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A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a
multiple-unit A multiple-unit train or simply multiple unit (MU) is a self-propelled train pulling passenger cars in Nevada Nevada (, ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, Western region of the United States. It is bordered by ...
train powered by on-board
diesel engine The diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which Combustion, ignition of the diesel fuel, fuel is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression; thus, the die ...

diesel engine
s. A DMU requires no separate
locomotive upright=1.2, An R class steam locomotive number R707 as operated by the Victorian Railways of Rail transport in Australia">Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprisi ...

locomotive
, as the engines are incorporated into one or more of the carriages. Diesel-powered single-unit
railcar A railcar (not to be confused with a Railroad car, railway car) is a self-propelled Rail transport, railway vehicle designed to transport passengers. The term "railcar" is usually used in reference to a train consisting of a single Coach ...

railcar
s are also generally classed as DMUs. Diesel-powered units may be further classified by their transmission type: diesel–mechanical ''DMMU'', diesel–hydraulic ''DHMU'', or diesel–electric ''DEMU''.


Design

The diesel engine may be located above the frame in an engine bay or under the floor. Driving controls can be at both ends, on one end, or in a separate car.


Types by transmission

DMUs are usually classified by the method of transmitting motive power to their wheels.


Diesel–mechanical

In a diesel–mechanical multiple unit (DMMU), the rotating energy of the engine is transmitted via a
gearbox A transmission is a in a transmission system, which provides controlled application of power. Often the term ''5-speed transmission'' refers simply to the , that uses s and s to provide and block conversions from a rotating power source to a ...
and driveshaft directly to the wheels of the train, like a
car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some areas almost outnumbering regular bicycles A motor vehicle, also k ...

car
. The transmissions can be shifted manually by the driver, as in the great majority of first-generation
British Rail British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the overground rail transport in Great Britain The railway system in Great Britain is the oldest railway system in the world. T ...
DMUs, but in most applications, gears are changed automatically.


Diesel–hydraulic

In a diesel–hydraulic multiple unit (DHMU), a hydraulic
torque converter torque converter cut-away Image:torque-converter-cutbox-model.jpg, A Cutaway (industrial), cut-away model of a torque converter A torque converter is a type of fluid coupling A fluid coupling or hydraulic coupling is a hydrodynamic or 'hydroki ...

torque converter
, a type of fluid coupling, acts as the transmission medium for the motive power of the diesel engine to turn the wheels. Some units feature a hybrid mix of hydraulic and mechanical transmissions, usually reverting to the latter at higher operating speeds as this decreases engine RPM and noise.


Diesel–electric

In a diesel–electric multiple unit (DEMU), a
diesel engine The diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which Combustion, ignition of the diesel fuel, fuel is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression; thus, the die ...

diesel engine
drives an
electrical generator In electricity generation Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utility, utilities in the electric power industry, it is the stage prior to its Electricity delivery, delive ...
or an
alternator An alternator is an electrical generator In electricity generation Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For electric utility, utilities in the electric power industry, it is the s ...
which produces
electrical energy Electrical energy is energy derived as a result of movement of electrically charged particles. When used loosely, ''electrical energy'' refers to energy that has been converted ''from'' electric potential energy. This energy is supplied by the comb ...
. The generated current is then fed to electric
traction motor A traction motor is an electric motor used for propulsion of a vehicle, such as locomotive File:R707-loco-victorian-railways.jpg, upright=1.2, An Victorian Railways R class, R class steam locomotive number R707 as operated by the Victorian Railwa ...
s on the
wheel File:Roue primitive.png, An early wheel made of a solid piece of wood A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle An axle or axletree is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On wheeled vehicles, the ...

wheel
s or
bogie A bogie ( ) (in some senses Sense relates to any of the systems and corresponding organs involved in sensation, i.e. the physical process of responding to Stimulus (physiology), stimuli and providing data for perception. During sensation, se ...
s in the same way as a conventional diesel–electric locomotive. On some DEMUs, such as the
Bombardier Voyager The Bombardier Voyager is a family of high speed train, high-speed 125 mph diesel-electric multiple-units built in Belgium by Bombardier Transportation, for service on the railway network of the United Kingdom. Construction of the Voyager family ...
, each car is entirely self-contained and has its own engine, generator and electric motors. In other designs, such as the
British Rail Class 207 The British Rail British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated the national rail system rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997. It was formed from the nationalisation of t ...
or the
Stadler GTW The Stadler GTW is an articulated railcar for local transport made by Stadler Rail of Switzerland. GTW stands for Gelenktriebwagen (articulated railcar). History The Biel–Täuffelen–Ins-Bahn near Bern, Switzerland was looking for a lighter ...
and , some cars within the
consist pulling passenger cars in Nevada Nevada (, ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, Western region of the United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to ...
may be entirely unpowered or only feature electric motors, obtaining electric current from other cars in the consist which have a generator and engine. With diesel–electric transmission, some DMU can be no other than an
EMU The emu (''Dromaius novaehollandiae'') is the second-largest living bird by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich. It is endemic Endemism is the state of a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological c ...
without
pantograph A pantograph (Greek roots παντ- "all, every" and γραφ- "to write", from their original use for copying writing) is a connected in a manner based on s so that the movement of one pen, in tracing an image, produces identical movements i ...
, which "is substituted" by one or more on-board
diesel generator . A diesel generator (DG) (also known as diesel genset) is the combination of a diesel engine The diesel engine, named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which Combustion, ignition of the diesel fuel, fuel is caused by ...

diesel generator
s; this kind of DEMU can be potentially upgraded to electro-diesel multiple unit ''EDMU'', becoming a bi-mode multiple units train (BMU), just adding one or two pantographs (with opportune converters, if necessary) and related modifications on the electric system.


Advantages and disadvantages

A train composed of DMU cars scales well, as it allows extra passenger capacity to be added at the same time as motive power. It also permits passenger capacity to be matched to demand, and for trains to be split and joined en route. It is not necessary to match the power available to the size and weight of the train, as each unit is capable of moving itself. As units are added, the power available to move the train increases by the necessary amount. DMUs may have better acceleration capabilities, with more power-driven axles, making them more suitable for routes with frequent closely spaced stops, as compared with conventional locomotive and unpowered carriage setups. Distribution of the propulsion among the cars also results in a system that is less vulnerable to single-point-of-failure outages. Many classes of DMU are capable of operating with faulty units still in the consist. Because of the self-contained nature of diesel engines, there is no need to run overhead electric lines or electrified track, which can result in lower system construction costs. Such advantages must be weighed against the underfloor noise and vibration that may be an issue with this type of train. Generally diesel traction has several downsides compared to electric traction, namely higher fuel costs, more noise and exhaust as well as worse acceleration and top speed performance. The power to weight ratio also tends to be worse. DMUs have further disadvantages compared to diesel locomotives in that they cannot be swapped out when approaching or passing onto an electrified line, necessitating either passengers to change trains or Diesel operation on electrified lines. Similarly the lost investment once electrification reduces the demand for diesel rolling stock is higher than with locomotive hauled trains where only the locomotive has to be replaced. Finally, incremental maintenance costs for DMUs are significantly higher than with electric (EMUs), because of the added fueling, lubrication, replacement and maintenance of engine parts and systems in every car.


Around the world


Europe


Belgium

NMBS/SNCB uses its NMBS/SNCB Class 41 DMUs on the few remaining unelectrified lines. As electrification progresses, the DMUs become less and less important.


Croatia

Diesel multiple units cover large number of passenger lines in
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
which are operated by the national passenger service operator HŽ Putnički Prijevoz. On Croatian Railways, DMU's have important role since they cover local, regional and distant lines all across the country. The country's two largest towns,
Zagreb Zagreb ( , , , ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

Zagreb
and
Split Split(s) or The Split may refer to: Places * Split, Croatia, the largest coastal city in Croatia * Split Island, Canada, an island in the Hudson Bay * Split Island, Falkland Islands * Split Island, Fiji, better known as Hạfliua Arts, entertainm ...
, are connected with an inter-city service that is provided by DMU tilting trains "
RegioSwinger The RegioSwinger is a tilting train, tilting diesel multiple unit (DMU) passenger train used for fast regional traffic on unelectrified lines. Development and service The RegioSwinger was first manufactured by Adtranz in Hennigsdorf, before it ...
" (Croatian series 7123) since 2004. Those trains may also cover other lines in the country depending on need and availability. Luxury DMU series 7021, built in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, started to operate for
Yugoslav Railways Yugoslav Railways ( sh, Jugoslavenske/Jugoslovenske željeznice, Југословенске/Југословенске железнице; mk, Југословенски железници; sl, Jugoslovanske železnice), with standard acronym J ...
in 1972 and after 1991 stil remained in service of Croatian Railways until 2005. Units 7121 and 7122 (which came as a replacement for 7221 units), together with the newest series 7022 and 7023 built in 2010s Croatia, cover many of the country's local and regional services on unelectrified or partly electrified lines.


Czech Republic

Diesel multiple units also cover large number of passenger lines in the Czech Republic which are operated by the national operator
České dráhy České dráhy (English: ''Czech Railways''), often shortened to ČD, is the major Rail transport, railway operator in the Czech Republic providing regional and long-distance services. Overview The company was established in 1993, after the Vel ...
. They have important role since they cover local, regional and distant lines all across the country. Those trains may also cover other lines in the country depending on need and availability too. Plus, the DMUs were manufactured for foreign carriers. The tables of cars and units are divided into vehicles operated until 1987, when the
ČSD Czechoslovak State Railways (in Czech language, Czech ''Československé státní dráhy'', ČSD) was the state-owned railway company of Czechoslovakia. The company was founded in 1918 after the end of the World War I, First World War and disso ...
used the series designations proposed by Vojtěch Kryšpín, and vehicles created after this date, which no longer have Kryšpín's designations (with some exceptions). In addition, these new cars are the new vehicles are already different in both countries.


Estonia

Elron has since 2015 a fleet, with 20 trains DEMU version.


Germany

Germany has employed DMUs for both commuter and express services for many decades. The SVT 877 '' Fliegender Hamburger'' DMU, introduced in 1933, made the run from Berlin to Hamburg in an astonishing 138 minutes, and its derivative SVT 137 broke the land speed record in 1936. After World War 2, the VT 11.5 DMU was the flagship of the glamorous
Trans Europ Express The Trans Europ Express, or Trans-Europe Express (TEE), was an international first-class railway service in western and central Europe that was founded in 1957 and ceased in 1995. At the height of its operations, in 1974, the TEE network comprise ...

Trans Europ Express
. Since 1968, DB has designated DMUs with class numbers beginning in 6. While DB and regional transport authorities generally prefer electric power for commuter rail, many local and rural lines remain un-electrified, and DMUs are invaluable in providing services to those areas. DMUs in service as of 2021 include the Adtranz Class 612 tilting train ("Regio Swinger"), the
Alstom Coradia LINT The Alstom Coradia LINT is an articulated An articulated vehicle is a vehicle which has a permanent or semi-permanent pivot joint In animal anatomy, a pivot joint (trochoid joint, rotary joint, lateral ginglymus) is a type of synovial joint. ...
(Classes 620–623, 640 and 648), the
Siemens Desiro The Siemens Desiro is a family of Diesel multiple unit, diesel or electric multiple unit passenger trains developed by Siemens Mobility, a division of the German Siemens, Siemens AG conglomerate. The main variants are the Desiro Classic, Desiro ML ...
(Class 642) and the
Bombardier Talent The Talent is a multiple unit railcar manufactured by Bombardier that was developed by Waggonfabrik Talbot in Aachen shortly before the company was acquired by Bombardier in 1995. The name ''Talent'' is an acronym and initialism, acronym in Ger ...
(Class 643/644). From 2001 to 2016 there was even a DMU version of DB's high-speed
Intercity Express The Intercity Express (commonly known as ICE ()) is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany. It also serves some destinations in Austria, Denmark, France, Belgium, Switzerland and the Netherlands mostly as part of cross ...
, the Class 605
ICE TD The DBAG Class 605, commonly known as the ICE TD is a high-speed diesel multiple unit A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple-unit train powered by on-board diesel engines. A DMU requires no separate locomotive, as the engines ar ...
.


Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland the Córas Iompair Éireann (CIÉ), which controlled the republic's railways between 1945 and 1986, introduced DMUs in the mid-1950s and they were the first diesel trains on many main lines.


Romania

DMUs are used mostly on shorter and less frequently travelled routes in remote and often poorer areas like
Banat Banat (, ) is a geographical and historical region straddling between Central and Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it ...

Banat
and
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Bukovina
. The national railway company CFR uses Malaxa class 77 and 78 DMUs locally built between the 1920s and 50s and refurbished in the 70s. It also uses a smaller number of other newer DMUs. Main DMU in use is the Class 96
Siemens Desiro The Siemens Desiro is a family of Diesel multiple unit, diesel or electric multiple unit passenger trains developed by Siemens Mobility, a division of the German Siemens, Siemens AG conglomerate. The main variants are the Desiro Classic, Desiro ML ...
aka Săgeata Albastră (Blue Arrow).


Slovakia

In the present, several types of DMUs operate in Slovakia. Was the most common type in Slovakia is a Class 812 ZSSK based on the ČD Class 810. These are used almost exclusively for hauling passenger trains on non-electrified regional lines and these trains often excel in low travel speeds. In the past, however, in Slovakia there were a number of
express train An express train is a type of passenger train that makes a small number of stops between its origin and destination stations, usually major destinations, allowing faster service than Local train, local trains that stop at most or all of the s ...
s driven by motor coaches, which often overcame heavier trains driven by steam locomotives at cruising speed, and classic sets. A typical example can be, for example, the Slovenská strela motor express train led on the Bratislava-Prague route by a motor car of the same name, or the Tatran express from Bratislava to Košice. Representatives of high-speed motor wagons were, for example, motor wagons of the M262 or M286 series, which, however, lost their application in high-speed wagons due to the gradual electrification of main lines and were, like the current wagons currently used for passenger trains.


United Kingdom

The first significant use of DMUs in the United Kingdom was by the
Great Western Railway The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company that linked London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millenni ...
, which introduced its small but successful series of diesel–mechanical
GWR railcars In 1933, the Great Western Railway The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a History of rail transport in Great Britain, British railway company that linked London with the southwest and west of England, the West Midlands (region), West Midlands, ...
in 1934. The
London & North Eastern Railway The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) was the second largest (after London, Midland and Scottish Railway, LMS) of the "Big Four (British railway companies), Big Four" railway companies created by the Railways Act 1921 in Britain. It ope ...
and
London, Midland & Scottish Railway The London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS)It has been argued that the initials LMSR should be used to be consistent with London and North Eastern Railway, LNER, Great Western Railway, GWR and Southern Railway (UK), SR. The London, Midland a ...
also experimented with DMUs in the 1930s, the LMS both on its own system, and on that of its , but development was curtailed by
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. After nationalisation,
British Rail British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the overground rail transport in Great Britain The railway system in Great Britain is the oldest railway system in the world. T ...
ways (BR) revived the concept in the early 1950s. At that time there was an urgent need to move away from expensive steam traction which led to many experimental designs using diesel propulsion and
multiple unit A multiple-unit train or simply multiple unit (MU) is a self-propelled train In rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, ...
s. The early DMUs proved successful, and under BR's 1955 Modernisation Plan the building of a large fleet was authorised. These BR "First Generation" DMUs were built between 1956 and 1963. BR required that contracts for the design and manufacture of new locomotives and rolling stock be split between numerous private firms as well as BR's own workshops, while different BR Regions laid down different specifications. The result was a multitude of different types, one of which was: * 'Intercity' units, which were more substantially constructed, and shared many features with contemporary hauled coaching stock. They were built for express services on important secondary routes on the
Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Scotland *Scottish English *Scottish national identity, the Scottish iden ...
, North Eastern and
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
regions. In 1960, British Railways introduced its Blue Pullman high-speed DEMUs. These were few in number and relatively short-lived, but they paved the way for the very successful
InterCity 125 The InterCity 125 (originally Inter-City 125,New tra ...
or High Speed Train (HST) units, which were built between 1975 and 1982 to take over most principal express services on non-electrified routes. These trains run with a streamlined power car at each end and (typically) 7 to 9 intermediate trailer cars. Although originally classified as DEMUs, the trailer cars are very similar to loco-hauled stock, and the power cars were later reclassified as locomotives under Class 43. They remain in widespread use. By the early 1980s, many of the surviving First Generation units were reaching the end of their design life, leading to spiralling maintenance costs, poor reliability and a poor public image for the railway. A stopgap solution was to convert some services back to locomotive haulage, as spare locomotives and hauled coaching stock were available, but this also increased operating costs. Commencing in the mid '80s, British Rail embarked upon its so called "Sprinterisation" programme, to replace most of the first generation DMUs and many locomotive-hauled trains with three new families of DMU: * Class 140–144 ''Pacer''
railbus A railbus is a lightweight passenger railcar articulated regional railcar low-floor vehicle is a modern version of a single unit railcar. Several of these can run together; articulated versions are also available. modern railcar. Latv ...
es, ultra-low-cost diesel–mechanical units utilising 4-wheeled chassis and lightweight bus bodywork, designed for provincial branch line and stopping services. * Sprinter a family of diesel–hydraulic DMUs. These fall into three sub-groups; Class 150 ''Sprinters'' (for branch line/commuter service), Class 153 /
155 Year 155 ( CLV) was a common year starting on Tuesday A common year starting on Tuesday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day ...
/
156 Year 156 ( CLVI) was a leap year starting on WednesdayA leap year starting on Wednesday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Wednesday 1 January and ends on Thursday 31 December. Its dominical letters hence a ...
''Super Sprinters'' (for longer cross country services), and Class 158 /
159 Year 159 ( CLIX) was a common year starting on Sunday A common year starting on Sunday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or wikt:bissextile, bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional da ...
''Express'' units (for secondary express services); * Networker diesel–hydraulic units, of Class 165 ''Network Turbo'' (standard commuter version) and Class 166 ''Network Express'' (for longer distance commuter services). These took over the remaining non-electric commuter services into London. Following the
impact of the privatisation of British Rail The impact of the privatisation of British Rail has been the subject of much debate, with the stated benefits including improved customer service, and more investment; and stated drawbacks including higher fares, lower punctuality and increased r ...
in the late 1990s, several other diesel–hydraulic DMU families have been introduced: * Class 168 ''Clubman'' and Class 170/
171 Year 171 ( CLXXI) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a month) add ...
/
172 Year 172 ( CLXXII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday A leap year starting on Tuesday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Wednesday, 31 December. Its dominical letters hence a ...
''
Bombardier Turbostar The Bombardier Turbostar (sold as the ADtranz Turbostar until 2001) is a family of diesel multiple unit thumb , 220x124px , right , Diesel train in Victoria in Australia A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple-unit train powered ...
s'', a development of the earlier ''Networkers''. These are built by
Adtranz ABB Daimler-Benz Transportation (after 1999 DaimlerChrysler Rail Systems), commonly known under its brand ADtranz, was a multi-national rail transport equipment manufacturer with facilities concentrated in Europe and the US. The company was cre ...
and later
Bombardier Bombardier may refer to: Armed forces * Bombardier (rank), rank equivalent to corporal used in some artillery corps * Bombardier (aircrew), crew member on a bomber aircraft * Artillery crewman, archaically Businesses * Bombardier Inc., a company ...
at
Derby Litchurch Lane Works Derby Litchurch Lane Works (formerly Derby Carriage and Wagon Works) is a railway rolling stock factory in Derby Derby ( ) is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Derbyshire, ...
and are the most numerous and widespread of the post-privatisation designs. Purchased by
Anglia Railways Anglia Railways was a train operating company A train operating company (TOC) is a business operating passenger trains on the railway system of Great Britain under the collective National Rail National Rail (NR) in the United Kingdom is ...
,
Central Trains Central Trains was a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by National Express that operated a variety of local and inter-regional trains from 2 March 1997 until 11 November 2007. Overview Created out of the Central division of Re ...
,
Chiltern Railways Chiltern Railways is a British train operating company owned by Arriva UK Trains, that has operated the Chiltern Railways franchise since July 1996. It operates commuter/regional rail passenger services from its central London terminus at Maryl ...
,
London Midland London Midland was a train operating company A train operating company (TOC) is a business operating passenger trains pulling passenger cars in Nevada Nevada (, ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, Western regio ...
,
London Overground Rail Operations London Overground Rail Operations Limited was a train operating company contracted to operate the London Overground train service on the National Rail network, under the franchise control of Transport for London. The company was a 50/50 joint ve ...
,
Midland Mainline Midland Mainline was a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by National Express that operated the Midland Main Line franchise from April 1996 until November 2007. Midland Mainline ran fast and semi-fast passenger services from ...
and ScotRail. * Class 175 ''
Alstom Coradia The Alstom Coradia is a family of diesel and electric multiple unit DART 8500 class commuter EMU at Howth Junction railway station An electric multiple unit or EMU is a multiple-unit train consisting of self-propelled carriages using e ...
s'' were designed by
Alstom Alstom SA is a French multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sover ...

Alstom
as a rival to the 170 Turbostar, but bought only by
First North Western First North Western was a train operating company A train operating company (TOC) is a business operating passenger trains on the railway system of Great Britain under the collective National Rail National Rail (NR) in the United Kingdo ...
* Class 180 ''Adelantes'' were an Alstom design for express services built only for
First Great Western Great Western Railway (GWR) is a British train operating company A train operating company (TOC) is a business operating passenger trains pulling passenger cars in Nevada Nevada (, ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United ...
* Class 185 ''
Siemens Desiro The Siemens Desiro is a family of Diesel multiple unit, diesel or electric multiple unit passenger trains developed by Siemens Mobility, a division of the German Siemens, Siemens AG conglomerate. The main variants are the Desiro Classic, Desiro ML ...
s'', built by
Siemens Siemens AG ( ) is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...
introduced in 2006 by
First TransPennine Express First TransPennine Express was a British train operating company jointly owned by FirstGroup and Keolis which operated the TransPennine Express franchise. First TransPennine Express ran regular Express regional railway services between the major ...
*
Class 195 The British Rail Class 195 ''Civity'' is a class of diesel multiple-unit passenger train manufactured by Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles, CAF, owned by Eversholt Rail Group and currently operated by Northern Trains. A total of 58 units ...
/
196 Year 196 (Roman numerals, CXCVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Dexter and Messalla (or, less frequently, year 949 '' ...
''
CAF Civity The CAF Civity is a platform of regional passenger trains which is manufactured by Spanish rolling stock manufacturer CAF. Available as both a diesel Diesel may refer to: * Diesel engine, an internal combustion engine where ignition is caused b ...
s'', being built by CAF for
Arriva Rail North Arriva Rail North (legal name Arriva Rail North Limited) was a train operating company in Northern England which began operating the Northern franchise on 1 April 2016 and inherited units from the previous operator Northern Rail. A subsidiary of ...
and
West Midlands Trains West Midlands Trains (WMT) is a train operating company in the United Kingdom. It operates passenger trains on the West Midlands franchise between London and the English Midlands under two trade names: West Midlands Railway (WMR) (within the ...
* Class 220/
221 __NOTOC__ Year 221 ( CCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday A common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or year) is a that contains an additional day (or, in the case of a , a ...
/
222 __NOTOC__ Year 222 ( CCXXII) was a common year starting on TuesdayA common year starting on Tuesday is any non- leap year (i.e. a year with 365 days) that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter he ...
'' Voyagers/Meridians'' built by Bombardier in
Bruges Bruges ( , nl, Brugge ; ; german: Brügge ) is the capital and largest city of the Provinces of Belgium, province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country, and the seventh-largest city of the country b ...

Bruges
for
Hull Trains Hull Trains is an open-access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the col ...
, Midland Mainline and
Virgin CrossCountry Virgin CrossCountry was a train operating company in the United Kingdom operating the InterCity CrossCountry passenger franchise from January 1997 until November 2007. Virgin CrossCountry operated some of the longest direct rail services in th ...
In 2018 the first bi and tri-mode electro-diesel multiple units were introduced: * Class 800/ 802s are being built by
Hitachi () is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign ...

Hitachi
for
Great Western Railway The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company that linked London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millenni ...
, Hull Trains,
London North Eastern Railway London North Eastern Railway (LNER) is a British train operating company A train operating company (TOC) is a business operating passenger trains pulling passenger cars in Nevada Nevada (, ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western ...
and
TransPennine Express TransPennine Express (TPE) is a British train operating company A train operating company (TOC) is a business operating passenger trains pulling passenger cars in Nevada Nevada (, ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United St ...

TransPennine Express
* Class 755 ''''s are to be operated by
Abellio Greater Anglia Greater Anglia (legal name Abellio East Anglia Limited) is a train operating company in Great Britain owned as a joint venture by Abellio (transport company), Abellio, the international arm of the state-owned Dutch national rail operator Nederl ...
* are being converted by
Brush Traction Brush Traction is a manufacturer and maintainer of railway locomotives Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transport, transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on ...
from for Arriva Rail North, Great Western Railway and
KeolisAmey Wales KeolisAmey Operations ( cy, Gweithrediadau KeolisAmey), trading as Transport for Wales Rail Services (TfW Rail Services) was a Welsh train operating company A train operating company (TOC) is a business operating passenger trains on the railw ...
* are being converted by
Vivarail Vivarail is an English rolling stock The term rolling stock in the rail transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located o ...
from
London Underground D78 Stock The London Underground D78 Stock, commonly referred to as D Stock, was a type of sub-surface rolling stock which operated on the District line of the London Underground, except on the Wimbledon station, Wimbledon to Edgware Road tube station (Ci ...
for West Midland Trains and
Transport for Wales Transport for Wales ( cy, Trafnidiaeth Cymru), or TfW ( cy, TrC), is a not-for-profit company owned by the Welsh Government and managed at arms length by its appointed board. TfW oversees the issuance and upkeep of the Wales & Borders franchi ...
Transport for Wales Rail Transport for Wales Rail Limited, operating as Transport for Wales and TfW Rail ( and ), is a Welsh publicly-owned train operating company A train operating company (TOC) is a business operating passenger trains pulling passenger cars ...


North America


Canada

Canada generally follows similar buffer strength requirements to the US,Such as the Railroad Safety Appliance Act of 1893. but new services are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. As a result, several types of lightweight DMUs have been used: * The
O-Train The O-Train is a light rail Light rail transit (LRT) is a form of passenger urban rail transit Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail Rail or rails may refer to: Rail transport *Rail transport an ...

O-Train
Trillium Line The Trillium Line (french: Ligne Trillium), also called O-Train Line 2 (french: Ligne 2 de l'O-Train), is a diesel light rail transit (DLRT) service in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, operated by OC Transpo. The line has been closed since May 2020 fo ...
in
Ottawa, Ontario Ottawa (, ; Canadian French, Canadian ) is the capital city of Canada. The city is located on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the Eastern Ontario, eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec, and forms the core o ...
uses European-standard
Alstom Coradia LINT The Alstom Coradia LINT is an articulated An articulated vehicle is a vehicle which has a permanent or semi-permanent pivot joint In animal anatomy, a pivot joint (trochoid joint, rotary joint, lateral ginglymus) is a type of synovial joint. ...
(previously
Bombardier Talent The Talent is a multiple unit railcar manufactured by Bombardier that was developed by Waggonfabrik Talbot in Aachen shortly before the company was acquired by Bombardier in 1995. The name ''Talent'' is an acronym and initialism, acronym in Ger ...
) DMUs on conventional railway tracks under a specific safety agreement with
Transport Canada Transport Canada (french: Transports Canada) is the Ministry (government department), department within the Government of Canada responsible for developing regulations, Policy, policies and Public services, services of road, rail, marine and air ...
. *
Via Rail Via Rail Canada Inc. (), operating as A trade name, trading name, or business name is a pseudonym used by companies that do not operate under their registered company name. The term for this type of alternative name is a "fictitious" business ...

Via Rail
operates
Budd Rail Diesel Car The Budd Rail Diesel Car, RDC or Buddliner is a self-propelled diesel multiple unit thumb , 220x124px , right , Diesel train in Victoria in Australia A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple-unit train powered by on-board diesel en ...
s on its Sudbury – White River train. * Réseau Charlevoix (
Le Massif Le Massif de Charlevoix (, ), known as just Le Massif, is a ski area in Quebec, Canada, northeast of Quebec City and directly overlooking the Saint Lawrence River, St. Lawrence River. Description Le Massif de Charlevoix ski area is located in P ...

Le Massif
) operates a shuttle in the
Charlevoix Charlevoix () is a cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and ...
region, Québec. *
Canadian National The Canadian National Railway (french: Canadien National) is a Canadian Class I freight railway headquartered in Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the second-most populous city in Canada Canada is a country in the n ...

Canadian National
operates the small custom-built Kaoham Shuttle between
Lillooet Lillooet (), formerly Cayoosh Flat, is a community on the Fraser River in British Columbia, Canada, about up the BC Rail, British Columbia Railway line from Vancouver. Situated at an intersection of deep gorges in the lee of the Coast Mountain ...
, and D'Arcy via
Seton Portage Seton Portage is a community located on a narrow strip of land between Anderson Lake and Seton Lake in Squamish-Lillooet Regional District, British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in ...
, northeast of
Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth desc ...

Vancouver
, in a partnership with the
Seton Lake Indian Band 400px, Aerial view of the Shalalth rancherie and Ohin, which are on Slosh Indian Reserve No. 1, one of the reserves of the Seton Lake First Nation The Seton Lake First Nation, a.k.a. the Seton Lake Indian Band, is a First Nation The First Natio ...
."Kaoham Shuttle" page, Seton Lake Indian Band website (Tsalalh.net)
*
Union Pearson Express The Union Pearson Express (UP Express or UPX) is an airport rail link connecting Union Station (Toronto), Union Station in Downtown Toronto to Toronto Pearson International Airport. The UP Express began operation on 6 June 2015, in time for the ...
uses
Nippon Sharyo DMU The Nippon Sharyo DMU is a model of diesel multiple unit A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple-unit train powered by on-board diesel engines. A DMU requires no separate locomotive, as the engines are incorporated into one or more of the ...
trains for express service between
Union Station A union station (also known as a union terminal and, in Europe, a joint station) is a railway station Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, whi ...
and
Pearson Airport Lester B. Pearson International Airport , branded as Toronto Pearson International Airport (simply known as Toronto Pearson, Pearson Airport or Pearson), is the only Transport Canada designated international airport serving Toronto, its Great ...
.


Costa Rica

Costa Rica has purchased several Apolo 2400 series DMU railcars from the former narrow gauge operator in Spain, which are run in commuter service.


United States

A type of diesel multiple units in the U.S. was the
Budd Rail Diesel Car The Budd Rail Diesel Car, RDC or Buddliner is a self-propelled diesel multiple unit thumb , 220x124px , right , Diesel train in Victoria in Australia A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple-unit train powered by on-board diesel en ...
(RDC). The RDC was a single passenger car with two diesel engines and two sets of controls. In the United States only FRA-compliant DMU systems are permitted on freight rail corridors. This is due to the Federal Railway Administration setting higher coupling strength requirements than European regulators, effectively prohibiting the use of lighter weight European-style
inter-city rail Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than commuter or regional In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact char ...
DMUs on U.S. main line railways without
timesharing In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softw ...
with freight operations or special waivers from the FRA. This has greatly restricted the development of DMUs within the U.S. as no other country requires the much heavier FRA compliant vehicles, and no export market for them exists. Operations using FRA-compliant vehicles: *The
South Florida Regional Transportation Authority The South Florida Regional Transportation Authority (SFRTA) is a tri-county public transit authority operating out of Pompano Beach, Florida Florida (, ) is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region ...
has used a
Colorado Railcar Colorado Railcar was a manufacturer of railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transport, w ...
bi-Level DMU and Coach consist since October 2006 as a technology demonstrator on the long
Tri-Rail Tri-Rail is a commuter rail Commuter rail, or suburban rail, is a service that primarily operates within a , connecting to a from adjacent s or s. Generally commuter rail systems are considered , using electrified or diesel trains ...

Tri-Rail
commuter rail line between
Miami Miami (), officially the City of Miami, is a coast, coastal metropolis located in Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade County in southeastern Florida, United States. With a population of 467,963 as of the 2020 United States census, 2020 censu ...

Miami
and
West Palm Beach 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose i ...

West Palm Beach
,
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
. In early 2007, three more bi-level DMUs and an additional bi-level non-powered coach were acquired. * Since February 2009,
TriMet TriMet, formally known as the Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon, is a public agency that operates public transport, mass transit in a Transportation in Portland, Oregon, region that spans most of the Portland metropoli ...
is using FRA-compliant
Colorado Railcar Colorado Railcar was a manufacturer of railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transport, w ...
DMUs for its rush-hour
WES Commuter Rail WES Commuter Rail (for Westside Express Service) is a commuter rail line serving part of Washington County, Oregon, United States, in the Portland metropolitan area The Portland metropolitan area or Greater Portland is a metropolitan area in t ...
service, a suburb-to-suburb line between Beaverton and
Wilsonville, Oregon Wilsonville is a city primarily in Clackamas County, Oregon, Clackamas County, Oregon, United States. A portion of the northern section of the city is in Washington County, Oregon, Washington County. It was founded as Boones Landing because of the ...
. The opening of the line was delayed from fall 2008 to early 2009 due to delays in getting the vehicles. TriMet also has four refurbished former and
Trinity Railway Express The Trinity Railway Express (TRE) is a commuter rail line in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. It was established by an interlocal agreement between Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) and Trinity Metro. Each transit authority owns a 50% stake in t ...
RDCs as backup trainsets for when one or more Colorado Railcar DMUs is out of service. * Also in
Oregon Oregon () is a U.S. state, state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington (state), Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of it ...

Oregon
, former
BC Rail BC Rail is a railway in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Chartered as a private company in 1912 as the Pacific Great Eastern Railway (PGE), it was acquired by the provincial government in 1918. In 1972 it was renamed to the British ...
RDCs were used on the Lewis and Clark Explorer excursion train from
Portland Portland most commonly refers to: * Portland, Oregon, the largest city in the state of Oregon, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States * Portland, Maine, the largest city in the state of Maine, in the New England region of the northeas ...

Portland
to
Astoria Astoria may refer to: Places United States * Astoria, Illinois * Astoria, Missouri * Astoria, Queens, neighborhood in New York City * Astoria, Oregon * Astoria, South Dakota * Astoria Township, Fulton County, Illinois Other places * Astoria ...
. *
Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit (SMART) is a passenger rail service and Rails with trails, bicycle-pedestrian pathway project in Sonoma County, California, Sonoma and Marin County, California, Marin counties of the U.S. state of California. ...
, also referred to as SMART, operates
Nippon Sharyo DMU The Nippon Sharyo DMU is a model of diesel multiple unit A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple-unit train powered by on-board diesel engines. A DMU requires no separate locomotive, as the engines are incorporated into one or more of the ...
s (the same as those in Toronto) on its route between Larkspur and Santa Rosa, California. Service commenced in 2017. Operations using non FRA-compliant vehicles: *
Capital Metro The Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority, commonly referred to as Capital Metro (or colloquially Cap Metro), is a public transportation provider located in Austin, Texas. It operates bus, paratransit services and a commuter rail system kn ...

Capital Metro
uses
Stadler GTW The Stadler GTW is an articulated railcar for local transport made by Stadler Rail of Switzerland. GTW stands for Gelenktriebwagen (articulated railcar). History The Biel–Täuffelen–Ins-Bahn near Bern, Switzerland was looking for a lighter ...
cars to operate
Capital MetroRail Capital MetroRail is a commuter rail system that serves the Greater Austin area in Texas, and which is owned by Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Capital Metro. The Red Line, Capital Metro's first and only rail line, connects Downt ...
, a commuter rail line serving the
Greater Austin The Austin–Round Rock-Georgetown Metropolitan Statistical Area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area#REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a rel ...
,
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
area. * In
Denton County Denton County is located in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located ...
,
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
, DCTA also uses
Stadler GTW The Stadler GTW is an articulated railcar for local transport made by Stadler Rail of Switzerland. GTW stands for Gelenktriebwagen (articulated railcar). History The Biel–Täuffelen–Ins-Bahn near Bern, Switzerland was looking for a lighter ...
cars to operate its
A-train is a series of business simulation Business simulation is simulation A simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. Simulations require the use of Conceptual model , models; the model represent ...
service. DCTA has secured from the FRA the first-ever alternative vehicle technology waiver to use these cars on active freight corridors. *
TEXRail TEXRail is a commuter rail line in Tarrant County, Texas, United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North ...
in
Tarrant County, Texas Tarrant County is located in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North Am ...
is a commuter rail line operated by
Trinity Metro Trinity Metro is a transit agency located in and serving the city of Fort Worth, Texas and its suburbs in surrounding Tarrant County, Texas, Tarrant County, part of the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area. Since 1983, it was previously known off ...
which uses DMUs. The vehicles are FRA Alternate Compliant. The line has 9 stops with termini at
DFW Airport Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport , also known as DFW Airport, is the primary international airport serving the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex area in the U.S. state of Texas. The airport was the fourth-busiest airport by passenger traffi ...
and
T&P Station Texas and Pacific Station, commonly known as T&P Station, is a terminal Trinity Railway Express and TEXRail Regional rail, commuter railroad station is located at 1600 Throckmorton Street in Fort Worth, Texas, on the south side of downtown. It is th ...
. *
NJ Transit New Jersey Transit Corporation, branded as NJ Transit, and often shortened to NJT, is a state-owned public transportation Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system of ...
operates the River Line from
Camden, NJ Camden is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ca ...
to
Trenton, NJ Trenton is the capital city, capital city (New Jersey), city of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County, New Jersey, Mercer County.
, every 15 minutes during peak hours and every 30 minutes at other times. It uses modified
Stadler GTW The Stadler GTW is an articulated railcar for local transport made by Stadler Rail of Switzerland. GTW stands for Gelenktriebwagen (articulated railcar). History The Biel–Täuffelen–Ins-Bahn near Bern, Switzerland was looking for a lighter ...
trains of one or two cars. The line is classified as
light rail Light rail transit (LRT) is a form of passenger urban rail transit Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail Rail or rails may refer to: Rail transport *Rail transport and related matters *Rail (rail t ...

light rail
because it utilizes imported European made DMUs that do not meet
FRA A friar is a brother A brother is a man A man is an adult male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fert ...
crash guidelines. The cars may not operate with the
freight rail Rail freight transport is the use of rail transport, railroads and trains to transport cargo as opposed to human passengers. A freight train, cargo train, or goods train is a group of Railroad car#Freight cars, freight cars (US) or goods w ...
service that shares the line, so evening operating hours are restricted to Saturday nights. This line currently carries over 7,500 passengers on a typical weekday, exceeding expectations. * operates the Sprinter line using Desiro Classic DMUs built by
Siemens Siemens AG ( ) is a German multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...
. Opened March, 2008, The line operates every half-hour daily, except limitations in the morning and at night on Saturday, Sunday and on holidays. The line runs from
Oceanside, CA Oceanside is a coastal city on California's South Coast. It is the third-largest city in San Diego County, California San Diego County, officially the County of San Diego, is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used f ...
, where transfer is possible with
Coaster Coaster (stylized as COASTER) is a commuter rail service that operates in the central and North County, San Diego, northern coastal regions of San Diego County, California, United States. Bombardier Transportation currently operates the service ...
commuter rail Commuter rail, or suburban rail, is a service that primarily operates within a , connecting to a from adjacent s or s. Generally commuter rail systems are considered , using electrified or diesel trains. Distance charges or may be use ...
service to
San Diego San Diego ( , ; ) is a city in the U.S. state of California on the coast of the Pacific Ocean and immediately adjacent to the Mexico–United States border, Mexican border. With a 2020 population of 1,386,932, San Diego is the List of United ...

San Diego
, to
Escondido, CA Escondido is a city in San Diego County's North County region, northeast of downtown San Diego, 15 miles from the ocean, and 40 miles from the Mexican border. The city occupies a shallow valley ringed by rocky hills. Incorporated in 1888, it is o ...
. Like the NJT River Line, it is classified as light rail due to the use of European made DMUs, but does not run at a more typical light rail frequency. * The
eBART eBART (East Contra Costa County BART extension) is the project name for a diesel multiple unit A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple-unit train powered by on-board diesel engines. A DMU requires no separate locomotive, as the engin ...
expansion of the Bay Area Rapid Transit System implements
Stadler GTW The Stadler GTW is an articulated railcar for local transport made by Stadler Rail of Switzerland. GTW stands for Gelenktriebwagen (articulated railcar). History The Biel–Täuffelen–Ins-Bahn near Bern, Switzerland was looking for a lighter ...
diesel multiple unit train service from Pittsburg/Bay Point station east along the Highway 4 corridor to the town of Antioch. Future expansions in this direction could also connect the eBART service to Oakley, Brentwood, Byron, and beyond to Tracy and Stockton. The DMU system was chosen as a less-expensive alternative to the existing third-rail BART design. Service began on 25 May 2018. Proposed operations: * The
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACMTA), commonly branded as Metro, is the agency that plans, operates, and coordinates funding for most of the transportation system A transport network, or transportation network i ...
approved an allocation of $250,000 for a feasibility study of DMUs for "future transportation options for the region" on 5 July 2006 (Ara Najarian, Metro Board Member). *
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
's commuter rail line,
Metra Metra is a commuter rail system in the Chicago metropolitan area serving the city of Chicago and its surrounding suburbs via the Union Pacific, BNSF, and other railroads. The system operates 242 train station, stations on 11 rail lines. It is ...
, is studying the use of DMUs on its newly proposed lines ( STAR line, SES). They claim these DMUs will have better acceleration, be more fuel efficient, and seat more customers than the current diesel locomotive and double decker rail cars that are currently in use. * Seattle area – The Central Puget Sound's regional transit agency
Sound Transit Sound Transit (ST), officially the Central Puget Sound Regional Transit Authority, is a public transit agency serving the Seattle metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Washington. It operates the Link light rail system in Seattle Se ...
, along with the
Puget Sound Regional Council The Puget Sound Regional Council (PSRC) is a metropolitan planning organization that develops policies and makes decisions about transportation planning, economic development, and growth management throughout the four-county Seattle metropolitan ar ...
evaluated the feasibility of both DMU and diesel locomotive technology for operation in the Eastside BNSF Corridor in response to a state legislative request. The Eastside BNSF corridor runs from the City of Snohomish in the north to Renton in the south of the metro area. Sound Transit has no plans to operate passenger rail service in the eastside BNSF corridor, but has committed limited funds to provide capital improvements in the event another public or private operator proposes to operate the service. * Anchorage Mat-Su area – As part of a joint U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and ARRC Chugach Forest Whistle Stop project, a self-propelled rail car was purchased and delivered spring 2009. The diesel multiple unit (DMU) may be available for flexible demonstration service during winter months. * The
Long Island Rail Road The Long Island Rail Road , often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of New York (state), New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County, New York, Suffolk Cou ...

Long Island Rail Road
, the busiest commuter railroad in the United States, is exploring the possibility of operating DMUs on some of its lesser traveled routes in non-electrified territory (on the Montauk, Greenport,
Port Jefferson Port Jefferson (informally known as Port Jeff) is an incorporated administrative divisions of New York#Village, village in the Administrative divisions of New York#Town, Town of Brookhaven, New York, Brookhaven in Suffolk County, New York on the Nor ...
, and Oyster Bay branches), where operation of its current fleet of C3 bilevel railcars pulled by
DE30AC The EMD DE30AC'' and ''DM30AC are a class of 46 locomotives built between 1997‐1999 by Electro-Motive Division in the Super Steel Plant in Schenectady, New York, for the Long Island Rail Road of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) i ...
/
DM30AC The EMD DE30AC'' and ''DM30AC are a class of 46 locomotives built between 1997‐1999 by Electro-Motive Division Progress Rail Locomotives, trade name, doing business as Electro-Motive Diesel (EMD) is an American manufacturer of diesel-electric ...
locomotives is uneconomical and inefficient. *
Arrow An arrow is a fin-stabilized projectile launched by a bow and arrow, bow. A typical arrow usually consists of a long, stiff, straight ''shaft'' with a weighty (and usually sharp and pointed) ''arrowhead'' attached to the front end, multiple fi ...
will utilize trainsets along its service route in
Redlands, California Redlands ( ) is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the city had a population of 68,747, up from 63,591 at the 2000 United States Census, 2000 census. The population was e ...
. * A proposal to use DMUs on Boston's
Fairmount Line The Fairmount Line or Dorchester Branch is a line of the MBTA Commuter Rail system in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Except for a short portion in Milton, it lies entirely within Boston, running southwest from South Station through the neighborh ...
was initially approved, but was canceled in 2016. *
New Jersey Transit New Jersey Transit Corporation, branded as NJ Transit, and often shortened to NJT, is a state-owned public transportation Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, mass transit, or simply transit) is a system ...
's Passaic–Bergen–Hudson Transit Project is studying the re-introduction passenger service on a portion of the
New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway The New York, Susquehanna and Western Railway (or New York, Susquehanna and Western Railroad and also known as the Susie-Q or the Susquehanna) is a Class II American freight In economics Economics () is a social science ...
(NYSW) right-of-way in Passiac,
Bergen Bergen (), historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...
and
Hudson Hudson may refer to: People * Hudson (given name) * Hudson (surname) Places Argentina * Hudson, Buenos Aires Province, a town in Berazategui Partido Australia * Hudson, Queensland, a locality in the Cassowardy Coast Region Canada * H ...
counties using newly built, FRA-compliant diesel multiple units. *
Dallas Area Rapid Transit Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is a transit agency serving the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex of Texas. It operates buses, light rail, commuter rail, and high-occupancy vehicle lanes in Dallas and twelve of its suburbs. DART was created in 1 ...
is rebuilding the Cotton Belt Rail Line as the Silver Line, which will utilize units.


Asia/Australasia


Australia

DMUs were first introduced to Australia in the late mid-20th century for use on quiet branch lines that could not justify a locomotive hauled service. Today, DMUs are widely used throughout Australia's southern states: *
Adelaide Metro Adelaide Metro is the public transport system of Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is an intermodal passenger transport, intermodal system offering an integrated network of bus, tram, and train service throughout the metropolitan ...
use 3000 class DMUs on their suburban network. *
NSW TrainLink NSW TrainLink is a train and coach operator in Australia, providing services throughout New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, along with limited interstate services into Victoria, Australia, Victoria, Queensland and South Australia ...
use Xplorer DMUs on services from
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered througho ...

Sydney
to
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the holding primary status in a , , , , or other , usually as its seat of the government. A capital is typically a that physically encompasses the government's offices an ...

Canberra
( ACT), Griffith,
Broken Hill Broken Hill is an inland mining Mining is the extraction of valuable mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and ...
,
Armidale Armidale is a city in the Northern Tablelands The Northern Tablelands, also known as the New England Tableland, is a plateau and a region of the Great Dividing Range in northern New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a S ...
and . Endeavour DMUs are used on services to
BathurstBathurst may refer to: People * Bathurst (surname) Places and jurisdictions In Australia * Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia and the following things associated with the city ** Bathurst Region, the local government area for the Bathurst u ...
,
Moss Vale Moss Vale is a town in the Southern Highlands, New South Wales, Southern Highlands of New South Wales, Australia, in the Wingecarribee Shire. At the , it has a population of 8,579 and is sited on the Illawarra Highway, which connects to Wollongo ...
and
Goulburn Goulburn is a regional city in the Southern Tablelands of the Australian States and territories of Australia, state of New South Wales, approximately south-west of Sydney, and north-east of Canberra. It was proclaimed as Australia's first inl ...
on the
Southern Highlands line The Southern Highlands Line is an Intercity rail service operated by NSW TrainLink that services the Macarthur, Southern Highlands and Southern Tablelands regions of New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and t ...
,
Kiama Kiama is a coastal town 120 kilometres south of Sydney in the Illawarra Illawarra is a Regions of New South Wales, region in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a coastal region situated immediately south of Sydney and north of th ...

Kiama
to
Bomaderry Bomaderry (locally known as "Bomo") is a town in the Shoalhaven council district area of New South Wales, Australia. At the , it had a population of 6,661 people. It is on the north shore of the Shoalhaven River, across the river from Nowra, the m ...

Bomaderry
and on the
Hunter line The Hunter Line is a NSW TrainLink passenger train service that operates from Newcastle Interchange, Newcastle to Dungog railway station, Dungog and Scone railway station, Scone in the New South Wales Hunter Region. It operates on the Newcastl ...
. Hunter DMUs are also used on the
Hunter line The Hunter Line is a NSW TrainLink passenger train service that operates from Newcastle Interchange, Newcastle to Dungog railway station, Dungog and Scone railway station, Scone in the New South Wales Hunter Region. It operates on the Newcastl ...
. * Victoria's
V/Line V/Line is a government-owned corporation A state-owned enterprise (SOE) or government-owned enterprise (GOE) is a business enterprise where the government or state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority o ...
uses Sprinter and V/Locity DMUs on all medium distance services. * Western Australia's
Transwa Transwa is Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (ne ...
operates the ''
Prospector Prospector may refer to: Space exploration * Prospector (spacecraft), a planned lunar probe, canceled in 1962 * ''Lunar Prospector'', a NASA spacecraft Trains * Prospector (train), a passenger train operated by the Denver & Rio Grande Western ra ...
,
AvonLink The ''AvonLink'' is a rural passenger train service in Western Australia operated by Transwa between Midland railway station, Perth, Midland and Northam railway station, Western Australia, Northam. History The consideration of revitalising passe ...

AvonLink
'' and ''
Australind Australind is a town in Western Australia, located 12 km north-east of Bunbury, Western Australia, Bunbury's central business district. Its Local government areas of Western Australia, local government area is the Shire of Harvey. At the Ce ...
'' on medium and long distance country services. In Queensland, heritage DMUs are used on the '''' and ''
Gulflander The ''Gulflander'' is a passenger train operated by Queensland Rail Queensland Rail (QR) is a railway operator in Queensland, Australia. Owned by the Government of Queensland, Queensland Government, it operates local and long-distance passeng ...
'' tourist trains.


Bangladesh

Chinese manufactured (CNR Tangshan) DEMU was introduced in Bangladesh from 25 May 2013. DEMU is the country's first-ever commuter train service starting its journey on the Chittagong–Fouzdarhat line. These DEMUs also operate on the Chittagong Circular Railway and on the
Bangladesh Railway Bangladesh Railway ( bn, বাংলাদেশ রেলওয়ে) is the state-owned rail transport agency of Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, :bn:বাংলাদেশ, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republi ...

Bangladesh Railway
's service between
Dhaka Dhaka ( or ; bn, ঢাকা, Ḍhākā, ), List of renamed places in Bangladesh, formerly known as Dacca, is the Capital city, capital and the largest city of Bangladesh, as well as the largest city in the Bengal region. It is the eight ...

Dhaka
and
Narayanganj Narayanganj ( bn, নারায়ণগঞ্জ ''Naraeongônj'') is a city in central Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South A ...
.


India

DMUs (DEMUs) are widely used in India. DEMUs in India are used in both the 8 coach format and the 4 coach format. These trains replaced many (up to 10 car) trains with a WDM-2 or WDM-3A locomotive in the middle. These old trains had the loco controls duplicated in the Driving Trailer coach and all the actuation information reaching the locomotive through thin communication lines. This was called 'push-pull train'. The longest running such push-pull service operated between Diva - Bhiwandi Road and Vasai Road and was recently converted into an MEMU train service in 2018. India's first and largest DMU shed at
Jalandhar Jalandhar is third most-populous City in the Indian state of Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . T ...
, Punjab, holds more than 90 units placed in service all over Punjab. First generation DMU: Rated power was 700 HP and had 3 or 6 coaches, made first by ICF. Transmission was Voith-hydraulic. Max speed 100 km/h. Second generation DMU: Rated power is 1400 HP and have 8 coaches. Max speed is 105 km/h. Transmission is DC electric. Made at HCF and RCF. Third generation DMU: Rated power is 1600 HP and have 10 coaches. Max speed is 110 km/h. Transmission is AC electric. Made at ICF.


Indonesia

State-owned company PT.INKA builds several type of DMU, some of which operate in urban and suburban areas: *
Kualanamu Airport Rail Link Kualanamu Airport Railink Services (ARS) ( id, KA Bandara Kualanamu) is an airport rail link service in North Sumatra, Indonesia. These airport rail link is built to cut travel time from Medan city center to the airport, as roads connecting the Kua ...
- -Woojin DMU *
Minangkabau Airport Rail Link Minangkabau Express ( id, KA Minangkabau Ekspres) is an airport rail link service in West Sumatra, Indonesia. This line was built to cut travel time from Padang city centre to the Minangkabau International Airport, as roads connecting the airport ...
* Adisumarmo Airport Rail Link * Kedungsepur * Sri Lelawangsa * Prambanan Express * Kertalaya Railbus * Bathara Kresna Railbus


Japan

In Japan, where gasoline-driven railbuses (on small private lines) and railmotors ( Kihani 5000 of the national railways) had been built since the 1920s, the first two streamlined DMUs came in service in 1937, class Kiha 43000 (キハ43000系). The service of several hundreds (in sum even thousands) of diesel railcars and DMUs started in 1950s following the improvement of fuel supply that was critical during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
.


Malaysia

The
Keretapi Tanah Melayu Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB) (Jawi: كريتاڤي تانه ملايو برحد) or Malayan Railways Limited is the main rail operator in Peninsular Malaysia. The railway system dates back to the British colonial era, when it was firs ...
(KTM) has a total of 13 DMU ordered from
CRRC CRRC Corporation Limited (known as CRRC) is a Chinese state-owned State ownership, also called government ownership and public ownership, is the ownership of an industry, asset In financial accountancy, financial accounting, an asset is any ...
for the West Coast Line and are assembled locally at CRRCs Batu Gajah factory from 2016 to 2020. The first scheduled service is expected from 1 September along the Gemas-Johor Bahru route, replacing old non-automotive stock.


Philippines

The
Philippine National Railways The Philippine National Railways (PNR) ( fil, Pambansang Daang-Bakal ng Pilipinas and es, Ferrocarril Nacional de Filipinas) is a government-owned and controlled corporation, state-owned railway company in the Philippines which operates one c ...

Philippine National Railways
(PNR) was one of the first adopters of diesel multiple unit trains in Asia. Initially built as gasoline-powered railmotors, the locally assembled Manila Railroad RMC class of 1929 was the first to be powered by diesel traction. Some units were also converted to
streamliner A streamliner is a vehicle incorporating streamlining in a shape providing reduced air resistance In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid frictio ...

streamliner
units by 1932 for first-class services on the South Main Line between Manila and
Legazpi, Albay , officially the ( bcl, Syudad nin ; tl, Lungsod ng ), formerly Legaspi City, is a 1st class Component City, Component city and capital of the Provinces of the Philippines, province of , . According to the , it has a population of . Legazpi is ...
. Since then, generations of DMUs were used chiefly for short-distance commuter services by the PNR in the island of
Luzon Luzon (; ) is the largest and most populous List of islands in the Philippines, island in the Philippines. It is ranked List of islands by area, 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern portion of the archipelago, it is the ...
. Even without active
inter-city rail Inter-city rail services are express passenger train services that cover longer distances than commuter or regional In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact char ...
services in the present-day, DMUs are still used on the
PNR Metro Commuter Line The PNR Metro Commuter Line is a commuter rail line operated by the Philippine National Railways The Philippine National Railways (PNR) ( fil, Pambansang Daang-Bakal ng Pilipinas and es, Ferrocarril Nacional de Filipinas) is a governmen ...

PNR Metro Commuter Line
in
Metro Manila Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; fil, Kalakhang Maynila), officially the National Capital Region (NCR; fil, Pambansang Punong Rehiyon), is the seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Po ...

Metro Manila
and the Bicol Commuter service in the
Bicol Region Bicol ( bcl, Rehiyon Bikol; Rinconada Bicol: ''Rehiyon ka Bikol''; tl, Kabikulan), also known as Bicol Region, is an administrative region of the Philippines, designated as Region V. Bicol comprises six provinces A province is almost alwa ...
. Three generations of DMUs are in use: second-hand DMUs handed over by
JR East The is a major passenger railway company in Japan and is the largest of the seven Japan Railways Group The Japan Railways Group, more commonly known as , consists of seven for-profit stock companies that took over most of the assets a ...
such as the
KiHa 35 The , along with the similar KiHa 30 and KiHa 36 series, are Japanese diesel multiple unit A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple-unit train powered by on-board diesel engines. A DMU requires no separate locomotive, as the engines are ...
, 52 and series originally built in the 1960s and acquired in the early 2010s, the s of 2009 built by
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans Koreans ( South Korean: , , North Korean: , , ; see names of Korea There are various names of Korea in use today, all derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name " ...

Korean
manufacturer
Hyundai Rotem Hyundai Rotem is a South Korean company manufacturing rolling stock, defense products and plant equipment. It is part of the Hyundai Motor Group. Its name was changed to the current one from Rotem in December 2007 to reflect its parent company. ...

Hyundai Rotem
, and the 8000 and 8100 classes built by
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
n firm PT INKA. From 2022 onwards, the PNR will purchase
standard gauge A standard-gauge railway is a railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. V ...
DMUs for its upcoming inter-city rail network in Luzon and
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the ...
. This is compared to the 3 ft 6 in gauge of the rolling stock that is currently in active service. This move should allow access to better technology and increase line speeds.


South Korea

Korail The Korea Railroad Corporation (Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'g ...
operates many DMUs. The DHC (Diesel Hydraulic Car), which made its debut for the 1988 Seoul Olympics, can reach speeds up to and serves
Saemaul-ho The Saemaeul-ho, formerly known as the Saemaul-ho and Saemaul Express, is a class of train operated by Korail, the national railroad of South Korea, since February 8, 1969. Before the introduction of the KTX express trains, the Saemaeul-ho was ...
trains.


Sri Lanka

DMUs were first introduced to
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...
in 1940. The aim of this was connecting minor railway stations and stops on the main line where most express trains don't have a halt.


Taiwan

The DMUs are now usually used on the
Taiwan Railway Administration Taiwan Railways Administration (TRA) is a railway operator in Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, ...
Hualien–Taitung Line The Taitung Line (), also known as the Hua-Tung line (), is the southern section of the Eastern Line of the Taiwan Railways Administration. The line starts at the Hualien station and ends at the Taitung railway station, Taitung station. It is 16 ...
,
North-Link Line The North-Link Line () is the central section of the Eastern Line of the Taiwan Railways Administration Taiwan Railways Administration (TRA) is a railway operator in Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in ...
, South-Link Line. DMUs in Taiwan are classified as Class DR. * Class DR2700 – built by
Tokyu Car Corporation Tokyu may refer to: * Tokyu Group The is a railway keiretsu whose parent company is the Tokyu Corporation railway company, which links Tokyo and its suburbs. Many companies in the group are designed to enhance the value of the Tokyu rail network ...
in 1966; was the fastest train on the West Coast line *Class DR2800 – built by Tokyu Car Corporation in 1982 and 1984 *Class DR2900 *Class DR3000 *Class DR3100


Kenya

In 2021, Kenya Acquired DMU's from France to operate in the Nairobi Metropolitan Area. These trains connect the city with settlements outside Nairobi, Jomo Kenyatta International Airport and the Nairobi Terminus.


Manufacturers

DMU manufacturers include: *
Alstom Alstom SA is a French multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sover ...

Alstom
*
AnsaldoBreda Hitachi Rail Italy S.p.A. is a multinational rolling stock manufacturer company based in Pistoia, Italy. Formerly AnsaldoBreda S.p.A., a subsidiary of state-owned Finmeccanica, the company was sold in 2015 to Hitachi#Hitachi Rail, Hitachi Rail of ...
, Italy *
Bombardier Transportation Bombardier Transportation was a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connecti ...
of
Montreal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, ) is the second-most populous city in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of . Its extend from the to the and northward into the , covering , making it the world's . Its southern and w ...

Montreal
, Canada *
BHEL Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) is an Indian Public sector undertakings in India, public sector engineering and manufacturing company based in New Delhi, India. Established in 1964, BHEL is India's largest power generation equipment manu ...
, India *
BEML BEML Limited, previously Bharat Earth Movers Limited, is an Indian Public Sector Undertaking, with headquarters in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. It manufactures a variety of heavy equipment, such as that used for earth moving, transport and minin ...
, India *
British Rail British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the overground rail transport in Great Britain The railway system in Great Britain is the oldest railway system in the world. T ...
ways, United Kingdom (1950s–1962) *
British Rail Engineering Limited British Rail Engineering Limited (BREL), incorporated on 31 October 1969, was the railway systems engineering Railway engineering is a multi-faceted engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles t ...
, United Kingdom (1962-1980s) *
Budd Company The Budd Company was a 20th-century metal fabricator, a major supplier of body components to the automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a se ...

Budd Company
of
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
* CAF *
Colorado Railcar Colorado Railcar was a manufacturer of railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transport, w ...
, US (Rader Railcar 1988–1997, Colorado Railcar 1997–2008, US Railcar 2009– ) *
DMZ A demilitarized zone (DMZ or DZ) is an area in which treaties or agreements between nations, military powers or contending groups forbid military installations, activities or personnel. A DMZ often lies along an established frontier or bounda ...
, Russia * EIKON International * Ganz-MÁVAG, Hungary *
Hyundai Rotem Hyundai Rotem is a South Korean company manufacturing rolling stock, defense products and plant equipment. It is part of the Hyundai Motor Group. Its name was changed to the current one from Rotem in December 2007 to reflect its parent company. ...

Hyundai Rotem
of Seoul, South Korea * PT Industri Kereta Api, INKA, Indonesia * Integral Coach Factory, Chennai, India * Luganskteplovoz, Ukraine * Materfer, Argentina * Metrovagonmash, Russia * Niigata Transys of Tokyo, Japan * Nippon Sharyo/Sumitomo, Japan * Pojazdy Szynowe Pesa Bydgoszcz * Rīgas Vagonbūves Rūpnīca, RVR, Latvia * Siemens Mobility DMU * Srida, China * Stadler Rail of Bussnang, Switzerland * Torzhoksky car-building factory, Russia * TÜVASAŞ of Adapazari, Turkey


See also

* Electric multiple unit * Battery electric multiple unit * Diesel locomotive


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Diesel Multiple Unit Multiple units Diesel multiple units, fr:Rame automotrice#Élément automoteur diesel