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Bletchley Park is an
English country house An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a Townhouse (Great Britain), town house. This allowed them to spend time in the country and in the cit ...
and estate in
Milton Keynes Milton Keynes ( ) is the largest settlement in Buckinghamshire, England, north-west of London. At the 2011 Census, the population of Milton Keynes urban area, its urban area was almost . The River Great Ouse forms its northern boundary; a t ...
(
Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire (), abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of Eng ...

Buckinghamshire
) that became the principal centre of
Allied An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
code-breaking during the Second World War. The mansion was constructed during the years following 1883 for the financier and politician Sir
Herbert Leon Sir Herbert Samuel Leon, 1st Baronet (11 February 1850 – 23 July 1926) was an English financier and Liberal Party Liberal Party is a name for political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete i ...

Herbert Leon
in the
Victorian Gothic Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Its momentum grew in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and le ...
, Tudor, and
Dutch Baroque Dutch Baroque architecture is a variety of Baroque architecture that flourished in the Dutch Republic and its colonies during the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century. (Dutch painting during the period is covered by Dutch Golden Age painting). Lik ...
styles, on the site of older buildings of the same name. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, the estate housed the
Government Code and Cypher School Government Communications Headquarters, commonly known as GCHQ, is an intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, ...
(GC&CS), which regularly penetrated the secret communications of the Axis Powersmost importantly the German
Enigma Enigma, aenigma, or The Enigma may refer to: * Riddle, someone or something that is mysterious or puzzling Biology * Aenigma (beetle), ''Aenigma'' (beetle), a genus of beetles * ''Zulunigma'' or ''Aenigma'', a genus of jumping spiders from South A ...
and Lorenz ciphers; among its most notable early personnel the GC&CS team of codebreakers included
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
,
Gordon Welchman William Gordon Welchman (15 June 1906 – 8 October 1985) was a British-American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such ...
, Hugh Alexander,
Bill Tutte William Thomas Tutte Order of Canada, OC Royal Society, FRS Royal Society of Canada, FRSC (; 14 May 1917 – 2 May 2002) was a British-born Canadian cryptanalysis, codebreaker and mathematician. During the Second World War, he made a brilliant an ...
, and
Stuart Milner-Barry Sir Philip Stuart Milner-Barry (20 September 1906 – 25 March 1995) was a British chess Chess is a recreational and competitive board game played between two players. It is sometimes called Western or international chess to distinguish i ...
. The nature of the work there was secret until many years after the war. According to the official historian of
British Intelligence The Government of the United Kingdom ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg , image_size=220px, date_established = , state = United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Gr ...
, the "
Ultra Ultra was the designation adopted by British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the Brit ...

Ultra
" intelligence produced at Bletchley shortened the war by two to four years, and without it the outcome of the war would have been uncertain. The team at Bletchley Park devised automatic machinery to help with decryption, culminating in the development of
Colossus Colossus, Colossos, or the plural Colossi or Colossuses, comes from the Ancient Greek κολοσσός meaning a giant statue, and may refer to: Statues * Any exceptionally large statue, see List of tallest statues; see also :Colossal statues * ' ...

Colossus
, the world's first programmable digital electronic computer. Codebreaking operations at Bletchley Park came to an end in 1946 and all information about the wartime operations was classified until the mid-1970s. After the war, the
Post Office A post office is a public facility that provides mail The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcard A postcard or post card is a piece of thick paper or thin Card stock, cardboard, typically rectangular, intended fo ...

Post Office
took over the site and used it as a management school, but by 1990 the huts in which the codebreakers worked were being considered for demolition and redevelopment. The Bletchley Park Trust was formed in 1991 to save large portions of the site from development. More recently, Bletchley Park has been open to the public and houses interpretive exhibits and rebuilt huts as they would have appeared during their wartime operations. It receives hundreds of thousands of visitors annually. The separate
National Museum of Computing The National Museum of Computing is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) a collection (artwork), collection of artifacts and ot ...
, which includes a working replica
Bombe The bombe () is an Electromechanics, electro-mechanical device used by the British cryptologists to help decipher German Enigma machine, Enigma-machine-encrypted secret messages during World War II. The United States Navy, US Navy and United S ...
machine and a rebuilt
Colossus computer Colossus was a set of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...

Colossus computer
, is housed in Block H on the site.


History

The site appears in the
Domesday Book Domesday Book () – the Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. The English language underwent ...
as part of the Manor of Eaton.
Browne Willis Browne Willis (16 September 1682 – 5 February 1760) was an antiquary, author, numismatist and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1705 to 1708. Early life Willis was born at Blandford St Mary, Dorset, the eldest son of Thomas Willis ...
built a mansion there in 1711, but after Thomas Harrison purchased the property in 1793 this was pulled down. It was first known as Bletchley Park after its purchase by
Samuel Lipscomb Seckham, built in 1853–54 to designs by Seckham. Image:Bletchley Park.jpg, 200px, The main house at Bletchley Park. The estate was bought in 1877 and later developed by Seckham. Samuel Lipscomb Seckham (Oxford 25 October 1827 – 4 February 1901) was an ...
in 1877. The estate of was bought in 1883 by Sir Herbert Samuel Leon, who expanded the then-existing farmhouse into what architect
Landis Gores Landis Gores (August 31, 1919 – March 18, 1991) was an American architect, native to Cincinnati, Ohio. Landis was known for his modernist Gores Pavilion, the Gores Family House, and the House for All Seasons. Early life After growing ...
called a "maudlin and monstrous pile" combining
Victorian Gothic Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an Architectural style, architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England. Its momentum grew in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and le ...
,
Tudor Tudor most commonly refers to: * House of Tudor, English royal house of Welsh origins ** Tudor period, a historical era in England coinciding with the rule of the Tudor dynasty Tudor may also refer to: Architecture * Tudor architecture, the fi ...
, and
Dutch Baroque Dutch Baroque architecture is a variety of Baroque architecture that flourished in the Dutch Republic and its colonies during the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century. (Dutch painting during the period is covered by Dutch Golden Age painting). Lik ...
styles. At his Christmas family gatherings there was a
fox hunting Fox hunting is an activity involving the tracking, chase and, if caught, the killing of a fox, traditionally a red fox The red fox (''Vulpes vulpes'') is the largest of the true foxes and one of the most widely distributed members of the ...

fox hunting
meet on Boxing Day with glasses of sloe gin from the butler, and the house was always "humming with servants". With 40 gardeners, a flower bed of yellow daffodils could become a sea of red tulips overnight. After the death of Herbert Leon in 1926, the estate continued to be occupied by his widow Fanny Leon (née Higham) until her death in 1937. In 1938, the mansion and much of the site was bought by a builder for a housing estate, but in May 1938 Admiral Sir
Hugh Sinclair Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, ...

Hugh Sinclair
, head of the
Secret Intelligence Service The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (intelligence collection), human in ...
(SIS or MI6), bought the mansion and of land for £6,000 (£ today) for use by GC&CS and SIS in the event of war. He used his own money as the Government said they did not have the budget to do so. A key advantage seen by Sinclair and his colleagues (inspecting the site under the cover of "Captain Ridley's shooting party") was Bletchley's geographical centrality. It was almost immediately adjacent to
Bletchley railway station Bletchley is a railway station that serves the southern parts of Milton Keynes, England (especially Bletchley itself), and the north-eastern parts of Aylesbury Vale. It is 47 miles (75 km) northwest of , about 32 miles (51 km) east of ...
, where the "
Varsity Line The Varsity Line (or the Oxford to Cambridge railway line) was the main railway route that once linked the English university cities of Oxford and Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgesh ...
" between
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...

Cambridge
whose universities were expected to supply many of the code-breakersmet the main
West Coast railway line
West Coast railway line
connecting London,
Birmingham Birmingham ( ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Ro ...

Birmingham
,
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...

Manchester
,
Liverpool Liverpool is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in Merseyside, England. With a population of in 2019, it is the List of English districts by population, tenth largest English district by population, and its ...

Liverpool
,
Glasgow Glasgow ( ; sco, Glesga; gd, Glaschu) is the most populous city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia'' ...

Glasgow
and
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...

Edinburgh
.
Watling Street Watling Street is a historic route in England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the ...

Watling Street
, the main road linking London to the north-west (subsequently the A5) was close by, and high-volume communication links were available at the telegraph and telephone repeater station in nearby
Fenny Stratford Fenny Stratford is a constituent town of Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, England and in the Civil Parish of Bletchley and Fenny Stratford. Originally an independent town, it was included in the Milton Keynes "History of Milton Keynes#1960s plans f ...
. Bletchley Park was known as "B.P." to those who worked there. " Station X" (X =
Roman numeral Roman numerals are a numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using Numerical digit, digits or other s ...
ten), "London Signals Intelligence Centre", and "
Government Communications Headquarters Government Communications Headquarters, commonly known as GCHQ, is an intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and co ...
" were all cover names used during the war. The formal posting of the many "Wrens"members of the
Women's Royal Naval Service The Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS; popularly and officially known as the Wrens) was the women's branch of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Brit ...
working there, was to HMS Pembroke V. Royal Air Force names of Bletchley Park and its outstations included RAF Eastcote, RAF Lime Grove and RAF Church Green. The postal address that staff had to use was "Room 47, Foreign Office". After the war, the Government Code & Cypher School became the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), moving to
Eastcote Eastcote is an area in the London Borough of Hillingdon. It is in northwest Greater London, London and the Historic counties of England, historic county of Middlesex. In the Middle Ages, Eastcote was one of the three areas that made up the pari ...

Eastcote
in 1946 and to
Cheltenham Cheltenham () is a large spa town and borough on the edge of the Cotswolds in the county of Gloucestershire, England. Cheltenham became known as a health and holiday spa town resort following the discovery of mineral springs in 1716, and claims ...

Cheltenham
in the 1950s. The site was used by various government agencies, including the
GPO
GPO
and the
Civil Aviation Authority A national aviation authority (NAA) or civil aviation authority (CAA) is a government statutory authority in each country that maintains an Aircraft registration, aircraft register and oversees the approval and regulation of civil aviation. Role D ...
. One large building, block F, was demolished in 1987 by which time the site was being run down with tenants leaving. In 1990 the site was at risk of being sold for housing development. However,
Milton Keynes Council Milton Keynes Council is the local authority of the Borough of Milton Keynes in Buckinghamshire, England. It is a Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority, having the powers of a non-metropolitan county and Non-metropolitan district, d ...
made it into a conservation area. Bletchley Park Trust was set up in 1991 by a group of people who recognised the site's importance. The initial trustees included Roger Bristow, Ted Enever, Peter Wescombe, Dr Peter Jarvis of the Bletchley Archaeological & Historical Society, and
Tony Sale File:ColossusRebuild 11.jpg, A team led by Tony Sale began a reconstruction of a Colossus computer at The National Museum of Computing Anthony Edgar "Tony" Sale, FBCS (30 January 1931 – 28 August 2011) was a British electronic engineer, ...
who in 1994 became the first director of the Bletchley Park Museums.


Personnel

Commander
Alastair Denniston Commander (Royal Navy), Commander Alexander "Alastair" Guthrie Denniston (1 December 1881 – 1 January 1961) was a Scottish codebreaker in Room 40, deputy head of the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) and field hockey, hockey player. Den ...
was operational head of GC&CS from 1919 to 1942, beginning with its formation from the
Admiralty Admiralty usually refers to: * Admiralty (United Kingdom), military department in command of the Royal Navy from 1707 to 1964 *The rank of admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank ...
's
Room 40 Room 40, also known as 40 O.B. (old building; officially part of NID25), was the cryptanalysis Cryptanalysis (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, ...

Room 40
(NID25) and the
War Office The War Office This article contains text from this source, which is available under th Open Government Licence v3.0 © Crown copyright was a Departments of the British Government, Department of the British Government responsible for the adminis ...
's
MI1 MI1 or British ''Military Intelligence, Section 1'' was a department of the British Directorate of Military Intelligence (United Kingdom), Directorate of Military Intelligence, part of the War Office. It was set up during World War I cryptography ...
b. Key GC&CS
cryptanalysts Cryptanalysis (from the Greek language, Greek ''kryptós'', "hidden", and ''analýein'', "to analyze") refers to the process of analyzing information systems in order to understand hidden aspects of the systems. Cryptanalysis is used to breach ...
who moved from London to Bletchley Park included
John Tiltman Brigadier Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country. In some countries, it is a senior rank above colonel Colonel (; abbreviated as Col., Col or COL) is a senior military Officer (armed forces), officer ra ...
, Dillwyn "Dilly" Knox, Josh Cooper,
Oliver Strachey Oliver Strachey CBE (3 November 1874 – 14 May 1960), a British civil servant The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elect ...
and
Nigel de Grey Nigel de Grey (27 March 1886 – 25 May 1951) was a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern I ...
. These people had a variety of backgroundslinguists and chess champions were common, and in Knox's case
papyrology Papyrology is the study of ancient literature, correspondence, legal archives, etc., as preserved in manuscript A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once practi ...
. The British War Office recruited top solvers of
cryptic crossword A cryptic crossword is a crossword puzzle A crossword is a word puzzle that usually takes the form of a square or a rectangular grid of white- and black-shaded squares. The game's goal is to fill the white squares with letters, forming word ...
puzzles, as these individuals had strong
lateral thinking Lateral thinking is a manner of solving problems using an indirect and creative approach via reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, ...
skills. On the day Britain declared war on Germany, Denniston wrote to the
Foreign Office Foreign may refer to: Government * Foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its websit ...
about recruiting "men of the professor type". Personal networking drove early recruitments, particularly of men from the universities of Cambridge and Oxford. Trustworthy women were similarly recruited for administrative and clerical jobs. In one 1941 recruiting stratagem, ''
The Daily Telegraph ''The Daily Telegraph'', known online and elsewhere as ''The Telegraph'' (), is a national British daily broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common ne ...

The Daily Telegraph
'' was asked to organise a crossword competition, after which promising contestants were discreetly approached about "a particular type of work as a contribution to the war effort". Denniston recognised, however, that the enemy's use of electromechanical cipher machines meant that formally trained mathematicians would also be needed; Oxford's
Peter Twinn
Peter Twinn
joined GC&CS in February 1939; Cambridge's
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
and
Gordon Welchman William Gordon Welchman (15 June 1906 – 8 October 1985) was a British-American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such ...
began training in 1938 and reported to Bletchley the day after war was declared, along with John Jeffreys. Later-recruited cryptanalysts included the mathematicians
Derek Taunt Derek Roy Taunt (16 November 1917#Notes, (Note 1) – 15 July 2004) was a United Kingdom, British mathematician who worked as a Cryptanalysis, codebreaker during World War II at Bletchley Park. Taunt attended Enfield Grammar School, Enfield Gra ...
, Jack Good,
Bill Tutte William Thomas Tutte Order of Canada, OC Royal Society, FRS Royal Society of Canada, FRSC (; 14 May 1917 – 2 May 2002) was a British-born Canadian cryptanalysis, codebreaker and mathematician. During the Second World War, he made a brilliant an ...
, and
Max Newman Maxwell Herman Alexander Newman, FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United State ...

Max Newman
; historian
Harry Hinsley Sir Francis Harry Hinsley OBE (26 November 1918 – 16 February 1998) was an English historian and cryptanalyst. He worked at Bletchley Park Bletchley Park is an English country house and estate in Milton Keynes (Buckinghamshire) that bec ...
, and chess champions Hugh Alexander and
Stuart Milner-Barry Sir Philip Stuart Milner-Barry (20 September 1906 – 25 March 1995) was a British chess Chess is a recreational and competitive board game played between two players. It is sometimes called Western or international chess to distinguish i ...
.
Joan Clarke Joan Elisabeth Lowther Murray, Member of the Order of the British Empire, MBE (''née'' Clarke; 24 June 1917 – 4 September 1996) was an English cryptanalyst and numismatist best known for her work as a Cryptanalysis, code-breaker at Bletchle ...
was one of the few women employed at Bletchley as a full-fledged cryptanalyst. This eclectic staff of "
Boffin Boffin is a British slang British slang is English language slang used and originating in Great Britain and also used to a limited extent in Anglophone countries such as Ireland, South Africa, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, especially by B ...
s and Debs" (scientists and debutantes, young women of high society) caused GC&CS to be whimsically dubbed the "Golf, Cheese and Chess Society". During a September 1941 morale-boosting visit,
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Winston Churchill
reportedly remarked to Denniston: "I told you to leave no stone unturned to get staff, but I had no idea you had taken me so literally." Six weeks later, having failed to get sufficient typing and unskilled staff to achieve the productivity that was possible, Turing, Welchman, Alexander and Milner-Barry wrote directly to Churchill. His response was "Action this day make sure they have all they want on extreme priority and report to me that this has been done." The Army CIGS
Alan Brooke Field Marshal Field marshal (or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is the most senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air f ...
wrote that on 16 April 1942 "''Took lunch in car and went to see the organization for breaking down ciphers – a wonderful set of professors and genii! I marvel at the work they succeed in doing."'' After initial training at the Inter-Service Special Intelligence School set up by
John Tiltman Brigadier Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country. In some countries, it is a senior rank above colonel Colonel (; abbreviated as Col., Col or COL) is a senior military Officer (armed forces), officer ra ...
(initially at an RAF depot in Buckingham and later in
Bedford Bedford is a historic market Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and Sweden Art, entertainment, and media Films *M ...

Bedford
where it was known locally as "the Spy School") staff worked a six-day week, rotating through three shifts: 4p.m. to midnight, midnight to 8a.m. (the most disliked shift), and 8a.m. to 4p.m., each with a half-hour meal break. At the end of the third week, a worker went off at 8a.m. and came back at 4p.m., thus putting in sixteen hours on that last day. The irregular hours affected workers' health and social life, as well as the routines of the nearby homes at which most staff lodged. The work was tedious and demanded intense concentration; staff got one week's leave four times a year, but some "girls" collapsed and required extended rest. Recruitment took place to combat a shortage of experts in Morse code and German. In January 1945, at the peak of codebreaking efforts, nearly 10,000 personnel were working at Bletchley and its outstations. About three-quarters of these were women. Many of the women came from middle-class backgrounds and held degrees in the areas of mathematics, physics and engineering; they were given chance due to the lack of men, who had been sent to war. They performed calculations and coding and hence were integral to the computing processes. Among them were Eleanor Ireland who worked on the
Colossus computer Colossus was a set of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...

Colossus computer
s and Ruth Briggs, a German scholar, who worked within the Naval Section. The female staff in Dilwyn Knox's section were sometimes termed "Dilly's Fillies". Knox's methods enabled Mavis Lever (who married mathematician and fellow code-breaker Keith Batey) and
Margaret Rock Margaret Rock (7 July 1903 – 26 August 1983) was one of the 8000 Women in Bletchley Park, women mathematicians who worked in Bletchley Park during World War II. With her maths skills and education, Rock was able to decode the Enigma Machine aga ...
to solve a German code, the
Abwehr The ''Abwehr'' () was the German military intelligence service for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945. Although the Treaty of Versailles prohibited the Germans from establishing an intelligence organization of their own, they formed a ...

Abwehr
cipher. Many of the women had backgrounds in languages, particularly French, German and Italian. Among them were Rozanne Colchester, a translator who worked mainly for the Italian air forces Section, and Cicely Mayhew, recruited straight from university, who worked in Hut 8, translating decoded German Navy signals. For a long time, the British Government didn't recognize the contributions the personnel at Bletchley Park made. Their work achieved official recognition only in 2009.


Secrecy

Properly used, the German Enigma and Lorenz ciphers should have been virtually unbreakable, but flaws in German cryptographic procedures, and poor discipline among the personnel carrying them out, created vulnerabilities that made Bletchley's attacks just barely feasible. These vulnerabilities, however, could have been remedied by relatively simple improvements in enemy procedures, and such changes would certainly have been implemented had Germany had any hint of Bletchley's success. Thus the intelligence Bletchley produced was considered wartime Britain's "
Ultra Ultra was the designation adopted by British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the Brit ...

Ultra
secret"higher even than the normally highest classification and security was paramount. All staff signed the Official Secrets Act 1939, Official Secrets Act (1939) and a 1942 security warning emphasised the importance of discretion even within Bletchley itself: "Do not talk at meals. Do not talk in the transport. Do not talk travelling. Do not talk in the billet. Do not talk by your own fireside. Be careful even in your Hut..." Nevertheless, there were security leaks. Jock Colville, the Assistant Private Secretary to
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British statesman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The hea ...

Winston Churchill
, recorded in his diary on 31 July 1941, that the newspaper proprietor Lord Camrose had discovered Ultra and that security leaks "increase in number and seriousness". Without doubt, the most serious of these was that Bletchley Park had been infiltrated by John Cairncross, the notorious Soviet mole and member of the Cambridge Spy Ring, who leaked Ultra material to Moscow. Agatha Christie created a character named Major Bletchley in the novel ''N or M?'', which focused on codebreakers in the Second World War. Some in government thought she might be involved in espionage (and was hinting at Bletchley Park's function), but this was soon discovered to be a coincidence. Despite the high degree of secrecy surrounding Bletchley Park during the Second World War, unique and hitherto unknown amateur film footage of the outstation at Whaddon Hall came to light in 2020, after being anonymously donated to the Bletchley Park Trust. A spokesman for the Trust noted the film's existence was all the more incredible because it was "very, very rare even to have still photographs" of the park and its associated sites.


Early work

The first personnel of the
Government Code and Cypher School Government Communications Headquarters, commonly known as GCHQ, is an intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, ...
(GC&CS) moved to Bletchley Park on 15 August 1939. The Naval, Military, and Air Sections were on the ground floor of the mansion, together with a telephone exchange, teleprinter room, kitchen, and dining room; the top floor was allocated to MI6. Construction of the wooden huts began in late 1939, and Elmers School, a neighbouring boys' boarding school in a Victorian Gothic redbrick building by a church, was acquired for the Commercial and Diplomatic Sections. After the United States joined World War II, a number of American cryptographers were posted to Hut 3, and from May 1943 onwards there was close co-operation between British and American intelligence. (See 1943 BRUSA Agreement.) In contrast, the Soviet Union was never officially told of Bletchley Park and its activities a reflection of Churchill's distrust of the Soviets even during the US-UK-USSR alliance imposed by the Nazi threat. The only direct enemy damage to the site was done 2021 November 1940 by three bombs probably intended for
Bletchley railway station Bletchley is a railway station that serves the southern parts of Milton Keynes, England (especially Bletchley itself), and the north-eastern parts of Aylesbury Vale. It is 47 miles (75 km) northwest of , about 32 miles (51 km) east of ...
; Hut4, shifted two feet off its foundation, was winched back into place as work inside continued.


Intelligence reporting

Initially, when only a very limited amount of Enigma traffic was being read, deciphered non-Naval Enigma messages were sent from Hut 6 to Hut 3 which handled their translation and onward transmission. Subsequently, under Eric Malcolm Jones, Group Captain Eric Jones, Hut 3 expanded to become the heart of Bletchley Park's intelligence effort, with input from decrypts of "Lorenz cipher, Tunny" (Lorenz SZ42) traffic and many other sources. Early in 1942 it moved into Block D, but its functions were still referred to as Hut 3. Hut 3 contained a number of sections: Air Section "3A", Military Section "3M", a small Naval Section "3N", a multi-service Research Section "3G" and a large liaison section "3L". It also housed the Traffic Analysis Section, SIXTA. An important function that allowed the synthesis of raw messages into valuable Military intelligence was the indexing and cross-referencing of information in a number of different filing systems. Intelligence reports were sent out to the Secret Intelligence Service, the intelligence chiefs in the relevant ministries, and later on to high-level commanders in the field. Naval Enigma deciphering was in Hut 8, with translation in Hut 4. Verbatim translations were sent to the Naval Intelligence Division (United Kingdom), Naval Intelligence Division (NID) of the Admiralty's Operational Intelligence Centre (OIC), supplemented by information from indexes as to the meaning of technical terms and cross-references from a knowledge store of German naval technology. Where relevant to non-naval matters, they would also be passed to Hut 3. Hut 4 also decoded a manual system known as the dockyard cipher, which sometimes carried messages that were also sent on an Enigma network. Feeding these back to Hut8 provided excellent "cribs" for Known-plaintext attacks on the daily naval Enigma key.


Listening stations

Initially, a radio, wireless room was established at Bletchley Park. It was set up in the mansion's water tower under the code name "Station X", a term now sometimes applied to the codebreaking efforts at Bletchley as a whole. The "X" is the
Roman numeral Roman numerals are a numeral system A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using Numerical digit, digits or other s ...
"ten", this being the Secret Intelligence Service's tenth such station. Due to the long radio aerials stretching from the wireless room, the radio station was moved from Bletchley Park to nearby Whaddon Hall to avoid drawing attention to the site. Subsequently, other listening stationsthe Y-stations, such as the ones at RAF Chicksands, Chicksands in Bedfordshire, Beaumanor Hall, Leicestershire (where the headquarters of the War Office "Y" Group was located) and Beeston Hill Y Station in Norfolkgathered raw signals for processing at Bletchley. Coded messages were taken down by hand and sent to Bletchley on paper by motorcycle despatch riders or (later) by teleprinter.


Additional buildings

The wartime needs required the building of additional accommodation.


Huts

Often a hut's number became so strongly associated with the work performed inside that even when the work was moved to another building it was still referred to by the original "Hut" designation. * ''Hut 1'': The first hut, built in 1939 used to house the Wireless Station for a short time, later administrative functions such as transport, typing, and Bombe maintenance. The first Bombe, "Victory", was initially housed here. * ''Hut 2'': A recreational hut for "beer, tea, and relaxation". * ''Hut 3'': Intelligence: translation and analysis of Army and Air Force decrypts * ''Hut 4'': Naval intelligence: analysis of Naval Enigma and C-36 (cipher machine), Hagelin decrypts * ''Hut 5'': Military intelligence including Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese ciphers and German police codes. * ''Hut 6'': Cryptanalysis of Army and Air Force Enigma * ''Hut 7'': Cryptanalysis of Japanese naval codes and intelligence. * ''Hut 8'': Cryptanalysis of Naval Enigma. * ''Hut 9'': ISOS (Intelligence Section Oliver Strachey). * ''Hut 10'':
Secret Intelligence Service The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (intelligence collection), human in ...
(SIS or MI6) codes, Air and Meteorological sections. * ''Hut 11'': Bombe building. * ''Hut 14'': Communications centre. * ''Hut 15'': SIXTA (Signals Intelligence and Traffic Analysis). * ''Hut 16'': ISK (Intelligence Service Dilly Knox, Knox)
Abwehr The ''Abwehr'' () was the German military intelligence service for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945. Although the Treaty of Versailles prohibited the Germans from establishing an intelligence organization of their own, they formed a ...

Abwehr
ciphers. * ''Hut 18'': ISOS (Intelligence Section Oliver Strachey). * ''Hut 23'': Primarily used to house the engineering department. After February 1943, Hut 3 was renamed Hut 23.


Blocks

In addition to the wooden huts, there were a number of brick-built "blocks". * ''Block A'': Naval Intelligence. * ''Block B'': Italian Air and Naval, and Japanese code breaking. * ''Block C'': Stored the substantial punch-card indexes. * ''Block D'': From February 1943 it housed those from Hut 3, who synthesised intelligence from multiple sources, Huts 6 and 8 and SIXTA. * ''Block E'': Incoming and outgoing Radio Transmission and TypeX. * ''Block F'': Included the Newmanry and Testery, and Japanese Military Air Section. It has since been demolished. * ''Block G'': Traffic analysis and deception operations. * ''Block H'': ''Tunny'' and Colossus (now The National Museum of Computing).


Work on specific countries' signals


German signals

Most German messages decrypted at Bletchley were produced by one or another version of the Enigma machine, Enigma cipher machine, but an important minority were produced by the even more complicated twelve-rotor Lorenz cipher, Lorenz SZ42 on-line teleprinter cipher machine. Five weeks before the outbreak of war, Warsaw's Biuro Szyfrów, Cipher Bureau revealed Cryptanalysis of the Enigma, its achievements in breaking Enigma to astonished French and British personnel. The British used the Poles' information and techniques, and the Polish Enigma doubles, Enigma clone sent to them in August 1939, which greatly increased their (previously very limited) success in decrypting Enigma messages. The bombe was an electromechanical device whose function was to discover some of the daily settings of the Enigma machines on the various German military Telecommunications network, networks. Its pioneering design was developed by
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
(with an important contribution from Gordon Welchman) and the machine was engineered by Harold Keen, Harold 'Doc' Keen of the British Tabulating Machine Company. Each machine was about high and wide, deep and weighed about a ton. At its peak, GC&CS was reading approximately 4,000 messages per day. As a hedge against enemy attack most bombes were dispersed to installations at Adstock and Wavendon (both later supplanted by installations at Stanmore and
Eastcote Eastcote is an area in the London Borough of Hillingdon. It is in northwest Greater London, London and the Historic counties of England, historic county of Middlesex. In the Middle Ages, Eastcote was one of the three areas that made up the pari ...

Eastcote
), and Gayhurst. Luftwaffe messages were the first to be read in quantity. The German navy had much tighter procedures, and the capture of code books was needed before they could be broken. When, in February 1942, the German navy introduced the four-rotor Enigma for communications with its Atlantic U-boats, this traffic became unreadable for a period of ten months. Britain produced modified bombes, but it was the success of the US Navy Bombe, US Navy bombe that was the main source of reading messages from this version of Enigma for the rest of the war. Messages were sent to and fro across the Atlantic by enciphered teleprinter links. The Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher, Lorenz messages were codenamed ''Tunny'' at Bletchley Park. They were only sent in quantity from mid-1942. The Tunny networks were used for high-level messages between German High Command and field commanders. With the help of German operator errors, the cryptanalysts in the Testery (named after Ralph Tester, its head) worked out the logical structure of the machine despite not knowing its physical form. They devised automatic machinery to help with decryption, which culminated in
Colossus Colossus, Colossos, or the plural Colossi or Colossuses, comes from the Ancient Greek κολοσσός meaning a giant statue, and may refer to: Statues * Any exceptionally large statue, see List of tallest statues; see also :Colossal statues * ' ...

Colossus
, the world's first programmable digital electronic computer. This was designed and built by Tommy Flowers and his team at the Post Office Research Station at Dollis Hill. The prototype first worked in December 1943, was delivered to Bletchley Park in January and first worked operationally on 5 February 1944. Enhancements were developed for the Mark 2 Colossus, the first of which was working at Bletchley Park on the morning of 1 June in time for Normandy landings, D-day. Flowers then produced one Colossus a month for the rest of the war, making a total of ten with an eleventh part-built. The machines were operated mainly by Wrens in a section named the Newmanry after its head
Max Newman Maxwell Herman Alexander Newman, FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United State ...

Max Newman
. Bletchley's work was essential to defeating the U-boats in the Battle of the Atlantic, and to the British naval victories in the Battle of Cape Matapan and the Battle of North Cape. In 1941, Ultra exerted a powerful effect on the North African Campaign, North African desert campaign against German forces under General Erwin Rommel. General Sir Claude Auchinleck wrote that were it not for Ultra, "Rommel would have certainly got through to Cairo". While not changing the events, "Ultra (cryptography), Ultra" decrypts featured prominently in the story of Operation Salaam, Operation SALAM, László Almásy's mission across Western Desert (Egypt), the desert behind Allied lines in 1942. Prior to the Normandy landings on D-Day in June 1944, the Allies knew the locations of all but two of Germany's fifty-eight Western-front divisions.


Italian signals

Italian signals had been of interest since Italy's attack on Abyssinia in 1935. During the Spanish Civil War the Royal Italian Navy, Italian Navy used the K model of the commercial Enigma without a plugboard; this was solved by Knox in 1937. When Italy entered the war in 1940 an improved version of the machine was used, though little traffic was sent by it and there were "wholesale changes" in Italian codes and cyphers. Knox was given a new section for work on Enigma variations, which he staffed with women ("Dilly's girls"), who included
Margaret Rock Margaret Rock (7 July 1903 – 26 August 1983) was one of the 8000 Women in Bletchley Park, women mathematicians who worked in Bletchley Park during World War II. With her maths skills and education, Rock was able to decode the Enigma Machine aga ...
, Jean Perrin, Clare Harding, Rachel Ronald, Elisabeth Granger; and Mavis Batey, Mavis Lever. Mavis Lever solved the signals revealing the Italian Navy's operational plans before the Battle of Cape Matapan in 1941, leading to a British victory. in Although most Bletchley staff did not know the results of their work, Admiral Andrew Cunningham, 1st Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope, Cunningham visited Bletchley in person a few weeks later to congratulate them. On entering World War II in June 1940, the Italy, Italians were using book codes for most of their military messages. The exception was the Italian Navy, which after the Battle of Cape Matapan started using the C-38 (cipher machine), C-38 version of the Boris Hagelin Rotor machine, rotor-based cipher machine, particularly to route their navy and merchant marine convoys to the conflict in North Africa. As a consequence, James Ramsay Montagu Butler, JRM Butler recruited his former student Bernard Willson to join a team with two others in Hut4. In June 1941, Willson became the first of the team to decode the Hagelin system, thus enabling military commanders to direct the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force to sink enemy ships carrying supplies from Europe to Rommel's Afrika Korps. This led to increased shipping losses and, from reading the intercepted traffic, the team learnt that between May and September 1941 the stock of fuel for the Luftwaffe in North Africa reduced by 90 percent. After an intensive language course, in March 1944 Willson switched to Japanese language-based codes. A Middle East Intelligence Centre (MEIC) was set up in Cairo in 1939. When Italy entered the war in June 1940, delays in forwarding intercepts to Bletchley via congested radio links resulted in cryptanalysts being sent to Cairo. A Combined Bureau Middle East (CBME) was set up in November, though the Middle East authorities made "increasingly bitter complaints" that GC&CS was giving too little priority to work on Italian cyphers. However, the principle of concentrating high-grade cryptanalysis at Bletchley was maintained. John Chadwick started cryptanalysis work in 1942 on Italian signals at the naval base 'HMS Nile' in Alexandria. Later, he was with GC&CS; in the Heliopolis Museum, Cairo and then in the Villa Laurens, Alexandria."Life of John Chadwick : 1920 - 1998 : Classical Philologist, Lexicographer and Co-decipherer of Linear B"
, Faculty of Classics, Cambridge University


Soviet signals

Soviet signals had been studied since the 1920s. In 193940,
John Tiltman Brigadier Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country. In some countries, it is a senior rank above colonel Colonel (; abbreviated as Col., Col or COL) is a senior military Officer (armed forces), officer ra ...
(who had worked on Russian Army traffic from 1930) set up two Russian sections at Wavendon (a country house near Bletchley) and at Sarafand al-Amar, Sarafand in Palestine. Two Russian high-grade army and navy systems were broken early in 1940. Tiltman spent two weeks in Finland, where he obtained Russian traffic from Finland and Estonia in exchange for radio equipment. In June 1941, when the Soviet Union became an ally, Churchill ordered a halt to intelligence operations against it. In December 1941, the Russian section was closed down, but in late summer 1943 or late 1944, a small GC&CS Russian cypher section was set up in London overlooking Park Lane, then in Sloane Square.


Japanese signals

An outpost of the Government Code and Cypher School had been set up in Hong Kong in 1935, the Far East Combined Bureau (FECB). The FECB naval staff moved in 1940 to Singapore, then Colombo, Sri Lanka, Ceylon, then Kilindini Harbour, Kilindini, Mombasa, Kenya. They succeeded in deciphering Japanese codes with a mixture of skill and good fortune. The Army and Air Force staff went from Singapore to the Wireless Experimental Centre at Delhi, India. In early 1942, a six-month crash course in Japanese, for 20 undergraduates from Oxford and Cambridge, was started by the Inter-Services Special Intelligence School in Bedford, in a building across from the main Post Office. This course was repeated every six months until war's end. Most of those completing these courses worked on decoding Japanese naval messages in Hut 7, under
John Tiltman Brigadier Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country. In some countries, it is a senior rank above colonel Colonel (; abbreviated as Col., Col or COL) is a senior military Officer (armed forces), officer ra ...
. By mid-1945, well over 100 personnel were involved with this operation, which co-operated closely with the FECB and the US Signal intelligence Service at Arlington Hall, Virginia. In 1999, Michael Smith wrote that: "Only now are the British codebreakers (like
John Tiltman Brigadier Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country. In some countries, it is a senior rank above colonel Colonel (; abbreviated as Col., Col or COL) is a senior military Officer (armed forces), officer ra ...
, Hugh Foss, and Eric Nave) beginning to receive the recognition they deserve for breaking Japanese codes and cyphers".


Postwar


Continued secrecy

After the War, the secrecy imposed on Bletchley staff remained in force, so that most relatives never knew more than that a child, spouse, or parent had done some kind of secret war work. Churchill referred to the Bletchley staff as "the geese that laid the golden eggs and never cackled". That said, occasional mentions of the work performed at Bletchley Park slipped the censor's net and appeared in print. With the publication of F. W. Winterbotham, F.W. Winterbotham's ''The Ultra Secret'' (1974) public discussion of Bletchley's work finally became possible (though even today some former staff still consider themselves bound to silence) and in July 2009 the British government announced that Bletchley personnel would be recognised with a commemorative badge.


Site

After the war, the site passed through a succession of hands and saw a number of uses, including as a teacher-training college and local headquarters. By 1991, the site was nearly empty and the buildings were at risk of demolition for redevelopment. In February 1992, the Milton Keynes Borough Council declared most of the Park a conservation area, and the Bletchley Park Trust was formed to maintain the site as a museum. The site opened to visitors in 1993, and was formally inaugurated by the Duke of Kent as Chief Patron in July 1994. In 1999 the land owners, the Office of Government Commerce, Property Advisors to the Civil Estate and BT Group, BT, granted a lease to the Trust giving it control over most of the site.


Heritage attraction

June 2014 saw the completion of an £8 million restoration project by museum design specialist, Event Communications, which was marked by a visit from Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge. The Duchess' paternal grandmother, Valerie, and Valerie's twin sister, Mary (''née'' Glassborow), both worked at Bletchley Park during the war. The twin sisters worked as Foreign Office Civilians in Hut 6, where they managed the interception of enemy and neutral diplomatic signals for decryption. Valerie married Catherine's grandfather, Captain Family of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, Peter Middleton. A memorial at Bletchley Park commemorates Mary and Valerie Middleton's work as Cryptanalysis, code-breakers.


Exhibitions

* Block C Visitor Centre ** Secrets Revealed introduction ** The Road to Bletchley Park. Codebreaking in World War One. ** Intel Security Cybersecurity exhibition. Online security and privacy in the 21st Century. * Block B ** Lorenz Cipher ** Alan Turing ** Enigma machines ** Japanese codes ** Home Front exhibition. How people lived in WW2 * The Mansion ** Office of Alistair Denniston ** Library. Dressed as a World War II naval intelligence office ** The Imitation Game exhibition ** Gordon Welchman: Architect of Ultra Intelligence exhibition * Huts 3 and 6. Codebreaking offices as they would have looked during World War II. * Hut 8. ** Interactive exhibitions explaining codebreaking ** Alan Turing's office ** Pigeon exhibition. The use of pigeons in World War II. * Hut 11. Life as a WRNS Bombe operator * Hut 12. Bletchley Park: Rescued and Restored. Items found during the restoration work. * Wartime garages * Hut 19. 2366 Bletchley Park Air Training Corp Squadron


Learning Department

The Bletchley Park Learning Department offers educational group visits with active learning activities for schools and universities. Visits can be booked in advance during term time, where students can engage with the history of Bletchley Park and understand its wider relevance for computer history and national security. Their workshops cover introductions to codebreaking, cyber security and the story of Enigma machine, Enigma and Lorenz.


Funding

In October 2005, American billionaire Sidney Frank donated £500,000 to Bletchley Park Trust to fund a new Science Centre dedicated to
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
. Simon Greenish joined as Director in 2006 to lead the fund-raising effort in a post he held until 2012 when Iain Standen took over the leadership role. In July 2008, a letter to ''The Times'' from more than a hundred academics condemned the neglect of the site. In September 2008, Pretty Good Privacy, PGP, IBM, and other technology firms announced a fund-raising campaign to repair the facility. On 6 November 2008 it was announced that English Heritage would donate £300,000 to help maintain the buildings at Bletchley Park, and that they were in discussions regarding the donation of a further £600,000. In October 2011, the Bletchley Park Trust received a £4.6m Heritage Lottery Fund grant to be used "to complete the restoration of the site, and to tell its story to the highest modern standards" on the condition that £1.7m of 'match funding' is raised by the Bletchley Park Trust. Just weeks later, Google contributed £550k and by June 2012 the trust had successfully raised £2.4m to unlock the grants to restore Huts 3 and 6, as well as develop its exhibition centre in Block C. Additional income is raised by renting Block H to the National Museum of Computing, and some office space in various parts of the park to private firms. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic the Trust expected to lose more than £2m in 2020 and be required to cut a third of its workforce. Former MP John Leech (politician), John Leech asked tech giants Amazon (company), Amazon, Apple Inc., Apple, Google, Facebook and Microsoft to donate £400,000 each to secure the future of the Trust. Leech had led the successful campaign to pardon
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
and implement Alan Turing law, Turing's Law.


Other organisations sharing the campus


The National Museum of Computing

The National Museum of Computing is housed in Block H, which is rented from the Bletchley Park Trust. Its Colossus and Tunny galleries tell an important part of allied breaking of German codes during World War II. There is a working reconstruction of a Bombe and a rebuilt
Colossus computer Colossus was a set of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, pr ...

Colossus computer
which was used on the high-level Lorenz cipher, codenamed ''Tunny'' by the British. The museum, which opened in 2007, is an independent voluntary organisation that is governed by its own board of trustees. Its aim is "To collect and restore computer systems particularly those developed in Britain and to enable people to explore that collection for inspiration, learning and enjoyment." Through its many exhibits, the museum displays the story of computing through the mainframes of the 1960s and 1970s, and the rise of personal computing in the 1980s. It has a policy of having as many of the exhibits as possible in full working order.


Science and Innovation Centre

This consists of serviced office accommodation housed in Bletchley Park's Blocks A and E, and the upper floors of the Mansion. Its aim is to foster the growth and development of dynamic knowledge-based start-ups and other businesses.


Proposed National College of Cyber Security

In April 2020 Bletchley Park Capital Partners, a private company run by Tim Reynolds, Deputy Chairman of the National Museum of Computing, announced plans to sell off the Freehold (law), freehold to part of the site containing former Block G for commercial development. Offers of between £4m and £6m were reportedly being sought for the 3 acre plot, for which planning permission for employment purposes was granted in 2005. Previously, the construction of a National College of Cyber Security for students aged from 16 to 19 years old had been envisaged on the site, to be housed in Block G after renovation with funds supplied by the Bletchley Park Science and Innovation Centre.


RSGB National Radio Centre

The Radio Society of Great Britain's National Radio Centre (including a library, radio station, museum and bookshop) are in a newly constructed building close to the main Bletchley Park entrance.


Final recognition

Not until July 2009 did the British government fully acknowledge the contribution of the many people working for the Government Code and Cypher School ('G C & C S') at Bletchley. Only then was a commemorative medal struck to be presented to those involved. The gilded medal bears the inscription ''G C & C S 1939-1945 Bletchley Park and its Outstations''.


In popular culture


Literature

* Bletchley featured heavily in Robert Harris (novelist), Robert Harris' novel ''Enigma (novel), Enigma'' (1995). * A fictionalised version of Bletchley Park is featured in Neal Stephenson's novel ''Cryptonomicon'' (1999). * Bletchley Park plays a significant role in Connie Willis' novel ''All Clear'' (2010). * The Agatha Christie novel ''N or M?'', published in 1941, was about spies during the Second World War and featured a character called Major Bletchley. Christie was friends with one of the code-breakers at Bletchley Park, and MI5 thought that the character name might have been a joke indicating that she knew what was happening there. It turned out to be a coincidence. *Bletchley Park is the setting of Kate Quinn's 2021 Historical Fiction novel, ''The Rose Code''. Quinn used the likenesses of true veterans of Bletchley Park as inspiration for her story of three women who worked in some of the different areas at Bletchley Park.


Film

* The film ''Enigma (2001 film), Enigma'' (2001), which was based upon Robert Harris' book and starred Kate Winslet, Saffron Burrows and Dougray Scott, is set in part in Bletchley Park. * The film ''The Imitation Game'' (2014), starring Benedict Cumberbatch as
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
, is set in Bletchley Park, and was partially filmed there.


Radio

* The Radio Show ''Hut 33'' is a Situation Comedy set in the fictional 33rd Hut of Bletchley Park. * The Big Finish Productions ''Doctor Who'' audio ''Criss-Cross'', released in September 2015, features the Sixth Doctor working undercover in Bletchley Park to decode a series of strange alien signals that have hindered his TARDIS, the audio also depicting his first meeting with his new companion Constance Clarke. * The Bletchley Park Podcast began in August 2012, with new episodes being released approximately monthly. It features stories told by the codebreakers, staff and volunteers, audio from events and reports on the development of Bletchley Park.


Television

* The 1979 ITV television serial ''Danger UXB'' featured the character Steven Mount, who was a codebreaker at Bletchley and was driven to a nervous breakdown (and eventual suicide) by the stressful and repetitive nature of the work. * In ''Foyle's War'', Adam Wainwright (Foyle's War#Samantha Stewart, Samantha Stewart's fiancé, then husband), is a former Bletchley Park codebreaker. * The Second World War code-breaking sitcom pilot "Satsuma & Pumpkin" was recorded at Bletchley Park in 2003 and featured Bob Monkhouse, OBE in his last ever screen role. The BBC declined to produce the show and develop it further before creating effectively the same show on BBC Radio 4, Radio 4 several years later, featuring some of the same cast, entitled ''Hut 33''. * Bletchley came to wider public attention with the documentary series ''Station X (TV documentary), Station X'' (1999). * The 2012 ITV programme, ''The Bletchley Circle'', is a set of murder mysteries set in 1952 and 1953. The protagonists are four female former Bletchley codebreakers, who use their skills to solve crimes. The pilot episode's opening scene was filmed on-site, and the set was asked to remain there for its close adaptation of historiography. * Ian McEwan's television play ''The Imitation Game (play), The Imitation Game'' (1980) concludes at Bletchley Park. * Bletchley Park was featured in the sixth and final episode of the BBC TV documentary ''The Secret War (TV series), The Secret War'' (1977), presented and narrated by William Woodard. This episode featured interviews with Gordon Welchman, Harry Golombek, Peter Calvocoressi, F. W. Winterbotham, Max Newman, Jack Good, and Tommy Flowers. * The ''Agent Carter (TV series), Agent Carter'' season 2 episode Smoke & Mirrors (Agent Carter), "Smoke & Mirrors" reveals that Agent Peggy Carter worked at Bletchley Park early in the war before joining the Strategic Scientific Reserve.


Theatre

* The play ''Breaking the Code'' (1986) is set at Bletchley Park.


Location

Bletchley Park is opposite
Bletchley railway station Bletchley is a railway station that serves the southern parts of Milton Keynes, England (especially Bletchley itself), and the north-eastern parts of Aylesbury Vale. It is 47 miles (75 km) northwest of , about 32 miles (51 km) east of ...
. It is close to junctions 13 and 14 of the M1 motorway, M1, about northwest of London.


See also

* Arlington Hall * Beeston Hill Y Station * Danesfield House * Far East Combined Bureau in Hong Kong prewar, then Singapore, Colombo (Ceylon) and Kilindini (Kenya) * List of people associated with Bletchley Park * List of women in Bletchley Park * National Cryptologic Museum * Newmanry * OP-20-G, the US Navy's cryptanalysis office in Washington, D.C. * Testery * Wireless Experimental Centre operated by the Intelligence Corps (United Kingdom), Intelligence Corps outside Delhi * Y-stations


Notes and references


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * in * * Updated and extended version of ''Action This Day: From Breaking of the Enigma Code to the Birth of the Modern Computer'' Bantam Press 2001 * in * * * That version is a facsimile copy, but there is a transcript of much of this document in '.pdf' format at: , and a web transcript of Part 1 at: * * * * (CAPTCHA) (10-page preview from ''A Century of mathematics in America, Volume 1'' By Peter L. Duren, Richard Askey, Uta Merzbach, Uta C. Merzbach, se
A Century of Mathematics in America: Part 1
; ). * Transcript of a lecture given on Tuesday 19 October 1993 at Cambridge University * * * * * * in * * * * * in * in * O'Keefe, David. One Day in August - The Untold Story Behind Canada's Tragedy at Dieppe", Alfred A. Knopf Canada, 2013, , 471 pgs * * * * * * * * * * * * * * in * * in * * * in * * in * New edition with addendum by Welchman correcting his misapprehensions in the 1982 edition.


External links


Bletchley Park Trust
*
Bletchley Park — Virtual Tour
— by Tony Sale
The National Museum of Computing (based at Bletchley Park)

The RSGB National Radio Centre (based at Bletchley Park)
* (
The Daily Telegraph ''The Daily Telegraph'', known online and elsewhere as ''The Telegraph'' (), is a national British daily broadsheet A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages, typically of . Other common ne ...

The Daily Telegraph
3 March 1997)
Boffoonery! Comedy Benefit For Bletchley Park
Comedians and computing professionals stage comedy show in aid of Bletchley Park

* [https://web.archive.org/web/20170925063249/http://www.shedblog.co.uk/2009/09/19/bletchley-park-is-the-official-charity-for-shed-week-2010-bpark-shedweek/ Bletchley Park is official charity of Shed Week 2010] — in recognition of the work done in th
Huts

Saving Bletchley Park
blog by Sue Black (computer scientist), Sue Black * with Sue Black (computer scientist), Sue Black by Robert Llewellyn about Bletchley Park *
C4 Station X 1999 on DVD here

How Alan Turing Cracked The Enigma Code
Imperial War Museums
The Bletchley Park Podcast
on Audioboom {{Authority control Bletchley Park, Cryptography organizations Milton Keynes Locations in the history of espionage Country houses in Buckinghamshire Tourist attractions in Buckinghamshire World War II sites in England Museums in Buckinghamshire British Telecom buildings and structures Military and war museums in England Historic house museums in Buckinghamshire Toy museums in England Biographical museums in Buckinghamshire Signals intelligence of World War II History museums in Buckinghamshire World War II museums in the United Kingdom Telecommunications museums in the United Kingdom Museums established in 1993 1993 establishments in England Foreign Office during World War II Enigma machine