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Woodworking
Woodworking
is the activity or skill of making items from wood, and includes cabinet making ( Cabinetry
Cabinetry
and Furniture), wood carving, joinery, carpentry, and woodturning.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient Egypt 1.2 Ancient Rome 1.3 Ancient China

2 Modern day 3 Materials 4 Notable woodworkers 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

7.1 Further reading

8 External links

History[edit]

Ancient Egyptian woodworking

Along with stone, clay and animal parts, wood was one of the first materials worked by early humans. Microwear analysis of the Mousterian stone tools used by the Neanderthals show that many were used to work wood. The development of civilization was closely tied to the development of increasingly greater degrees of skill in working these materials.

Woodworking
Woodworking
shop in Germany
Germany
in 1568, the worker in front is using a bow saw, the one in the background is planing.

Among early finds of wooden tools are the worked sticks from Kalambo Falls, Clacton-on-Sea
Clacton-on-Sea
and Lehringen. The spears from Schöningen (Germany) provide some of the first examples of wooden hunting gear. Flint
Flint
tools were used for carving. Since Neolithic
Neolithic
times, carved wooden vessels are known, for example, from the Linear Pottery culture wells at Kückhofen and Eythra. Examples of Bronze Age
Bronze Age
wood-carving include tree trunks worked into coffins from northern Germany
Germany
and Denmark
Denmark
and wooden folding-chairs. The site of Fellbach-Schmieden in Germany
Germany
has provided fine examples of wooden animal statues from the Iron Age. Wooden idols from the La Tène period are known from a sanctuary at the source of the Seine
Seine
in France. Ancient Egypt[edit] There is significant evidence of advanced woodworking in ancient Egypt.[1] Woodworking
Woodworking
is depicted in many extant ancient Egyptian drawings, and a considerable amount of ancient Egyptian furniture (such as stools, chairs, tables, beds, chests) has been preserved. Tombs represent a large collection of these artefacts and the inner coffins found in the tombs were also made of wood. The metal used by the Egyptians
Egyptians
for woodworking tools was originally copper and eventually, after 2000 BC bronze as ironworking was unknown until much later.[2] Commonly used woodworking tools included axes, adzes, chisels, pull saws, and bow drills. Mortise and tenon
Mortise and tenon
joints are attested from the earliest Predynastic period. These joints were strengthened using pegs, dowels and leather or cord lashings. Animal glue
Animal glue
came to be used only in the New Kingdom
New Kingdom
period.[3] Ancient Egyptians
Egyptians
invented the art of veneering and used varnishes for finishing, though the composition of these varnishes is unknown. Although different native acacias were used, as was the wood from the local sycamore and tamarisk trees, deforestation in the Nile valley
Nile valley
resulted in the need for the importation of wood, notably cedar, but also Aleppo pine, boxwood and oak, starting from the Second Dynasty.[4] Ancient Rome[edit] Woodworking
Woodworking
was essential to the Romans. It provided, sometimes the only, material for buildings, transportation, tools, and household items. Wood
Wood
also provided pipes, dye, waterproofing materials, and energy for heat.[5]:1Although most examples of Roman woodworking have been lost,[5]:2 the literary record preserved much of the contemporary knowledge. Vitruvius
Vitruvius
dedicates an entire chapter of his De architectura to timber, preserving many details.[6] Pliny, while not a botanist, dedicated six books of his Natural History to trees and woody plants, providing a wealth of information on trees and their uses.[7] Ancient China[edit] The progenitors of Chinese woodworking are considered to be Lu Ban (魯班) and his wife Lady Yun, from the Spring and Autumn period
Spring and Autumn period
(771 to 476 BC). Lu Ban
Lu Ban
is said to have introduced the plane, chalk-line, and other tools to China. His teachings were supposedly left behind in the book Lu Ban
Lu Ban
Jing (魯班經, "Manuscript of Lu Ban"). Despite this, it is believed that the text was written some 1500 years after his death. This book is filled largely with descriptions of dimensions for use in building various items such as flower pots, tables, altars, etc., and also contains extensive instructions concerning Feng Shui. It mentions almost nothing of the intricate glue-less and nail-less joinery for which Chinese furniture
Chinese furniture
was so famous.

Damascene woodworkers turning wood for mashrabia and hookass, 19th century.

Micronesian of Tobi, Palau, making a paddle for his wa with an adze.

Modern day[edit] With the advances in modern technology and the demands of industry, woodwork as a field has changed. The development of Computer Numeric Controlled (CNC) Machines, for example, has made us able to mass-produce and reproduce products faster, with less waste, and often more complex in design than ever before. CNC
CNC
Routers can carve complicated and highly detailed shapes into flat stock, to create signs or art. Rechargeable power tools speed up creation of many projects and require much less body strength than in the past, for example when boring multiple holes. Skilled fine woodworking, however, remains a craft pursued by many. There remains demand for hand crafted work such as furniture and arts, however with rate and cost of production, the cost for consumers is much higher. Materials[edit] Historically, woodworkers relied upon the woods native to their region, until transportation and trade innovations made more exotic woods available to the craftsman. Woods are typically sorted into three basic types: hardwoods typified by tight grain and derived from broadleaf trees, softwoods from coniferous trees, and man-made materials such as plywood and MDF. Typically furniture such as tables and chairs is made using solid stock, and cabinet/fixture makers employ the use of plywood and other man made panel products. Some furniture, such as the Windsor chair involve green woodworking, shaping with wood while it contains it's natural moisture prior to drying. Notable woodworkers[edit] See also: List of furniture designers

Alvar Aalto Norm Abram John Boson Frank E. Cummings III Henning Engelsen Wharton Esherick Tage Frid Alexander Grabovetskiy Greta Hopkinson James Krenov Mark Lindquist Sal Maccarone Thomas J. MacDonald John Makepeace Sam Maloof David J. Marks George Nakashima Jere Osgood Alan Peters Matthias Pliessnig André Jacob Roubo Paul Sellers Evert Sodergren Henry O. Studley Roy Underhill Frank Klausz

See also[edit]

Boat building Cabinet making Carpentry Ébéniste Fire hardening Glossary of woodworking terms Green woodworking History of construction History of wood carving Intarsia Japanese carpentry Lath art Luthier Millwork Marionette Marquetry Saw
Saw
pit Segmented turning Sloyd, a system of handicraft-based education Stave church Studio Furniture Tack cloth Timber framing Turning Wood
Wood
carving Wood
Wood
glue Wood
Wood
Inlay Woodturning Woodworking
Woodworking
workbench

Notes[edit]

^ Killen, Geoffrey (1994). Egyptian Woodworking
Woodworking
and Furniture. Shire Publications. ISBN 0747802394.  ^ Leospo, Enrichetta (2001), " Woodworking
Woodworking
in Ancient Egypt", The Art of Woodworking, Turin: Museo Egizio, p.20 ^ Leospo, pp.20-21 ^ Leospo, pp. 17-19 ^ a b Ulrich, Roger B. (2008). Roman Woodworking. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300134605. OCLC 192003268.  ^ Vitruvius. De architectura. 1:2.9.1.  ^ Pliny. Natural History. 

References[edit]

Feirer, John L. (1988). Cabinetmaking and Millwork. Mission Hills California: Glencoe Publishing. ISBN 0-02-675950-0.  Frid, Tage (1979). Tage Frid Teaches Woodworking. Newton, Connecticut: Taunton Press. ISBN 0-918804-03-5.  Joyce, Edward (1987). Encyclopedia of Furniture
Furniture
Making. revised and expanded by Alan Peters. New York: Sterling Publishing Co. ISBN 0-8069-6440-5.  Roubo, André Jacob (1769–1784). The Art of the Joiner. Paris: French Academy of Sciences. 

Further reading[edit]

Naylor, Andrew. A review of wood machining literature with a special focus on sawing. BioRes, April 2013

External links[edit]

Video about the Zafimaniry
Zafimaniry
peoples in Madagascar. Videos about woodworking published by Institut für den Wissenschaftlichen Film. Available in the AV- Portal of the German National Library of Science and Technology.

v t e

Woodworking

Overviews

History Glossary Wood
Wood
(lumber)

Forms

Boat building Bow and arrow Bush carpentry Cabinetry Caning Carpentry Certosina Chainsaw
Chainsaw
carving Chip carving Clogs Ébéniste Fretwork Intarsia Japanese carpentry Khatam Kohlrosing Log building Marquetry Millwork Parquetry Pyrography Relief carving Root carving Sawdust Segmented turning Shingle weaving Shipbuilding Spindle turning Timber framing Treen Whittling Wood
Wood
carving Woodturning Wood
Wood
flour

Woods

Soft

Cedar (Calocedrus, Cedrus) Cypress Douglas fir Fir Juniper Larch Pine Spruce Yew

Hard

Ash Alder Aspen Balsa Beech Birch Cherry Chestnut Cocobolo Ebony Elm Hazel Lignum vitae Linden (lime, basswood) Mahogany Maple Oak Padauk Plum Poplar Teak Totara Walnut Willow

Tools

Abrasives Axe Adze Chisel Clamp Drawknife Drill Float Mallet Milling machine Mitre box Moulding plane Plane Rasp Router Sandpaper Spokeshave Timber-framing Vise Winding sticks Wood
Wood
scribe Workbench

Saws

Backsaw Bandsaw Bow Bucksaw Chainsaw Circular Compass Coping Crosscut Frame Fretsaw Jigsaw Keyhole Miter Rip Scroll Table Veneer Whipsaw

Geometry

Joints

Birdsmouth Bridle Butt Butterfly Coping Crown of thorns Dado Dovetail Finger Groove Halved Hammer-headed tenon Knee Lap Mason's mitre Miter Mortise and tenon Rabbet/Rebate Scarf Splice Tongue and groove

Profiles

Bead Bevel Chamfer Molding Ogee Ogive

Treatments

French polish Heat bending Paint Paint
Paint
stripper Steam bending Thermal Varnish Wood
Wood
drying Wood
Wood
preservation Wood
Wood
stain Wood
Wood
finishing

Organizations

American Association of Woodturners Architectural Woodwork Institute British Woodworking
Woodworking
Federation Building and Wood
Wood
Workers' International Caricature Carvers of America International Federation of Building and Wood
Wood
Workers National Wood
Wood
Carvers Association Society of Wood
Wood
Engravers Timber Framers Guild

Conversion

Chainsaw
Chainsaw
mill Hewing Sawmill Whipsaw Wood
Wood
splitting

Techniques

Frame and panel Frameless construction

Category WikiProject Commons

v t e

Forestry

Outline Index Forest
Forest
areas Ministries Research institutes Colleges Journals Arbor Day

Types

Agroforestry

dehesa

Analog forestry Bamboo forestry Close to nature forestry Community forestry Ecoforestry Energy forestry Mycoforestry Permaforestry Plantation forestry Social forestry Sustainable forestry Urban forestry

Ecology and management

Arboriculture Controlled burn Dendrology Ecological thinning Even-aged management Fire ecology Forest

informatics IPM inventory governance law old-growth pathology protection restoration secondary transition

Forest
Forest
certification

ATFS CFS FSC PEFC SFI SmartWood Woodland Carbon Code

Forestation

afforestation reforestation

Growth and yield modelling Horticulture

GM trees

i-Tree

urban

Silviculture Sustainable management Tree

allometry breeding

Tree
Tree
measurement

crown girth height volume

Environmental topics

Acid rain Carbon sequestration Clearcutting Deforestation Ecological services Forest
Forest
dieback Forest
Forest
fragmentation High grading Illegal logging Invasive species REDD Shifting cultivation

chitemene slash-and-burn slash-and-char svedjebruk

Timber recycling Wildfire Wilding

Industries

Coppicing Forest
Forest
farming Forest
Forest
gardening Logging Manufacturing

lumber plywood pulp and paper sawmilling

Products

biochar biomass charcoal non-timber palm oil rayon rubber tanbark

Rail transport Tree
Tree
farm

Christmas trees

Wood

engineered fuel mahogany teak

Woodworking

Occupations

Forester Arborist Bucker Choker setter Ecologist Feller Firefighter

handcrew hotshot lookout smokejumper

River driver Truck driver Log scaler Lumberjack Ranger Resin tapper Rubber tapper Shingle weaver Timber cruiser Tree
Tree
planter Wood
Wood
process engineer

Portal Category

Authority control

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