EtymologyThe etymology of the name "Bern" is uncertain. According to the local legend, based on , , the founder of the city of Bern, vowed to name the city after the first animal he met on the hunt, and this turned out to be a bear. It has long been considered likely that the city was named after the Italian city of , which at the time was known as ''Bern'' in . The city was sometimes referred to as ''Bern im Üechtland'' to distinguish it from Verona. As a result of the finding of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now more common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin, possibly ''*berna'' "cleft". The bear was the heraldic animal of the seal and coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s. The earliest reference to the keeping of live bears in the '' Bärengraben'' dates to the 1440s.
Early historyNo evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of today's city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a '' '' stood on the ''Engehalbinsel'' (peninsula) north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC (late ), thought to be one of the 12 ''oppida'' of the mentioned by . During the , a '' '' was on the same site. The Bern zinc tablet has the name ''Brenodor'' ("dwelling of Breno"). In the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some from the medieval city. The medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, which rose to power in in the 12th century. According to 14th-century historiography (''Cronica de Berno'', 1309), Bern was founded in 1191 by . In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made a by the '' Goldene Handfeste'' of .
Old Swiss ConfederacyIn 1353, Bern joined the , becoming one of the eight cantons of the formative period of 1353 to 1481. Bern invaded and conquered in 1415 and in 1536, as well as other smaller territories, thereby becoming the largest north of the ; by the 18th century, it comprised most of what is today the and the . The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river . The '' '' tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the ''Käfigturm'' took over this role until 1345. It was, in turn, succeeded by the '' '' (formerly located close to the site of the modern-day railway station) until 1622. During the time of the , two new fortifications – the so-called big and small '' '' (entrenchment) – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula. After a major blaze in 1405, the city's original wooden buildings were gradually replaced by houses and subsequently the buildings which came to be characteristic for the Old Town. Despite the waves of pestilence that hit Europe in the 14th century, the city continued to grow, mainly due to from the surrounding countryside.
Modern historyBern was occupied by French troops in 1798 during the , when it was stripped of parts of its territories. It regained control of the in 1802, and following the of 1814, it newly acquired the . At this time, it once again became the largest canton of the Confederacy as it stood during the and until the secession of the in 1979. Bern was made the (seat of the ) within the new in 1848. A number of congresses of the and s were held in Bern, particularly during when Switzerland was neutral; see Bern International. The city's population rose from about 5,000 in the 15th century to about 12,000 by 1800 and to above 60,000 by 1900, passing the 100,000 mark during the 1920s. Population peaked during the 1960s at 165,000 and has since decreased slightly, to below 130,000 by 2000. As of September 2017, the resident population stood at 142,349, of which 100,000 were Swiss citizens and 42,349 (31%) resident foreigners. A further estimated 350,000 people live in the immediate .
Geography and climate
TopographyBern lies on the in the canton of Bern, slightly west of the centre of Switzerland and north of the . The countryside around Bern was formed by glaciers during the most recent . The two mountains closest to Bern are Gurten with a height of and Bantiger with a height of . The site of the old observatory in Bern is the point of origin of the CH1903 coordinate system at . The city was originally built on a hilly surrounded by the river , but outgrew natural boundaries by the 19th century. A number of bridges have been built to allow the city to expand beyond the Aare. Bern is built on very uneven ground. An elevation difference of up to 60 metres exists between the inner city districts on the Aare ( Matte, Marzili) and the higher ones (Kirchenfeld, Länggasse). Bern has an area, , of . Of this area, or 18.2% is used for agricultural purposes, while or 33.3% is forested. Of the rest of the land, or 46.0% is settled (buildings or roads), or 2.1% is either rivers or lakes, and or 0.3% is unproductive land.Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Land Use Statistics
ClimateAccording to the , Bern has a (''Dfb'') closely bordering on an (''Cfb''). The closest weather station near Bern is located in the municipality of , about north of the city centre. The warmest month for Bern is July, with a daily mean temperature of , and a daily maximum temperature of . The highest temperature recorded at Bern / Zollikofen is , recorded in August 2003. On average, a temperature of or above is recorded 40.7 days per year, and 6 days per year with a temperature of or above at Zollikofen, and the warmest day reaches an average of . There are 103.7 days of air frost, and 22.3 ice days per year at Bern (Zollikofen) for the period of 1981–2010, as well as 14.1 days of snowfall, 36.7 days of snow cover per year and the average amount of snow measured per year is . On average, January is the coldest month, with a daily mean temperature of , and a daily minimum temperature of . The lowest temperature ever recorded at Bern (Zollikofen) was , recorded in February 1929, and typically the coldest temperature of the year reaches an average of for the period of 1981–2010.
SubdivisionsThe municipality is administratively subdivided into six districts (''Stadtteile''), each of which consists of several quarters (''Quartiere'').
GovernmentThe Municipal Council (de: Gemeinderat, fr: conseil municipal) constitutes the government of the City of Bern and operates as a collegiate authority. It is composed of five councillors (german: Gemeinderat/-rätin, french: conseiller/conseillère municipal(e)), each presiding over a directorate (de: ''Direktion'', fr: ''direction'') comprising several departments and bureaus. The president of the executive department acts as (de: ''Stadtpräsident'', fr: ''Le Maire''). In the mandate period 2017–2020 (''Legislatur'') the Municipal Council is presided by ''Stadtpräsident'' Alec von Graffenried. Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the City Council are carried by the Municipal Council. The regular election of the Municipal Council by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every four years. Any resident of Bern allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Municipal Council. Contrary to most other municipalities, the executive government in Berne is selected by means of a system of Proportional representation, Proporz. The mayor is elected as such as well by public election while the heads of the other directorates are assigned by the collegiate. The executive body holds its meetings in the Junkerngasse, Erlacherhof, built by architect Albrecht Stürler after 1747. , Bern's Municipal Council is made up of two representatives of the SP (Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party), and one each of CVP (Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, Christian Democratic Party), GFL (''Grüne Freie Liste'' a.k.a. Green Free List, who is the newly elected mayor since 2017), and GB (Grünes Bündnis Bern, Green Alliance of Berne), giving the left parties a very strong majority of four out of five seats. The last regular election was held on 27 November 2016/15 January 2017. Dr. Jürg Wichtermann is State Chronicler (''Staatsschreiber'') since 2008. He has been elected by the collegiate.
ParliamentThe City Council (de: Stadtrat, fr: Conseil de ville) holds legislative power. It is made up of 80 members, with elections held every four years. The City Council decrees regulations and by-laws that are executed by the Municipal Council and the administration. The delegates are selected by means of a system of proportional representation. The sessions of the City Council are public. Unlike members of the Municipal Council, members of the City Council are not politicians by profession, and they are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Bern allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the City Council. The parliament holds its meetings in the ''Stadthaus'' (Town Hall). The last regular election of the City Council was held on 27 November 2016 for the mandate period (german: Legislatur, french: la législature) from 2017 to 2020. The City Council consist of 24 members of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party (SP/PS) including 2 members of the junior party ''JUSO'', 9 Grünes Bündnis Bern, Green Alliance of Berne (GB), 9 FDP.The Liberals, The Liberals (FDP/PLR), 9 Swiss People's Party, Swiss People's Party (SVP/UDC), 8 ''Grüne Freie Liste (GFL)'' (Green Free List), 8 Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, Green Liberal Party (glp/pvl) including one member of its junior party ''jglp'', 3 Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland, Conservative Democratic Party (BDP/PBD), 2 Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP/PDC), 2 Evangelical People's Party of Switzerland, Evangelical People's Party (EVP/PEV), 2 ''Junge Alternative (JA!)'' (or Young Alternatives), 2 Alternative Left, Alternative Linke Bern (AL), 1 ''Grüne Partei Bern – Demokratische Alternative (GPB-DA)'' (or Green Party Bern – Democratic Alternative), and 1 Swiss Party of Labour, Swiss Party of Labour (PdA). The following parties combine their parliamentary power in parliamentary groups (german: Fraktion(en)): AL and GPB-DA and PdA (4), SP and JUSO (24), GB and JA! (11), GFL and EVP (10), glp und jglp (8), BDP and CVP (5), FDP (9), and SVP (9). This gives the left parties an absolute majority of 49 seats.
National CouncilIn the 2019 Swiss federal election, 2019 federal election for the National Council (Switzerland), Swiss National Council the most popular party was the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, PS which received 28.7% (-5.6) of the vote. The next five most popular parties were the Green Party of Switzerland, Green Party (25.2%, +7.9), the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, pvl (13.5%, +4.1), the Swiss People's Party, UDC (9.5%, -2.9), FDP.The Liberals, PLR (4.2%, -2.8), and the Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland, BDP/PBD (7.0%). In the federal election a total of 49,030 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 56%. In the 2015 Swiss federal election, 2015 federal election for the National Council (Switzerland), Swiss National Council the most popular party was the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, PS which received 34.3% of the vote. The next five most popular parties were the Green Party of Switzerland, Green Party (17.4%), the Swiss People's Party, UDC (12.4%), and the FDP.The Liberals, FDP/PLR (9.9%), Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, glp/pvl (9.4%), and the Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland, BDP/PBD (7.0%). In the federal election, a total of 48,556 voters were cast, and the voter turnout was 56.0%.
Twin and sister citiesThe Municipal Council of the city of Bern decided against having twinned cities except for a temporary (during the UEFA Euro 2008) cooperation with the Austrian city Salzburg.
PopulationBern has a population () of .. About 34% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the 10 years between 2000 and 2010, the population changed at a rate of 0.6%. Migration accounted for 1.3%, while births and deaths accounted for −2.1%.Swiss Federal Statistical Office
Historic populationThe historical population is given in the following chart:
ReligionFrom the , 60,455 or 47.0% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church, while 31,510 or 24.5% were members of the Catholic Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 1,874 Orthodox Christianity, members of an Orthodox church (or about 1.46% of the population), there were 229 persons (or about 0.18% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland, Christ Catholic Church, and there were 5,531 persons (or about 4.30% of the population) who belonged to another Christian religion. There were 324 persons (or about 0.25% of the population) who were Jewish, and 4,907 (or about 3.81% of the population) who were Muslim. There were 629 persons who were Buddhism, Buddhist, 1,430 persons who were Hinduism, Hindu and 177 persons who belonged to another religion. 16,363 (or about 12.72% of the population) belonged to no religion, are agnostic or Atheism, atheist, and 7,855 persons (or about 6.11% of the population) did not answer the question. On 14 December 2014 the Haus der Religionen was inaugurated.
Main sightsThe structure of Bern's Old City of Bern, city centre is largely medieval and has been recognised by as a Cultural . Perhaps its most famous sight is the '' '' (Bernese German for "Time Bell"), an elaborate medieval clock tower with moving puppets. It also has an impressive 15th century Gothic architecture, Gothic cathedral, the ''Münster (Bern), Münster'', and a 15th-century town hall. Thanks to of arcades, the old town boasts one of the longest covered shopping promenades in Europe. Since the 16th century, the city has had a bear pit, the '' Bärengraben'', at the far end of the Nydeggbrücke to house its heraldic animals. The four bears are now kept in an open-air enclosure nearby, and two other young bears, a present by the Russian president, are kept in Dählhölzli zoo. The Federal Palace (Federal Palace of Switzerland, Bundeshaus), built from 1857 to 1902, which houses the Swiss Federal Assembly, national parliament, government and part of the federal administration, can also be visited. Albert Einstein lived in a flat at the Kramgasse 49, the site of the Einsteinhaus, from 1903 to 1905, the year in which the Annus Mirabilis papers, ''Annus Mirabilis'' papers were published. The Rose Garden (''Rosengarten''), from which a scenic panoramic view of the medieval town centre can be enjoyed, is a well-kept Rosarium on a hill, converted into a park from a former cemetery in 1913. There are List of fountains in Bern, eleven Renaissance allegorical statues on public fountains in the Old Town. Nearly all the 16th-century fountains, except the Zähringerbrunnen, Zähringer fountain, which was created by Hans Hiltbrand, are the work of the Fribourg master Hans Gieng. One of the more interesting fountains is the Kindlifresserbrunnen (Bernese German: ''Child Eater Fountain''), which is claimed to represent a Jew, the Greek god Chronos, or a Swabian-Alemannic-Fastnacht, Fastnacht figure meant to frighten disobedient children. Bern's most recent sight is the set of fountains in front of the Federal Palace. It was inaugurated on 1 August 2004. The Universal Postal Union is situated in Bern.
Heritage sites of national significanceBern is home to 114 Swiss Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance, heritage sites of national significance. It includes the entire Old Town of Bern, Old Town, which is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and many sites within and around it. Some of the most notable in the Old Town include the Bern Minster, Cathedral which was started in 1421 and is the tallest cathedral in Switzerland, the and Käfigturm towers, which mark two successive expansions of the Old Town, and the Church of the Holy Ghost, Bern, Holy Ghost Church, which is one of the largest Swiss Reformed Church, Swiss Reformed churches in Switzerland. Within the Old Town, there are eleven List of fountains in Bern, 16th-century fountains, most attributed to Hans Gieng, that are on the list. Outside the Old Town the heritage sites include the Bärengraben, the Gewerbeschule Bern (1937), the Eidgenössisches Archiv für Denkmalpflege, the (after 1881), the Thunplatzbrunnen, the Swissmint, Federal Mint building, the Swiss Federal Archives, Federal Archives, the Swiss National Library, the Historical Museum of Bern, Historical Museum (1894), Alpine Museum of Bern, Alpine Museum, Museum of Communication, Bern, Museum of Communication and Natural History Museum of Bern, Natural History Museum.
Theatres* Bern Theatre * Narrenpack Theatre Bern * Schlachthaus Theatre * Tojo Theater * The Theatre on the Effinger-Street * Theatre am Käfigturm
CinemasBern has several dozen cinemas. As is customary in German Switzerland, films are generally in German. Some films in select cinemas are shown in their original language with German and French subtitles.
Film festivals* Shnit international shortfilmfestival shnit International Shortfilmfestival, held annually in early October. * Queersicht – gay and lesbian film festival, held annually in the second week of November.
Festivals* BeJazz Summer and Winter Festival * Buskers Bern Street performance, Street Music Festival * Gurtenfestival * Internationales Jazzfestival Bern * Taktlos-Festival
Music eventsThe ''Musikpreis des Kantons Bern'' is an annual musical event where "Outstanding musicians which styles shape the Bern music scene" are honored.
Fairs* Zibelemärit – The Zibelemärit (onion market) is an annual fair held on the fourth Monday in November. * Bernese Fasnacht (Carnival)
SportsBern was the site of the 1954 FIFA World Cup Final, 1954 Football (Soccer) World Cup Final, a huge upset for the Hungarian Magical Magyars, Golden Team, who were beaten 3–2 by West Germany. The football team BSC Young Boys is based in Bern at the Stade de Suisse, Wankdorf, Stade de Suisse Wankdorf, which also was one of the venues for the UEFA Euro 2008, European football championship 2008 in which it hosted 3 matches. FC Breitenrain Bern, founded in 1994, also play in Bern. SC Bern is the major ice hockey team of Bern which plays in the PostFinance Arena. They compete in the National League (ice hockey), National League (NL), the highest league in Switzerland. The team has ranked highest in attendance for a European hockey team for more than a decade. The PostFinance Arena was the main host of the 2009 IIHF World Championship, 2009 IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship, including the opening game and the final of the tournament. The PostFinance Arena was also the host of the 2011 European Figure Skate Championships. Bern Cardinals is the baseball and softball team of Bern, which plays at the Allmend Bern Grizzlies is the American football club in Bern and plays at Athletics Arena Wankdorf. Bern was a candidate to host the 2010 Winter Olympics, but withdrew its bid in September 2002 after a referendum was passed that showed that the bid was not supported by locals. Those games were eventually awarded to Vancouver, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. RC Bern is the local rugby club (since 1972) and plays at the Allmend. The ladies team was founded in 1995. The locality of Bremgartenwald was home to the Bremgarten Circuit, the Grand Prix motor racing course that at one time hosted the Swiss Grand Prix. Bern Bears is an NGO Basketball Club since 2010 in city of Bern. The Swiss Grand Prix was held on the Circuit Bremgarten street track from 1950 to 1954, with MotoGP also running their Swiss motorcycle Grand Prix from 1949 to 1954. The circuit eventually fell into disrepair after Switzerland banned motorports after the 1955 Le Mans Disaster, but they made an amendment in 2015 to host electric racing, which is how the Swiss ePrix happened in 2019.
Economy, Bern had an unemployment rate of 3.3%. , there were 259 people employed in the Primary sector of the economy, primary economic sector and about 59 businesses involved in this sector. 16,413 people were employed in the Secondary sector of the economy, secondary sector and there were 950 businesses in this sector. 135,973 people were employed in the Tertiary sector of the economy, tertiary sector, with 7,654 businesses in this sector. the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 125,037. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 203, of which 184 were in agriculture and 19 were in forestry or lumber production. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 15,476 of which 7,650 or (49.4%) were in manufacturing, 51 or (0.3%) were in mining and 6,389 (41.3%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 109,358. In the tertiary sector; 11,396 or 10.4% were in wholesale or retail sales or the repair of motor vehicles, 10,293 or 9.4% were in the movement and storage of goods, 5,090 or 4.7% were in a hotel or restaurant, 7,302 or 6.7% were in the information industry, 8,437 or 7.7% were the insurance or financial industry, 10,660 or 9.7% were technical professionals or scientists, 5,338 or 4.9% were in education and 17,903 or 16.4% were in health care. , there were 94,367 workers who commuted into the municipality and 16,424 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 5.7 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving.Swiss Federal Statistical Office – Statweb
EducationThe University of Bern, whose buildings are mainly located in the ''Länggasse'' quarter, is located in Bern, as well as the Bern University of Applied Sciences, University of Applied Sciences (''Fachhochschule'') and several vocations schools. In Bern, about 50,418 or (39.2%) of the population have completed non-mandatory Education in Switzerland#Secondary, upper secondary education, and 24,311 or (18.9%) have completed additional higher education (either List of universities in Switzerland, university or a ''Fachhochschule''). Of the 24,311 who completed tertiary schooling, 51.6% were Swiss men, 33.0% were Swiss women, 8.9% were non-Swiss men and 6.5% were non-Swiss women. The canton of Bern school system provides one year of non-obligatory kindergarten, followed by six years of primary school. This is followed by three years of obligatory lower secondary school where the pupils are separated according to ability and aptitude. Following the lower secondary pupils may attend additional schooling or they may enter an apprenticeship. During the 2009–10 school year, there were a total of 10,979 pupils attending classes in Bern. There were 89 kindergarten classes with a total of 1,641 pupils in the municipality. Of the kindergarten pupils, 32.4% were permanent or temporary residents of Switzerland (not citizens) and 40.2% have a different mother language than the classroom language. The municipality had 266 primary classes and 5,040 pupils. Of the primary pupils, 30.1% were permanent or temporary residents of Switzerland (not citizens) and 35.7% have a different mother language than the classroom language. During the same year, there were 151 lower secondary classes with a total of 2,581 pupils. There were 28.7% who were permanent or temporary residents of Switzerland (not citizens) and 32.7% have a different mother language than the classroom language.Schuljahr 2009/10 pdf document
Public transportBern is served by a dense network of trains, Trams in Bern, trams, Trolleybuses in Bern, trolleybuses, and conventional motorbuses. The Bern S-Bahn is Switzerland's second busiest. Bern is the centre of the , which covers the cantons of Bern and Canton of Solothurn, Solothurn and includes the towns of Bielsko-Biała, Biel, Solothurn, and Thun. The network allows easy and coordinated travel on all modes of public transport, such as trains, PostBus Switzerland, PostAuto buses, Trams in Bern, trams, buses (Trolleybuses in Bern, trolleybuses and motorbuses) and others, regardless of transport operator. Fares are based on the number of zones in a journey. The central part of Bern, (excluding Bümpliz, ''Betlehem'', ''Bottigen'', ''Brünnen'', and ''Riedbach'' in the west of the municipality), is part of the fare zone ''100''. The city is well served by railways, with the extensive S-Bahn network and many regional and international connections. Bern railway station, Bern's central railway station (''Bahnhof Bern'') is Switzerland's second busiest station (202,600 passengers per working day in 2014), and is the main transport hub in the region. A funicular railway called the Marzili Funicular, Marzilibahn leads from the ''Marzili'' district to the Federal Palace of Switzerland, Federal Palace. With a length of , it is the second shortest public railway in Europe after the Zagreb funicular.
Road trafficList of Aar bridges in Bern, Several Aare bridges connect the old parts of the city with the newer districts outside of the peninsula. Bern is well connected to other cities by several Autobahns of Switzerland, motorways (A1 (Switzerland), A1, A12 motorway (Switzerland), A12, A6 motorway (Switzerland), A6).
AirportBern Airport (colloquially called ''Bern-Belp'' or ''Belpmoos)'' located outside the city near the town of Belp, as of March 2021 mostly serves general aviation and charter flights. Zurich Airport, Geneva Airport and EuroAirport Basel Mulhouse Freiburg serve as gateways for air traffic, all reachable in less than two hours by SBB CFF FFS, train or car from Bern.
Bicycle transportThe city has made efforts to make Bern the "bicycle capital" of Switzerland through the creation of better infrastructure, such as dedicated cycle paths. operates a bike-sharing system.
Notable people; Public servants, the military and the church * Conrad Justinger (c. 1360–1438) – chronicler, magistrate and notary public of the city of Bern * Johann Jakob Grynaeus (1540–1617) – Protestant divine, a theologian of the school of Huldrych Zwingli * Robert Scipio von Lentulus, Robert Scipio, Freiherr von Lentulus (1714–1786) – military officer, in Austrian and later, Prussian service * Emmanuel Han (1801–1867) – Swiss military officer and philhellene who fought in the Greek War of Independence * Walter Breisky (1871–1944) – Austrian jurist, civil servant and politician * Rosalie Dreyer (1895–1987) – Swiss-born naturalized British nurse, a pioneer in Britain's public-funded nursing service * August R. Lindt (1905–2000) – lawyer and diplomat, Chairman of UNICEF 1953–1954 and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UN High Commissioner for Refugees 1956–1960 * Marc Hodler (1918–2006) – lawyer, President of the International Ski Federation 1951–1998, exposed the 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal * Hans Urwyler (1925–1994) – Christian minister of the New Apostolic Church * Kofi Annan (1938–2018 in Bern) – UN Secretary-General 1997–2006 * Algirdas Paleckis (born 1971) – Lithuanian diplomat, politician and columnist ; Politicians and the landed gentry * Adrian von Bubenberg (c. 1434–1479) – Bernese knight, military commander and 3-time mayor (Schultheiss) of Bern, hero of the Battle of Murten * Niklaus Dachselhofer (1595–1670) – Bernese politician, Schultheiss (mayor) of Bern 1636–1667 * Christoph von Graffenried, 1st Baron of Bernberg (1661–1743) – British peer from Switzerland who founded New Bern, North Carolina in 1710 * Julie Bondeli, Susanna Julie von Bondeli (1731–1778) – famous salonist and lady of letters, the salon became the center of intellectual life in Bern. * Princess Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Grand Duchess Anna Feodorovna of Russia (1781 – Elfenau, near Bern 1860) – German princess of the ducal house of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld * Mikhail Bakunin (1814– 1876 in Bern) – Russian revolutionary anarchist * Karl Schenk (1823–1895) – pastor, politician and longest serving member of the Swiss Federal Council 1863–1895 * Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924) – lived in Bern 1914–1917 * Louise Elisabeth de Meuron (1882–1980) – aristocrat and eccentric personality in Bern * Dom Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza (born 1945) – claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne, as the head of the House of Braganza * Regula Rytz (born 1962) – politician, sociologist and historian * Ursula Wyss (born 1973) – economist and politician * Min Li Marti (born 1974), politician, publisher, sociologist and historian ; Science and academia * Albrecht von Haller (1708–1777) – anatomist, physiologist, naturalist, encyclopedist, bibliographer and poet * Carl Adolf Otth (1803–1839) – naturalist * Gustav Heinrich Otth (1806–1874) – mycologist * Carl Brunner von Wattenwyl (1823–1914) – entomologist who specialised in Orthoptera * Ludwig Fischer (botanist), Ludwig Fischer (1828–1907) – botanist, researched phanerogams and cryptogams * Emil Theodor Kocher (1841–1917) – physician and medical researcher, received the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work on the thyroid * Arnold Klebs (1870–1943) – physician who specialized in the study of tuberculosis * Anna Tumarkin (1875–1951) – Russian-born, naturalized Swiss academic, the first woman to become a professor of philosophy at the University of Bern * Albert Einstein (1879–1955) – worked out his theory of relativity while living in Bern, employed as a patent examiner at the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property, patent office * Ida Hoff (1880–1952) – pioneering doctor, a feminist activist and one of Bern's first regular female motorists * Aimé Félix Tschiffely (1895–1954) – Swiss-born, Argentine professor, writer and equestrian adventurer * Hans Albert Einstein (1904–1973) – Swiss-American engineer and educator, the second child and first son of Albert Einstein * Friedrich Tinner (born 1937) – nuclear engineer connected with the proliferation of nuclear materials in Iran, Libya, and North Korea * Claudia Rosiny (born 1960) – German-Swiss academic in Dance and Media studies, a festival director and cultural manager * Daniel Mojon (born 1963) – ophthalmologist and ophthalmic surgeon, invented minimally-invasive strabismus surgery ; Writing and acting * Ulrich Boner or Bonerius (early 14th century) – German-speaking Swiss writer of fable * Hans von Rüte (died 1558) – Bernese dramatist and chronicler of the Swiss Reformation * Johann David Wyss (1743–1818) – author, best remembered for The Swiss Family Robinson * Charles Victor de Bonstetten (1745–1832) – liberal writer * Daniel Albert Wyttenbach (1746–1820) – German Swiss classical scholar * Johann Rudolf Wyss (1782–1830) – author, writer, and folklorist who wrote the words to the former Swiss national anthem * Charles Monnard (1790–1865) – historian and member of the Helvetic Society * Selma Urfer (1928–2013) – author, translator and actress * Liselotte Pulver (born 1929) – actress, well known for her hearty and joyful laughter * Yves Rénier (born 1942) – French actor, director, screenwriter and voice actor * Lukas Hartmann (born 1944) – children's writer, Switzerland's "first husband" in 2015 * Yang Lian (poet), Yang Lian (born 1955) – Swiss-Chinese poet associated with the Misty Poets * Sibylle Canonica (born 1957) – actress, has appeared in more than forty films since 1981 * Georges Delnon (born 1958) – theatre director, artistic director and professor * Sabine Timoteo (born 1975) – actress * Yangzom Brauen (born 1980) – actress, activist and writer * Cleo von Adelsheim (born 1987) – German-Chilean actress ; Artists and painters * Niklaus Manuel Deutsch (c. 1484–1530) – artist, writer, mercenary and Reformed politician * Albrecht Kauw (1621–1681) – still-life painter, cartographer and a painter of vedute * Gabriel Lory the Elder (1763–1840) – Bernese landscape painter and illustrator * Ferdinand Hodler (1853–1918) – painter of portraits, landscapes and genre paintings * Lisa Wenger (1858–1941) – painter and author of children's books * Adolf Wölfli (1864–1930) – artist associated with Art Brut ; Musicians * Volkmar Andreae (1879–1962) – conductor and composer * Patricia Kopatchinskaja (born 1977) – Moldovan-Austrian-Swiss violinist *Margrit Zimmermann (born 1927) – pianist, composer, conductor and music educator * :de:Zora Slokar, Zora Slokar, horn player with Orchestra della Svizzera Italiana * Eric Blom CBE (1888–1959) – Swiss-born British-naturalised music lexicographer, musicologist, music critic and music The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, biographer * Klaus Huber (1924–2017) – composer and academic * Mani Matter (1936–1972) – singer-songwriter * Roland Zoss (born 1951) – songwriter and novelist, lives on the Aeolian Islands * Christine Lauterburg (born 1956) – singer, yodeler and actress * Luca Hänni (born 1994) – singer-songwriter, dancer, and model, Swiss representative at the Eurovision Song Contest 2019, 2019 Eurovision Song Contest * Giuseppe Bausilio (born 1997) – actor, dancer, and singer
See also*Municipalities of the canton of Bern
Notes and references
External links* *