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Cameroon (, french: Cameroun), officially the Republic of Cameroon (french: République du Cameroun, links=no), is a country in
west 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass. It is the opposite direction from east, and is the direction in which the sun sets. Etymology The word "west" is a Germa ...

west
-
central Africa Central Africa is a subregion of the African continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded ...

central Africa
. It is bordered by
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa. It is the List of African countries by population, most populous country in Africa; geographically situated between the Sahel to the north, and the Gulf of ...

Nigeria
to the west and north;
Chad Chad (; ar, تشاد , ; french: Tchad, ), officially known as the Republic of Chad ( ar, جمهورية تْشَاد, link=no '; ), is a landlocked country in north-central Africa. It is bordered by Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, ...
to the northeast; the
Central African Republic The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango language, Sango: ''Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka''; french: République centrafricaine ''(RCA)''  , or ' ) is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad to Central African Republ ...
to the east; and
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea ( es, Guinea Ecuatorial; french: Guinée équatoriale; pt, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea ( es, link=no, República de Guinea Ecuatorial, french: link=no, République de Guinée équatoriale, ...

Equatorial Guinea
,
Gabon Gabon (; ), officially the Gabonese Republic (french: République gabonaise), is a country on the west coast of Central Africa. Located on the equator, Gabon is bordered by Equatorial Guinea to the northwest, Cameroon to the north, the Rep ...

Gabon
and the
Republic of the Congo The Republic of the Congo ( french: République du Congo, mkw, Repubilika ya Kôngo), also known as Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply either Congo or the Congo, is a country located in the western coast of Central Africa. To the ...
to the south. Its coastline lies on the
Bight of Biafra The Bight of Biafra (officially Bight of Bonny, in Nigeria) is a bight off the West Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square  ...
, part of the
Gulf of Guinea pt, Golfo da Guiné , native_name_lang= , image= Gulf of Guinea (English).jpg , caption = Gulf of Guinea map showing the chain of islands formed by the Cameroon line The Cameroon line (, ) is a chain of volcanoes. It includes islands in the Gu ...
and the
Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. Although it is not an
ECOWAS The Economic Community of West African States, also known as ECOWAS ( in French), is a regional political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or o ...
member state, it is geographically and historically in
West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, ...

West Africa
; the
Southern Cameroons Southern Cameroons was the southern part of the British mandate territory of British Cameroons in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an inter ...
, which now form its North West and
South West The points of the compass are the Euclidean vector, vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, east, south, and west—each separated by 90 degree ( ...
Regions, have particularly strong links to West African history. The country is sometimes identified as West African and other times as Central African, due to its strategic position at the crossroads between West and Central Africa. Its nearly 25 million people speak 250 native languages. Early inhabitants of the territory included the
Sao civilisation The Sao civilization (also called So) flourished in Central Africa Central Africa is a subregion of the African continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather t ...
around
Lake Chad Lake Chad (french: links=no, Lac Tchad) is a historically large, shallow, endorheic lake in central Africa, which has varied in size over the centuries. According to the ''Global Resource Information Database'' of the United Nations Environment ...

Lake Chad
, and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern rainforest.
Portuguese explorers Portuguese discoveries (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Descobrimentos portugueses'') are the numerous territories and maritime routes recorded by the Portugal, Portuguese as a result of their intensive maritime exploration during the 15th and ...
reached the coast in the 15th century and named the area ''Rio dos Camarões'' (''Shrimp River''), which became ''Cameroon'' in English. Fulani soldiers founded the
Adamawa Emirate The Adamawa Emirate (german: Adamaua; french: Adamaoua) is a traditional state located in Fombina, an area which now roughly corresponds to areas of Adamawa State Adamawa is a States of Nigeria, state in northeastern Nigeria, whose capital and ...
in the north in the 19th century, and various ethnic groups of the west and northwest established powerful chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon became a German colony in 1884 known as
Kamerun Kamerun was an African colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the col ...

Kamerun
. After
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "The war to end war, the war ...

World War I
, it was divided between
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and Overseas France, several overseas regions and territories. The metro ...
and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
as
League of Nations mandate A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administe ...
s. The Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC) political party advocated independence, but was outlawed by France in the 1950s, leading to the
Bamileke War The Bamileke War, often known as , or the Hidden War, is the name of the independence struggle between Bamileke people, Bamileke French Cameroons, Cameroon's nationalist movement and French Fourth Republic, France. The movement was spearheaded by ...
fought between French and UPC militant forces until early 1971. In 1960, the French-administered part of Cameroon became independent, as the Republic of Cameroun, under President
Ahmadou Ahidjo Ahmadou Babatoura Ahidjo (24 August 192430 November 1989) was a Cameroon Cameroon (, french: Cameroun), officially the Republic of Cameroon (french: République du Cameroun, links=no), is a country in West Africa, west-central Africa. It ...

Ahmadou Ahidjo
. The southern part of
British Cameroon British Cameroon or British Cameroons was a British Mandate territory in British West Africa, formed of Northern Cameroons and Southern Cameroons. Today, Northern Cameroons forms parts of the Borno, Adamawa, and Taraba states of Nigeria ...
s federated with it in 1961 to form the
Federal Republic A federal republic is a federation of states with a republic A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "public affair") is a List of forms of government, form of government in which "power is held by the people and their elected repr ...
of Cameroon. The federation was abandoned in 1972. The country was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon in 1972 and the Republic of Cameroon in 1984.
Paul Biya Paul Biya (born Paul Barthélemy Biya'a bi Mvondo; 13 February 1933) is a Cameroonian politician serving as the List of presidents of Cameroon, president of Cameroon since 6 November 1982.Unitary Unitary may refer to: * Unitary construction, in automotive design a common term for unibody (unitary body/chassis) construction * Lethal Unitary Chemical Agents and Munitions (Unitary), as chemical weapons opposite of Binary * Unitarianism, in Chr ...
presidential republic A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, ...
. The
official language An official language, also called state language, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have ...

official language
s of Cameroon are French and English, the official languages of former
French Cameroon French Cameroon or French Cameroons (french: Cameroun) was a League of Nations Mandate A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I Wo ...
s and
British Cameroon British Cameroon or British Cameroons was a British Mandate territory in British West Africa, formed of Northern Cameroons and Southern Cameroons. Today, Northern Cameroons forms parts of the Borno, Adamawa, and Taraba states of Nigeria ...
s. Its religious population consists of 70.7%
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jes ...
and 24.4%
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic language, Arabic word meaning "submitter (to God)". Muslims consider the Quran ...
. It has experienced tensions from the English-speaking territories, where politicians have advocated for greater decentralisation and even complete separation or independence (as in the
Southern Cameroons National Council The Southern Cameroons National Council (SCNC) is a political organisation seeking the independence of the English-speaking world, anglophone Southern Cameroons from the predominantly francophone Republic of Cameroon (La République de Cameroun ...
). In 2017, tensions over the creation of an ''Ambazonian state'' in the English-speaking territories escalated into open warfare. Large numbers of Cameroonians live as
subsistence farmers Subsistence agriculture occurs when farmers grow food crops to meet the needs of themselves and their families on smallholdings. Subsistence agriculturalists target farm output for survival and for mostly local requirements, with little or no ...
. The country is often referred to as "Africa in miniature" for its geological, linguistic and cultural diversity. Its natural features include
beach A summer tourism at the Yyteri Beach in Pori, Finland">Pori.html" ;"title="Yyteri Beach in Pori">Yyteri Beach in Pori, Finland. A beach is a landform alongside a body of water which consists of loose particles. The particles composing a b ...
es,
desert upright=1.5, alt=see caption, Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab Emirates">Rub'_al_Khali.html" ;"title="Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali">Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab ...
s,
mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a hill, typically rising at least ...

mountain
s,
rainforest Rainforests are characterized by a closed and continuous tree canopy Canopy may refer to: Plants * Canopy (biology), aboveground portion of plant community or crop (including forests) * Canopy (grape), aboveground portion of grapevine Religi ...

rainforest
s, and
savanna A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the '' plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest A forest is an ...

savanna
s. Its highest point, at almost , is
Mount Cameroon Mount Cameroon is an active volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and Volcanic gas, gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. On Earth, vol ...

Mount Cameroon
in the Southwest Region. Its cities with largest populations are
Douala Douala is the largest city in Cameroon Cameroon (, french: Cameroun), officially the Republic of Cameroon (french: République du Cameroun, links=no), is a country in West Africa, west-central Africa. It is bordered by Nigeria to the west ...

Douala
on the
Wouri River The Wouri (also Vouri or Vuri) is a river in Cameroon. Cameroon has two major rivers, the Sanaga River, Sanaga, the longest at about 525 km (325 miles) long and the Wouri, the largest. The Wouri forms at the confluence of the rivers Nkam River ...

Wouri River
, its economic capital and main seaport;
Yaoundé Yaoundé (; , ) is the capital of Cameroon and, with a population of more than 2.8 million, the second-largest city in the country after the port city Douala. It lies in the Centre Region of the nation at an elevation of about 750 metres (2,500 ...
, its political capital; and
Garoua Garoua or Garua ( German: Garua) is a port city and the capital of the North Region of Cameroon Cameroon (, french: Cameroun), officially the Republic of Cameroon (french: République du Cameroun, links=no), is a country in West Africa, we ...
. Cameroon is well known for its native music styles, particularly
Makossa Makossa is a Cameroonian style of urban music. Like much other late 20th century music of Sub-Saharan Africa, it uses strong electric bass rhythms and prominent brass instrument, brass. In the 1980s makossa had a wave of mainstream success across ...
and
Bikutsi Bikutsi is a musical genre from Cameroon. It developed from the traditional styles of the Beti people, Beti, or Ewondo, people, who live around the city of Yaoundé. It was popular in the middle of the 20th century in West Africa. It is primarily da ...
, and for its successful national football team. It is a member state of the
African Union The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 Member states of the African Union, member states located on the continent of Africa. The AU was announced in the Sirte Declaration in Sirte District, Sirte, Libya, on 9 September 19 ...
, the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for har ...

United Nations
, the
Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territorial evolution of the British Empire, territories of the British Empire. The chief ins ...

Commonwealth of Nations
,
Non-Aligned Movement The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states worldwide. The movement originated in the ...
and the
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ar, منظمة التعاون الإسلامي, Munaẓẓama at-Taʿāwun al-ʾIslāmiyy; french: Organisation de la coopération islamique), formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, ...
.


Etymology

Originally, Cameroon was the
exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either unique ...
given by the
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in Souther ...

Portuguese
to the
Wouri river The Wouri (also Vouri or Vuri) is a river in Cameroon. Cameroon has two major rivers, the Sanaga River, Sanaga, the longest at about 525 km (325 miles) long and the Wouri, the largest. The Wouri forms at the confluence of the rivers Nkam River ...

Wouri river
, which they called ''Rio dos Camarões—''"river of
shrimps Shrimp are Decapoda, decapod crustaceans with elongated bodies and a primarily swimming mode of locomotion – most commonly Caridea and Dendrobranchiata. More narrow definitions may be restricted to Caridea, to smaller species of either group ...
" or "shrimp river", referring to the then abundant Cameroon ghost shrimp. Today the country's name in
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in Souther ...

Portuguese
remains ''Camarões''.


History

Present-day Cameroon was first settled in the
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of ...
Era. The longest continuous inhabitants are groups such as the Baka (
Pygmies In anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and society, societies, in both the present and past, including Homo, past human species. Social anthropology ...
). From there, Bantu migrations into eastern, southern and central Africa are believed to have occurred about 2,000 years ago. The Sao culture arose around
Lake Chad Lake Chad (french: links=no, Lac Tchad) is a historically large, shallow, endorheic lake in central Africa, which has varied in size over the centuries. According to the ''Global Resource Information Database'' of the United Nations Environment ...

Lake Chad
, c. 500 AD, and gave way to the Kanem and its successor state, the
Bornu EmpireBornu may refer to: * Bornu Empire, a historical state of West Africa * Borno State, Nigeria {{disambig Large cities have significant populations of both groups. Muslims in Cameroon are divided into Sufis, Salafis, Shias, and non-denominational Muslims. People from the North-West and South-West provinces, which used to be a part of British Cameroons, have the highest proportion of Protestants. The French-speaking regions of the southern and western regions are largely Catholic. Southern ethnic groups predominantly follow Christian or traditional African Animism, animist beliefs, or a Syncretism, syncretic combination of the two. People widely believe in witchcraft, and the government outlaws such practices. Suspected witches are often subject to mob violence. The Islamist jihadist group Ansar al-Islam has been reported as operating in North Cameroon. In the northern regions, the locally dominant Fulani ethnic group is mostly Muslim, but the overall population is fairly evenly divided among Muslims, Christians, and followers of indigenous religious beliefs (called ''Kirdi'' ("pagan") by the Fulani). The Bamum people, Bamum ethnic group of the West Region is largely Muslim. Native traditional religions are practised in rural areas throughout the country but rarely are practised publicly in cities, in part because many indigenous religious groups are intrinsically local in character.


Culture


Music and dance

Music of Cameroon, Music and dance in Cameroon, dance are integral parts of Cameroonian ceremonies, festivals, social gatherings, and storytelling. Traditional dances are highly choreographed and separate men and women or forbid participation by one sex altogether. The dances' purposes range from pure entertainment to religious devotion.#West, West 18. Traditionally, music is transmitted orally. In a typical performance, a chorus of singers echoes a soloist.#Mbaku, Mbaku 189. Musical accompaniment may be as simple as clapping hands and stamping feet, but traditional instruments include bells worn by dancers, clappers, drums and talking drums, flutes, horns, rattles, scrapers, stringed instruments, whistles, and xylophones; combinations of these vary by ethnic group and region. Some performers sing complete songs alone, accompanied by a harplike instrument. Popular music styles include ambasse bey of the coast, assiko of the Bassa, mangambeu of the Bamileke, Bangangte, and tsamassi of the Bamileke. Music of Nigeria, Nigerian music has influenced Anglophone Cameroonian performers, and Prince Nico Mbarga's highlife hit "Sweet Mother" is the top-selling African record in history. The two most popular music styles are makossa and bikutsi. Makossa developed in Douala and mixes folk music, highlife, soul music, soul, and soukous, Congo music. Performers such as Manu Dibango, Francis Bebey, Moni Bilé, and Petit-Pays popularised the style worldwide in the 1970s and 1980s. Bikutsi originated as war music among the Ewondo. Artists such as Anne-Marie Nzié developed it into a popular dance music beginning in the 1940s, and performers such as Mama Ohandja and Les Têtes Brulées popularised it internationally during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s.


Holidays

The most notable holiday associated with patriotism in Cameroon is National Day, also called Unity Day. Among the most notable religious holidays are Assumption of Mary, Assumption Day, and Ascension Day, which is typically 39 days after Easter. In the Northwest and Southwest provinces, collectively called
Ambazonia Ambazonia, officially the Federal Republic of Ambazonia and commonly referred to as Amba Land, is a self-declared state, internationally considered an autonomous anglophone federal state of the UN-created Cameroon federation through resolution 1 ...
, October 1 is considered a national holiday, a date Ambazonians consider the day of their independence from Cameroon.


Cuisine

Cuisine of Cameroon, Cuisine varies by region, but a large, one-course, evening meal is common throughout the country. A typical dish is based on cocoyams, maize, cassava (manioc), millet, Plantain (cooking), plantains, potatoes, rice, or Yam (vegetable), yams, often pounded into dough-like fufu. This is served with a sauce, soup, or stew made from greens, Peanut, groundnuts, palm oil, or other ingredients. Meat and fish are popular but expensive additions, with chicken is often reserved for special occasions.#Mbaku, Mbaku 121–2. Dishes are often quite spicy, with salt, red pepper sauce, and Maggi. Cutlery is common, but food is traditionally manipulated with the right hand. Breakfast consists of leftovers of bread and fruit with coffee or tea. Generally breakfast is made from wheat flour in various different foods such as puff-puff (doughnuts), accra banana made from bananas and flour, bean cakes, and many more. Snacks are popular, especially in larger towns where they may be bought from street vendors. Water, palm wine, and millet beer are the traditional mealtime drinks, although beer, soda, and wine have gained popularity. 33 Export beer is the official drink of the Cameroon national football team, national soccer team and one of the most popular brands, joining Castel, Amstel Brewery, and Guinness Foreign Extra Stout, Guinness.


Fashion

Cameroon's relatively large and diverse population is also diverse in its contemporary fashion. Climate; religious, ethnic and cultural beliefs; and influences from colonialism, imperialism and globalization are all reflected in modern Cameroonian dress. Notable articles of clothing include: Pagnes, sarongs worn by Cameroon women; Chechia, a traditional hat; kwa, a male handbag; and Gandura, male custom attire. Wrappers and loincloths are used extensively by both women and men but their use varies by region, with influences from Fulani styles more present in the north and Igbo people, Igbo and Yoruba people, Yoruba styles more often in the south and west. Imane Ayissi is one of Cameroon's top fashion designers and has received international recognition.


Local arts and crafts

Traditional arts and crafts are practiced throughout the country for commercial, decorative, and religious purposes. Woodcarvings and sculptures are especially common. The high-quality clay of the western highlands is used for pottery and ceramics. Other crafts include basket weaving, Beadwork, beadworking, brass and bronze working, calabash carving and painting, embroidery, and Leather crafting, leather working. Traditional housing styles use local materials and vary from temporary wood-and-leaf shelters of nomadic Wodaabe, Mbororo to the rectangular mud-and-thatch homes of southern peoples. Dwellings of materials such as cement and tin are increasingly common. Contemporary art is mainly promoted by independent cultural organizations (Doual'art, Africréa) and artist-run initiatives (Art Wash, Atelier Viking, ArtBakery).


Literature

Cameroonian literature has concentrated on both European and African themes. Colonial-era writers such as Louis-Marie Pouka and Sankie Maimo were educated by European missionary societies and advocated cultural assimilation, assimilation into European culture to bring Cameroon into the modern world. After World War II, writers such as Mongo Beti and Ferdinand Oyono analysed and criticised colonialism and rejected assimilation.


Films and literature

Shortly after independence, filmmakers such as Jean-Paul Ngassa and Thérèse Sita-Bella explored similar themes. In the 1960s, Mongo Beti, Ferdinand Léopold Oyono and other writers explored postcolonialism, problems of African development, and the recovery of African identity. In the mid-1970s, filmmakers such as Jean-Pierre Dikongué Pipa and Daniel Kamwa dealt with the conflicts between traditional and postcolonial society. Literature and films during the next two decades focused more on wholly Cameroonian themes.


Sports

National policy strongly advocates sport in all forms. Traditional sports include canoe racing and wrestling, and several hundred runners participate in the Mount Cameroon Race of Hope each year. Cameroon is one of the few tropical countries to have Cameroon at the 2002 Winter Olympics, competed in the Winter Olympic Games, Winter Olympics. Sport in Cameroon is dominated by football. Amateur football clubs abound, organised along ethnic lines or under corporate sponsors. The Cameroon national football team, national team has been one of the most successful in Africa since its strong showing in the 1982 Football World Cup, 1982 and 1990 FIFA World Cups. Cameroon has won five African Cup of Nations titles and the gold medal at the Football at the 2000 Summer Olympics – Men's tournament, 2000 Olympics. Cameroon was the host country of the Africa Women Cup of Nations, Women Africa Cup of Nations in November–December 2016. The Cameroon women's national football team, women's football team is known as the "Indomitable Lionesses."


See also

* Index of Cameroon-related articles * Outline of Cameroon * Telephone numbers in Cameroon


Notes


References

* * * * *


Further reading

* . Reporters without Borders. Retrieved 6 April 2007. * . ''Human Development Report 2006''. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 6 April 2007. * Fonge, Fuabeh P. (1997). ''Modernization without Development in Africa: Patterns of Change and Continuity in Post-Independence Cameroonian Public Service''. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, Inc. * MacDonald, Brian S. (1997). "Case Study 4: Cameroon", ''Military Spending in Developing Countries: How Much Is Too Much?'' McGill-Queen's University Press. * Dorothy L. Njeuma, Njeuma, Dorothy L. (no date).
Country Profiles: Cameroon
. The Boston College Center for International Higher Education. Retrieved 11 April 2008. * Rechniewski, Elizabeth. "1947: Decolonisation in the Shadow of the Cold War: the Case of French Cameroon." ''Australian & New Zealand Journal of European Studies'' 9.3 (2017)
online
* Sa'ah, Randy Joe (23 June 2006).
Cameroon girls battle 'breast ironing'
. ''BBC News''. Retrieved 6 April 2007. * Wright, Susannah, ed. (2006). ''Cameroon''. Madrid: MTH Multimedia S.L. *
World Economic and Financial Surveys
. World Economic Outlook Database, International Monetary Fund. September 2006. Retrieved 6 April 2007.


External links


Government


Presidency of the Republic of Cameroon

Prime Minister's Office

National Assembly of Cameroon

Global Integrity Report: Cameroon
has reporting on anti-corruption in Cameroon


General information


Cameroon
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency.
Cameroon Corruption Profile
from Business Anti-Corruption Portal
Cameroon
from ''UCB Libraries GovPubs'' *
Cameroon profile
from the BBC News *
Key Development Forecasts for Cameroon
from International Futures


Trade


Summary Trade Statistics
from World Bank {{Authority control Cameroon, 1960 establishments in Cameroon Central African countries Commonwealth republics English-speaking countries and territories French-speaking countries and territories Member states of the African Union Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Member states of the United Nations States and territories established in 1960 Countries in Africa