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,
german: Berner(in),
french: Bernois(e),
it, Bernese , neighboring_municipalities =
Bremgarten bei Bern Bremgarten bei Bern is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which i ...
,
Frauenkappelen Frauenkappelen is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Bern-Mittelland (administrative district), Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Bern (canton), Bern in Switzerland. History Frauenk ...
,
Ittigen Ittigen is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordi ...
,
Kirchlindach Kirchlindach is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Bern-Mittelland (administrative district), Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Bern (canton), Bern in Switzerland. History The name ...
,
Köniz Köniz () is a statistical town, however considers itself still as a village, and a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisd ...
,
Mühleberg Mühleberg is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Bern-Mittelland (administrative district), Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Bern (canton), Bern in Switzerland. History Mühleberg ...
,
Muri bei Bern Muri bei Bern is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is su ...
,
Neuenegg Neuenegg is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subor ...
,
Ostermundigen Ostermundigen is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Bern-Mittelland (administrative district), Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Bern (canton), Bern in Switzerland. The city is the bi ...
,
Wohlen bei Bern Wohlen bei Bern is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Bern-Mittelland (administrative district), Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Bern (canton), Bern in Switzerland. History Wohlen ...

Wohlen bei Bern
,
Zollikofen Zollikofen is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subor ...
, website = www.bern.ch Bern or Berne (; gsw, Bärn ; french: Berne ; it, Berna ; rm, Berna ) is the ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
''
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
of
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = under an , leader_title1 = , leader_name1 = , leader_title2 = , leader_name2 = , legislatur ...

Switzerland
, referred to by the Swiss as their "
federal city The term federal city is a title for certain cities in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = Ger ...
", in german: Bundesstadt, link=no, french: ville fédérale, link=no, and it, città federale, link=no.According to the Swiss constitution, the Swiss Confederation intentionally has no "capital", but Bern has governmental institutions such as the
Federal AssemblyFederal Assembly may refer to: *Federal Assembly (Russia), the Russian federal parliament *Federal Assembly (Czechoslovakia), the former Czechoslovak federal parliament *Federal Assembly (Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland), the former federal par ...
and Federal Council. However, the is in
Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens Bottens is a municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the district of Gros-de-Vaud District, Gros-de-Vaud in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Vaud in Switzerland. History Bottens is first men ...

Lausanne
, the Federal Criminal Court is in
Bellinzona Bellinzona ( , , Ticinese dialect, Ticinese ; french: Bellinzone ; german: Bellenz ; rm, Blizuna ) is a municipality, a List of towns in Switzerland, historic Swiss town, and the capital of the canton of Ticino in Switzerland. The town is famous ...

Bellinzona
and the Federal Administrative Court and the Federal Patent Court are in
St. Gallen St. Gallen or traditionally St Gall, in sometimes Sankt Gallen (; en, St Gallen; french: Saint-Gall; it, San Gallo; rm, Son Gagl) is a and the capital of the of . It evolved from the age of , founded in the 7th century. Today ...
, exemplifying the federal nature of the Confederation.
With a population of about 144,000 (as of 2020), Bern is the fifth-most populous city in Switzerland. The Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cult ...

metropolitan area
had a population of 660,000 in 2000. Bern is also the capital of the
canton of Bern The canton of Bern or Berne (german: Kanton Bern; french: canton de Berne) is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. It is composed of ten districts and its capital city is Bern. The bear is th ...
, the second-most populous of Switzerland's cantons. The official language in Bern is (the Swiss variety of Standard)
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
, but the most-spoken language is an Alemannic
Swiss German Swiss German (Standard German Standard High German (SHG), less precisely Standard German or High German (not to be confused with High German The High German languages or High German dialects (german: hochdeutsche Mundarten) comprise th ...
dialect,
Bernese German Bernese German (Standard German Standard German, High German, or more precisely Standard High German (german: Standarddeutsch, , or, in Switzerland, ), is the standardized variety of the German language The German language (, ) is a We ...
. In 1983, the
historic old town
historic old town
(in german: Altstadt) in the centre of Bern became a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
.


Etymology

The etymology of the name "Bern" is uncertain. According to the local legend, based on
folk etymology Folk etymology (also known as popular etymology, analogical reformation, reanalysis, morphological reanalysis or etymological reinterpretation) is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familia ...
,
Berchtold V, Duke of Zähringen
Berchtold V, Duke of Zähringen
, the founder of the city of Bern, vowed to name the city after the first animal he met on the hunt, and this turned out to be a bear. It has long been considered likely that the city was named after the Italian city of
Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. ...

Verona
, which at the time was known as ''Bern'' in
Middle High German Middle High German (MHG; german: Mittelhochdeutsch (Mhd.)) is the term for the form of German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * ...
. The city was sometimes referred to as ''Bern im Üechtland'' to distinguish it from Verona. As a result of the finding of the Bern zinc tablet in the 1980s, it is now more common to assume that the city was named after a pre-existing toponym of Celtic origin, possibly ''*berna'' "cleft". The bear was the heraldic animal of the seal and coat of arms of Bern from at least the 1220s. The earliest reference to the keeping of live bears in the '' Bärengraben'' dates to the 1440s.


History


Early history

No
archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better underst ...

archaeological
evidence that indicates a settlement on the site of today's city centre prior to the 12th century has been found so far. In antiquity, a
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...

Celtic
''
oppidum An ''oppidum'' (plural ''oppida'') is a large fortified Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Bronze Age and th ...

oppidum
'' stood on the ''Engehalbinsel'' (peninsula) north of Bern, fortified since the second century BC (late
La Tène period#REDIRECT Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often abbreviated as L.A., is the List of cities and towns in California, largest city in California. With an estimated population ...
), thought to be one of the 12 ''oppida'' of the
Helvetii The Helvetii ( ), anglicized as Helvetians, were a Celts, Celtic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their Switzerland in the Roman era, contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. Accord ...
mentioned by
Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of anc ...

Caesar
. During the
Roman era In , ancient Rome is civilization from the founding of the Italian city of in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the in the 5th century AD, encompassing the (753 BC–509 BC), (509 BC–27 BC) and (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of ...
, a
Gallo-Roman Gallo-Roman culture was a consequence of the Romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, includin ...
''
vicus In Ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian ...
'' was on the same site. The Bern zinc tablet has the name ''Brenodor'' ("dwelling of Breno"). In the Early Middle Ages, a settlement in Bümpliz, now a city district of Bern, was some from the medieval city. The medieval city is a foundation of the Zähringer ruling family, which rose to power in
Upper Burgundy The Kingdom of Upper Burgundy was a Frankish dominion established in 888 by the Welf king Rudolph I of Burgundy on the territory of former Middle Francia. It grew out of the Carolingian The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carl ...
in the 12th century. According to 14th-century historiography (''Cronica de Berno'', 1309), Bern was founded in 1191 by
Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen (1160 – 18 February 1218 in Freiburg im Breisgau Freiburg im Breisgau (; abbreviated as Freiburg i. Br. or Freiburg i. B.), commonly referred to as Freiburg, is an independent city in Baden-Württemberg Baden ...

Berthold V, Duke of Zähringen
. In 1218, after Berthold died without an heir, Bern was made a
free imperial city In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (german: Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (', la, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that h ...
by the '' Goldene Handfeste'' of
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
Frederick IIFrederick II, Frederik II or Friedrich II may refer to: * Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194–1250), King of Sicily from 1198; Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 * Frederick II of Denmark (1534–1588), king of Denmark and Norway 1559–1588 * Freder ...

Frederick II
.


Old Swiss Confederacy

In 1353, Bern joined the
Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy, Swiss Confederation (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language, starting in the 17th century. It is a translation of t ...
, becoming one of the eight cantons of the formative period of 1353 to 1481. Bern invaded and conquered
Aargau Aargau (german: Kanton Aargau, links=no ; sometimes Latinized as ; see also List of European regions with alternative names#A, other names), more formally the Canton of Aargau, is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerl ...

Aargau
in 1415 and
Vaud Vaud ( ; french: (Canton de) Vaud, ; german: (Kanton) Waadt, or ), more formally the canton of Vaud, is one of the forming the . It is composed of ten districts and its capital city is . Its flag bears the motto "Liberté et patrie" on a white ...
in 1536, as well as other smaller territories, thereby becoming the largest
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance la ...
north of the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt ...

Alps
; by the 18th century, it comprised most of what is today the
canton of Bern The canton of Bern or Berne (german: Kanton Bern; french: canton de Berne) is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. It is composed of ten districts and its capital city is Bern. The bear is th ...
and the
canton of Vaud Vaud ( ; french: (Canton de) Vaud, ; german: (Kanton) Waadt, or ), more formally the canton of Vaud, is one of the 26 cantons forming the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. It is composed of ten districts and its capital city is Lausanne. Its fl ...
. The city grew out towards the west of the boundaries of the peninsula formed by the river
Aare The Aare () or Aar () is a tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem r ...

Aare
. The ''
Zytglogge The Zytglogge (Bernese German Bernese German (Standard German Standard German, High German, or more precisely Standard High German (german: Standarddeutsch, , or, in Switzerland, ), is the standardized variety of the German language ...

Zytglogge
'' tower marked the western boundary of the city from 1191 until 1256, when the ''Käfigturm'' took over this role until 1345. It was, in turn, succeeded by the ''
Christoffelturm
Christoffelturm
'' (formerly located close to the site of the modern-day railway station) until 1622. During the time of the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
, two new fortifications – the so-called big and small ''
Schanze A ''schanze'' () is, according to the specialist terminology of German fortification construction, an independent fieldwork, that is frequently used in the construction of temporary (not permanent) field fortifications.Rüstow: ''Militärisches Hand ...

Schanze
'' (entrenchment) – were built to protect the whole area of the peninsula. After a major blaze in 1405, the city's original wooden buildings were gradually replaced by
half-timbered Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timber Lumber, also known as timber, is a type of wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the Plant stem, stems an ...

half-timbered
houses and subsequently the
sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnesium and iron ('' mafic ' ...

sandstone
buildings which came to be characteristic for the Old Town. Despite the waves of pestilence that hit Europe in the 14th century, the city continued to grow, mainly due to
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigration
from the surrounding countryside.


Modern history

Bern was occupied by French troops in 1798 during the
French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted French First Republic, France against Gr ...
, when it was stripped of parts of its territories. It regained control of the
Bernese Oberland The Bernese Oberland (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German l ...

Bernese Oberland
in 1802, and following the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) wa ...

Congress of Vienna
of 1814, it newly acquired the
Bernese Jura Bernese Jura (french: Jura bernois) is the name for the French-speaking area of the Switzerland, Swiss canton of Bern, and from 2010 one of ten Administrative divisions of Switzerland, administrative divisions of the Cantons of Switzerland, canton. ...
. At this time, it once again became the largest canton of the Confederacy as it stood during the
Restoration Restoration is the act of restoring something to its original state and may refer to: * Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage * Restoration style Film and television * ''The Restoration'' (1909 film), a film by D.W. Griffith starr ...
and until the secession of the
canton of Jura The Republic and Canton of Jura (french: République et canton du Jura), less formally the Canton of Jura or Canton Jura ( , ), is the newest (founded in 1979) of the cantons of Switzerland, 26 Swiss cantons, located in the northwestern part of Sw ...
in 1979. Bern was made the
Federal City The term federal city is a title for certain cities in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = Ger ...
(seat of the
Federal AssemblyFederal Assembly may refer to: *Federal Assembly (Russia), the Russian federal parliament *Federal Assembly (Czechoslovakia), the former Czechoslovak federal parliament *Federal Assembly (Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland), the former federal par ...
) within the new
Swiss federal state The rise of Switzerland as a federal state began on 12 September 1848, with the creation of a federal constitution in response to a 27-day civil war, the ''Sonderbundskrieg''. The constitution, which was heavily influenced by the United States ...
in 1848. A number of congresses of the
socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive pr ...

socialist
First First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
and
Second International The Second International (1889–1916) was an organisation of workers' movement, socialist and labour parties, formed on 14 July 1889 at a Paris meeting in which delegations from twenty countries participated. The Second International continued th ...
s were held in Bern, particularly during
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
when Switzerland was neutral; see Bern International. The city's population rose from about 5,000 in the 15th century to about 12,000 by 1800 and to above 60,000 by 1900, passing the 100,000 mark during the 1920s. Population peaked during the 1960s at 165,000 and has since decreased slightly, to below 130,000 by 2000. As of September 2017, the resident population stood at 142,349, of which 100,000 were Swiss citizens and 42,349 (31%) resident foreigners. A further estimated 350,000 people live in the immediate
urban agglomeration An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbat ...
.


Geography and climate


Topography

Bern lies on the
Swiss plateau The Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau (german: Schweizer Mittelland; french: plateau suisse; it, altopiano svizzero) is one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland, lying between the Jura Mountains and the Swiss Alps. It covers about 30% of ...

Swiss plateau
in the canton of Bern, slightly west of the centre of Switzerland and north of the
Bernese Alps , topo_map= Swiss Federal Office of Topography swisstopo Swisstopo is the official name for the Swiss Federal Office of Topography (in German language, German: ''Bundesamt für Landestopografie''; French language, French: ''Office fédéral ...

Bernese Alps
. The countryside around Bern was formed by glaciers during the most recent
ice age An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents an ...

ice age
. The two mountains closest to Bern are Gurten with a height of and Bantiger with a height of . The site of the old observatory in Bern is the point of origin of the CH1903 coordinate system at . The city was originally built on a hilly
peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el ...

peninsula
surrounded by the river
Aare The Aare () or Aar () is a tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem r ...

Aare
, but outgrew natural boundaries by the 19th century. A number of bridges have been built to allow the city to expand beyond the Aare. Bern is built on very uneven ground. An elevation difference of up to 60 metres exists between the inner city districts on the Aare ( Matte, Marzili) and the higher ones (Kirchenfeld, Länggasse). Bern has an area, , of . Of this area, or 18.2% is used for agricultural purposes, while or 33.3% is forested. Of the rest of the land, or 46.0% is settled (buildings or roads), or 2.1% is either rivers or lakes, and or 0.3% is unproductive land.Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Land Use Statistics
2018 data accessed 26 July 2020
Of the developed area of Bern, 3.1% consists of industrial buildings, 22.3% housing and other buildings, and 12.9% is devoted to transport infrastructure. Power and water infrastructure, as well as other special developed areas, made up 1.2% of the city, while another 6.5% consists of parks, green belts, and sports fields. Of Bern's total land area, 32.8% is heavily forested. Of the agricultural land, 13.3% is used for growing crops and 4.4% is designated to be used as pasture. Local rivers and streams provide all the water in the municipality.


Climate

According to the
Köppen Climate Classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification Climate classification is a way of categorizing the world's s. A climate classification may correlate closely with a category, as climate is a major infl ...
, Bern has a
humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months t ...
(''Dfb'') closely bordering on an
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the deg ...
(''Cfb''). The closest weather station near Bern is located in the municipality of
Zollikofen Zollikofen is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subor ...
, about north of the city centre. The warmest month for Bern is July, with a daily mean temperature of , and a daily maximum temperature of . The highest temperature recorded at Bern / Zollikofen is , recorded in August 2003. On average, a temperature of or above is recorded 40.7 days per year, and 6 days per year with a temperature of or above at Zollikofen, and the warmest day reaches an average of . There are 103.7 days of air frost, and 22.3 ice days per year at Bern (Zollikofen) for the period of 1981–2010, as well as 14.1 days of snowfall, 36.7 days of snow cover per year and the average amount of snow measured per year is . On average, January is the coldest month, with a daily mean temperature of , and a daily minimum temperature of . The lowest temperature ever recorded at Bern (Zollikofen) was , recorded in February 1929, and typically the coldest temperature of the year reaches an average of for the period of 1981–2010.


Politics


Subdivisions

The municipality is administratively subdivided into six districts (''Stadtteile''), each of which consists of several quarters (''Quartiere'').


Government

The Municipal Council (de: Gemeinderat, fr: conseil municipal) constitutes the
executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief exec ...
government of the City of Bern and operates as a collegiate authority. It is composed of five councillors (german: Gemeinderat/-rätin, french: conseiller/conseillère municipal(e)), each presiding over a directorate (de: ''Direktion'', fr: ''direction'') comprising several departments and bureaus. The president of the executive department acts as
mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or , regardless whether it carries an actual with it) in an or government and participates in the exercise of , (either their ow ...

mayor
(de: ''Stadtpräsident'', fr: ''Le Maire''). In the mandate period 2017–2020 (''Legislatur'') the Municipal Council is presided by ''Stadtpräsident'' Alec von Graffenried. Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the City Council are carried by the Municipal Council. The regular election of the Municipal Council by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every four years. Any resident of Bern allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Municipal Council. Contrary to most other municipalities, the executive government in Berne is selected by means of a system of Proportional representation, Proporz. The mayor is elected as such as well by public election while the heads of the other directorates are assigned by the collegiate. The executive body holds its meetings in the Junkerngasse, Erlacherhof, built by architect Albrecht Stürler after 1747. , Bern's Municipal Council is made up of two representatives of the SP (Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party), and one each of CVP (Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, Christian Democratic Party), GFL (''Grüne Freie Liste'' a.k.a. Green Free List, who is the newly elected mayor since 2017), and GB (Grünes Bündnis Bern, Green Alliance of Berne), giving the left parties a very strong majority of four out of five seats. The last regular election was held on 27 November 2016/15 January 2017. Dr. Jürg Wichtermann is State Chronicler (''Staatsschreiber'') since 2008. He has been elected by the collegiate.


Parliament

The City Council (de: Stadtrat, fr: Conseil de ville) holds legislative power. It is made up of 80 members, with elections held every four years. The City Council decrees regulations and by-laws that are executed by the Municipal Council and the administration. The delegates are selected by means of a system of proportional representation. The sessions of the City Council are public. Unlike members of the Municipal Council, members of the City Council are not politicians by profession, and they are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Bern allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the City Council. The parliament holds its meetings in the ''Stadthaus'' (Town Hall). The last regular election of the City Council was held on 27 November 2016 for the mandate period (german: Legislatur, french: la législature) from 2017 to 2020. The City Council consist of 24 members of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party (SP/PS) including 2 members of the junior party ''JUSO'', 9 Grünes Bündnis Bern, Green Alliance of Berne (GB), 9 FDP.The Liberals, The Liberals (FDP/PLR), 9 Swiss People's Party, Swiss People's Party (SVP/UDC), 8 ''Grüne Freie Liste (GFL)'' (Green Free List), 8 Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, Green Liberal Party (glp/pvl) including one member of its junior party ''jglp'', 3 Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland, Conservative Democratic Party (BDP/PBD), 2 Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP/PDC), 2 Evangelical People's Party of Switzerland, Evangelical People's Party (EVP/PEV), 2 ''Junge Alternative (JA!)'' (or Young Alternatives), 2 Alternative Left, Alternative Linke Bern (AL), 1 ''Grüne Partei Bern – Demokratische Alternative (GPB-DA)'' (or Green Party Bern – Democratic Alternative), and 1 Swiss Party of Labour, Swiss Party of Labour (PdA). The following parties combine their parliamentary power in parliamentary groups (german: Fraktion(en)): AL and GPB-DA and PdA (4), SP and JUSO (24), GB and JA! (11), GFL and EVP (10), glp und jglp (8), BDP and CVP (5), FDP (9), and SVP (9). This gives the left parties an absolute majority of 49 seats.


National elections


National Council

In the 2019 Swiss federal election, 2019 federal election for the National Council (Switzerland), Swiss National Council the most popular party was the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, PS which received 28.7% (-5.6) of the vote. The next five most popular parties were the Green Party of Switzerland, Green Party (25.2%, +7.9), the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, pvl (13.5%, +4.1), the Swiss People's Party, UDC (9.5%, -2.9), FDP.The Liberals, PLR (4.2%, -2.8), and the Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland, BDP/PBD (7.0%). In the federal election a total of 49,030 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 56%. In the 2015 Swiss federal election, 2015 federal election for the National Council (Switzerland), Swiss National Council the most popular party was the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, PS which received 34.3% of the vote. The next five most popular parties were the Green Party of Switzerland, Green Party (17.4%), the Swiss People's Party, UDC (12.4%), and the FDP.The Liberals, FDP/PLR (9.9%), Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, glp/pvl (9.4%), and the Conservative Democratic Party of Switzerland, BDP/PBD (7.0%). In the federal election, a total of 48,556 voters were cast, and the voter turnout was 56.0%.


International relations


Twin and sister cities

The Municipal Council of the city of Bern decided against having twinned cities except for a temporary (during the UEFA Euro 2008) cooperation with the Austrian city Salzburg.


Demographics


Population

Bern has a population () of .. About 34% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the 10 years between 2000 and 2010, the population changed at a rate of 0.6%. Migration accounted for 1.3%, while births and deaths accounted for −2.1%.Swiss Federal Statistical Office
accessed 23-January-2012
Most of the population () speaks German (104,465 or 81.2%) as their first language, Italian is the second most common (5,062 or 3.9%) and French is the third (4,671 or 3.6%). There are 171 people who speak Romansh language, Romansh. , the population was 47.5% male and 52.5% female. The population was made up of 44,032 Swiss men (35.4% of the population) and 15,092 (12.1%) non-Swiss men. There were 51,531 Swiss women (41.4%) and 13,726 (11.0%) non-Swiss women.Statistical office of the canton of Bern
accessed 4 January 2012
Of the population in the municipality, 39,008 or about 30.3% were born in Bern and lived there in 2000. There were 27,573 or 21.4% who were born in the same canton, while 25,818 or 20.1% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, and 27,812 or 21.6% were born outside of Switzerland. , children and teenagers (0–19 years old) make up 15.1% of the population, while adults (20–64 years old) make up 65% and seniors (over 64 years old) make up 19.9%. , there were 59,948 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 49,873 married individuals, 9,345 widows or widowers and 9,468 individuals who are divorced.STAT-TAB Datenwürfel für Thema 40.3 – 2000
accessed 2 February 2011
, there were 67,115 private households in the municipality, and an average of 1.8 persons per household. There were 34,981 households that consist of only one person and 1,592 households with five or more people. , a total of 65,538 apartments (90.6% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 5,352 apartments (7.4%) were seasonally occupied and 1,444 apartments (2.0%) were empty.Swiss Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB – Datenwürfel für Thema 09.2 – Gebäude und Wohnungen
accessed 28 January 2011
, the construction rate of new housing units was 1.2 new units per 1000 residents. the average price to rent an average apartment in Bern was 1108.92 Swiss francs (CHF) per month (US$890, £500, €710 approx. exchange rate from 2003). The average rate for a one-room apartment was 619.82 CHF (US$500, £280, €400), a two-room apartment was about 879.36 CHF (US$700, £400, €560), a three-room apartment was about 1040.54 CHF (US$830, £470, €670) and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 2094.80 CHF (US$1680, £940, €1340). The average apartment price in Bern was 99.4% of the national average of 1116 CHF.Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Rental prices
2003 data accessed 26 May 2010
The vacancy rate for the municipality, , was 0.45%.


Historic population

The historical population is given in the following chart: Colors= id:lightgrey value:gray(0.9) id:darkgrey value:gray(0.8) ImageSize = width:800 height:500 PlotArea = top:10 left: 100 bottom:90 right:100 Legend = columns:3 left:220 top:70 columnwidth:160 AlignBars = justify DateFormat = x.y Period = from:0 till:170000 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical AlignBars = justify ScaleMajor = gridcolor:darkgrey increment:30000 start:0 ScaleMinor = gridcolor:lightgrey increment:6000 start:0 Colors= id:TO value:yellowgreen legend:Total id:GE value:teal legend:German_Speaking id:FR value:green legend:French_Speaking id:PR value:lightpurple legend:Protestant id:CA value:oceanblue legend:Catholic id:SW value:red legend:Swiss PlotData= color:yellowgreen width:40 mark:(line,white) align:center bar:1850 from:start till:29670 text:"29,670" color:TO bar:1880 from:start till:44087 text:"44,087" color:TO bar:1910 from:start till:90937 text:"90,937" color:TO bar:1930 from:start till:111783 text:"111,783" color:TO bar:1950 from:start till:146499 text:"146,499" color:TO bar:1970 from:start till:162405 text:"162,405" color:TO bar:1990 from:start till:136338 text:"136,338" color:TO LineData = points:(213,188)(307,286) color:GE points:(307,286)(400,331) color:GE points:(400,331)(493,395) color:GE points:(493,395)(587,405) color:GE points:(587,405)(680,349) color:GE points:(213,94)(307,101) color:FR points:(307,101)(400,105) color:FR points:(400,105)(493,114) color:FR points:(493,114)(587,109) color:FR points:(587,109)(680,102) color:FR points:(120,156)(213,184) color:PR points:(213,184)(307,274) color:PR points:(307,274)(400,315) color:PR points:(400,315)(493,370) color:PR points:(493,370)(587,362) color:PR points:(587,362)(680,278) color:PR points:(120,93)(213,98) color:CA points:(213,98)(307,113) color:CA points:(307,113)(400,121) color:CA points:(400,121)(493,145) color:CA points:(493,145)(587,187) color:CA points:(587,187)(680,176) color:CA points:(120,156)(213,185) color:SW points:(213,185)(307,281) color:SW points:(307,281)(400,337) color:SW points:(400,337)(493,418) color:SW points:(493,418)(587,419) color:SW points:(587,419)(680,355) color:SW


Religion

From the , 60,455 or 47.0% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church, while 31,510 or 24.5% were members of the Catholic Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 1,874 Orthodox Christianity, members of an Orthodox church (or about 1.46% of the population), there were 229 persons (or about 0.18% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland, Christ Catholic Church, and there were 5,531 persons (or about 4.30% of the population) who belonged to another Christian religion. There were 324 persons (or about 0.25% of the population) who were Jewish, and 4,907 (or about 3.81% of the population) who were Muslim. There were 629 persons who were Buddhism, Buddhist, 1,430 persons who were Hinduism, Hindu and 177 persons who belonged to another religion. 16,363 (or about 12.72% of the population) belonged to no religion, are agnostic or Atheism, atheist, and 7,855 persons (or about 6.11% of the population) did not answer the question. On 14 December 2014 the Haus der Religionen was inaugurated.


Main sights

The structure of Bern's Old City of Bern, city centre is largely medieval and has been recognised by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
as a Cultural
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
. Perhaps its most famous sight is the ''
Zytglogge The Zytglogge (Bernese German Bernese German (Standard German Standard German, High German, or more precisely Standard High German (german: Standarddeutsch, , or, in Switzerland, ), is the standardized variety of the German language ...

Zytglogge
'' (Bernese German for "Time Bell"), an elaborate medieval clock tower with moving puppets. It also has an impressive 15th century Gothic architecture, Gothic cathedral, the ''Münster (Bern), Münster'', and a 15th-century town hall. Thanks to of arcades, the old town boasts one of the longest covered shopping promenades in Europe. Since the 16th century, the city has had a bear pit, the '' Bärengraben'', at the far end of the Nydeggbrücke to house its heraldic animals. The four bears are now kept in an open-air enclosure nearby, and two other young bears, a present by the Russian president, are kept in Dählhölzli zoo. The Federal Palace (Federal Palace of Switzerland, Bundeshaus), built from 1857 to 1902, which houses the Swiss Federal Assembly, national parliament, government and part of the federal administration, can also be visited. Albert Einstein lived in a flat at the Kramgasse 49, the site of the Einsteinhaus, from 1903 to 1905, the year in which the Annus Mirabilis papers, ''Annus Mirabilis'' papers were published. The Rose Garden (''Rosengarten''), from which a scenic panoramic view of the medieval town centre can be enjoyed, is a well-kept Rosarium on a hill, converted into a park from a former cemetery in 1913. There are List of fountains in Bern, eleven Renaissance allegorical statues on public fountains in the Old Town. Nearly all the 16th-century fountains, except the Zähringerbrunnen, Zähringer fountain, which was created by Hans Hiltbrand, are the work of the Fribourg master Hans Gieng. One of the more interesting fountains is the Kindlifresserbrunnen (Bernese German: ''Child Eater Fountain''), which is claimed to represent a Jew, the Greek god Chronos, or a Swabian-Alemannic-Fastnacht, Fastnacht figure meant to frighten disobedient children. Bern's most recent sight is the set of fountains in front of the Federal Palace. It was inaugurated on 1 August 2004. The Universal Postal Union is situated in Bern.


Heritage sites of national significance

Bern is home to 114 Swiss Swiss inventory of cultural property of national and regional significance, heritage sites of national significance. It includes the entire Old Town of Bern, Old Town, which is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and many sites within and around it. Some of the most notable in the Old Town include the Bern Minster, Cathedral which was started in 1421 and is the tallest cathedral in Switzerland, the
Zytglogge The Zytglogge (Bernese German Bernese German (Standard German Standard German, High German, or more precisely Standard High German (german: Standarddeutsch, , or, in Switzerland, ), is the standardized variety of the German language ...

Zytglogge
and Käfigturm towers, which mark two successive expansions of the Old Town, and the Church of the Holy Ghost, Bern, Holy Ghost Church, which is one of the largest Swiss Reformed Church, Swiss Reformed churches in Switzerland. Within the Old Town, there are eleven List of fountains in Bern, 16th-century fountains, most attributed to Hans Gieng, that are on the list. Outside the Old Town the heritage sites include the Bärengraben, the Gewerbeschule Bern (1937), the Eidgenössisches Archiv für Denkmalpflege, the (after 1881), the Thunplatzbrunnen, the Swissmint, Federal Mint building, the Swiss Federal Archives, Federal Archives, the Swiss National Library, the Historical Museum of Bern, Historical Museum (1894), Alpine Museum of Bern, Alpine Museum, Museum of Communication, Bern, Museum of Communication and Natural History Museum of Bern, Natural History Museum.


Culture


Theatres

* Bern Theatre * Narrenpack Theatre Bern * Schlachthaus Theatre * Tojo Theater * The Theatre on the Effinger-Street * Theatre am Käfigturm


Cinemas

Bern has several dozen cinemas. As is customary in German Switzerland, films are generally in German. Some films in select cinemas are shown in their original language with German and French subtitles.


Film festivals

* Shnit international shortfilmfestival shnit International Shortfilmfestival, held annually in early October. * Queersicht – gay and lesbian film festival, held annually in the second week of November.


Festivals

* BeJazz Summer and Winter Festival * Buskers Bern Street performance, Street Music Festival * Gurtenfestival * Internationales Jazzfestival Bern * Taktlos-Festival


Music events

The ''Musikpreis des Kantons Bern'' is an annual musical event where "Outstanding musicians which styles shape the Bern music scene" are honored.


Fairs

* Zibelemärit – The Zibelemärit (onion market) is an annual fair held on the fourth Monday in November. * Bernese Fasnacht (Carnival)


Sports

Bern was the site of the 1954 FIFA World Cup Final, 1954 Football (Soccer) World Cup Final, a huge upset for the Hungarian Magical Magyars, Golden Team, who were beaten 3–2 by West Germany. The football team BSC Young Boys is based in Bern at the Stade de Suisse, Wankdorf, Stade de Suisse Wankdorf, which also was one of the venues for the UEFA Euro 2008, European football championship 2008 in which it hosted 3 matches. FC Breitenrain Bern, founded in 1994, also play in Bern. SC Bern is the major ice hockey team of Bern which plays in the PostFinance Arena. They compete in the National League (ice hockey), National League (NL), the highest league in Switzerland. The team has ranked highest in attendance for a European hockey team for more than a decade. The PostFinance Arena was the main host of the 2009 IIHF World Championship, 2009 IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship, including the opening game and the final of the tournament. The PostFinance Arena was also the host of the 2011 European Figure Skate Championships. Bern Cardinals is the baseball and softball team of Bern, which plays at the Allmend Bern Grizzlies is the American football club in Bern and plays at Athletics Arena Wankdorf. Bern was a candidate to host the 2010 Winter Olympics, but withdrew its bid in September 2002 after a referendum was passed that showed that the bid was not supported by locals. Those games were eventually awarded to Vancouver, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. RC Bern is the local rugby club (since 1972) and plays at the Allmend. The ladies team was founded in 1995. The locality of Bremgartenwald was home to the Bremgarten Circuit, the Grand Prix motor racing course that at one time hosted the Swiss Grand Prix. Bern Bears is an NGO Basketball Club since 2010 in city of Bern. The Swiss Grand Prix was held on the Circuit Bremgarten street track from 1950 to 1954, with MotoGP also running their Swiss motorcycle Grand Prix from 1949 to 1954. The circuit eventually fell into disrepair after Switzerland banned motorports after the 1955 Le Mans Disaster, but they made an amendment in 2015 to host electric racing, which is how the Swiss ePrix happened in 2019.


Economy

, Bern had an unemployment rate of 3.3%. , there were 259 people employed in the Primary sector of the economy, primary economic sector and about 59 businesses involved in this sector. 16,413 people were employed in the Secondary sector of the economy, secondary sector and there were 950 businesses in this sector. 135,973 people were employed in the Tertiary sector of the economy, tertiary sector, with 7,654 businesses in this sector. the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 125,037. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 203, of which 184 were in agriculture and 19 were in forestry or lumber production. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 15,476 of which 7,650 or (49.4%) were in manufacturing, 51 or (0.3%) were in mining and 6,389 (41.3%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 109,358. In the tertiary sector; 11,396 or 10.4% were in wholesale or retail sales or the repair of motor vehicles, 10,293 or 9.4% were in the movement and storage of goods, 5,090 or 4.7% were in a hotel or restaurant, 7,302 or 6.7% were in the information industry, 8,437 or 7.7% were the insurance or financial industry, 10,660 or 9.7% were technical professionals or scientists, 5,338 or 4.9% were in education and 17,903 or 16.4% were in health care. , there were 94,367 workers who commuted into the municipality and 16,424 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 5.7 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving.Swiss Federal Statistical Office – Statweb
accessed 24 June 2010
Of the working population, 50.6% used public transport to get to work, and 20.6% used a private car.


Education

The University of Bern, whose buildings are mainly located in the ''Länggasse'' quarter, is located in Bern, as well as the Bern University of Applied Sciences, University of Applied Sciences (''Fachhochschule'') and several vocations schools. In Bern, about 50,418 or (39.2%) of the population have completed non-mandatory Education in Switzerland#Secondary, upper secondary education, and 24,311 or (18.9%) have completed additional higher education (either List of universities in Switzerland, university or a ''Fachhochschule''). Of the 24,311 who completed tertiary schooling, 51.6% were Swiss men, 33.0% were Swiss women, 8.9% were non-Swiss men and 6.5% were non-Swiss women. The canton of Bern school system provides one year of non-obligatory kindergarten, followed by six years of primary school. This is followed by three years of obligatory lower secondary school where the pupils are separated according to ability and aptitude. Following the lower secondary pupils may attend additional schooling or they may enter an apprenticeship. During the 2009–10 school year, there were a total of 10,979 pupils attending classes in Bern. There were 89 kindergarten classes with a total of 1,641 pupils in the municipality. Of the kindergarten pupils, 32.4% were permanent or temporary residents of Switzerland (not citizens) and 40.2% have a different mother language than the classroom language. The municipality had 266 primary classes and 5,040 pupils. Of the primary pupils, 30.1% were permanent or temporary residents of Switzerland (not citizens) and 35.7% have a different mother language than the classroom language. During the same year, there were 151 lower secondary classes with a total of 2,581 pupils. There were 28.7% who were permanent or temporary residents of Switzerland (not citizens) and 32.7% have a different mother language than the classroom language.Schuljahr 2009/10 pdf document
accessed 4 January 2012
Bern is home to 8 libraries. These libraries include; the Schweiz. Nationalbibliothek/ Bibliothèque nationale suisse, the ''Universitätsbibliothek Bern'', the ''Kornhausbibliotheken Bern'', the ''BFH Wirtschaft und Verwaltung Bern'', the ''BFH Gesundheit'', the ''BFH Soziale Arbeit'', the ''Hochschule der Künste Bern, Gestaltung und Kunst'' and the ''Hochschule der Künste Bern, Musikbibliothek''. There was a combined total () of 10,308,336 books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year a total of 2,627,973 items were loaned out. , there were 9,045 pupils in Bern who came from another municipality, while 1,185 residents attended schools outside the municipality.


Transport


Public transport

Bern is served by a dense network of trains, Trams in Bern, trams, Trolleybuses in Bern, trolleybuses, and conventional motorbuses. The Bern S-Bahn is Switzerland's second busiest. Bern is the centre of the , which covers the cantons of Bern and Canton of Solothurn, Solothurn and includes the towns of Bielsko-Biała, Biel, Solothurn, and Thun. The network allows easy and coordinated travel on all modes of public transport, such as trains, PostBus Switzerland, PostAuto buses, Trams in Bern, trams, buses (Trolleybuses in Bern, trolleybuses and motorbuses) and others, regardless of transport operator. Fares are based on the number of zones in a journey. The central part of Bern, (excluding Bümpliz, ''Betlehem'', ''Bottigen'', ''Brünnen'', and ''Riedbach'' in the west of the municipality), is part of the fare zone ''100''. The city is well served by railways, with the extensive S-Bahn network and many regional and international connections. Bern railway station, Bern's central railway station (''Bahnhof Bern'') is Switzerland's second busiest station (202,600 passengers per working day in 2014), and is the main transport hub in the region. A funicular railway called the Marzili Funicular, Marzilibahn leads from the ''Marzili'' district to the Federal Palace of Switzerland, Federal Palace. With a length of , it is the second shortest public railway in Europe after the Zagreb funicular.


Road traffic

List of Aar bridges in Bern, Several Aare bridges connect the old parts of the city with the newer districts outside of the peninsula. Bern is well connected to other cities by several Autobahns of Switzerland, motorways (A1 (Switzerland), A1, A12 motorway (Switzerland), A12, A6 motorway (Switzerland), A6).


Airport

Bern Airport (colloquially called ''Bern-Belp'' or ''Belpmoos)'' located outside the city near the town of Belp, as of March 2021 mostly serves general aviation and charter flights. Zurich Airport, Geneva Airport and EuroAirport Basel Mulhouse Freiburg serve as gateways for air traffic, all reachable in less than two hours by SBB CFF FFS, train or car from Bern.


Bicycle transport

The city has made efforts to make Bern the "bicycle capital" of Switzerland through the creation of better infrastructure, such as dedicated cycle paths. operates a bike-sharing system.


Notable people

; Public servants, the military and the church * Conrad Justinger (c. 1360–1438) – chronicler, magistrate and notary public of the city of Bern * Johann Jakob Grynaeus (1540–1617) – Protestant divine, a theologian of the school of Huldrych Zwingli * Robert Scipio von Lentulus, Robert Scipio, Freiherr von Lentulus (1714–1786) – military officer, in Austrian and later, Prussian service * Emmanuel Han (1801–1867) – Swiss military officer and philhellene who fought in the Greek War of Independence * Walter Breisky (1871–1944) – Austrian jurist, civil servant and politician * Rosalie Dreyer (1895–1987) – Swiss-born naturalized British nurse, a pioneer in Britain's public-funded nursing service * August R. Lindt (1905–2000) – lawyer and diplomat, Chairman of UNICEF 1953–1954 and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UN High Commissioner for Refugees 1956–1960 * Marc Hodler (1918–2006) – lawyer, President of the International Ski Federation 1951–1998, exposed the 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal * Hans Urwyler (1925–1994) – Christian minister of the New Apostolic Church * Kofi Annan (1938–2018 in Bern) – UN Secretary-General 1997–2006 * Algirdas Paleckis (born 1971) – Lithuanian diplomat, politician and columnist ; Politicians and the landed gentry * Adrian von Bubenberg (c. 1434–1479) – Bernese knight, military commander and 3-time mayor (Schultheiss) of Bern, hero of the Battle of Murten * Niklaus Dachselhofer (1595–1670) – Bernese politician, Schultheiss (mayor) of Bern 1636–1667 * Christoph von Graffenried, 1st Baron of Bernberg (1661–1743) – British peer from Switzerland who founded New Bern, North Carolina in 1710 * Julie Bondeli, Susanna Julie von Bondeli (1731–1778) – famous salonist and lady of letters, the salon became the center of intellectual life in Bern. * Princess Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Grand Duchess Anna Feodorovna of Russia (1781 – Elfenau, near Bern 1860) – German princess of the ducal house of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld * Mikhail Bakunin (1814– 1876 in Bern) – Russian revolutionary anarchist * Karl Schenk (1823–1895) – pastor, politician and longest serving member of the Swiss Federal Council 1863–1895 * Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924) – lived in Bern 1914–1917 * Louise Elisabeth de Meuron (1882–1980) – aristocrat and eccentric personality in Bern * Dom Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza (born 1945) – claimant to the defunct Portuguese throne, as the head of the House of Braganza * Regula Rytz (born 1962) – politician, sociologist and historian * Ursula Wyss (born 1973) – economist and politician * Min Li Marti (born 1974), politician, publisher, sociologist and historian ; Science and academia * Albrecht von Haller (1708–1777) – anatomist, physiologist, naturalist, encyclopedist, bibliographer and poet * Carl Adolf Otth (1803–1839) – naturalist * Gustav Heinrich Otth (1806–1874) – mycologist * Carl Brunner von Wattenwyl (1823–1914) – entomologist who specialised in Orthoptera * Ludwig Fischer (botanist), Ludwig Fischer (1828–1907) – botanist, researched phanerogams and cryptogams * Emil Theodor Kocher (1841–1917) – physician and medical researcher, received the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work on the thyroid * Arnold Klebs (1870–1943) – physician who specialized in the study of tuberculosis * Anna Tumarkin (1875–1951) – Russian-born, naturalized Swiss academic, the first woman to become a professor of philosophy at the University of Bern * Albert Einstein (1879–1955) – worked out his theory of relativity while living in Bern, employed as a patent examiner at the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property, patent office * Ida Hoff (1880–1952) – pioneering doctor, a feminist activist and one of Bern's first regular female motorists * Aimé Félix Tschiffely (1895–1954) – Swiss-born, Argentine professor, writer and equestrian adventurer * Hans Albert Einstein (1904–1973) – Swiss-American engineer and educator, the second child and first son of Albert Einstein * Friedrich Tinner (born 1937) – nuclear engineer connected with the proliferation of nuclear materials in Iran, Libya, and North Korea * Claudia Rosiny (born 1960) – German-Swiss academic in Dance and Media studies, a festival director and cultural manager * Daniel Mojon (born 1963) – ophthalmologist and ophthalmic surgeon, invented minimally-invasive strabismus surgery ; Writing and acting * Ulrich Boner or Bonerius (early 14th century) – German-speaking Swiss writer of fable * Hans von Rüte (died 1558) – Bernese dramatist and chronicler of the Swiss Reformation * Johann David Wyss (1743–1818) – author, best remembered for The Swiss Family Robinson * Charles Victor de Bonstetten (1745–1832) – liberal writer * Daniel Albert Wyttenbach (1746–1820) – German Swiss classical scholar * Johann Rudolf Wyss (1782–1830) – author, writer, and folklorist who wrote the words to the former Swiss national anthem * Charles Monnard (1790–1865) – historian and member of the Helvetic Society * Selma Urfer (1928–2013) – author, translator and actress * Liselotte Pulver (born 1929) – actress, well known for her hearty and joyful laughter * Yves Rénier (born 1942) – French actor, director, screenwriter and voice actor * Lukas Hartmann (born 1944) – children's writer, Switzerland's "first husband" in 2015 * Yang Lian (poet), Yang Lian (born 1955) – Swiss-Chinese poet associated with the Misty Poets * Sibylle Canonica (born 1957) – actress, has appeared in more than forty films since 1981 * Georges Delnon (born 1958) – theatre director, artistic director and professor * Sabine Timoteo (born 1975) – actress * Yangzom Brauen (born 1980) – actress, activist and writer * Cleo von Adelsheim (born 1987) – German-Chilean actress ; Artists and painters * Niklaus Manuel Deutsch (c. 1484–1530) – artist, writer, mercenary and Reformed politician * Albrecht Kauw (1621–1681) – still-life painter, cartographer and a painter of vedute * Gabriel Lory the Elder (1763–1840) – Bernese landscape painter and illustrator * Ferdinand Hodler (1853–1918) – painter of portraits, landscapes and genre paintings * Lisa Wenger (1858–1941) – painter and author of children's books * Adolf Wölfli (1864–1930) – artist associated with Art Brut ; Musicians * Volkmar Andreae (1879–1962) – conductor and composer * Patricia Kopatchinskaja (born 1977) – Moldovan-Austrian-Swiss violinist *Margrit Zimmermann (born 1927) – pianist, composer, conductor and music educator * :de:Zora Slokar, Zora Slokar, horn player with Orchestra della Svizzera Italiana * Eric Blom CBE (1888–1959) – Swiss-born British-naturalised music lexicographer, musicologist, music critic and music The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, biographer * Klaus Huber (1924–2017) – composer and academic * Mani Matter (1936–1972) – singer-songwriter * Roland Zoss (born 1951) – songwriter and novelist, lives on the Aeolian Islands * Christine Lauterburg (born 1956) – singer, yodeler and actress * Luca Hänni (born 1994) – singer-songwriter, dancer, and model, Swiss representative at the Eurovision Song Contest 2019, 2019 Eurovision Song Contest * Giuseppe Bausilio (born 1997) – actor, dancer, and singer IMDb Database
retrieved 06 December 2018
; Business * Johann Rudolf Tschiffeli (1716–1780) – agronomist, a wealthy merchant, economist, and lawyer * Franz Rudolf Frisching (1733–1807) – Bernese patrician, officer, politician, and industrialist, founded the Frisching Faience Manufactory * Rodolphe Lindt (1855–1909) – chocolate manufacturer, founded the Lindt & Sprüngli, Lindt chocolate factory * Marianne Alvoni (born 1964) – fashion designer ; Sports * Otto Hess (1878–1926) a pitcher for the Cleveland Bronchos 1902 and 1904–08 and History of the Boston Braves, Boston Braves 1912–15 * Arnold Käch (1914–1998) a military officer, skier, ski official and writer * Philippe d'Ursel, Philippe Marie Eugène, Count d'Ursel (1920–2017) was a Swiss-born Belgian alpine skier and a member of the Ursel family, competed at the 1948 Winter Olympics * Ernst Schmied (1924–2002) a mountaineer, achieved the second successful summit of Mount Everest in 1956 * Willi Steffen (1925–2005) a former fighter pilot and international footballer, won 28 caps for his country * Jürg Marmet (1927–2013) a mountaineer, part of the first two-man Swiss team which climbed Mount Everest in 1956 * Christine Stückelberger (born 1947) a retired equestrian, gold medallist in dressage at the 1976 Summer Olympics compete at six Olympics: 1972, 1976, 1984, 1988, 1996 and 2000. * Christian Kauter (born 1947) a fencer, silver medallist in the team épée at the 1972 Summer Olympics and bronze medallist at the 1976 Summer Olympics * Markus Ryffel (born 1955) a former long-distance runner, silver medallist in the 5000 metres at the 1984 Summer Olympics * Maurizio Jacobacci (born 1963) an Italian-Swiss football manager and former player * Alain Sutter (born 1968) a footballer, 351 club caps, 58 national team caps * Guerino Gottardi (born 1970) a retired Swiss-Italian footballer, almost 250 club caps * Mirjam Ott (born 1972) a retired curler, captain of the Swiss Olympic Curling Team. * Tanja Frieden (born 1976) a snowboarder and gold medallist in the Snowboard Cross at the 2006 Winter Olympics * Esther Staubli (born 1979) a football referee, on the FIFA International Referees List since 2006 * Maja Neuenschwander (born 1980) a long-distance runner who competes in marathon races * Jennifer Oehrli (born 1989) a football goalkeeper, member of the Switzerland women's national football team * Dominik Märki (born 1990) a Swiss curler, living in Fayetteville, Arkansas, bronze medallist in the 2018 Winter Olympics * Roman Josi (born 1990) a professional ice hockey player, selected to play for Switzerland at the 2010 Winter Olympics


See also

*Municipalities of the canton of Bern


Notes and references


Notes


References


External links

* *
Bern Public Transportation Website (BernMobil)
* *
GurtenfestivalBuskers Bern
{{Authority control Bern, 1191 establishments in Europe 12th-century establishments in Switzerland Canton of Bern Cantonal capitals of Switzerland Capitals in Europe Cities in Switzerland Cultural property of national significance in the canton of Bern Populated places on the Aare University towns in Switzerland World Heritage Sites in Switzerland 14th-century establishments in the Old Swiss Confederacy 1350s establishments in the Holy Roman Empire 1353 establishments in Europe Free imperial cities