Formula One World Championship. The team wa ...
part-owner
Lawrence Stroll Lawrence Sheldon Strulovitch (born 11 July 1959), best known as Lawrence Stroll, is a Canadian billionaire A billionaire is a person with a net worth of at least 1,000,000,000, one billion (1,000,000,000, i.e. a thousand million) units of a gi ...
bought a stake in Aston Martin to rebrand the Racing Point team as Aston Martin for 2021. In August 2020, a new
Concorde Agreement The Concorde Agreement is a contract between the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA; en, International Automobile Federation) is an association established on 20 June 1904 to represe ...
was signed by all ten F1 teams committing them to the sport until 2025, including a $145M budget cap for car development to support equal competition and sustainable development in the future. The
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
forced the sport to adapt to budgetary and logistical limitations. A significant overhaul of the technical regulations intended to be introduced in the 2021 season was pushed back to 2022, with constructors instead using their 2020 chassis for two seasons and a token system limiting which parts could be modified was introduced. The start of the season was delayed by several months, and both it and seasons were subject to several postponements, cancellations and rescheduling of races due to the shifting restrictions on international travel. Many races took place behind closed doors and with only essential personnel present to maintain
social distancing In public health, social distancing, also called physical distancing, (NB. Regula Venske is president of the .) is a set of or measures intended to of a by maintaining a physical distance between people and reducing the number of times pe ...

social distancing
.


Racing and strategy

A Formula One Grand Prix event spans a weekend. It begins with two free practice sessions on Friday (except in Monaco, where Friday practices are moved to Thursday), and one free practice on Saturday. Additional drivers (commonly known as
third driverIn motorsport Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive Sports, sporting events which primarily involve the use of motor vehicles, motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing comp ...
s) are allowed to run on Fridays, but only two cars may be used per team, requiring a race driver to give up their seat. A qualifying session is held after the last free practice session. This session determines the starting order for the race on Sunday.


Tyre rules

Each driver may use no more than thirteen sets of dry-weather tyres, four sets of intermediate tyres and three sets of wet-weather tyres during a race weekend.


Qualifying

For much of the sport's history, qualifying sessions differed little from practice sessions; drivers would have one or more sessions in which to set their fastest time, with the grid order determined by each driver's best single lap, with the fastest on
pole position In motorsport Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive Sports, sporting events which primarily involve the use of motor vehicles, motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing ...

pole position
. From 1996 to 2002, the format was a 1-hour shootout. This approach lasted until the end of 2002 before the rules were changed again because the teams were not running in the early part of the session to take advantage of better track conditions later on. Grids were generally limited to 26 cars – if the race had more entries, qualification would also decide which drivers would start the race. During the early 1990s, the number of entries was so high that the worst-performing teams had to enter a pre-qualifying session, with the fastest cars allowed through to the main qualifying session. The qualifying format began to change in the early 2000s, with the FIA experimenting with limiting the number of laps, determining the aggregate time over two sessions, and allowing each driver only one qualifying lap. The current qualifying system was adopted in the 2006 season. Known as "knock-out" qualifying, it is split into three periods, known as Q1, Q2, and Q3. In each period, drivers run qualifying laps to attempt to advance to the next period, with the slowest drivers being "knocked out" of qualification (but not necessarily the race) at the end of the period and their grid positions set within the rearmost five based on their best lap times. Drivers are allowed as many laps as they wish within each period. After each period, all times are reset, and only a driver's fastest lap in that period (barring infractions) counts. Any timed lap started before the end of that period may be completed, and will count toward that driver's placement. The number of cars eliminated in each period is dependent on the total number of cars entered into the championship. Currently, with 20 cars, Q1 runs for 18 minutes, and eliminates the slowest five drivers. During this period, any driver whose best lap takes longer than 107% of the fastest time in Q1 will not be allowed to start the race without permission from the stewards. Otherwise, all drivers proceed to the race albeit in the worst starting positions. This rule does not affect drivers in Q2 or Q3. In Q2, the 15 remaining drivers have 15 minutes to set one of the ten fastest times and proceed to the next period. Finally, Q3 lasts 12 minutes and sees the remaining ten drivers decide the first ten grid positions. At the beginning of the 2016 Formula 1 season, the FIA introduced a new qualifying format, whereby drivers were knocked out every 90 seconds after a certain amount of time had passed in each session. The aim was to mix up grid positions for the race, but due to unpopularity the FIA reverted to the above qualifying format for the Chinese GP, after running the format for only two races. Each car is allocated one set of the softest tyres for use in Q3. The cars that qualify for Q3 must return them after Q3; the cars that do not qualify for Q3 can use them during the race. The first ten drivers, i.e. the drivers through to Q3 must start the race on the tyre which set the fastest time in Q2, unless the weather requires the use of wet-weather tyres, in which case all of the rules about the tyres won't be followed. All of the drivers that did not participate in Q3 have free tyre choice for the start of the race. Any penalties that affect grid position are applied at the end of qualifying. Grid penalties can be applied for driving infractions in the previous or current Grand Prix, or for changing a gearbox or engine component. If a car fails scrutineering, the driver will be excluded from qualifying but will be allowed to start the race from the back of the grid at the race steward's discretion. 2021 has seen the trialling of a 'sprint qualifying' race on the Saturday of three race weekends, with the intention of testing the new approach to qualifying.


Race

The race begins with a warm-up lap, after which the cars assemble on the starting grid in the order they qualified. This lap is often referred to as the formation lap, as the cars lap in formation with no overtaking (although a driver who makes a mistake may regain lost ground provided they have fallen to the back of the field). The warm-up lap allows drivers to check the condition of the track and their car, gives the tyres a chance to warm up to increase traction, and also gives the pit crews time to clear themselves and their equipment from the grid. Once all the cars have formed on the grid, after the medical car positions itself behind the pack, a light system above the track indicates the start of the race: five red lights are illuminated at intervals of one second; they are all then extinguished simultaneously after an unspecified time (typically less than 3 seconds) to signal the start of the race. The start procedure may be abandoned if a driver stalls on the grid, signalled by raising their arm. If this happens, the procedure restarts: a new formation lap begins with the offending car removed from the grid. The race may also be restarted in the event of a serious accident or dangerous conditions, with the original start voided. The race may be started from behind the Safety Car if officials feel a racing start would be excessively dangerous, such as extremely heavy rainfall. As of the season, there will always be a standing restart. If due to heavy rainfall a start behind the safety car is necessary, then after the track has dried sufficiently, drivers will form up for a standing start. There is no formation lap when races start behind the Safety Car. Under normal circumstances, the winner of the race is the first driver to cross the finish line having completed a set number of laps. Race officials may end the race early (putting out a red flag) due to unsafe conditions such as extreme rainfall, and it must finish within two hours, although races are only likely to last this long in the case of extreme weather or if the safety car is deployed during the race. When a situation justifies pausing the race without terminating it, the red flag is deployed; since 2005, a ten-minute warning is given before the race is resumed behind the safety car, which leads the field for a lap before it returns to the pit lane (before then the race resumed in race order from the penultimate lap before the red flag was shown). In the 1950s, race distances varied from to . The maximum race length was reduced to in 1966 and in 1971. The race length was standardised to the current in 1989. However, street races like
Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque Ligurian: ''Prinçipatu de Mu̍negu''), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The ...
have shorter distances, to keep under the two-hour limit. Drivers may overtake one another for position over the course of the race. If a leader comes across a backmarker (slower car) who has completed fewer laps, the back marker is shown a blue flag telling them that they are obliged to allow the leader to overtake them. The slower car is said to be "lapped" and, once the leader finishes the race, is classified as finishing the race "one lap down". A driver can be lapped numerous times, by any car in front of them. A driver who fails to finish a race, through mechanical problems, accident or any other reason is said to have retired from the race and is "Not Classified" in the results. However, if the driver has completed more than 90% of the race distance, they will be classified. Throughout the race, drivers may make
pit stop In motorsport Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive Sports, sporting events which primarily involve the use of motor vehicles, motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racin ...

pit stop
s to change tyres and repair damage (from 1994 to 2009 inclusive, they could also refuel). Different teams and drivers employ different pit stop strategies in order to maximise their car's potential. Three dry tyre compounds, with different durability and adhesion characteristics, are available to drivers. Over the course of a race, drivers must use two of the three available compounds. The different compounds have different levels of performance and choosing when to use which compound is a key tactical decision to make. Different tyres have different colours on their sidewalls; this allows spectators to understand the strategies. Under wet conditions, drivers may switch to one of two specialised wet weather tyres with additional grooves (one "intermediate", for mild wet conditions, such as after recent rain, one "full wet", for racing in or immediately after rain). A driver must make at least one stop to use two tyre compounds; up to three stops are typically made, although further stops may be necessary to fix damage or if weather conditions change. If rain tyres are used, drivers are no longer obliged to use both types of dry tyres. ; Race director : This role involves generally managing the logistics of each F1 Grand Prix, inspecting cars in
parc fermé ''Parc fermé'', literally meaning "closed park" in French, is a secure area at a auto racing, motor racing circuit wherein the cars are driven back to the pit (motor racing), pits post- and sometimes pre-race. Area For example, according to the ...
before a race, enforcing FIA rules and controlling the lights which start each race. As the head of the race officials, the race director also plays a large role in sorting disputes amongst teams and drivers. Penalties, such as drive-through penalties (and stop-and-go penalties), demotions on a pre-race start grid, race disqualifications, and fines can all be handed out should parties break regulations. Up to 2019, the race director in Formula One was
Charlie Whiting Charles Whiting (12 August 1952 – 14 March 2019) was a British motorsports director. He served as the FIA Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for Open wheel car, singl ...

Charlie Whiting
, who died in March 2019, and was replaced by Michael Masi. ; Safety car : In the event of an incident that risks the safety of competitors or trackside race marshals, race officials may choose to deploy the
safety car In motorsport Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive Sports, sporting events which primarily involve the use of motor vehicles, motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing c ...

safety car
. This in effect suspends the race, with drivers following the safety car around the track at its speed in race order, with overtaking not permitted. Cars that have been lapped may, during the safety car period and depending on circumstances permitted by the race director, be allowed to un-lap themselves in order to ensure a smoother restart and to avoid blue flags being immediately thrown upon the resumption of the race with many of the cars in very close proximity to each other. The safety car circulates until the danger is cleared; after it comes in, the race restarts with a "rolling start". Pit stops are permitted under the safety car. Since 2000, the main safety car driver has been German ex-racing driver Bernd Mayländer. On the lap in which the safety car returns to the pits, the leading car takes over the role of the safety car until the timing line. After crossing this line, drivers are allowed to start racing for track position once more.
Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz (), commonly referred to as just Mercedes, is a German luxury automotive brand, marque. Mercedes-Benz and subsidiary Mercedes-Benz AG – of Daimler AG – are headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Mercedes-Ben ...

Mercedes-Benz
supplies
Mercedes-AMG Mercedes-AMG GmbH, commonly known as AMG, is the high-performance subsidiary of Mercedes-Benz AG. AMG independently hires engineers and contracts with manufacturers to customize Mercedes-Benz AMG vehicles. The company has its headquarters in Af ...
models to Formula One to use as the safety cars. From 2021 onwards,
Aston Martin Aston Martin Lagonda is a British independent manufacturer of luxury Luxury may refer to: *Luxury goods In economics, a luxury good (or upmarket good) is a good (economics), good for which demand (economics), demand increases more than w ...

Aston Martin
supplies the Vantage to Formula One to use as the safety car, sharing the duty with Mercedes-Benz.


Flags

Flags specifications and usage are prescribed by Appendix H of the FIA's International Sporting Code. The format of the race has changed little through Formula One's history. The main changes have revolved around what is allowed at pit stops. In the early days of Grand Prix racing, a driver would be allowed to continue a race in their teammate's car should theirs develop a problem – in the modern era, cars are so carefully fitted to drivers that this has become impossible. In recent years, the emphasis has been on changing refuelling and tyre change regulations. Since the 2010 season, refuelling – which was reintroduced in 1994 – has not been allowed, to encourage less tactical racing following safety concerns. The rule requiring both compounds of tyre to be used during the race was introduced in 2007, again to encourage racing on the track. The safety car is another relatively recent innovation that reduced the need to deploy the red flag, allowing races to be completed on time for a growing international live television audience.


Points system

*A driver must finish within the top ten to receive a point for setting the fastest lap of the race. If the driver who set the fastest lap finishes outside of the top ten, then the point for fastest lap will not be awarded for that race. Various systems for awarding championship points have been used since 1950. The current system, in place since 2010, awards the top ten cars points in the Drivers' and Constructors' Championships, with the winner receiving 25 points. All points won at each race are added up, and the driver and constructor with the most points at the end of the season are crowned World Champions. Regardless of whether a driver stays with the same team throughout the season, or switches teams, all points earned by them count for the Drivers' Championship. A driver must be classified to receive points. To be classified, a driver need not finish the race, but complete at least 90% of the winner's race distance. Therefore, it is possible for a driver to receive points even if they retired before the end of the race. If less than 75% of the race laps are completed by the winner, then only half of the points listed in the table are awarded to the drivers and constructors. This has happened on only five occasions in the history of the championship, and it had a notable influence on the final standing of the season. The last occurrence was at the 2021 Belgian Grand Prix when the race was called off after just 3 laps behind a safety car due to torrential rain.


Constructors

A Formula One constructor is the entity credited for designing the chassis and the engine. If both are designed by the same company, that company receives sole credit as the constructor (e.g.
Ferrari Ferrari (; ) is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in , Italy. Founded by in 1939 out of the race division as ''Auto Avio Costruzioni'', the company built in 1940, and produced its first Ferrari-badged car in 1947. acquire ...

Ferrari
). If they are designed by different companies, both are credited, and the name of the chassis designer is placed before that of the engine designer (e.g. ). All constructors are scored individually, even if they share either chassis or engine with another constructor (e.g.
Williams Williams may refer to: People * Williams (surname), a surname English in origin, but popular in Wales, 3rd most common in the United Kingdom Places Astronomy * Williams (lunar crater) * Williams (Martian crater) Australia *Williams, Western A ...
-
Ford Ford commonly refers to: * Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company, commonly known as Ford, is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit (strait) , nicknames ...
,
Williams Williams may refer to: People * Williams (surname), a surname English in origin, but popular in Wales, 3rd most common in the United Kingdom Places Astronomy * Williams (lunar crater) * Williams (Martian crater) Australia *Williams, Western A ...
-
Honda is a Japanese Public company, public multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate manufacturer of automobiles, motorcycles, and power equipment, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. Honda has been the worl ...
in ). Since , Formula One teams have been required to build the chassis in which they compete, and consequently the distinction between the terms "team" and "constructor" became less pronounced, though engines may still be produced by a different entity. This requirement distinguishes the sport from series such as the
IndyCar Series The IndyCar Series, currently known as the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone, NTT IndyCar Series under sponsorship, is the premier level of American open-wheel car racing, open-wheel racing in the United States. Its parent company began in 1996 as t ...
which allows teams to purchase chassis, and "
spec seriesOne-Design is a racing method which may be adopted in sports which use complex equipment, whereby all vehicles have identical or very similar designs or models. Sailing There are two primary methods of competition in sailboat racing: One-Design and ...
" such as GP2, which require all cars be kept to an identical specification. It also effectively prohibits
privateers A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common aspect of seaborne trade, until the early 19th century all merchant ships carried arms. A sovereign or delega ...
, which were common even in Formula One well into the 1970s. The sport's debut season, , saw eighteen teams compete, but due to high costs, many dropped out quickly. In fact, such was the scarcity of competitive cars for much of the first decade of Formula One that Formula Two cars were admitted to fill the grids. Ferrari is the oldest Formula One team, the only still-active team which competed in 1950. Early manufacturer involvement came in the form of a "factory team" or "
works team A works team (sometimes factory team, company team) is a sports team that is financed and run by a manufacturer or other business. Sometimes, works teams contain or are entirely made up of employees of the supporting company. Association footb ...

works team
" (that is, one owned and staffed by a major car company), such as those of Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, or Renault. Ferrari holds the record for having won the most Constructors' Championships (sixteen). Companies such as
Climax Climax may refer to: Language arts * Climax (narrative), the point of highest tension in a narrative work * Climax (rhetoric), a figure of speech that lists items in order of importance Biology * Climax community, a biological community that ...
,
Repco Repco is an Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of ...
,
Cosworth Cosworth is a British automotive engineering Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and naval architecture, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of Mechanical engineering, mechanical, Electrical engine ...
, Hart, Judd and
Supertec Supertec was a brand of Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sanctioned by the Fédération Internatio ...
, which had no direct team affiliation, often sold engines to teams that could not afford to manufacture them. In the early years, independently owned Formula One teams sometimes also built their engines, though this became less common with the increased involvement of major car manufacturers such as BMW, Ferrari, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, Renault, and Toyota, whose large budgets rendered privately built engines less competitive. Cosworth was the last independent engine supplier. It is estimated the major teams spend between €100 and €200 million ($125–$225 million) per year per manufacturer on engines alone. In the 2007 season, for the first time since the 1981 rule, two teams used chassis built by other teams.
Super Aguri Super Aguri F1 was a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sanctioned by the Fédération Internatio ...
started the season using a modified chassis (used by Honda the previous year), while
Scuderia Toro Rosso Scuderia Toro Rosso, commonly known as Toro Rosso or by its abbreviation STR, was an Italian Formula One List of Formula One constructors, racing team. The Italian name "Toro Rosso" translates to "Red Bull". It was one of two Formula One teams ...
used the same chassis used by the parent
Red Bull Racing Red Bull Racing, competing as Red Bull Racing Honda, also simply known as Red Bull or RBR, is a Formula One racing team, racing a Honda in Formula One, Honda powered car under an Austrian List of Formula One constructors#Team's nationality, lice ...
team, which was formally designed by a separate subsidiary. The usage of these loopholes was ended for 2010 with the publication of new technical regulations, which require each constructor to own the intellectual property rights to their chassis, The regulations continue to allow a team to subcontract the design and construction of the chassis to a third-party, an option used by the HRT team in 2010 and Haas currently. Although teams rarely disclose information about their budgets, it is estimated they range from US$66 million to US$400 million each. Entering a new team in the Formula One World Championship requires a £25 million (about US$32 million) up-front payment to the FIA, which is then repaid to the team over the course of the season. As a consequence, constructors desiring to enter Formula One often prefer to buy an existing team:
BAR Bar or BAR may refer to: Food *Bar (establishment) A bar is a long raised narrow table or bench designed for dispensing beer or other alcoholic beverage, alcoholic drinks. They were originally chest high, and a bar, often brass, ran the lengt ...
's purchase of Tyrrell and Midland's purchase of Jordan allowed both of these teams to sidestep the large deposit and secure the benefits the team already had, such as TV revenue. Seven out of the ten teams competing in Formula 1 are based close to London in an area centred around Oxford. Ferrari have both their chassis and engine assembly in Maranello, Italy. The Alpha Tauri team are based close to Ferrari in Faenza, whilst the Alfa Romeo team are based near Zurich in Switzerland.


Drivers

Every team in Formula One must run two cars in every session in a Grand Prix weekend, and every team may use up to four drivers in a season. A team may also run two additional drivers in Free Practice sessions, which are often used to test potential new drivers for a career as a Formula One driver or gain experienced drivers to evaluate the car. Most drivers are contracted for at least the duration of a season, with driver changes taking place in-between seasons, in comparison to early years where drivers often competed at an ad hoc basis from race to race. Each competitor must be in the possession of a
FIA Super Licence The FIA Super Licence is a driver's qualification allowing the holder to compete in the Formula One World Championship Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for single-seater formula ...
to compete in a Grand Prix, which is issued to drivers who have met the criteria of success in junior motorsport categories and having achieved of running in a Formula One car. Drivers may also be issued a Super Licence by the
World Motor Sport Council The World Motor Sport Council (WMSC) is a major organ within the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA; en, International Automobile Federation) is an association established on 20 ...
if they fail to meet the criteria. Although most drivers earn their seat on ability, commercial considerations also come into play with teams having to satisfy sponsors and financial demands. Teams also contract test and reserve drivers to stand in for regular drivers when necessary and develop the team's car; although with the reduction on testing the reserve drivers' role mainly takes places on a
simulator A simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. Simulations require the use of models; the model represents the key characteristics or behaviors of the selected system or process, whereas the simula ...

simulator
, such as rFactor Pro, which is used by most of the F1 teams. Each driver chooses an unassigned number from 2 to 99 (excluding 17 which was retired following the death of
Jules Bianchi Jules Lucien André Bianchi (; 3 August 1989 – 17 July 2015) was a French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, Ré ...
) upon entering Formula One, and keeps that number during their time in the series. The number one is reserved for the reigning Drivers' Champion, who retains their previous number and may choose to use it instead of the number one. At the onset of the championship, numbers were allocated by race organisers on an ad hoc basis from race to race. Permanent numbers were introduced in to take effect in , when teams were allocated numbers in ascending order based on the Constructors' Championship standings at the end of the 1973 season. The teams would hold those numbers from season to season with the exception of the team with the World Drivers' Champion, which would swap its numbers with the one and two of the previous champion's team. New entrants were allocated spare numbers, with the exception of the number 13 which had been unused since . As teams kept their numbers for long periods of time, car numbers became associated with a team, such as 27 and 28. A different system was used from to : at the start of each season, the current Drivers' Champion was designated number one, their teammate number two, and the rest of the teams assigned ascending numbers according to previous season's Constructors' Championship order. A total of 33 separate drivers have won the World Drivers' Championship, with Michael Schumacher and Lewis Hamilton holding the record for most championships with seven. Lewis Hamilton achieved the most race wins, too, in 2020.
Jochen Rindt Karl Jochen Rindt (; 18 April 1942 – 5 September 1970) was a German-born racing driver who competed with an Austrian license during his career, despite having German and not Austrian citizenship. In , he was killed during practice for the It ...
is the only posthumous World Champion, after his points total was not surpassed despite his fatal accident at the
1970 Italian Grand Prix The 1970 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sanctioned by the Fédération ...
, with 4 races still remaining in the season. Drivers from the United Kingdom have been the most successful in the sport, with 18 championships among 10 drivers, and 278 wins among 19 drivers.


Feeder series

Most F1 drivers start in
kart racing Kart racing or karting is a variant of motorsport Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive Sports, sporting events which primarily involve the use of motor vehicles, motorised vehi ...
competitions, and then come up through traditional European single-seater series like
Formula Ford Formula Ford, also known as F1600 and Formula F, is an entry-level class of single seater, open-wheel formula racing. The various championships held across the world form an important step for many prospective Formula One drivers. Formula Ford ...
and
Formula Renault Formula Renault is two classes of formula racing popular in Europe and elsewhere. Regarded as an entry-level series to auto racing, motor racing, it was first founded in 1971, and is a respected series where drivers can learn advanced racecraft bef ...
to
Formula 3 drives a Dallara Dallara is an Italian race car manufacturer, founded by its current President Eng. Gian Paolo Dallara. After working for Ferrari Ferrari S.p.A. (; ) is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello, Ital ...

Formula 3
, and finally the
GP2 Series The GP2 Series was a form of open wheel An open-wheel car (formula car, or often single-seater car in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, W ...
. GP2 started in 2005, replacing
Formula 3000 Formula 3000 (F3000) was a type of Open wheel car, open wheel, single seater formula racing, occupying the tier immediately below Formula One and above Formula Three. It was so named because the cars were powered by 3.0 L engines. Formula 3000 c ...

Formula 3000
, which itself had replaced
Formula Two Formula Two, abbreviated to F2, also called Formula 2, is a type of Open-wheel car, open-wheel formula racing first codified in 1948. It was replaced in 1985 by Formula 3000, but revived by the FIA from 2009 FIA Formula Two Championship season, 2 ...
as the last major stepping-stone into F1. GP2 was rebranded as the
FIA Formula 2 Championship The FIA Formula 2 Championship is a second-tier single-seater An open-wheel car (formula car, or often single-seater car in British English) is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body, and usually having only one seat. Open-wheel c ...
in 2017. Most champions from this level graduate into F1, but 2006 GP2 champion Lewis Hamilton became the first F2, F3000 or GP2 champion to win the Formula One driver's title in 2008. Drivers are not required to have competed at this level before entering Formula One.
British F3 The British Formula Three Championship was an international motor racing Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehic ...
has supplied many F1 drivers, with champions, including
Nigel Mansell Nigel Ernest James Mansell, (; born on 8 August 1953) is a British former racing driver Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Au ...
,
Ayrton Senna Ayrton Senna da Silva (; 21 March 1960 – 1 May 1994) was a Brazilian racing driver Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Auto ...

Ayrton Senna
and
Mika Häkkinen Mika Pauli Häkkinen (; born 28 September 1968), nicknamed "The Flying Finn", is a Finnish former racing driver. He was the 1998 Formula One season, 1998 and 1999 Formula One season, 1999 Formula One World Champion, driving for McLaren. Häkkinen ...
having moved straight from that series to Formula One, and
Max Verstappen Max Emilian Verstappen (born 30 September 1997) is a Belgian Belgian may refer to: * Something of, or related to, Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe ...
made his F1 debut following a single season in European F3. More rarely a driver may be picked from an even lower level, as was the case with 2007 World Champion
Kimi Räikkönen Kimi-Matias Räikkönen (; born 17 October 1979), nicknamed "The Iceman", is a Finnish racing driver currently driving in Formula One for Alfa Romeo in Formula One, Alfa Romeo Racing, Formula One drivers from Finland, racing under the Finnish fla ...
, who went straight from Formula Renault to F1.
American open-wheel car racing American open-wheel car racing, also known as Indy car racing, is a category of professional automobile racing in Northern America. As of 2020, the top-level American open-wheel racing championship is sanctioned by IndyCar. Competitive events ...
has also contributed to the Formula One grid.
CART A cart or dray (Aus. & NZ) is a vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and peo ...
champions
Mario Andretti Mario Gabriele Andretti (born February 28, 1940) is an Italian-born American former racing driver. One of the most successful Americans in the history of motorsports, Andretti is one of only two drivers to have won races in Formula One Fo ...

Mario Andretti
and
Jacques Villeneuve Jacques Joseph Charles Villeneuve ( born 9 April 1971) is a Canadian racing driver and amateur musician who won the 1997 Formula One World Championship File:David Coulthard at the 1995 British GP, Silverstone (49713882947).jpg, upDavid Coul ...
became F1 World Champions, while
Juan Pablo Montoya Juan Pablo Montoya Roldán (; born September 20, 1975), is a Colombian racing driver Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Auto rac ...

Juan Pablo Montoya
won seven races in F1. Other CART (also known as ChampCar) champions, like
Michael Andretti Michael Mario Andretti (born October 5, 1962) is an American semi-retired auto racing driver and current team owner. Statistically one of the most successful drivers in the history of American open-wheel car racing, Andretti won the 1991 CART PPG ...
and
Alessandro Zanardi Alessandro Zanardi (; born 23 October 1966) is an Italian professional racing driver and paracyclist. He won the CART A cart or dray (Aus. & NZ) is a vehicle designed for transport Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportat ...

Alessandro Zanardi
won no races in F1. Other drivers have taken different paths to F1; Damon Hill raced motorbikes, and Michael Schumacher raced in
sports cars A sports car is a car designed with an emphasis on dynamic performance, such as Automobile handling, handling, acceleration, top speed, or thrill of driving. Sports cars originated in Europe in the early 1900s and are currently produced by many ...
, albeit after climbing through the junior single-seater ranks. Former F1 driver
Paul di Resta Paul di Resta (born 16 April 1986) is a British racing driver from Scotland who currently drives in the FIA World Endurance Championship with United Autosports. He drove in Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the ...

Paul di Resta
raced in DTM until he was signed with
Force India Force India Formula One Team Limited, commonly known as Force India and later Sahara Force India, was a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-seater An open-w ...
in 2011.


Grands Prix

The number of Grands Prix held in a season has varied over the years. The inaugural world championship season comprised only seven races, while the season contained 21 races. There were no more than 11 Grands Prix per season during the early decades of the championship, although a large number of non-championship Formula One events also took place. The number of Grands Prix increased to an average of 16 to 17 by the late 1970s, while non-championship events ended in 1983. More Grands Prix began to be held in the 2000s, and recent seasons have seen an average of 19 races. In , , and , the calendar peaked at 21 events, the highest number of world championship races in one season. Six of the original seven races took place in Europe; the only non-European race that counted towards the World Championship in 1950 was the
Indianapolis 500 The Indianapolis 500, also formally known as the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race, or simply the Indy 500, is an annual automobile race held at (IMS) in , United States, an of . The event is traditionally held over weekend, usually the last week ...

Indianapolis 500
, which was held to different regulations and later replaced by the
United States Grand Prix The United States Grand Prix is a motor race that has been held in the U.S. on and off since 1908, when it was known as the American Grand Prize. The race later became part of the Formula One World Championship. , the race has been held 49 times ...
. The F1 championship gradually expanded to other non-European countries. Argentina hosted the first South American Grand Prix in , and
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...
hosted the first African World Championship race in . Asia and Oceania followed (Japan in and Australia in ), and the first race in the Middle East was held in . The 19 races of the season were spread over every populated continent except for Africa, with 10 Grands Prix held outside Europe. Some of the Grands Prix pre-date the formation of the World Championship, such as the
French Grand Prix The French Grand Prix (french: Grand Prix de France), formerly known as the Grand Prix de l'ACF, is an Auto racing, auto race held as part of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile's annual Formula One, Formula One World Championship. ...
, and were incorporated into the championship as Formula One races in 1950. The
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...
and
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...
Grands Prix are the only events to have been held every Formula One season; other long-running races include the Belgian, German, and French Grands Prix. The
Monaco Grand Prix The Monaco Grand Prix (french: Grand Prix de Monaco) is a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sanctio ...
was first held in 1929 and has run continuously since 1955 (with the exception of 2020), and is widely considered to be one of the most important and prestigious automobile races in the world. All Grands Prix have traditionally been run during the day, until the inaugural hosted the first Formula One night race, which was followed in 2009 by the day–night
Abu Dhabi Grand Prix The Abu Dhabi Grand Prix ( ar, سباق جائزة أبوظبي الكبرى) is a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, f ...
and then the
Bahrain Grand Prix The Bahrain Grand Prix ( ar, جائزة البحرين الكبرى, currently officially known as the Gulf Air Bahrain Grand Prix) is a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto ra ...
which converted to a night race in 2014. Other Grands Prix in Asia have had their start times adjusted to benefit the European television audience.


Returning additions (2008–present)

*
European Grand Prix The European Grand Prix (also known as the Grand Prix of Europe) was a Formula One event that was introduced during the mid-1980s and was held every year from to , except in . During these years (except in ), the European Grand Prix was held ...
at
Valencia Street Circuit The Valencia Street Circuit ( ca-valencia, Circuit Urbà de València, es, Circuito Urbano de Valencia, links=no) was a street circuit in Valencia, Spain which hosted the Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the hi ...
(2008; discontinued after 2012) *
United States Grand Prix The United States Grand Prix is a motor race that has been held in the U.S. on and off since 1908, when it was known as the American Grand Prize. The race later became part of the Formula One World Championship. , the race has been held 49 times ...
at
Circuit of the Americas Circuit of the Americas (COTA) is a Grade 1 FIA-specification motor racing Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and p ...

Circuit of the Americas
(2012–2019, 2021) *
Austrian Grand Prix The Austrian Grand Prix (german: Großer Preis von Österreich) is a Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA; en, International Automobile Federation) is an association established ...
at
Red Bull Ring The Red Bull Ring is a motorsport race track in Spielberg, Styria Styria (german: Steiermark ; Croatian and sl, ; hu, Stájerország, Austro-Bavarian: ''Steiamoak'') is a state (''Bundesland'') in the southeast of Austria Austria ...

Red Bull Ring
(2014–present) *
Mexican Grand Prix The Mexican Grand Prix ( es, Gran Premio de México), currently known as the Mexico City Grand Prix ( es, Gran Premio de la Ciudad de México), is a motor racing event held at the Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez The Autódromo Hermanos Rodríg ...
at
Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez The Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez is a motorsport race track in Mexico City, Mexico, named after the racing drivers Ricardo Rodríguez (racing driver), Ricardo and Pedro Rodríguez (racing driver), Pedro Rodríguez. The circuit got its name shor ...

Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez
(2015–present; will be renamed Mexico City Grand Prix starting from 2021) *
European Grand Prix The European Grand Prix (also known as the Grand Prix of Europe) was a Formula One event that was introduced during the mid-1980s and was held every year from to , except in . During these years (except in ), the European Grand Prix was held ...
at
Baku City Circuit The Baku City Circuit ( az, Bakı Şəhər Halqası) is a motor racing Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, ...
(2016; renamed the
Azerbaijan Grand Prix The Azerbaijan Grand Prix ( az, Azərbaycan Qran Prisi) is a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for Open wheel car, single-seater Formula racing, formula racing cars sa ...
in 2017) *
French Grand Prix The French Grand Prix (french: Grand Prix de France), formerly known as the Grand Prix de l'ACF, is an Auto racing, auto race held as part of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile's annual Formula One, Formula One World Championship. ...
at
Circuit Paul Ricard The Circuit Paul Ricard () is a French motorsport race track built in 1969 at Le Castellet, Var, Le Castellet, Var (department), Var, near Marseille, with finance from pastis magnate Paul Ricard. Ricard wanted to experience the challenge of build ...

Circuit Paul Ricard
(2018–2019, 2021) *
Portuguese Grand Prix The Portuguese Grand Prix (''Grande Prémio de Portugal'') is a motorsports Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised ve ...
at
Algarve International Circuit The Algarve International Circuit ( pt, Autódromo Internacional do Algarve), commonly referred to as Portimão Circuit, is a race circuit located in Portimão, Portugal. The project includes a karting track, technology park, five-star hotel, ...
(2020–present) *
Dutch Grand Prix The Dutch Grand Prix ( nl, Grote Prijs van Nederland) is a Formula One motor racing event held at Circuit Zandvoort, North Holland, Netherlands, from 1950 to 1985 and from 2021 Formula One World Championship, 2021 onwards. It was a part of the W ...
at
Circuit Zandvoort Circuit Zandvoort (), known for sponsorship reasons as CM.com Circuit Zandvoort, and previously known as Circuit Park Zandvoort until 2017, is a motorsport race track located in the dunes north of Zandvoort, Netherlands, near the North Sea coast ...

Circuit Zandvoort
(2021)


New Locations Initiative (2008–present)

Bold denotes the Grands Prix scheduled as part of the season. Since 2008, the Formula One Group has been targeting new "destination cities" to expand its global reach, with the aim to produce races from countries that have not previously been involved in the sport. This initiative started with the 2008 Singapore Grand Prix.


Future Grands Prix

Bold denotes the Grands Prix scheduled as part of the season. Below is a list of announced plans for new Grands Prix.


Circuits

A typical circuit features a stretch of straight road on which the starting grid is situated. The '''', where the drivers stop for tyres, aerodynamic adjustments and minor repairs (such as changing the car's nose due to front wing damage) during the race, retirements from the race, and where the teams work on the cars before the race, is normally located next to the starting grid. The layout of the rest of the circuit varies widely, although in most cases the circuit runs in a clockwise direction. Those few circuits that run anticlockwise (and therefore have predominantly left-handed corners) can cause drivers neck problems due to the enormous lateral forces generated by F1 cars pulling their heads in the opposite direction to normal. A single race requires hotel rooms to accommodate at least 5,000 visitors. Most of the circuits currently in use are specially constructed for competition. The current street circuits are
Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque Ligurian: ''Prinçipatu de Mu̍negu''), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The ...
,
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...
,
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...
and Baku City Circuit, Baku although races in other urban locations come and go (Las Vegas and Detroit, for example) and proposals for such races are often discussed – most recently Grand Prix of America, New Jersey. Several circuits have been completely laid out on public roads in the past, such as Valencia Street Circuit, Valencia in Spain, though Monaco is the only one that remains. The glamour and history of the Monaco race are the primary reasons why the circuit is still in use, even though it does not meet the strict safety requirements imposed on other tracks. Three-time World champion
Nelson Piquet Nelson Piquet Souto Maior (, born 17 August 1952), known as Nelson Piquet, is a Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At ...
famously described racing in Monaco as "like riding a bicycle around your living room". Circuit design to protect the safety of drivers is becoming increasingly sophisticated, as exemplified by the new Bahrain International Circuit, added in and designed – like most of F1's new circuits – by Hermann Tilke. Several of the new circuits in F1, especially those designed by Tilke, have been criticised as lacking the "flow" of such classics as Spa-Francorchamps and Imola. His redesign of the Hockenheim circuit in Germany for example, while providing more capacity for grandstands and eliminating extremely long and dangerous straights, has been frowned upon by many who argue that part of the character of the Hockenheim circuits was the long and blinding straights into dark forest sections. These newer circuits, however, are generally agreed to meet the safety standards of modern Formula One better than the older ones. The
Circuit of the Americas Circuit of the Americas (COTA) is a Grade 1 FIA-specification motor racing Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and p ...

Circuit of the Americas
in Austin, Texas, Austin, the Sochi Autodrom in Sochi and the
Baku City Circuit The Baku City Circuit ( az, Bakı Şəhər Halqası) is a motor racing Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, ...
in Azerbaijan have all been introduced as brand new tracks since 2012. In 2020,
Algarve International Circuit The Algarve International Circuit ( pt, Autódromo Internacional do Algarve), commonly referred to as Portimão Circuit, is a race circuit located in Portimão, Portugal. The project includes a karting track, technology park, five-star hotel, ...
debuted on the F1 calendar as the venue of the
Portuguese Grand Prix The Portuguese Grand Prix (''Grande Prémio de Portugal'') is a motorsports Motorsport, motorsports or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised ve ...
, with the country having last hosted a race in 1996. In 2021,
Circuit Zandvoort Circuit Zandvoort (), known for sponsorship reasons as CM.com Circuit Zandvoort, and previously known as Circuit Park Zandvoort until 2017, is a motorsport race track located in the dunes north of Zandvoort, Netherlands, near the North Sea coast ...

Circuit Zandvoort
returned to the F1 calendar as the
Dutch Grand Prix The Dutch Grand Prix ( nl, Grote Prijs van Nederland) is a Formula One motor racing event held at Circuit Zandvoort, North Holland, Netherlands, from 1950 to 1985 and from 2021 Formula One World Championship, 2021 onwards. It was a part of the W ...
, having last hosted a race in 1985.


Cars and technology

Modern Formula One cars are
mid-engined In automotive engineering Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and naval architecture, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of Mechanical engineering, mechanical, Electrical engineering, electrical, Elec ...
, hybrid, open cockpit, open wheel car, open wheel single-seaters. The chassis is made largely of Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer, carbon-fibre composites, rendering it light but extremely stiff and strong. The whole car, including the driver but not fuel, weighs only – the minimum weight set by the regulations. If the construction of the car is lighter than the minimum, it can be ballasted up to add the necessary weight. The race teams take advantage of this by placing this ballast at the extreme bottom of the chassis, thereby locating the centre of gravity as low as possible in order to improve handling and weight transfer. The cornering speed of Formula One cars is largely determined by the aerodynamic
downforce Downforce is a downwards created by the features of a vehicle. If the vehicle is a car, the purpose of downforce is to allow the car to travel faster by increasing the vertical force on the tires, thus creating more . If the vehicle is a fixed- ...

downforce
that they generate, which pushes the car down onto the track. This is provided by "wings" mounted at the front and rear of the vehicle, and by ground effect in cars, ground effect created by low air pressure under the flat bottom of the car. The aerodynamic design of the cars is very heavily constrained to limit performance and the current generation of cars sport a large number of small winglets, "barge boards", and turning vanes designed to closely control the flow of the air over, under, and around the car. The other major factor controlling the cornering speed of the cars is the design of the tire, tyres. From to , the tyres in Formula One were not "slick tyre, slicks" (tyres with no tread pattern) as in most other circuit racing series. Instead, each tyre had four large circumferential grooves on its surface designed to limit the cornering speed of the cars. Slick tyres returned to Formula One in the season. Suspension is double wishbone suspension, double wishbone or multilink suspension, multilink front and rear, with pushrod operated springs and shock absorber, dampers on the chassis – one exception being that of the 2009 specification
Red Bull Racing Red Bull Racing, competing as Red Bull Racing Honda, also simply known as Red Bull or RBR, is a Formula One racing team, racing a Honda in Formula One, Honda powered car under an Austrian List of Formula One constructors#Team's nationality, lice ...
car (Red Bull RB5, RB5) which used pullrod suspension at the rear, the first car to do so since the Minardi PS01 in 2001.
Ferrari Ferrari (; ) is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in , Italy. Founded by in 1939 out of the race division as ''Auto Avio Costruzioni'', the company built in 1940, and produced its first Ferrari-badged car in 1947. acquire ...

Ferrari
used a pullrod suspension at both the front and rear in their car. Both Ferrari (F138) and McLaren (MP4-28) of the 2013 season used a pullrod suspension at both the front and the rear. Reinforced carbon-carbon, Carbon-carbon disc brakes are used for reduced weight and increased frictional performance. These provide a very high level of braking performance and are usually the element that provokes the greatest reaction from drivers new to the formula. Formula One cars must have four uncovered wheels, all made of the same metallic material, which must be one of two magnesium alloys specified by the FIA. Magnesium wheels, Magnesium alloy wheels made by forging are used to achieve maximum unsprung weight, unsprung rotating weight reduction. Starting with the 2014 Formula 1 season, the engines have changed from a 2.4-litre naturally aspirated V8 to turbocharged 1.6-litre V6 "power-units". These get a significant amount of their power from electric motors. In addition they include a lot of energy recovery technology. Engines run on unleaded fuel closely resembling publicly available petrol. The oil which lubricates and protects the engine from overheating is very similar in viscosity to water. The 2006 generation of engines spun up to 20,000 Revolutions per minute, rpm and produced over . For , engines were restricted to 19,000 rpm with limited development areas allowed, following the engine specification freeze since the end of . For the 2009 Formula One season the engines were further restricted to 18,000 rpm. A wide variety of technologies – including active suspension and ground effect aerodynamics – are banned under the current regulations. Despite this the current generation of cars can reach speeds in excess of at some circuits. The highest straight line speed recorded during a Grand Prix was , set by
Juan Pablo Montoya Juan Pablo Montoya Roldán (; born September 20, 1975), is a Colombian racing driver Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing, or automobile racing) is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Auto rac ...

Juan Pablo Montoya
during the 2005 Italian Grand Prix. A BAR 007, BAR-Honda Formula One car, running with minimum downforce on a runway in the Mojave Desert achieved a top speed of in 2006. According to Honda, the car fully met the FIA Formula One regulations. Even with the limitations on aerodynamics, at aerodynamically generated downforce is equal to the weight of the car, and the oft-repeated claim that Formula One cars create enough downforce to "drive on the ceiling", while possible in principle, has never been put to the test. Downforce of 2.5 times the car's weight can be achieved at full speed. The downforce means that the cars can achieve a lateral force with a magnitude of up to 3.5 times that of the force of gravity (3.5g) in cornering. Consequently, the driver's head is pulled sideways with a force equivalent to the weight of 20 kg in corners. Such high lateral forces are enough to make breathing difficult and the drivers need supreme concentration and fitness to maintain their focus for the one to two hours that it takes to complete the race. A high-performance road car like the Enzo Ferrari (car), Enzo Ferrari only achieves around 1g. , each team may have no more than two cars available for use at any time. Each driver may use no more than four engines during a championship season unless they drive for more than one team. If more engines are used, they drop ten places on the starting grid of the event at which an additional engine is used. The only exception is where the engine is provided by a manufacturer or supplier taking part in its first championship season, in which case up to five may be used by a driver. Each driver may use no more than one gearbox for six consecutive events; every unscheduled gearbox change requires the driver to drop five places on the grid unless they failed to finish the previous race due to reasons beyond the team's control. , each driver is limited to 3 power units per season, before incurring grid penalties.


Revenue and profits

In March 2007, ''F1 Racing'' published its annual estimates of spending by Formula One teams. The total spending of all eleven teams in 2006 was estimated at $2.9 billion US. This was broken down as follows: Toyota $418.5 million, Ferrari $406.5 m, McLaren $402 m, Honda $380.5 m, BMW Sauber $355 m, Renault $324 m, Red Bull $252 m, Williams $195.5 m, Midland F1/Spyker-MF1 $120 m, Toro Rosso $75 m, and Super Aguri $57 million. Costs vary greatly from team to team. Honda, Toyota, McLaren-Mercedes, and Ferrari were estimated to have spent approximately $200 million on engines in 2006, Renault spent approximately $125 million and Cosworth's 2006 V8 was developed for $15 million. In contrast to the 2006 season on which these figures are based, the 2007 sporting regulations banned all performance related engine development. Formula One teams pay entry fees of $500,000, plus $5,000 per point scored the previous year or $6,000 per point for the winner of the Constructors' Championship. Formula One drivers pay a
FIA Super Licence The FIA Super Licence is a driver's qualification allowing the holder to compete in the Formula One World Championship Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for single-seater formula ...
fee, which in 2013 was €10,000 plus €1,000 per point. There have been controversies with the way profits are shared amongst the teams. The smaller teams have complained that the profits are unevenly shared, favouring established top teams. In September 2015,
Force India Force India Formula One Team Limited, commonly known as Force India and later Sahara Force India, was a Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-seater An open-w ...
and Sauber officially lodged a complaint with the European Union against Formula One questioning the governance and stating that the system of dividing revenues and determining the rules is unfair and unlawful. The cost of building a brand new permanent circuit can be up to hundreds of millions of dollars, while the cost of converting a public road, such as Albert Park Circuit, Albert Park, into a temporary circuit is much less. Permanent circuits, however, can generate revenue all year round from leasing the track for private races and other races, such as MotoGP. The Shanghai International Circuit cost over $300 million and the Istanbul Park circuit cost $150 million to build. A number of Formula One drivers earn the highest salary of any drivers in auto racing. The highest-paid driver in 2021 is Lewis Hamilton, who received $55 million in salary from Mercedes AMG Petronas F1 – a record for any driver. The very top Formula One drivers get paid more than IndyCar or NASCAR drivers, however, the earnings immediately fall off after the top three F1 drivers and the majority of NASCAR racers will make more money than their F1 counterparts. Most top IndyCar drivers are paid around a tenth of their Formula One counterparts. In the second quarter of 2020, Formula One reported a loss revenue of $122 million and an income of $24 million. This was a result of the delay of the racing championship start as a result of the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
. The company grossed revenues of $620 million for the same quarter the previous year.


Future

The expense of Formula One has seen the FIA and the Formula One Commission attempt to create new regulations to lower the costs for a team to compete in the sport. Following their purchase of the commercial rights to the sport in 2017,
Liberty Media Liberty Media Corporation (commonly referred to as Liberty Media or just Liberty) is an American mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media (communication), media technology, technologies that reach a large audience via mass ...
announced their vision for the future of Formula One at the 2018 Bahrain Grand Prix. The proposal identified five key areas, including streamlining the governance of the sport, emphasising cost-effectiveness, maintaining the sport's relevance to road cars and encouraging new manufacturers to enter the championship whilst enabling them to be competitive. Liberty cited as their target date as it coincided with the need to renew commercial agreements with the teams and the end of the seven-year cycle of engine development that started in . On 19 August 2020, it was announced that all 10 teams had signed the new Concorde Agreement. This came into effect at the start of the 2021 season and changed how prize money and TV revenue is distributed.


Responsibility towards the environment

Formula 1 has launched a plan to become carbon neutrality, carbon neutral by 2030. By 2025, all events should become "sustainable", including eliminating single-use plastics and ensuring all waste is reused, recycled or composted. In January 2020, FIA and Formula One signed the United Nations "Sports for Climate Action" framework. After the signing was announced, FIA President Jean Todt said: "As an international Federation comprising 244 members in 140 countries and the leader in motor sport and mobility development, we are fully committed to global environmental protection. The signing of this UN Sports for Climate Action Framework reinforces the momentum that has been growing in our Federation for many years. Since the introduction of the hybrid power unit in F1 to the creation of the Environment and Sustainability Commission, the entire FIA community has been investing time, energy and financial resources to the benefit of environmental innovations. We aim to inspire greater awareness and best practice in sustainability motor sport standards." From the 2021-22 season, all cars will increase the bio-component of their fuel, using Common ethanol fuel mixtures, E10 fuel, rather than the 5.75% of Ethanol fuel, Ethanol currently used. This percentage is expected to grow again in the future. In December 2020, the FIA claimed that it had developed a fuel with 100% sustainability, to be used in Formula One from either 2025 or 2026, when new engine regulations come into force.


Media coverage

Formula One can be seen live or tape delayed in almost every country and territory and attracts one of the largest global television audiences. The 2008 season attracted a global audience of 600 million people per race. The cumulative television audience was calculated to be 54 billion for the 2001 season, broadcast to 200 territories. During the early 1990s, Formula One Group created a number of trademarks, an official logo, an official TV graphics package and in 2003, an official website for the sport in an attempt to give it a corporate identity. TV stations all take what is known as the "World Feed", either produced historically by the "host broadcaster" or by FOM (Formula One Management). The host broadcaster either had one feed for all, or two separate feeds - a feed for local viewers and a feed for international viewers. The one size fits all approach meant that there was bias to a certain team or driver during the event, which led to viewers missing out on more important action and incidents, while the two feed approach meant that replays (for when returning from an ad break) and local bias action could be overlaid on the local feed while the international feed was left unaffected. The only station that differed from this set up was "DF1" (re-branded to "Premiere" then to "Sky Deutschland") – a German channel which offers all sessions live and interactive, with features such as the onboard and pitlane channels. This service was purchased by Bernie Ecclestone at the end of 1996 and became F1 Digital Plus, which was made more widely available around Europe until the end of 2002, when the cost of the digital interactive service was thought too much. On 12 January 2011 F1 announced that it would adopt the high-definition television, HD format for the 2011 season. It was announced on 29 July 2011, that Sky Sports and the BBC would team up to show the races in F1 from 2012 to 2018. BSkyB, Sky launched a dedicated channel, Sky Sports F1 which covered all races live without commercial interruption as well as live practice and qualifying sessions, along with F1 programming, including interviews, archive action and magazine shows. In 2012 the BBC broadcast live coverage of half of the races in the season. The BBC ended its television contract after the 2015 season, three years earlier than planned. The free-to-air TV rights were picked up by Channel 4 until the end of the 2018 season. Sky Sports F1 coverage remained unaffected and BBC Radio 5 Live and BBC Radio 5 Live Sports Extra, 5 Live Sports Extra coverage was extended until 2021. While Sky Sports and Channel 4 are the two major broadcasters of Formula 1, other countries show Formula One races. Many use commentary from either Sky Sports or Channel 4. In most of Asia (excluding China), the two main broadcasters of Formula one include the Fox network and Star Sports (in India). In the United States, ESPN holds the official rights to broadcast the sport. In Germany, Austria and Switzerland, the two main broadcasters are RTL Germany and n-TV. In China, there are multiple channels that broadcast Formula One which include CCTV, Tencent, Guangdong TV and Shanghai TV. Currently in France, the only channel that broadcasts Formula one is the pay TV channel Canal+, having renewed its broadcasting rights until 2024. The official Formula One website has live timing charts that can be used during the race to follow the leaderboard in real time. An official application has been available for in the App Store (iOS), Apple App Store since 2009, and on Google Play since 2011, that shows users a real-time feed of driver positions, timing and commentary. On 26 November 2017 Formula One unveiled a new logo, which replaced the previous "flying one" in use since 1993. In March 2018, FOM announced the launch of F1 TV, an Over-the-top media service, over-the-top (OTT) streaming platform that lets viewers watch multiple simultaneous video feeds and timing screens in addition to traditional directed race footage and commentary.


Distinction between Formula One and World Championship races

Currently, the terms 'Formula One race' and 'World Championship race' are effectively synonymous. Since 1984, every Formula One race has counted towards the World Championship, and every World Championship race has been run to Formula One regulations. However, the two terms are not interchangeable. * The first Formula One race was held in 1947, whereas the World Championship did not start until 1950. * In the 1950s and 1960s, there were many Formula One races that did not count for the World Championship (e.g., in 1950, a total of twenty-two Formula One races were held, of which only six counted towards the World Championship). The number of non-championship Formula One events decreased throughout the 1970s and 1980s, to the point where the last non-championship Formula One race was the 1983 Race of Champions. * The World Championship was not always exclusively composed of Formula One events: ** The World Championship was originally established as the "World Championship for Drivers", i.e., without the term "Formula One" in the title. It only officially became the FIA Formula One World Championship in 1981. ** From 1950 to 1960, the
Indianapolis 500 The Indianapolis 500, also formally known as the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race, or simply the Indy 500, is an annual automobile race held at (IMS) in , United States, an of . The event is traditionally held over weekend, usually the last week ...

Indianapolis 500
race counted towards the World Championship. This race was run to American Automobile Association and United States Automobile Club regulations, rather than to Formula One regulations. Only one of the World Championship regulars,
Alberto Ascari Alberto Ascari (; 13 July 1918 – 26 May 1955) was an Italy, Italian racing driver and twice Formula One List of Formula One World Drivers' Champions, World Champion. He was a multitalented racer who competed in motorcycle racing before switchi ...

Alberto Ascari
in 1952 Indianapolis 500, 1952, started at Indianapolis during this period. ** From 1952 to 1953, all races counting towards the World Championship (except the Indianapolis 500) were run to Formula Two regulations. Formula One was not changed to Formula Two during this period; the Formula One regulations remained the same, and numerous non-championship Formula One races were staged during this time. The distinction is most relevant when considering career summaries and all-time lists. For example, in the List of Formula One drivers, Clemente Biondetti is shown with a single race against his name. Biondetti actually competed in four Formula One races in 1950, but only one of these counted for the World Championship. Similarly, several
Indianapolis 500 The Indianapolis 500, also formally known as the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race, or simply the Indy 500, is an annual automobile race held at (IMS) in , United States, an of . The event is traditionally held over weekend, usually the last week ...

Indianapolis 500
winners technically won their first World Championship race, though most record books ignore this and instead only record regular World Championship participants. In the earlier history of Formula One, many races took place outside the World Championship, and local championships run to Formula One regulations also occurred. These events often took place on circuits that were not always suitable for the World Championship, and featured local cars and drivers as well as those competing in the championship.


European non-championship racing

In the early years of Formula One, before the world championship was established, there were around twenty races held from late Spring to early Autumn in Europe, although not all of these were considered significant. Most competitive cars came from Italy, particularly Alfa Romeo. After the start of the world championship, these non-championship races continued. In the 1950s and 1960s, there were many Formula One races which did not count for the World Championship; in a total of twenty-two Formula One races were held, of which only six counted towards the World Championship. In 1952 and 1953, when the world championship was run to Formula Two regulations, non-championship events were the only Formula One races that took place. Some races, particularly in the UK, including the Race of Champions (Brands Hatch), Race of Champions, Oulton Park International Gold Cup and the International Trophy, were attended by the majority of the world championship contenders. Other smaller events were regularly held in locations not part of the championship, such as the Syracuse Grand Prix, Syracuse and Danish Grand Prix, Danish Grands Prix, although these only attracted a small amount of the championship teams and relied on private entries and lower Formula cars to make up the grid. These became less common through the 1970s and 1983 saw the last non-championship Formula One race; the 1983 Race of Champions at Brands Hatch, won by reigning World Champion Keke Rosberg in a Williams-Cosworth in a close fight with American Danny Sullivan.


South African Formula One championship

South Africa's flourishing domestic Formula One championship ran from 1960 through to 1975. The frontrunning cars in the series were recently retired from the world championship although there was also a healthy selection of locally built or modified machines. Frontrunning drivers from the series usually contested their local World Championship Grand Prix, as well as occasional European events, although they had little success at that level.


British Formula One Championship

The Cosworth DFV, DFV helped make the UK domestic Formula One championship possible between 1978 and 1980. As in South Africa a decade before, second hand cars from manufacturers like Lotus and Fittipaldi Automotive were the order of the day, although some, such as the March 781, were built specifically for the series. In 1980, the series saw Formula One drivers from South Africa, South African Desiré Wilson become the only woman to win a Formula One race when she triumphed at Brands Hatch in a Walter Wolf Racing, Wolf WR3.


See also

* Formula One video games


Notes


References


Further reading

* Arron, Simon & Hughes, Mark (2003). ''The Complete Book of Formula One''. Motorbooks International. . * Gross, Nigel et al. (1999). "Grand Prix Motor Racing". In, ''100 Years of Change: Speed and Power'' (pp. 55–84). Parragon. * Hayhoe, David & Holland, David (2006). ''Grand Prix Data Book (4th edition)''. Haynes, Sparkford, UK. . * Higham, Peter (2003). ''The international motor racing guide''. David Bull, Phoenix, AZ, USA. . * * Jones, Bruce (1997). ''The Ultimate Encyclopedia of Formula One''. Hodder & Stoughton. * Jones, Bruce (1998). ''Formula One: The Complete Stats and Records of Grand Prix Racing''. Parragon. * Jones, Bruce (2003). ''The Official ITV Sport Guide: Formula One Grand Prix 2003''. Carlton. Includes foreword by Martin Brundle. . * Jones, Bruce (2005). ''The Guide to 2005 FIA Formula One World Championship: The World's Bestselling Grand Prix Guide''. Carlton. . * Lang, Mike (1981–1992). ''Grand Prix! volumes 1–4''. Haynes, Sparkford, UK. * Menard, Pierre (2006). ''The Great Encyclopedia of Formula 1, 5th edition''. Chronosport, Switzerland. * Miltner, Harry (2007). ''Race Travel Guide 2007''. egoth: Vienna, Austria. * Small, Steve (2000). ''Grand Prix Who's Who (3rd edition)''. Travel Publishing, UK. . * Tremayne, David & Hughes, Mark (1999). ''The Concise Encyclopedia of Formula One''. Parragon * Twite, Mike. "Formula Regulations: Categories for International Racing" in Northey, Tom, ed. ''The World Of Automobiles'', Volume 6, pp. 701–3. London: Phoebus, 1978.


External links

* * {{Portal bar, Formula One Formula One, 1950 establishments in Europe Formula racing series, 1 Formula racing, 1 Games and sports introduced in 1947 Open wheel racing