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Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a
private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decades from the charts. Both "In Pri ...
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in v ...
in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of Trinity Church in
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...
and the fifth-oldest institution of
higher learning ''Higher Learning'' is a 1995 American drama film In film and television show, television, drama is a category of narrative fiction (or docudrama, semi-fiction) intended to be more serious than humour, humorous in tone. Drama of this kind is ...

higher learning
in the United States. It is one of nine
colonial colleges The colonial colleges are nine institutions of higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an o ...
founded prior to the
Declaration of Independence#REDIRECT Declaration of independence {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...

Declaration of Independence
, seven of which belong to the
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form ...
. Columbia is ranked among the top universities in the world by major education publications. Columbia was established by
royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or ...

royal charter
under
George II of Great Britain , house = Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the ...
. It was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
, and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. He was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fa ...

Alexander Hamilton
and
John Jay John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, patriot, diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of ...

John Jay
. In 1896, the campus was moved to its current location in
Morningside Heights Morningside Heights is a Neighborhoods in Manhattan, neighborhood on the West Side, Manhattan, West Side of Upper Manhattan in New York City. It is bounded by Morningside Drive (Manhattan), Morningside Drive to the east, 125th Street (Manhattan ...
and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played a pivotal role in scientific breakthroughs including brain-computer interface; the
laser A laser is a device that emits light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as h ...

laser
and
maser (see description below) A maser (, an acronym for microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is a device that produces coherence (physics), coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission. The firs ...

maser
;
nuclear magnetic resonance Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ...
; the first
nuclear pile
nuclear pile
; the first
nuclear fission Nuclear fission is a reaction Reaction may refer to a process or to a response to an action, event, or exposure: Physics and chemistry *Chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the IUPAC nomenclature for organic tr ...

nuclear fission
reaction in the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
; the first evidence for
plate tectonics upright=1.35, Diagram of the internal layering of Earth showing the lithosphere above the asthenosphere (not to scale) Plate tectonics (from the la, label=Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written L ...
and
continental drift Continental drift is the hypothesis that the Earth's continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly reg ...
; and much of the initial research and planning for the
Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development Research and development (R&D, R+D), known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), is the set of innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in ...
during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including four undergraduate schools and 16 graduate schools. The university's research efforts include the
Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory The Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) is the scientific research center of the Columbia Climate School, and a unit of The Earth Institute at Columbia University. It focuses on climate and Earth science, earth sciences and is located on a ...
, the
Goddard Institute for Space Studies The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) is a laboratory in the Earth Sciences Division of NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agenc ...
, and accelerator laboratories with
Big Tech Big Tech, also known as the Tech Giants, the Big Four, and the Big Five, is a name given to the five largest and most dominant companies in the information technology industry of the United States The United States of America (USA), comm ...
firms such as
Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες ''Amazónes'', singular Ἀμαζών ''Amazōn'') are portrayed in a number of ancient Greek, ancient epic poems and legends, such as the ...
and
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
. Columbia is a founding member of the
Association of American Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to increase ...
and was the first school in the United States to grant the
MD degree Doctor of Medicine (abbreviated M.D., from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. ...
. The university also annually administers the
Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph ...
. With over 14.5 million volumes, Columbia University Library is the third-largest private research library in the United States. The university's endowment stands at $14.35 billion in 2021, among the largest of any academic institution. , its alumni, faculty, and staff have included: seven Founding Fathers of the United States; four U.S. presidents; 29 foreign
heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and leg ...
; ten justices of the
United States Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the Federal judiciary of the United States, federal judiciary of the United States of America. It has ultimate and largely Procedures of the Supreme Court of the United ...

United States Supreme Court
, one of whom currently serves; 100 Nobel laureates; 122
National Academy of Sciences The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
members; 53 living billionaires; 22 Olympic medalists; 33
Academy Award winners
Academy Award winners
; and 125 Pulitzer Prize recipients.


History


Colonial period

Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the
Province of New York The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony A proprietary colony was a type of English colony mostly in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all w ...
began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts United Society Partners in the Gospel (USPG) is a United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a syno ...
, the missionary arm of the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
, persuading the society that
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the
College of New Jersey
College of New Jersey
(renamed
Princeton Princeton University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...

Princeton
) across the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
in
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
that the City of New York seriously considered founding a college. In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were initially held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower
Broadway Broadway may refer to: Theatre * Broadway Theatre (disambiguation) * Broadway theatre, theatrical productions in professional theatres near Broadway, Manhattan, New York City, U.S. ** Broadway (Manhattan), the street **Broadway Theatre (53rd Str ...
in Manhattan. The college was officially founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of
George IIGeorge II or 2 may refer to: People * George II of Antioch (seventh century AD) * George II of Armenia (late ninth century) * George II of Abkhazia (916–960) * Patriarch George II of Alexandria (1021–1051) * George II of Georgia (1072–1089) * ...
, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the
State of New York New York is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily ...
and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of
The Queen's College, Oxford The Queen's College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford , mottoeng = Psalm 27, The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (as of 31 July 2019) , budget = £2.145 b ...

The Queen's College, Oxford
, and an ardent
Tory A Tory () is a person who holds a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, ...
. In the charged political climate of the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777,
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. He was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fa ...

Alexander Hamilton
. The
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
anatomist, Samuel Clossy, was appointed professor of natural philosophy in October 1765 and later the college's first professor of anatomy in 1767. The
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
broke out in 1776, and was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the
Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the Thirteen Colonies and the Revolutionary-era United States. It was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, and was established by a resolution of ...
. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783. The college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and then British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, but some led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where they founded King's Collegiate School and the
University of King's College The University of King's College, established in 1789, is in Halifax, Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English ...
.


18th century

After the Revolution, the college turned to the
State of New York New York is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily ...
in order to restore its vitality, promising to make whatever changes to the school's charter the state might demand. The legislature agreed to assist the college, and on May 1, 1784, it passed "an Act for granting certain privileges to the College heretofore called King's College". The Act created a board of regents to oversee the resuscitation of King's College, and, in an effort to demonstrate its support for the new Republic, the legislature stipulated that "the College within the City of New York heretofore called King's College be forever hereafter called and known by the name of Columbia College", a reference to
Columbia Columbia may refer to: * Columbia (personification), the historical female national personification of the United States, and a poetic name for the Americas Places North America Natural features * Columbia Plateau, a geologic and geographic regio ...
, an alternative name for America which in turn comes from the name of
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
. The Regents finally became aware of the college's defective constitution in February 1787 and appointed a revision committee, which was headed by
John Jay John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, patriot, diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of ...

John Jay
and Alexander Hamilton. In April of that same year, a new charter was adopted for the college granted the power to a separate board of 24 trustees.Moore, Nathanal Fischer (1846). ''A Historical Sketch of Columbia''. New York, New York: Columbia University Press. On May 21, 1787,
William Samuel Johnson William Samuel Johnson (October 7, 1727 – November 14, 1819) was an early American statesman who was notable for signing the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of Ame ...
, the son of Dr. Samuel Johnson, was unanimously elected president of Columbia College. Prior to serving at the university, Johnson had participated in the
First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from 12 of the 13 British colonies that became the United States. It met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall Carpenters' Hall is the official birthplace of the C ...
and been chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. For a period in the 1790s, with New York City as the federal and state capital and the country under successive
Federalist The term ''federalist'' describes several political beliefs around the world. It may also refer to the concept of parties, whose members or supporters called themselves ''Federalists''.http://m-w.com/dictionary/federalist. History Europe In E ...
governments, a revived Columbia thrived under the auspices of Federalists such as Hamilton and Jay. Both President
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing a state. Natio ...

George Washington
and Vice President
John Adams John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of ...

John Adams
attended the college's commencement on May 6, 1789, as a tribute of honor to the many alumni of the school who had been involved in the American Revolution.


19th century to present

In November 1813, the college agreed to incorporate its medical school with The College of Physicians and Surgeons, a new school created by the Regents of New York, forming
Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons (VP&S) is the graduate medical school A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degr ...
. The college's enrollment, structure, and academics stagnated for the majority of the 19th century, with many of the college presidents doing little to change the way that the college functioned. In 1857, the college moved from the King's College campus at Park Place to a primarily
Gothic Revival Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th cent ...
campus on 49th Street and
Madison Avenue Madison Avenue is a north-south avenue in the borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in ...
, where it remained for the next forty years. During the last half of the 19th century, under the leadership of President F.A.P. Barnard, the president that
Barnard College Barnard College of Columbia University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abs ...
is named after, the institution rapidly assumed the shape of a modern university. Barnard College was created in 1889 as a response to the university's refusal to accept women. By this time, the college's investments in New York real estate became a primary source of steady income for the school, mainly owing to the city's expanding population. In 1896, university president
Seth Low Seth Low (January 18, 1850 – September 17, 1916) was an American educator and political figure who served as the 23rd Mayor of Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in th ...

Seth Low
moved the campus from 49th Street to its present location, a more spacious campus in the developing neighborhood of
Morningside Heights Morningside Heights is a Neighborhoods in Manhattan, neighborhood on the West Side, Manhattan, West Side of Upper Manhattan in New York City. It is bounded by Morningside Drive (Manhattan), Morningside Drive to the east, 125th Street (Manhattan ...

Morningside Heights
. Under the leadership of Low's successor,
Nicholas Murray Butler Nicholas Murray Butler (April 2, 1862 – December 7, 1947) was an American philosopher, diplomat, and educator. Butler was president of Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University ...
, who served for over four decades, Columbia rapidly became the nation's major institution for research, setting the "multiversity" model that later universities would adopt. Prior to becoming the president of Columbia University, Butler founded
Teachers College Teachers College, Columbia University (TC) is a graduate school of educationIn the United States and Canada, a school of education (or college of education; ed school) is a division within a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whol ...
, as a school to prepare home economists and manual art teachers for the children of the poor, with philanthropist
Grace Hoadley Dodge Grace Hoadley Dodge (May 21, 1856December 27, 1914) was an American philanthropist who was the first woman appointed a member of the New York City Department of Education, New York Board of Education. Early life Grace was born in Manhattan on May ...
. Teachers College is currently affiliated as the university's Graduate School of Education. Research into the atom by faculty members John R. Dunning, ,
Enrico Fermi Enrico Fermi (; 29 September 1901 - 28 November 1954) was an Italian (later naturalized American) physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1. He has been called the "architect of the nuclear age" and ...

Enrico Fermi
and placed Columbia's physics department in the international spotlight in the 1940s after the first nuclear pile was built to start what became the
Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development Research and development (R&D, R+D), known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), is the set of innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in ...
. In 1928,
Seth Low Seth Low (January 18, 1850 – September 17, 1916) was an American educator and political figure who served as the 23rd Mayor of Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in th ...

Seth Low
Junior College was established by Columbia University in order to mitigate the number of Jewish applicants to Columbia College. The college was closed in 1936 due to the adverse effects of the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
and its students were subsequently taught at Morningside Heights, although they did not belong to any college but to the university at large. There was an evening school called University Extension, which taught night classes, for a fee, to anyone willing to attend. In 1947, the program was reorganized as an undergraduate college and designated the
School of General Studies The School of General Studies, Columbia University (GS) is a liberal arts college and one of the undergraduate colleges of Columbia University, situated on the university's main campus in Morningside Heights, Borough (New York City), New York City. ...
in response to the return of
GIs A geographic information system (GIS) is a conceptualized framework that provides the ability to capture and analyze spatial and geographic data. GIS applications (or GIS apps) are computer-based tools that allow the user to create interactive ...
after World War II. In 1995, the School of General Studies was again reorganized as a full-fledged liberal arts college for
non-traditional students A nontraditional student is a term originating in North America, that refers to a category of students at Higher education, colleges and universities. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) notes that there are varying definitions of ...
(those who have had an academic break of one year or more, or are pursuing dual-degrees) and was fully integrated into Columbia's traditional undergraduate curriculum. Within the same year, the Division of Special Programs—later the School of Continuing Education, and now the School of Professional Studies—was established to reprise the former role of University Extension. While the School of Professional Studies only offered non-degree programs for lifelong learners and high school students in its earliest stages, it now offers degree programs in a diverse range of professional and inter-disciplinary fields. In the aftermath of World War II, the discipline of international relations became a major scholarly focus of the university, and in response, the Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs, School of International and Public Affairs was founded in 1946, drawing upon the resources of the faculties of political science, economics, and history. During the 1960s Columbia University protests of 1968, Columbia experienced large-scale student activism, which reached a climax in the spring of 1968 when hundreds of students occupied buildings on campus. The incident forced the resignation of Columbia's president, Grayson Kirk, and the establishment of the University Senate. Though several schools within the university had admitted women for years, Columbia College first admitted women in the fall of 1983, after a decade of failed negotiations with
Barnard College Barnard College of Columbia University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abs ...
, the all-female institution affiliated with the university, to merge the two schools. Barnard College still remains affiliated with Columbia, and all Barnard graduates are issued diplomas signed by the President of Columbia University, presidents of Columbia University and Barnard College. During the late 20th century, the university underwent significant academic, structural, and administrative changes as it developed into a major research university. For much of the 19th century, the university consisted of decentralized and separate faculties specializing in Political Science, Philosophy, and Pure Science. In 1979, these faculties were merged into the Columbia Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. In 1991, the faculties of Columbia College, the School of General Studies, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, the Columbia University School of the Arts, School of the Arts, and the School of Professional Studies were merged into the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, leading to the academic integration and centralized governance of these schools. In 2010, the Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs, School of International and Public Affairs, which was previously a part of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, became an independent faculty.


Campus


Morningside Heights

The majority of Columbia's graduate and undergraduate studies are conducted in
Morningside Heights Morningside Heights is a Neighborhoods in Manhattan, neighborhood on the West Side, Manhattan, West Side of Upper Manhattan in New York City. It is bounded by Morningside Drive (Manhattan), Morningside Drive to the east, 125th Street (Manhattan ...
on
Seth Low Seth Low (January 18, 1850 – September 17, 1916) was an American educator and political figure who served as the 23rd Mayor of Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in th ...

Seth Low
's late-19th century vision of a university campus where all disciplines could be taught at one location. The campus was designed along Beaux-Arts architecture, Beaux-Arts planning principles by the architects McKim, Mead & White. Columbia's main campus occupies more than six city blocks, or , in
Morningside Heights Morningside Heights is a Neighborhoods in Manhattan, neighborhood on the West Side, Manhattan, West Side of Upper Manhattan in New York City. It is bounded by Morningside Drive (Manhattan), Morningside Drive to the east, 125th Street (Manhattan ...

Morningside Heights
, New York City, a neighborhood that contains a number of academic institutions. The university owns over 7,800 apartments in Morningside Heights, housing faculty, graduate students, and staff. Almost two dozen undergraduate dormitories (purpose-built or converted) are located on campus or in Morningside Heights. Columbia University has Columbia University tunnels, an extensive tunnel system, more than a century old, with the oldest portions predating the present campus. Some of these remain accessible to the public, while others have been cordoned off. The Nicholas Murray Butler Library, known simply as Butler Library, is the largest single library in the Columbia University Library System, and is one of the largest buildings on the campus. Proposed as "South Hall" by the university's former president
Nicholas Murray Butler Nicholas Murray Butler (April 2, 1862 – December 7, 1947) was an American philosopher, diplomat, and educator. Butler was president of Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University ...
as expansion plans for Low Memorial Library stalled, the new library was funded by Edward Harkness, benefactor of Yale's residential college system, and designed by his favorite architect, James Gamble Rogers. It was completed in 1934 and renamed for Butler in 1946. The library design is Neoclassical architecture, neo-classical in style. Its facade features a row of columns in the Ionic order above which are inscribed the names of great writers, philosophers, and thinkers, most of whom are read by students engaged in the Core Curriculum (Columbia College), Core Curriculum of Columbia College. , Columbia University Library System, Columbia's library system includes over 14.5 million volumes, making it the eighth largest library system and fifth largest collegiate library system in the United States. Several buildings on the Morningside Heights campus are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Low Memorial Library, a National Historic Landmark and the centerpiece of the campus, is listed for its architectural significance. Philosophy Hall is listed as the site of the invention of FM radio. Also listed is Pupin Hall, another National Historic Landmark, which houses the physics and astronomy departments. Here the first experiments on the fission of uranium were conducted by
Enrico Fermi Enrico Fermi (; 29 September 1901 - 28 November 1954) was an Italian (later naturalized American) physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1. He has been called the "architect of the nuclear age" and ...

Enrico Fermi
. The uranium atom was split there ten days after the world's first atom-splitting in Copenhagen, Denmark. Other buildings listed include Casa Italiana, the Delta Psi, Alpha Chapter building of St. Anthony Hall, Earl Hall, and the buildings of the affiliated Union Theological Seminary (New York City), Union Theological Seminary. A statue by sculptor Daniel Chester French called ''Alma Mater (New York sculpture), Alma Mater'' is centered on the front steps of Low Memorial Library. McKim, Mead & White invited French to build the sculpture in order to harmonize with the larger composition of the court and library in the center of the campus. Draped in an academic gown, the female figure of Alma Mater wears a crown of laurels and sits on a throne. The scroll-like arms of the throne end in lamps, representing List of Latin phrases (S), sapientia and doctrina. A book signifying knowledge, balances on her lap, and an owl, the attribute of wisdom, is hidden in the folds of her gown. Her right hand holds a scepter composed of four sprays of wheat, terminating with a crown of King's College which refers to Columbia's origin as a
royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or ...

royal charter
institution in 1754. A local actress named Mary Lawton was said to have posed for parts of the sculpture. The statue was dedicated on September 23, 1903, as a gift of Mr. & Mrs. Robert Goelet, and was originally covered in golden leaf. During the Columbia University protests of 1968 a bomb damaged the sculpture, but it has since been repaired. The small hidden owl on the sculpture is also the subject of many Columbia legends, the main legend being that the first student in the freshmen class to find the hidden owl on the statue will be valedictorian, and that any subsequent Columbia male who finds it will marry a Barnard student, given that Barnard is a women's college. "The Steps", alternatively known as "Low Steps" or the "Urban Beach", are a popular meeting area for Columbia students. The term refers to the long series of granite steps leading from the lower part of campus (South Field) to its upper terrace. With a design inspired by the City Beautiful movement, the steps of Low Library provides Columbia University and Barnard College students, faculty, and staff with a comfortable outdoor platform and space for informal gatherings, events, and ceremonies. McKim's classical facade epitomizes late 19th-century new-classical designs, with its columns and portico marking the entrance to an important structure.


Other campuses

In April 2007, the university purchased more than two-thirds of a site for a new campus in Manhattanville, an industrial neighborhood to the north of the Morningside Heights campus. Stretching from 125th Street (Manhattan), 125th Street to 133rd Street (Manhattan), 133rd Street, Columbia Manhattanville houses buildings for Columbia's Business School, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia School of the Arts, and the Jerome L. Greene Center for Mind, Brain, and Behavior, where research will occur on neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. The $7 billion expansion plan included demolishing all buildings, except three that are historically significant (the Studebaker Building (Columbia University), Studebaker Building, Prentis Hall, and the Nash Building), eliminating the existing light industry and storage warehouses, and relocating tenants in 132 apartments. Replacing these buildings created of space for the university. Community activist groups in West Harlem fought the expansion for reasons ranging from property protection and fair exchange for land, to residents' rights. Subsequent public hearings drew neighborhood opposition. , the State of New York's Empire State Development Corporation approved use of eminent domain, which, through declaration of Manhattanville's "blighted" status, gives governmental bodies the right to appropriate private property for public use. On May 20, 2009, the New York State Public Authorities Control Board approved the Manhanttanville expansion plan. NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital is affiliated with the medical schools of both Columbia University and Cornell University. According to ''U.S. News & World Report''s "2020–21 Best Hospitals Honor Roll and Medical Specialties Rankings", it is ranked fourth overall and second among university hospitals. Columbia's Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, medical school has a strategic partnership with New York State Psychiatric Institute, and is affiliated with 19 other hospitals in the U.S. and four hospitals overseas. Health-related schools are located at the Columbia University Medical Center, a campus located in the neighborhood of Washington Heights, Manhattan, Washington Heights, fifty blocks uptown. Other teaching hospitals affiliated with Columbia through the NewYork-Presbyterian network include the Payne Whitney Clinic in Manhattan, and the Payne Whitney Westchester, a psychiatric institute located in White Plains, New York. On the northern tip of Manhattan island (in the neighborhood of Inwood, Manhattan, Inwood), Columbia owns the Baker Field, which includes the Lawrence A. Wien Stadium as well as facilities for field sports, outdoor track, and tennis. There is a third campus on the west bank of the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and Earth Institute in Palisades, New York, Palisades, New York. A fourth is the Nevis Laboratories in Irvington, New York, Irvington, New York for the study of particle and motion physics. A satellite site in Paris, France holds classes at Reid Hall.


Sustainability

In 2006, the university established the Office of Environmental Stewardship to initiate, coordinate and implement programs to reduce the university's environmental footprint. The U.S. Green Building Council selected the university's Manhattanville plan for the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Neighborhood Design pilot program. The plan commits to incorporating smart growth, new urbanism and "green" building design principles. Columbia is one of the 2030 Challenge Partners, a group of nine universities in the city of New York that have pledged to reduce their Greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse emissions by 30% within the next ten years. Columbia University adopts LEED standards for all new construction and major renovations. The university requires a minimum of Silver, but through its design and review process seeks to achieve higher levels. This is especially challenging for lab and research buildings with their intensive energy use; however, the university also uses lab design guidelines that seek to maximize energy efficiency while protecting the safety of researchers. Every Thursday and Sunday of the month, Columbia hosts a Farmers' market, greenmarket where local farmers can sell their produce to residents of the city. In addition, from April to November Hodgson's farm, a local New York gardening center, joins the market bringing a large selection of plants and blooming flowers. The market is one of the many operated at different points throughout the city by the non-profit group GrowNYC. Dining services at Columbia spends 36 percent of its food budget on local products, in addition to serving sustainably harvested seafood and fair trade coffee on campus. Columbia has been rated "B+" by the 2011 College Sustainability Report Card for its environmental and sustainability initiatives. According to the A. W. Kuchler U.S. potential natural vegetation types, Columbia University would have a dominant vegetation type of Appalachian Oak (''104'') with a dominant vegetation form of Eastern Hardwood Forest (''25'').


Transportation

Columbia Transportation is the bus service of the university, operated by Academy Bus Lines. The buses are open to all Columbia faculty, students, Dodge Fitness Center members, and anyone else who holds a Columbia ID card. In addition, all The School at Columbia, TSC students can ride the buses.


Academics


Undergraduate admissions and financial aid

Columbia University received 60,551 applications for the class of 2025 (entering 2021) and a total of around 2,218 were admitted to the two schools for an overall acceptance rate of 3.66%. Columbia is a racially diverse school, with approximately 52% of all students identifying themselves as persons of color. Additionally, 50% of all undergraduates received grants from Columbia. The average grant size awarded to these students is $46,516. In 2015–2016, annual undergraduate tuition at Columbia was $50,526 with a total cost of attendance of $65,860 (including room and board). Annual gifts, fund-raising, and an increase in spending from the university's endowment have allowed Columbia to extend generous financial aid packages to qualifying students. On April 11, 2007, Columbia University announced a $400 million donation from media billionaire alumnus John Kluge to be used exclusively for undergraduate financial aid. The donation is among the largest single gifts to higher education. , undergraduates from families with incomes as high as $60,000 a year will have the projected cost of attending the university, including room, board, and academic fees, fully paid for by the university. That same year, the university ended loans for incoming and then-current students who were on financial aid, replacing loans that were traditionally part of aid packages with grants from the university. However, this does not apply to international students, transfer students, visiting students, or students in the School of General Studies. In the fall of 2010, admission to Columbia's undergraduate colleges Columbia College, Columbia University, Columbia College and the Columbia School of Engineering and Applied Science, Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (also known as SEAS or Columbia Engineering) began accepting the Common Application. The policy change made Columbia one of the last major academic institutions and the last
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form ...
university to switch to the Common Application. Scholarships are also given to undergraduate students by the admissions committee. Designations include John W. Kluge Scholars, John Jay Scholars, C. Prescott Davis Scholars, Global Scholars, Egleston Scholars, and Science Research Fellows. Named scholars are selected by the admission committee from first-year applicants. According to Columbia, the first four designated scholars "distinguish themselves for their remarkable academic and personal achievements, dynamism, intellectual curiosity, the originality and independence of their thinking, and the diversity that stems from their different cultures and their varied educational experiences". In 1919, Columbia established a student application process characterized by ''The New York Times'' as "the first modern college application". The application required a photograph of the applicant, the maiden name of the applicant's mother, and the applicant's religious background.


Organization

Columbia University is an independent, privately supported, nonsectarian institution of higher education. Its official corporate name is "Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York, The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York". The university's first charter was granted in 1754 by King George II; however, its modern charter was first enacted in 1787 and last amended in 1810 by the New York State Legislature. The university is governed by 24 trustees, customarily including the president, who serves ''Ex officio member, ex officio''. The trustees themselves are responsible for choosing their successors. Six of the 24 are nominated from a pool of candidates recommended by the Columbia Alumni Association. Another six are nominated by the board in consultation with the executive committee of the University Senate. The remaining 12, including the president, are nominated by the trustees themselves through their internal processes. The term of office for trustees is six years. Generally, they serve for no more than two consecutive terms. The trustees appoint the president and other senior administrative officers of the university, and review and confirm faculty appointments as required. They determine the university's financial and investment policies, authorize the budget, supervise the endowment, direct the management of the university's real estate and other assets, and otherwise oversee the administration and management of the university. The University Senate was established by the trustees after a university-wide referendum in 1969. It succeeded to the powers of the University Council, which was created in 1890 as a body of faculty, deans, and other administrators to regulate inter-Faculty affairs and consider issues of university-wide concern. The University Senate is a unicameral body consisting of 107 members drawn from all constituencies of the university. These include the president of the university, the provost, the deans of Columbia College and the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, all of whom serve ''ex officio'', and five additional representatives, appointed by the president, from the university's administration. The president serves as the Senate's presiding officer. The Senate is charged with reviewing the educational policies, physical development, budget, and external relations of the university. It oversees the welfare and academic freedom of the faculty and the welfare of students. List of Presidents of Columbia University, The president of Columbia University, who is selected by the trustees in consultation with the executive committee of the University Senate and who serves at the trustees' pleasure, is the chief executive officer of the university. Assisting the president in administering the university are the provost, the senior executive vice president, the executive vice president for health and biomedical sciences, several other vice presidents, the general counsel, the secretary of the university, and the deans of the faculties, all of whom are appointed by the trustees on the nomination of the president and serve at their pleasure. Lee C. Bollinger became the 19th president of Columbia University on June 1, 2002. As president of the University of Michigan, he played a leading role in the twin Supreme Court cases Grutter v Bollinger, Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v Bollinger, Gratz v. Bollinger, which upheld the use of student diversity as a compelling justification for affirmative action in higher education. Columbia has four official undergraduate colleges: Columbia College, the liberal arts college offering the Bachelor of Arts degree; the Columbia School of Engineering and Applied Science, Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (also known as SEAS or Columbia Engineering), the engineering and applied science school offering the Bachelor of Science degree; the Columbia University School of General Studies, School of General Studies, the liberal arts college offering the Bachelor of Arts degree to non-traditional students undertaking full- or part-time study; and
Barnard College Barnard College of Columbia University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abs ...
.
Barnard College Barnard College of Columbia University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abs ...
is a women's liberal arts college and an academic affiliate in which students receive a Bachelor of Arts degree from Columbia University. Their degrees are signed by the presidents of Columbia University and Barnard College. Barnard students are also eligible to cross-register classes that are available through the Barnard Catalogue and alumnae can join the Columbia Alumni Association. Joint degree programs are available through Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York, Union Theological Seminary, the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, as well as through the Juilliard School.
Teachers College Teachers College, Columbia University (TC) is a graduate school of educationIn the United States and Canada, a school of education (or college of education; ed school) is a division within a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whol ...
and
Barnard College Barnard College of Columbia University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abs ...
are faculties of the university; both colleges' presidents are deans under the university governance structure. The Columbia University Senate includes faculty and student representatives from Teachers College and Barnard College who serve two-year terms; all senators are accorded full voting privileges regarding matters impacting the entire university. Teachers College is an affiliated, financially independent graduate school with their own Board of Trustees. Pursuant to an affiliation agreement, Columbia is given the authority to confer "appropriate degrees and diplomas" to the graduates of Teachers College. The degrees are signed by presidents of Teachers College and Columbia University. Columbia's General Studies school also has joint undergraduate programs available through University College London, Sciences Po, City University of Hong Kong, Trinity College, Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, and the Juilliard School. The university also has several Columbia Global Centers, in Amman, Beijing, Istanbul, Mumbai, Nairobi, Paris, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago, and Tunis.


International partnerships

Columbia students can study abroad for a semester or a year at partner institutions such as Sciences Po, École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS), École normale supérieure (ENS), University of Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, Panthéon-Sorbonne University, King's College London, London School of Economics, and the University of Warwick. Select students can study at either the University of Oxford or the University of Cambridge for a year if approved by both Columbia and either Oxford or Cambridge.


Rankings

Columbia University is ranked second overall among U.S. national universities and sixth globally for 2021 by ''U.S. News & World Report''. QS University Rankings listed Columbia as fifth in the United States. Ranked 15th among U.S. colleges for 2020 by ''The Wall Street Journal'' and ''Times Higher Education'', in recent years it has been ranked as high as second. Individual colleges and schools were also nationally ranked by ''U.S. News & World Report'' for its 2021 edition. Columbia Law School was ranked fourth, the Mailman School of Public Health fourth, the Columbia University School of Social Work, School of Social Work tied for third, Columbia Business School eighth, the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, College of Physicians and Surgeons tied for sixth for research (and tied for 31st for primary care), the Columbia University School of Nursing, School of Nursing tied for 11th in the master's program and tied for first in the doctorate nursing program, and the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (graduate) was ranked tied for 14th. In 2021, Columbia was ranked seventh in the world (sixth in the United States) by ''Academic Ranking of World Universities'', sixth in the world by ''U.S. News & World Report'', 19th in the world by ''QS World University Rankings'', and 11th globally by ''Times Higher Education World University Rankings''. It was ranked in the first tier of American research universities, along with Harvard, MIT, and Stanford, in the 2019 report from the Center for Measuring University Performance. Columbia's Columbia Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation, Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation was ranked the second most admired graduate program by Architectural Record in 2020. In 2015, Columbia University was ranked the first in the state by average professor salaries. In 2011, the Mines ParisTech : Professional Ranking World Universities, Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities ranked Columbia third best university for forming CEOs in the US and 12th worldwide.


Research

Columbia is Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity". Columbia was the first North American site where the uranium atom was split. The College of Physicians and Surgeons played a central role in developing the modern understanding of neuroscience with the publication of ''Principles of Neural Science'', described by historian of science Katja Huenther as the "neuroscience 'bible' ". The book was written by a team of Columbia researchers that included Nobel Prize winner Eric Kandel, James H. Schwartz (neurobiologist), James H. Schwartz, and Thomas Jessell. Columbia was the birthplace of FM radio and the
laser A laser is a device that emits light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as h ...

laser
. The first Brain–computer interface, brain-computer interface capable of translating brain signals into speech was developed by Neural engineering, neuroengineers at Columbia. The MPEG-2 algorithm of transmitting high quality audio and video over limited bandwidth was developed by Dimitris Anastassiou, a Columbia professor of electrical engineering. Biologist Martin Chalfie was the first to introduce the use of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in labeling cells in intact organisms. Other inventions and products related to Columbia include Sequential Lateral Solidification (SLS) technology for making LCDs, System Management Arts (SMARTS), Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) (which is used for audio, video, chat, instant messaging and whiteboarding), pharmacopeia, Macromodel (software for computational chemistry), a new and better recipe for glass concrete, Blue LEDs, and Beamprop (used in photonics). Columbia scientists have been credited with about 175 new inventions in the health sciences each year. More than 30 pharmaceutical products based on discoveries and inventions made at Columbia reached the market. These include Remicade (for arthritis), Reopro (for blood clot complications), Xalatan (for glaucoma), Benefix, Latanoprost (a glaucoma treatment), shoulder prosthesis, homocysteine (testing for cardiovascular disease), and Zolinza (for cancer therapy). Columbia Technology Ventures (formerly Science and Technology Ventures), , manages some 600 patents and more than 250 active license agreements. Patent-related deals earned Columbia more than $230 million in the 2006 fiscal year, according to the university, more than any university in the world. Columbia owns many unique research facilities, such as the Columbia Institute for Tele-Information dedicated to telecommunications and the
Goddard Institute for Space Studies The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) is a laboratory in the Earth Sciences Division of NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agenc ...
, which is an Astronomy, astronomical observatory affiliated with NASA.


Military and veteran enrollment

Columbia is a long-standing participant of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs Yellow Ribbon Program, allowing eligible veterans to pursue a Columbia undergraduate degree regardless of socioeconomic status for over 70 years. As a part of the Eisenhower Leader Development Program (ELDP) in partnership with the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, West Point, Columbia is the only school in the Ivy League to offer a graduate degree program in organizational psychology to aid military officers in tactical decision making and strategic management.


Awards

Several prestigious awards are administered by Columbia University, most notably the
Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph ...
and the Bancroft Prize in history. Updated 2013 by Sig Gissler. Other prizes, which are awarded by the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, Graduate School of Journalism, include the Alfred I. duPont–Columbia University Award, the National Magazine Awards, the Maria Moors Cabot Prizes, the John Chancellor Award, and the Lukas Prizes, which include the J. Anthony Lukas Book Prize and Mark Lynton History Prize. The university also administers the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize, which is considered an important precursor to the Nobel Prize, 51 of its 101 recipients having gone on to win either a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine or Nobel Prize in Chemistry as of October 2018; the W. Alden Spencer Award; the Vetlesen Prize, which is known as the Nobel Prize of geology; the Japan-U.S. Friendship Commission Prize for the Translation of Japanese Literature, the oldest such award; the Edwin Howard Armstrong award; the Calderone Prize in public health; and the Ditson Conductor's Award.


Student life


Students

In 2020, Columbia University's student population was 31,455 (8,842 students in undergraduate programs and 22,613 in postgraduate programs), with 45% of the student population identifying themselves as a minority. Twenty-six percent of students at Columbia have family incomes below $60,000. 16% of students at Columbia receive Federal Pell Grants, which mostly go to students whose family incomes are below $40,000. Seventeen percent of students are the first member of their family to attend a four-year college. On-campus housing is guaranteed for all four years as an undergraduate. Columbia College, Columbia University, Columbia College and the Columbia School of Engineering and Applied Science, Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science (also known as SEAS or Columbia Engineering) share housing in the on-campus residence halls. First-year students usually live in one of the large residence halls situated around South Lawn: Harry Carman, Carman Hall, Furnald Hall, Hartley Hall, John Jay Hall, or Wallach Hall (originally Livingston Hall). Upperclassmen participate in a room selection process, wherein students can pick to live in a mix of either corridor- or apartment-style housing with their friends. The Columbia University School of General Studies,
Barnard College Barnard College of Columbia University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an abs ...
and graduate schools have their own apartment-style housing in the surrounding neighborhood. Columbia University is home to many Fraternities and sororities in North America, fraternities, sororities, and co-educational Greek organizations. Approximately 10–15% of undergraduate students are associated with Greek life. Many Barnard women also join Columbia sororities. There has been a Greek presence on campus since the establishment in 1836 of the Delta chapter of Alpha Delta Phi. The InterGreek Council is the self-governing student organization that provides guidelines and support to its member organizations within each of the three councils at Columbia, the Interfraternity Council, Panhellenic Council, and Multicultural Greek Council. The three council presidents bring their affiliated chapters together once a month to meet as one Greek community. The InterGreek Council meetings provide opportunity for member organizations to learn from each other, work together and advocate for community needs.


Publications

The ''Columbia Daily Spectator'' is the nation's second-oldest continuously operating daily student newspaper; and ''The Blue and White'', a monthly literary magazine established in 1890, discusses campus life and local politics in print and on its daily blog, dubbed ''Bwog''. ''The Morningside Post'' is a student-run multimedia news publication. Its content: student-written investigative news, international affairs analysis, opinion, and satire. Political publications include ''The Current (Columbia University journal), The Current'', a journal of politics, culture and Jewish Affairs; the ''Columbia Political Review'', the multi-partisan political magazine of the Columbia Political Union; and ''AdHoc'', which denotes itself as the "progressive" campus magazine and deals largely with local political issues and arts events. ''Columbia Magazine'' is the alumni magazine of Columbia, serving all 340,000+ of the university's alumni. Arts and literary publications include ''The Columbia Review'', the nation's oldest college literary magazine; ''Columbia'', a nationally regarded literary journal; the ''Columbia Journal of Literary Criticism''; and ''The Mobius Strip'', an online arts and literary magazine. ''Inside New York'' is an annual guidebook to New York City, written, edited, and published by Columbia undergraduates. Through a distribution agreement with Columbia University Press, the book is sold at major retailers and independent bookstores. Columbia is home to numerous undergraduate academic publications. The ''Columbia Undergraduate Science Journal'' prints original science research in its two annual publications. The ''Journal of Politics & Society'' is a journal of undergraduate research in the social sciences; ''Publius'' is an undergraduate journal of politics established in 2008 and published biannually; the ''Columbia East Asia Review'' allows undergraduates throughout the world to publish original work on China, Japan, Korea, Tibet, and Vietnam and is supported by the Weatherhead East Asian Institute; ''The Birch'' is an undergraduate journal of Eastern European and Eurasian culture that is the first national student-run journal of its kind; the ''Columbia Economics Review'' is the undergraduate economic journal on research and policy supported by the Columbia Economics Department; and the ''Columbia Science Review'' is a science magazine that prints general interest articles and faculty profiles. Humor publications on Columbia's campus include ''The Fed (Columbia newspaper), The Fed'', a triweekly satire and investigative newspaper, and the ''Jester of Columbia.'' Other publications include ''The Columbian'', the undergraduate colleges' annually published yearbook; the ''Gadfly'', a biannual journal of popular philosophy produced by undergraduates; and ''Rhapsody in Blue'', an undergraduate urban studies magazine. Professional journals published by academic departments at Columbia University include ''Current Musicology'' and ''The Journal of Philosophy''. During the spring semester, graduate students in the Journalism School publish ''The Bronx Beat'', a bi-weekly newspaper covering the South Bronx. Founded in 1961 under the auspices of Columbia University's Graduate School of Journalism, the ''Columbia Journalism Review'' (CJR) examines day-to-day press performance as well as the forces that affect that performance. The magazine is published six times a year.


Broadcasting

Columbia is home to two pioneers in undergraduate campus radio broadcasting, WKCR-FM and CTV. Many undergraduates are also involved with Barnard's radio station, WBAR (Barnard College), WBAR. WKCR, the student run radio station that broadcasts to the Tri-state area, claims to be the oldest FM radio station in the world, owing to the university's affiliation with Edwin Howard Armstrong, Major Edwin Armstrong. The station went operational on July 18, 1939, from a 400-foot antenna tower in Alpine, New Jersey, broadcasting the first FM transmission in the world. Initially, WKCR was not a radio station, but an organization concerned with the technology of radio communications. As membership grew, however, the nascent club turned its efforts to broadcasting. Armstrong helped the students in their early efforts, donating a microphone and turntables when they designed their first makeshift studio in a dorm room. The station has its studios on the second floor of Alfred Lerner Hall on the Morningside campus with its main transmitter tower at 4 Times Square in Midtown Manhattan. Columbia Television (CTV) is the nation's second oldest student television station and the home of CTV News, a weekly live news program produced by undergraduate students.


Debate and Model UN

The Philolexian Society is a literary and debating club founded in 1802, making it the oldest student group at Columbia, as well as the third oldest collegiate literary society in the country. The society annually administers the Joyce Kilmer Memorial Bad Poetry Contest. The Columbia Parliamentary Debate Team competes in tournaments around the country as part of the American Parliamentary Debate Association, and hosts both high school and college tournaments on Columbia's campus, as well as public debates on issues affecting the university. The Columbia International Relations Council and Association (CIRCA), oversees Columbia's Model United Nations activities. CIRCA hosts college and high school Model UN conferences, hosts speakers influential in international politics to speak on campus, and trains students from underprivileged schools in New York in Model UN.


Technology and entrepreneurship

Columbia is a top supplier of young engineering entrepreneurs for New York City. Over the past 20 years, graduates of Columbia established over 100 technology companies. The Columbia University Organization of Rising Entrepreneurs (CORE) was founded in 1999. The student-run group aims to foster entrepreneurship on campus. Each year CORE hosts dozens of events, including talks, #StartupColumbia, a conference and venture competition for $250,000, and Ignite@CU, a weekend for undergrads interested in design, engineering, and entrepreneurship. Notable speakers include Peter Thiel, Jack Dorsey, Alexis Ohanian, Drew Houston, and Mark Cuban. As of 2006, CORE had awarded graduate and undergraduate students over $100,000 in seed capital. CampusNetwork, an on-campus social networking site called Campus Network that preceded Facebook, was created and popularized by Columbia engineering student Adam Goldberg in 2003. Mark Zuckerberg later asked Goldberg to join him in Palo Alto to work on Facebook, but Goldberg declined the offer. The Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science offers a minor in Technical Entrepreneurship through its Center for Technology, Innovation, and Community Engagement. SEAS' entrepreneurship activities focus on community building initiatives in New York and worldwide, made possible through partners such as Microsoft Corporation. On June 14, 2010, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg launched the NYC Media Lab to promote innovations in New York's media industry. Situated at the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the lab is a consortium of Columbia University, New York University, and New York City Economic Development Corporation acting to connect companies with universities in new technology research. The Lab is modeled after similar ones at MIT and Stanford, and was established with a $250,000 grant from the New York City Economic Development Corporation.


Athletics

A member institution of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in NCAA Division I, Division I Football Championship Subdivision, FCS, Columbia fields varsity teams in 29 sports and is a member of the
Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference An athletic conference is a collection of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form ...
. The football Lions play home games at the 17,000-seat Robert K. Kraft Field at Lawrence A. Wien Stadium. The Baker Athletics Complex also includes facilities for baseball, softball, soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, tennis, track, and rowing, as well as the new Campbell Sports Center, which opened in January 2013. The basketball, fencing, swimming & diving, volleyball, and wrestling programs are based at the Dodge Physical Fitness Center on the main campus. Former students include Baseball Hall of Famers Lou Gehrig and Eddie Collins, Pro Football Hall of Fame, football Hall of Famer Sid Luckman, Marcellus Wiley, and world champion women's weightlifter Karyn Marshall. On May 17, 1939, fledgling NBC broadcast a doubleheader between the Columbia Lions and the Princeton Tigers at Columbia's Baker Field, making it the first televised regular athletic event in history. Columbia University athletics has a long history, with many accomplishments in athletic fields. In 1870, Columbia played against Rutgers University in the second intercollegiate rugby football game in the history of the sport. Eight years later, Columbia crew won the famed Henley Royal Regatta in the first-ever defeat for an English crew rowing in English waters. In 1900, Olympian and Columbia College student Maxie Long set the first official world record in the 400 meters with a time of 47.8 seconds. In 1983, Columbia men's soccer went 18–0 and was ranked first in the nation, but lost to Indiana 1–0 in double overtime in the NCAA championship game; nevertheless, the team went further toward the NCAA title than any Ivy League soccer team in history. The football program unfortunately is best known for its record of futility set during the 1980s: between 1983 and 1988, the team lost 44 games in a row, which is still the record for the NCAA Football Championship Subdivision. The streak was broken on October 8, 1988, with a 16–13 victory over arch-rival Princeton University. That was the Lions' first victory at Wien Stadium, which had been opened during the losing streak and was already four years old. A new tradition has developed with the Liberty Cup. The Liberty Cup is awarded annually to the winner of the football game between Fordham University, Fordham and Columbia Universities, two of the only three NCAA Division I football teams in New York City.


World Leaders Forum

Established in 2003 by university president Lee C. Bollinger, the World Leaders Forum at Columbia University provides the opportunity for undergraduate and graduate students alike to listen to world leaders in government, religion, industry, finance, and academia. The World Leaders Forum is a year-around event series that strives to provide a platform for uninhibited speech among nations and cultures, while educating students about problems and progress around the globe. Past forum speakers include former president of the United States Bill Clinton, the prime minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee, former president of Ghana John Agyekum Kufuor, president of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai, prime minister of Russia Vladimir Putin, president of the Republic of Mozambique Joaquim Alberto Chissano, president of the Republic of Bolivia Carlos Diego Mesa Gisbert, president of the Republic of Romania Ion Iliescu, president of the Republic of Latvia Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, the first female president of Finland Tarja Halonen, President Yudhoyono of Indonesia, President Pervez Musharraf of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Iraq President Jalal Talabani, the 14th Dalai Lama, president of the Islamic Republic of Iran Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, financier George Soros, Mayor of New York City Michael R. Bloomberg, President Václav Klaus of the Czech Republic, President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of Argentina, former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, and Al Gore.


Other

The Columbia University Orchestra was founded by composer Edward MacDowell in 1896, and is the oldest continually operating university orchestra in the United States. Undergraduate student composers at Columbia may choose to become involved with Columbia New Music, which sponsors concerts of music written by undergraduate students from all of Columbia's schools. The Notes and Keys, the oldest a cappella group at Columbia, was founded in 1909. There are a number of performing arts groups at Columbia dedicated to producing student theater, including the Columbia Players, King's Crown Shakespeare Troupe (KCST), Columbia Musical Theater Society (CMTS), NOMADS (New and Original Material Authored and Directed by Students), LateNite Theatre, Columbia University Performing Arts League (CUPAL), Black Theatre Ensemble (BTE), sketch comedy group Chowdah, and improvisational troupes Alfred and Fruit Paunch. The Columbia Queer Alliance is the central Columbia student organization that represents the bisexual, lesbian, gay, transgender, and questioning student population. It is the oldest gay student organization in the world, founded as the Student homophile movement, Homophile League in 1967 by students including lifelong activist Stephen Donaldson (activist), Stephen Donaldson. Columbia University campus military groups include the U.S. Military Veterans of Columbia University and Advocates for Columbia ROTC. In the 2005–06 academic year, the Columbia Military Society, Columbia's student group for ROTC cadets and Marine officer candidates, was renamed the Hamilton Society for "students who aspire to serve their nation through the military in the tradition of
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. He was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fa ...

Alexander Hamilton
". The largest student service organization at Columbia is Community Impact (CI). Founded in 1981, CI provides food, clothing, shelter, education, job training, and companionship for residents in its surrounding communities. CI consists of about 950 Columbia University student volunteers participating in 25 community service programs, which serve more than 8,000 people each year. Columbia has several secret societies, including St. Anthony Hall, which was founded at the university in 1847, and two senior societies, the Nacoms and Sachems.


Traditions


Orgo Night

In one of the school's longest-lasting traditions, begun in 1975, at midnight before the Organic chemistry, Organic Chemistry exam—often the first day of final exams—the Columbia University Marching Band invaded and briefly occupied the main undergraduate reading room in Butler Library to distract and entertain studying students with some forty-five minutes of raucous jokes and music, beginning and ending with the singing of the school's fight song, "Roar, Lion, Roar". After the main show before a crowd that routinely began filling the room well before the announced midnight start time, the Band led a procession to several campus locations, including the residential quadrangle of
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for more music and temporary relief from the stress of last-minute studying. In December 2016, following several years of complaints from students who said that some Orgo Night scripts and advertising posters were offensive to minority groups, as well as a ''The New York Times'' article on the Band's crass treatment of sexual assault on campus, University administrators banned the Marching Band from performing its Orgo Night show in the traditional Butler Library location. Protests and allegations of censorship followed, but University President Lee Bollinger said that complaints and publicity about the shows had "nothing to do with" the prohibition. The Band instead performed—at midnight, as usual—outside the main entrance of Butler Library. The Band's official alumni organization, the Columbia University Band Alumni Association, registered protests with the administration, and an ad hoc group of alumni writing under the name "A. Hamiltonius" published a series of pamphlets addressing their dissatisfaction with the ban, but at the end of the spring 2017 semester the university administration held firm, prompting the Marching Band to again stage its show outside the building. For Orgo Night December 2017, Band members quietly infiltrated the library with their musical instruments during the evening and popped up at midnight to perform the show inside despite the ban. Prior to the spring 2018 exam period, the administration warned the group's leaders against a repeat and restated the injunction, warning of sanctions; the Band again staged its Orgo Night show in front of the library.


Tree Lighting and Yule Log ceremonies

The campus Tree Lighting ceremony was inaugurated in 1998. It celebrates the illumination of the medium-sized trees lining College Walk in front of Kent Hall and Hamilton Hall (Columbia University), Hamilton Hall on the east end and Dodge Hall and Pulitzer Hall on the west, just before finals week in early December. The lights remain on until February 28. Students meet at the sun-dial for free hot chocolate, performances by ''a cappella'' groups, and speeches by the university president and a guest. Immediately following the College Walk festivities is one of Columbia's older holiday traditions, the lighting of the Yule Log. The Christmas ceremony dates to a period prior to the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
, but lapsed before being revived by President
Nicholas Murray Butler Nicholas Murray Butler (April 2, 1862 – December 7, 1947) was an American philosopher, diplomat, and educator. Butler was president of Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University ...
in 1910. A troop of students dressed as
Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the Thirteen Colonies and the Revolutionary-era United States. It was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, and was established by a resolution of ...
soldiers carry the eponymous log from the sun-dial to the lounge of John Jay Hall, where it is lit amid the singing of seasonal carols. The Christmas ceremony is accompanied by a reading of ''A Visit From St. Nicholas'' by Clement Clarke Moore and ''Yes, Virginia, There is a Santa Claus'' by Francis Pharcellus Church.


The Varsity Show

The Varsity Show is an annual musical written by and for students and was established in 1894, making it one of Columbia's oldest traditions. Past writers and directors have included Columbians Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, Oscar Hammerstein, Lorenz Hart, I.A.L. Diamond, Herman Wouk and Eric Garcetti. The show has one of the largest operating budgets of all university events.


Notable people


Alumni

The university has graduated many notable alumni, including five Founding Fathers of the United States, Gouverneur Morris, an author of the United States Constitution and Robert R. Livingston (chancellor), a member of the Committee of Five. Three United States presidents have attended Columbia, as well as ten Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, including three Chief Justice of the United States, Chief Justices. , 125 Pulitzer Prize winners and 39 Oscar winners have attended Columbia. , there were 101 National Academy members who were alumni. In a 2016 ranking of universities worldwide with respect to living graduates who are billionaires, Columbia ranked second, after Harvard. Former U.S. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Delano Roosevelt attended the law school. Other political figures educated at Columbia include former U.S President Barack Obama, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Ruth Bader Ginsburg, former U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, former chairman of the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank Alan Greenspan, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder, and U.S. Solicitor General Donald Verrilli Jr. The university has also educated 29 foreign
heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and leg ...
, including president of Georgia Mikheil Saakashvili, president of East Timor Jose Ramos Horta, president of Estonia Toomas Hendrik Ilves and other historical figures such as Wellington Koo, Radovan Karadžić, Gaston Eyskens, and T. V. Soong. The author of India's constitution Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was also an alumnus of Columbia. Alumni of Columbia have occupied top positions in Wall Street and the rest of the business world. Notable members of the Astor family attended Columbia, while other business graduates include investor Warren Buffett, former CEO of PBS and NBC Lawrence K. Grossman, Larry Grossman, chairman of Wal-Mart S. Robson Walton, Bain Capital Co-Managing Partner, Jonathan Lavine, Thomson Reuters CEO Tom Glocer, and AllianceBernstein Chairman and CEO Lewis A. Sanders. CEO's of top Fortune 500 companies include James P. Gorman of Morgan Stanley, Robert J. Stevens of Lockheed Martin, Philippe Dauman of Viacom (2005–present), Viacom, Robert Bakish of ViacomCBS, Ursula Burns of Xerox, Devin Wenig of EBay, Vikram Pandit of Citigroup, Ralph Izzo of Public Service Enterprise Group, Gail Koziara Boudreaux of Anthem (company), Anthem, and Frank Blake of The Home Depot. Notable labor organizer and women's educator Louise Leonard McLaren received her degree of Master of Arts from Columbia. In science and technology, Columbia alumni include: founder of
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
Herman Hollerith; inventor of FM broadcast, FM radio Edwin Armstrong; Francis Mechner; integral in development of the nuclear submarine Hyman G. Rickover, Hyman Rickover; founder of Google China Kai-Fu Lee; scientists Stephen Jay Gould, Robert Millikan, Helium–neon laser inventor Ali Javan and Mihajlo Pupin; chief-engineer of the New York City Subway, William Barclay Parsons; philosophers Irwin Edman and Robert Nozick; economist Milton Friedman; psychologist Harriet Babcock; archaeologist Josephine Platner Shear; and sociologists Lewis A. Coser and Rose Laub Coser. Many Columbia alumni have gone on to renowned careers in the arts, including composers Richard Rodgers, Oscar Hammerstein II, Lorenz Hart, and Art Garfunkel; and painter Georgia O'Keeffe. Five United States Poet Laureates received their degrees from Columbia. Columbia alumni have made an indelible mark in the field of American poetry and literature, with such people as Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg, pioneers of the Beat Generation; and Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston, seminal figures in the Harlem Renaissance, all having attended the university. Other notable writers who attended Columbia include authors Isaac Asimov, J.D. Salinger, Upton Sinclair, Ursula K. Le Guin, Danielle Valore Evans, and Hunter S. Thompson. University alumni have also been very prominent in the film industry, with 33 alumni and former students winning a combined 43 Academy Awards (). Some notable Columbia alumni that have gone on to work in film include directors Sidney Lumet (''12 Angry Men (1957 film), 12 Angry Men'') and Kathryn Bigelow (''The Hurt Locker''), screenwriters Howard Koch (screenwriter), Howard Koch (''Casablanca (film), Casablanca'') and Joseph L. Mankiewicz (''All About Eve''), and actors James Cagney and Ed Harris. File:Alexander Hamilton portrait by John Trumbull 1806.jpg,
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. He was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fa ...

Alexander Hamilton
: Founding Father of the United States; author of ''The Federalist Papers''; first United States Secretary of the Treasury — King's College File:John Jay (Gilbert Stuart portrait).jpg,
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John Jay
: Founding Father of the United States; author of ''The Federalist Papers''; first Chief Justice of the United States; second Governor of New York — King's College File:Robert R Livingston, attributed to Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828).jpg, Robert R. Livingston (chancellor), Robert R. Livingston: Founding Father of the United States; drafter of the
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; first United States Secretary of State, United States Secretary of Foreign Affairs — King's College File:Gouverneur Morris.jpg, Gouverneur Morris: Founding Father of the United States; author of the United States Constitution; United States Senate, United States Senator from List of United States Senators from New York, New York — King's College File:DeWitt Clinton by Rembrandt Peale.jpg, DeWitt Clinton: United States Senate, United States Senator from New York; sixth Governor of New York; responsible for construction of Erie Canal — Columbia College File:President Barack Obama.jpg, Barack Obama: 44th President of the United States; United States Senator from List of United States Senators from Illinois, Illinois; List of Nobel laureates, Nobel laureate — Columbia College File:FDR in 1933.jpg, Franklin D. Roosevelt: 32nd President of the United States; 44th Governor of New York — Columbia Law School File:President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg, Theodore Roosevelt: 26th President of the United States; Nobel laureate – Columbia Law School File:Wellington Koo 1945.jpg, Wellington Koo: acting President of the Republic of China; judge of the International Court of Justice — Columbia College, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences File:Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar.jpg, B. R. Ambedkar: List of national founders#Modern, Founding Father of India; architect of the Constitution of India; First Ministry of Law and Justice (India), Minister of Law and Justice — Graduate School of Arts and Sciences File:Ruth Bader Ginsburg official SCOTUS portrait.jpg, Ruth Bader Ginsburg: Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States — Columbia Law School File:Associate Justice Neil Gorsuch Official Portrait.jpg, Neil Gorsuch: Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States — Columbia College File:Charles Evans Hughes cph.3b15401.jpg, Charles Evans Hughes: 11th Chief Justice of the United States; 44th United States Secretary of State; 35th Governor of New York — Columbia Law School File:Chief Justice Harlan Fiske Stone photograph circa 1927-1932 (cropped).jpg, Harlan F. Stone, Harlan Fiske Stone: 12th Chief Justice of the United States; 52nd United States Attorney General — Columbia Law School File:William Barr.jpg, William Barr: 77th and 85th United States Attorney General – Columbia College, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences File:Hamilton Fish Brady Edited.jpg, Hamilton Fish: 26th United States Secretary of State; United States Senator from New York; 16th Governor of New York — Columbia College File:Secalbright.jpg, Madeleine Albright: 64th United States Secretary of State; first female Secretary of State — School of International and Public Affairs File:Frances Perkins cph.3a04983.jpg, Frances Perkins: fourth United States Secretary of Labor; first female member of any Cabinet of the United States, U.S. Cabinet — Graduate School of Arts and Sciences File:Robert Andrews Millikan 1920s.jpg, Robert A. Millikan: Nobel laureate; measured the elementary electric charge — Graduate School of Arts and Sciences File:II Rabi.jpg, Isidor Isaac Rabi: Nobel Laureate; discovered
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— Graduate School of Arts and Sciences File:Schwinger.jpg, Julian S. Schwinger: Nobel laureate; pioneer of quantum field theory — Columbia College, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences File:Portrait of Milton Friedman.jpg, Milton Friedman: Nobel laureate, leading member of the Chicago school of economics — Graduate School of Arts and Sciences File:Simon Kuznets 1971b.jpg, Simon Kuznets: Nobel laureate; invented concept of Gross domestic product, GDP; Milton Friedman's doctoral advisor — School of General Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences File:Alan Greenspan color photo portrait.jpg, Alan Greenspan: 13th Chair of the Federal Reserve — Graduate School of Arts and Sciences File:Warren Buffett KU Visit.jpg, Warren Buffett: CEO of Berkshire Hathaway; one of the Forbes list of billionaires, world's wealthiest people — Columbia Business School File:Hollerith.jpg, Herman Hollerith: inventor; co-founder of
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IBM
– School of Engineering and Applied Sciences File:Robert Kraft at Patriots at Raiders 12-14-08.JPG, Robert Kraft: billionaire; owner of the New England Patriots; chairman and CEO of the Kraft Group — Columbia College File:Rodgers.jpg, Richard Rodgers: legendary Emmy Award, Emmy, Grammy Award, Grammy, Academy Awards, Oscar, and Tony Award, Tony List of people who have won Academy, Emmy, Grammy, and Tony Awards#Richard Rodgers, award-winning composer;
Pulitzer Prize#REDIRECT Pulitzer Prize The Pulitzer Prize () is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph ...
winner — Columbia College File:LangstonHughes crop.jpg, Langston Hughes: Harlem Renaissance poet, novelist, and playwright — School of Engineering and Applied Science File:Zora Neale Hurston.jpg, Zora Neale Hurston: Harlem Renaissance author, anthropologist, and filmmaker — Barnard College, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences File:Allen Ginsberg 1979 - cropped.jpg, Allen Ginsberg: poet; founder of the Beat Generation — Columbia College File:Kerouac by Palumbo 2 (cropped).png, Jack Kerouac: poet; founder of the Beat Generation — Columbia College File:Isaac.Asimov01.jpg, Isaac Asimov: science fiction writer; biochemist — School of General Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences File:J. D. Salinger (Catcher in the Rye portrait).jpg, J. D. Salinger: novelist, ''The Catcher in the Rye'' — School of General Studies File:Amelia Earhart 1935.jpg, Amelia Earhart: first Women in aviation, female aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean — School of General Studies File:Jake Gyllenhaal (22373266462) (cropped 2).jpg, Jake Gyllenhaal: actor and film producer — Columbia College


Faculty

As of 2021, Columbia employs 4,381 faculty, including 70 members of the
National Academy of Sciences The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a ...
, 178 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and 65 members of the National Academy of Medicine. In total, the Columbia faculty has included 52 Nobel Prize, Nobel laureates, 12 National Medal of Science recipients, and 32 National Academy of Engineering members. Columbia University faculty played particularly important roles during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
and the creation of the New Deal under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who attended Columbia Law School. The three core members of Roosevelt's Brain trust#Roosevelt's "Brain Trust", Brain Trust: Adolf A. Berle, Raymond Moley, and Rexford Tugwell, were law professors at Columbia. The The Statistical Research Group of World War II, Statistical Research Group, which used statistics to analyze military problems during World War II, was composed of Columbia researchers and faculty including George Stigler and Milton Friedman. Columbia faculty and researchers, including
Enrico Fermi Enrico Fermi (; 29 September 1901 - 28 November 1954) was an Italian (later naturalized American) physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1. He has been called the "architect of the nuclear age" and ...

Enrico Fermi
, Leo Szilard, Eugene T. Booth, John R. Dunning, George B. Pegram, Walter Zinn, Chien-Shiung Wu, Francis G. Slack, Harold Urey, Herbert L. Anderson, and Isidor Isaac Rabi, also played a significant role during the early phases of the
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. Following the rise of Nazi Germany, the exiled University of Frankfurt Institute for Social Research, Institute for Social Research at Goethe University Frankfurt would affiliate itself with Columbia from 1934 to 1950. It was during this period that thinkers including Theodor W. Adorno, Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Herbert Marcuse wrote and published some of the most seminal works of the Frankfurt School, including ''Reason and Revolution'', ''Dialectic of Enlightenment'', and Eclipse of Reason (Horkheimer), ''Eclipse of Reason''. Notable figures that have served as the president of Columbia University include List of Presidents of the United States, 34th President of the United States Dwight D. Eisenhower, List of vice presidents of the United States, 4th Vice President of the United States George Clinton (vice president), George Clinton, Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father and United States Senate, U.S. Senator from Connecticut
William Samuel Johnson William Samuel Johnson (October 7, 1727 – November 14, 1819) was an early American statesman who was notable for signing the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of Ame ...
, Nobel Peace Prize laureate
Nicholas Murray Butler Nicholas Murray Butler (April 2, 1862 – December 7, 1947) was an American philosopher, diplomat, and educator. Butler was president of Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University ...
, and First Amendment to the United States Constitution, First Amendment scholar Lee Bollinger. File:Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977.jpg, Zbigniew Brzezinski File:Sonia Sotomayor in SCOTUS robe.jpg, Sonia Sotomayor File:Kimberlé Crenshaw (40901215153).jpg, Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw File:Lee Bollinger - Daniella Zalcman less noise.jpg, Lee Bollinger File:FranzBoas.jpg, Franz Boas File:Margaret Mead (1901-1978).jpg, Margaret Mead File:Edward Sapir.jpg, Edward Sapir File:John Dewey cph.3a51565.jpg, John Dewey File:Charles Austin Beard.jpg, Charles A. Beard File:Max Horkheimer.jpg, Max Horkheimer File:Herbert Marcuse in Newton, Massachusetts 1955 (cropped).jpg, Herbert Marcuse File:Edward Said and Daniel Barenboim in Sevilla, 2002 (Said).jpg, Edward Said File:Gayatri Spivak on Subversive Festival.jpg, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak File:Orhan Pamuk 2009 Shankbone.jpg, Orhan Pamuk File:EdwinHowardArmstrong.jpg, Edwin Howard Armstrong File:Enrico Fermi 1943-49.jpg,
Enrico Fermi Enrico Fermi (; 29 September 1901 - 28 November 1954) was an Italian (later naturalized American) physicist and the creator of the world's first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1. He has been called the "architect of the nuclear age" and ...

Enrico Fermi
File:Chien-Shiung Wu (1912-1997) in 1958.jpg, Chien-Shiung Wu File:TD Lee.jpg, Tsung-Dao Lee File:Jack-Steinberger-2008.JPG, Jack Steinberger File:Joachim Frank.jpg, Joachim Frank File:Joseph E. Stiglitz, 2019 (cropped).jpg, Joseph Stiglitz File:FMSTAN & SPIDER Global meeting in Austrian Foreign Ministries in Vienna (49120446508) (cropped).jpg, Jeffrey Sachs File:Robert Mundell (cropped).jpg, Robert Mundell File:Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg, Thomas Hunt Morgan File:Eric Kandel 01.JPG, Eric Kandel File:Professor Richard Axel ForMemRS.jpg, Richard Axel File:Andrei Okounkov 2018.jpg, Andrei Okounkov


See also

* Columbia Glacier (Alaska), Columbia Glacier, a glacier in Alaska, U.S., named for Columbia University * Columbia MM, a text-based mail client developed at Columbia University * Columbia Non-neutral Torus, a small stellarator at the Columbia University Plasma Physics Laboratory * ''Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (album), Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center'', an album of electronic music released in 1961 * ''Columbia Revolt'', a black-and-white 1968 documentary film * Columbia Scholastic Press Association * Columbia School of Linguistics * Columbia Spelling Board, a historic etymological organization * Columbia University Partnership for International Development * Columbia Encyclopedia * Mount Columbia (Colorado), Mount Columbia, a mountain in Colorado, U.S., named for Columbia University * Nutellagate, a controversy surrounding high Nutella consumption at Columbia University * ''The Strawberry Statement'', a non-fiction account of the 1968 protests * Columbia University in popular culture


Notes


References


Further reading

* Robert A. McCaughey: ''Stand, Columbia: A History of Columbia University in the City of New York, 1754–2004'', Columbia University Press, 2003, * ''Living Legacies at Columbia'', ed. by Wm Theodore De Bary, Columbia University Press, 2006,


External links

* {{Authority control Columbia University, 1754 establishments in New York Colonial colleges Educational institutions established in 1754 McKim, Mead & White buildings New York (state) in the American Revolution Private universities and colleges in New York City Universities and colleges in Manhattan