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Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
(/ˌwʊlvərˈhæmptən/ ( listen)) is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. At the 2011 census, it had a population of 249,470.[2][3] The demonym for people from the city is "Wulfrunian". Historically part of Staffordshire, the city is named after Wulfrun, who founded the town in 985, from the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
Wulfrūnehēantūn ("Wulfrūn's high or principal enclosure or farm").[4][5][6] Prior to the Norman Conquest, the area's name appears only as variants of Heantune or Hamtun, the prefix Wulfrun
Wulfrun
or similar appearing in 1070 and thereafter.[5] Alternatively, the city may have earned its original name from Wulfereēantūn ("Wulfhere's high or principal enclosure or farm") after the Mercian King,[7] who tradition tells us established an abbey in 659, though no evidence of an abbey has been found.[8] The variation Wolveren Hampton is seen in medieval records, e.g. in 1381.[9] The city grew initially as a market town specialising in the woollen trade. In the Industrial Revolution, it became a major centre for coal mining, steel production, lock making and the manufacture of cars and motorcycles. The economy of the city is still based on engineering, including a large aerospace industry, as well as the service sector.[10]

Contents

1 History

1.1 19th century 1.2 Since 1900 1.3 Art and culture 1.4 Exhibitions

2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Areas of the city 2.3 Nearby places 2.4 Green belt

3 Government

3.1 Civic history 3.2 Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Council 3.3 Honorary Aldermen 3.4 Police

4 Freemen of Wolverhampton 5 Demography

5.1 Population change

6 Economy

6.1 Tallest buildings 6.2 Regeneration

7 Transport

7.1 Road 7.2 Rail 7.3 Buses

7.3.1 Bilston
Bilston
bus station

7.4 Metro 7.5 Air 7.6 Waterways 7.7 Cycling

8 Culture

8.1 Music 8.2 Arts and museums 8.3 Libraries 8.4 Media

9 Education 10 Sport

10.1 Football 10.2 Athletics 10.3 Cycling 10.4 Horse and greyhound racing 10.5 Motor sports 10.6 Marathon

11 Places of interest 12 Notable people 13 See also 14 Notes 15 External links

History[edit] A local tradition states that King Wulfhere of Mercia
Wulfhere of Mercia
founded an abbey of St Mary at Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
in 659.[11] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is recorded as being the site of a decisive battle between the unified Mercian Angles and West Saxons against the raiding Danes in 910, although sources are unclear as to whether the battle itself took place in Wednesfield
Wednesfield
or Tettenhall.[12] The Mercians and West Saxons claimed a decisive victory, and the field of Woden is recognised by numerous place names in Wednesfield.[13][14]

Statue of Lady Wulfrun
Wulfrun
on western side of St. Peter's Collegiate Church

In 985, King Ethelred the Unready
Ethelred the Unready
granted lands at a place referred to as Heantun to Lady Wulfrun
Wulfrun
by royal charter,[15] and hence founding the settlement. In 994, a monastery was consecrated in Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
for which Wulfrun granted land at Upper Arley
Upper Arley
in Worcestershire, Bilston, Willenhall, Wednesfield, Pelsall, Ogley Hay
Ogley Hay
near Brownhills, Hilton near Wall, Hatherton, Kinvaston, Hilton near Wolverhampton, and Featherstone.[15] This became the site for the current St. Peter's Church.[16] A statue of Lady Wulfrun, sculpted by Sir Charles Wheeler, can be seen on the stairs outside the church.[15] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is recorded in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
in 1086 as being in the Hundred of Seisdon
Seisdon
and the county of Staffordshire. The lords of the manor are listed as the canons of St Mary (the church's dedication was changed to St Peter after this date), with the tenant-in-chief being Samson, William the Conqueror's personal chaplain.[17] Wolverhampton at this date is a large settlement of fifty households.[18] In 1179, there is mention of a market held in the town, and in 1204 it had come to the attention of King John that the town did not possess a Royal Charter for holding a market. This charter for a weekly market held on a Wednesday was eventually granted on 4 February 1258 by Henry III.[16] It is held that in the 14th and 15th centuries that Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
was one of the "staple towns" of the woollen trade,[16] which today can be seen by the inclusion of a woolpack on the city's coat of arms,[19] and by the many small streets, especially in the city centre, called "Fold" (examples being Blossom's Fold, Farmers Fold, Townwell Fold and Victoria Fold), as well as Woolpack Street and Woolpack Alley.[16] In 1512, Sir Stephen Jenyns, a former Lord Mayor of London
Lord Mayor of London
and a twice Master of the Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors, who was born in the city, founded Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Grammar School, one of the oldest active schools in Britain.[20] From the 16th century onwards, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
became home to a number of metal industries including lock and key making and iron and brass working. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
suffered two Great Fires: the first in April 1590, and the second in September 1696. Both fires started in today's Salop Street. The first fire lasted for five days and left nearly 700 people homeless, whilst the second destroyed 60 homes in the first five hours. This second fire led to the purchase of the first fire engine within the city in September 1703.[16] On 27 January 1606,[21] two farmers, Thomas Smart and John Holyhead
Holyhead
of Rowley Regis, were executed on High Green, now Queen Square, for sheltering two of the Gunpowder Plotters, Robert Wintour
Robert Wintour
and Stephen Littleton,[22] who had fled to the Midlands. The pair played no part in the original plot but nevertheless suffered a traitor's death of being hanged, drawn and quartered on butcher's blocks set up in the square a few days before the execution of Guy Fawkes
Guy Fawkes
and several other plotters in London.[16] There is also evidence that Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
may have been the location of the first working Newcomen Steam Engine in 1712.[23] 19th century[edit]

Wightwick Manor

The young Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent (later Queen Victoria) is known to have visited Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
in the 1830s and described it as "a large and dirty town" but one which received her "with great friendliness and pleasure". In Victorian times, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
grew to be a wealthy town mainly due to the huge amount of industry that occurred as a result of the abundance of coal and iron deposits in the area. The remains of this wealth can be seen in local houses such as Wightwick Manor
Wightwick Manor
and The Mount (both built for the Mander family, prominent varnish and paint manufacturers), and Tettenhall
Tettenhall
Towers. All three are located in the western fringe of Wolverhampton, in the areas known as Wightwick and Tettenhall. Many other houses of similar stature were demolished in the 1960s and 1970s.

Statue of Prince Albert, Queen Square

Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
gained its first parliamentary representation as part of the Reform Act 1832, when it was one of 22 large towns that were allocated two members of parliament. A local mob attacking electors who voted or intended to vote for the Tory candidate led to the 1835 Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
riot, with Dragoons called in to end the intimidation. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
was incorporated as a municipal borough on 15 March 1848 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
before becoming a county borough in 1889.[24] The railways reached Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
in 1837, with the first station located at Wednesfield
Wednesfield
Heath, now Heath Town, on the Grand Junction Railway.[25] This station was demolished in 1965, but the area exists as a nature reserve just off Powell Street.[26] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
railway works was established in 1849 for the Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury
and Birmingham Railway and became the Northern Division workshop of the Great Western Railway in 1854.[27] In the 19th century the city saw much immigration from Wales
Wales
and Ireland, following the Irish Potato Famine. In 1866, a statue was erected in memory of Prince Albert the Prince Consort, the unveiling of which brought Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
to Wolverhampton.[28] The unveiling of the statue was the first public appearance Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
had made since the funeral of her husband. A 40-foot-tall (12 m) archway made of coal was constructed for the visit. The Queen was so pleased with the statue that she knighted the then-mayor, an industrialist named John Morris. Market Square, originally named High Green, was renamed Queen Square in honour of the visit. The statue replaced a Russian cannon captured from Sevastopol during the Crimean War
Crimean War
in 1855,[24] and remains standing in Queen Square. The statue is known locally, especially among younger residents, as "The Man on the Horse". Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
was represented politically in Victorian times by the Liberal MP Charles Pelham Villiers, a noted free trade supporter, who was also the longest serving MP in parliamentary history. Lord Wolverhampton, Henry Hartley Fowler was MP for Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
at the turn of the century. The Stafford
Stafford
Street drill hall was completed in 1890.[29] Since 1900[edit] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
had a prolific bicycle industry from 1868 to 1975, during which time a total of more than 200 bicycle manufacturing companies existed there, but today none exist at all. These manufacturers included Viking, Marston, Sunbeam, Star, Wulfruna and Rudge.[30] The last volume manufacturers of bicycles left Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
during the 1960s and 1970s – the largest and best-known of which was Viking Cycles Ltd,[31] whose team dominated the UK racing scene in the 1950s (Viking's production of hand-built lightweight racing and juvenile bicycles exceeded 20,000 units in 1965). Closures of other smaller cycle makers followed during the 1980s including such well-known hand-builders as Percy Stallard (the former professional cyclist) and Jack Hateley.[32] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
High Level station (the current main railway station) opened in 1852, but the original station was demolished in 1965 and then rebuilt.[33] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Low Level station opened on the Great Western Railway in 1855. The site of the Low Level station, which closed to passengers in 1972 and completely in 1981, is currently undergoing redevelopment.[34] In 1918, David Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister, announced he was calling a General Election at "The Mount" in Tettenhall
Tettenhall
Wood.[35] Lloyd George also made his "Homes fit for heroes" speech at Wolverhampton Grand Theatre
Wolverhampton Grand Theatre
in the same year.[36] It was on the idea of "Homes fit for heroes" that Lloyd George was to fight the 1918 "Coupon" General Election. Mass council housing development in Wolverhampton, to rehouse families from slum housing, began after the end of the World War I, with new estates at Parkfields (near the border with Coseley) and Birches Barn (near Bantock Park in the west of Wolverhampton) being built, giving the city some 550 new council houses by 1923. The first large council housing development in Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
was the Low Hill
Low Hill
estate to the north-east of the city, which consisted of more than 2,000 new council houses by 1927 and was one of the largest housing estates in Britain at the time.[37] Mass council housing development in Wolverhampton continued into the 1930s, mostly in the north of the city in the Oxley and Wobaston areas and on the new Scotlands Estate
Scotlands Estate
in the north-east. However, council house building halted in 1940 following the outbreak of World War II
World War II
in September the previous year.[38] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
St George's (in the city centre) is now the northern terminus for the Midland Metro
Midland Metro
light rail system. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
was one of the few towns to operate surface contact trams and the only town to use the Lorain Surface Contact System.[39] Trolleybuses appeared in 1923, and in 1930 for a brief period the Wolverhampton trolleybus system was the world's largest trolleybus system.[40] The last Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
trolleybus ran in 1967, just as the railway line through the High Level station was converted to electric operation.

Location of the UK's first set of traffic lights at Princes Square: the poles are painted with black and white bands as they were originally.

England's first automatic traffic lights could be seen in Princes Square, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
in 1927.[41] The modern traffic lights at this location have the traditional striped poles to commemorate this fact. Princes Square was also the location of the United Kingdom's first pedestrian safety barriers, which were erected in 1934.[42] On 2 November 1927, the A4123 New Road was opened by the then-Prince of Wales
Wales
(later Edward VIII)[43] linking the city with Birmingham. The New Road was designed as an unemployment relief project[44] and was the United Kingdom's first purpose-built intercity highway of the twentieth century.[45] Sir Geoffrey Le Mesurier Mander, a member of the Mander family, was Liberal MP for Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
East from 1929 to 1945, distinguished for his stance against appeasement and as a supporter of the League of Nations. He was known as "the last of the Midland radicals". More recent members have included the Conservative mavericks Enoch Powell and Nicholas Budgen. Powell was a member of Edward Heath's Tory shadow cabinet from 1964, until he was dismissed in April 1968 following his controversial Rivers of Blood speech
Rivers of Blood speech
in which he warned of massive civil unrest if mass immigration of black and Asian commonwealth inhabitants continued. In 2005, former Bilston
Bilston
councillor and MP for Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
South East, Dennis Turner entered the House of Lords
House of Lords
as Lord Bilston. After the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945, the council erected 400 prefabricated bungalows across Wolverhampton, and built its first permanent postwar houses at the Underhill Estate near Bushbury
Bushbury
in the late 1940s.[46] The 1950s saw many new houses and flats built across Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
as the rehousing programme from the slums continued, as well as the local council agreeing deals with neighbouring authorities Wednesfield
Wednesfield
Urban District and Seisdon
Seisdon
Rural District which saw families relocated to new estates in those areas.[47] The 1960s saw the rehousing programme continue, with multi-storey blocks being built on a large scale across Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
at locations including Blakenhall, Whitmore Reans
Whitmore Reans
and Chetton Green. The later part of the decade saw the Heath Town
Heath Town
district almost completely redeveloped with multi-story flats and maisonette blocks.[48] By 1975, by which time Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
had also taken in the majority of the former districts of Bilston, Wednesfield
Wednesfield
and parts of Willenhall, Sedgley
Sedgley
and Coseley, almost a third of Wolverhampton's population lived in council housing, but since that date social housing has been built on a minimal scale in the area, and some of the 1919–1975 developments have since been demolished.[49] Large numbers of black and Asian immigrants settled in Wolverhampton in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is home to a large proportion of the Sikh
Sikh
community, who settled there during the period (1935–1975) from the Indian state of Punjab. Today, the Sikh community in Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is roughly 9.1% of the city's population. In 1974, as a result of local government reorganisation, Wolverhampton became a metropolitan borough. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
government announced on 18 December 2000 that Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
would be granted city status – an honour that had been unsuccessfully applied for in 1953, 1966, 1977,[50] 1985[51] and 1992[50] – making it one of three "Millennium Cities".[52] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
also made an unsuccessful application for a Lord Mayor in 2002.[50] Many of the city centre's buildings date from the early 20th century and before, the oldest buildings being St Peter's Church (which was built in the 13th century but has been largely extended and refurbished since the 15th century, situated on Lichfield
Lichfield
Street)[53] and a framed timber 17th-century building on Victoria Street which is now one of just two remaining in the area which was heavily populated by them until the turn of the 20th century. This building was originally a residential property, but later became the Hand Inn public house. It was completely restored in 1981 after a two-year refurbishment project and has been used by various businesses since then – currently as a second-hand book shop.[54] The Wolverhampton Ring Road
Wolverhampton Ring Road
circumnavigates the city centre linking the majority of the city's radial routes. It was constructed in sections between 1960 and 1986, and carries the number A4150. The centre of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
has been altered radically since the mid-1960s, with the Mander Centre (plans for which were unveiled on 15 April 1965)[55] being opened in two phases, the first in 1968 and the second in 1971. Several refurbishments have taken place since. The Wulfrun
Wulfrun
Centre, an open shopping area, was opened alongside the Mander Centre's first phase in 1968, but has been undercover since a roof was added in the late 1990s.[56] Central Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
police station was built just south of the city centre on Birmingham
Birmingham
Road during the 1960s, but operations there were cut back in the early 1990s when a new larger police station was built on Bilston
Bilston
Street on land which became vacant a decade earlier on the demolition of a factory. This was officially opened by Diana, Princess of Wales, on 31 July 1992.[57] The city centre had several cinemas during the 20th century. The last of these was the ABC Cinema (formerly the Savoy), which closed in 1991 after 54 years. It has since been converted into a nightclub, with part of the site being converted into the offices of a recruitment agency in 2005.[58] A modern landmark in the city centre is the Crown Court on Bilston Street, which opened in 1990 as the town's first purpose-built crown court.[59] Many department store chains including Beatties, Marks & Spencer and Next have stores in the centre of Wolverhampton. Debenhams
Debenhams
is set to open a 3-floor department store in the Mander Centre in 2017. Rackhams
Rackhams
had a store on Snow Hill for some 25 years until 1992. This building was then divided between a Netto supermarket and the local archives service, but by 2006 its future was under threat as part of the proposed Summer Row retail development. This led to the closure of the Netto supermarket in June 2007 and the relocation of the archives service to the Molineux Hotel building in 2008. The building is now being demolished toward a development push from the Local Authority at various sites around the City. Art and culture[edit] From the 18th century, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
was well known for production of japanned ware and steel jewellery. The renowned 18th- and 19th-century artists Joseph Barney
Joseph Barney
(1753–1832), Edward Bird
Edward Bird
(1772–1819), and George Wallis
George Wallis
(1811–1891) were all born in Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
and initially trained as japanned ware painters. The School of Practical Art was opened in the 1850s and eventually became a close associate of the Art Gallery. Among its students and teachers were Robert Jackson Emerson (1878–1944), Sir Charles Wheeler (Emerson's most famous pupil and the sculptor of the fountains in Trafalgar Square), Sara Page
Sara Page
who established her studio in Paris, and many other artists and sculptors recognised locally and nationally. Wolverhampton Art Gallery
Wolverhampton Art Gallery
was established in 1884, whilst Wolverhampton Grand Theatre
Wolverhampton Grand Theatre
was opened in 1894. There is a Creative Industries Quarter in Wolverhampton, just off Broad Street, with facilities ranging from the newly opened Slade Rooms, to the art house cinema the Light House Media Centre and the Arena Theatre, which is part of the University of Wolverhampton. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
has a strong history in the ornate cast iron safe painting industry from the Victorian era. Numerous companies, such as Chubb Lock and Safe Company, hired, taught and expanded their artistic status to international reputation, whereby a safe became truly a work of art with fine script and hand-painted designs, highly collectible today. Even in the United States, one can find their preserved masterpieces to this day. The building was converted into a National Historic Registered Landmark Treasure in 1992, which now houses a cinema, art galleries, nightclub, business offices and a beautiful large stained glass rotunda in its foyer. It is among the few canal street factories so well known in the "Black Country" that has been preserved. Wolverhampton's biggest public art display is taking place between July and September 2017. Wolves in Wolves
Wolves in Wolves
sees the installation of 30 wolf sculptures in the city centre and West Park, with the sculptures set to be auctioned off to raise money for charity when the event is complete. Exhibitions[edit] As its wealth and influence grew, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
both took part in notable exhibitions and hosted them. The Great Exhibition
The Great Exhibition
of 1851, at The Crystal Palace, had examples of locks, japanned ware, enamel ware and papier-mâché products all manufactured in Wolverhampton.[60] Following successful exhibitions at Mechanics' Institutes in Manchester
Manchester
and many northern towns, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
held an exhibition that was the brain child of George Wallis, an artist employed by the firm of Ryton and Walton. The exhibition was held in the Mechanics' Institute in Queen Street and showed fine art, furniture, and decorated trays, as well as a variety of ironwork, locks and steel toys.[61] On 11 May 1869 The Earl Granville opened the Exhibition of Staffordshire
Staffordshire
Arts and Industry in a temporary building in the grounds of Molineux House.[61] The largest and most ambitious exhibition was the Arts and Industrial Exhibition which took place in 1902. Although housing only one international pavilion, from Canada, the scope and scale of the exhibition mirrored all the advances in other exhibitions of its time. The exhibition site featured several halls housing machinery, industrial products, a concert hall, two bandstands, a restaurant, and a fun fair with thrill rides and a water chute. Its opening, by the Duke of Connaught, was received with hopeful enthusiasm, unfortunately not matched by the weather, which contributed to a £30,000 loss, equivalent to nearly £2M at today's value.[61][62] Geography[edit] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
lies northwest of its larger near-neighbour Birmingham, and forms the second largest part of the West Midlands conurbation.[63] To the north and west lies the Staffordshire
Staffordshire
and Shropshire
Shropshire
countryside. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
city centre falls outside of the area traditionally known as the Black Country, although some districts such as Bilston and Heath Town
Heath Town
and the Willenhall
Willenhall
side of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
fall within the Black Country
Black Country
coalfields, leading to confusion as to whether the entire city falls within the region. Modern usage has tended towards using the term to refer to the western part of the West Midlands county, excluding Birmingham, Solihull
Solihull
and Coventry. Examples would be UK Government regional bodies such as the Black Country
Black Country
Development Corporation, under whose remit the city fell. The city lies upon the Midlands Plateau at 163 m (535 ft) above sea level.[64] There are no major rivers within the city, although the River Penk
River Penk
and River Tame (tributaries of the River Trent) rise in the city, as does Smestow Brook, a tributary of the River Stour, and thence the River Severn. This means that the city lies astride the main east-west watershed of England. The geology of the city is complex, with a combination of Triassic
Triassic
and Carboniferous
Carboniferous
geology; specifically Bunter and Keuper
Keuper
sandstone, and Upper and Middle Coal measures. There is also an area of dolerite intrusions.[65] Climate[edit] Wolverhampton's climate is oceanic (Köppen Cfb) and therefore quite temperate, with average maximum temperatures in July being around 21 °C (70 °F), and with the maximum daytime temperature in January being around 6.9 °C (44.4 °F). The Met Office's nearest observation station is at Penkridge, about 11 miles (18 km) north of the city.

Climate data for Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14 (57) 18 (64) 21 (70) 25 (77) 27 (81) 31 (88) 35 (95) 35 (95) 28 (82) 28 (82) 21 (70) 16 (61) 35 (95)

Average high °C (°F) 6.9 (44.4) 7.3 (45.1) 10.1 (50.2) 12.8 (55) 16.2 (61.2) 19.1 (66.4) 21.5 (70.7) 21.1 (70) 18.2 (64.8) 14 (57) 10 (50) 7.2 (45) 13.7 (56.65)

Average low °C (°F) 1.5 (34.7) 1.2 (34.2) 2.9 (37.2) 4 (39) 6.8 (44.2) 9.6 (49.3) 11.7 (53.1) 11.5 (52.7) 9.6 (49.3) 6.9 (44.4) 3.9 (39) 1.6 (34.9) 5.93 (42.67)

Record low °C (°F) −13 (9) −13 (9) −11 (12) −6 (21) −3 (27) −1 (30) 3 (37) 3 (37) −1 (30) −7 (19) −10 (14) −15 (5) −15 (5)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 58.2 (2.291) 39.7 (1.563) 47.6 (1.874) 51.1 (2.012) 55.7 (2.193) 58.5 (2.303) 55.5 (2.185) 59 (2.32) 60.5 (2.382) 67.4 (2.654) 64.5 (2.539) 63.5 (2.5) 681.2 (26.816)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 47.9 65.5 97.5 139.6 179.6 164.2 183.6 168.1 124.9 97.8 57.3 38.3 1,364.3

Source #1: [66]

Source #2: Penkridge
Penkridge
extremes (nearest station)[67]

Areas of the city[edit] See also: List of areas in Wolverhampton As with much of the locality, the majority of areas in Wolverhampton have names that are of Old English
Old English
(Anglo-Saxon) origin, with a few exceptions such as Penn (pre-English Brittonic place name) and Parkfields, Park Village, Lanesfield etc. (modern place names of the last couple of hundred years).[68] Localities in the City of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
include:

Aldersley All Saints Ashmore Park Bilston
Bilston
† Blakenhall Bradley Bradmore Bushbury Castlecroft Chapel Ash Claregate Compton Coseley
Coseley
† Dunstall Hill East Park Essington
Essington
†† Ettingshall Fallings Park Finchfield Fordhouses Goldthorn Park Gorsebrook Graiseley Heath Town Horseley Fields Lanesfield Low Hill Lower Penn
Lower Penn
†† Merridale Merry Hill Monmore Green Newbridge Old Fallings Oxley Park Village Pendeford Penn Penn Fields Perton
Perton
†† Portobello Scotlands Estate Sedgley
Sedgley
† Stowheath Tettenhall Tettenhall
Tettenhall
Wood Warstones Wednesfield
Wednesfield
† Whitmore Reans Wightwick Willenhall
Willenhall
† Wood End Woodcross

Notes  †–Partial Urban Districts added to Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
County Borough
County Borough
in 1966. These Urban Districts were split between Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
and other local authorities. Those parts within the present City of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
local council area are considered by the ONS to be part of the Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Urban sub-division. ††–Areas within the Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Urban Sub-division but administered by South Staffordshire
Staffordshire
District Council.

Nearby places[edit] See also: Black Country Cities

Birmingham Coventry Lichfield Stoke-on-Trent Worcester

Towns

Bridgnorth Cannock Dudley Newport Penkridge Sedgley Stafford Stourbridge Telford Tipton Walsall Wednesbury West Bromwich

Commuter villages

Albrighton Bilbrook Brewood Cheslyn Hay Codsall Coven Essington Featherstone Pattingham Seisdon Tong Trysull Weston-under-Lizard Wheaton Aston Wombourne

Green belt[edit] Main article: West Midlands Green Belt Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
has green belt within its boundary, as a part of the wider West Midlands Green Belt. This is scattered around the western half of the city, in the form of green wedges, due to it being highly urbanised.[69] The green belt is in place to prevent further urban sprawl, and preserve greenfield areas. Areas covered include:[70] Moseley Parklands Land by Grassy Lane at Wood Hayes Ashmore Park Goldthorn/ Lower Penn
Lower Penn
Green Holy Trinity Church, Ettingshall Park The Grange, Wergs Beacon Hill Cemetery Land south of Pattingham Aldersley
Aldersley
School Perton
Perton
Road/Boundary Farm South Staffs Golf Course Highfields School Pennwood Lane Smestow Valley/Valley Park Goldthorn/ Lower Penn
Lower Penn
Green Government[edit] The vast majority of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is governed locally by Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Council, although some smaller parts of the urban area are governed by South Staffordshire
Staffordshire
District Council. The area administered by the City Council is represented in the national United Kingdom
United Kingdom
parliament by three MPs representing Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
South West, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
South East and Wolverhampton North East constituencies, with the areas administered by South Staffordshire
Staffordshire
District Council being represented by South Staffordshire
Staffordshire
constituency. The entire city is part of the West Midlands constituency of the European Parliament. The City of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is a metropolitan borough, meaning that its City Council is effectively a unitary authority, and therefore is single-tier and provides all services to the district that a borough and county council would together. South Staffordshire
Staffordshire
District Council is a two-tier authority, with some services provided by Staffordshire
Staffordshire
County Council. Civic history[edit]

Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
in 1921

The old Town Hall (magistrates court)

Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
gained the beginnings of modern local government in 1777, when the Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Improvement Act was passed by Parliament. This allowed for the establishment of 125 Town Commissioners who undertook a variety of local improvement work such as punishing bear baiting, improving drainage, widening streets and by the end of the century street lighting had been provided at every street corner and over the doorway of every inn, and water supply had been improved by the sinking of ten new wells and the provision of a great water tank in the market place. Policing had been improved with the appointment of ten watchmen and attempts were also made to regulate the markets and inspect hazardous food.[4][71] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
parliamentary borough was created by the Reform Act 1832, which included areas currently located with the Metropolitan Boroughs of Dudley, Walsall
Walsall
and Sandwell
Sandwell
such as Wren's Nest, New Invention and Sedgley. It was one of 22 large towns that returned two members of parliament. Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885, the original borough was replaced by three new single-member constituencies: Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
East, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
South and Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
West.[72] In 1837, Wolverhampton Borough Police
Wolverhampton Borough Police
was formed. It was disestablished in 1966, and the larger West Midlands Constabulary, which covered not only Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
but the County Boroughs of Walsall, Dudley, West Bromwich
West Bromwich
and Warley took over its duties and was headquartered in the city. This force was then replaced in 1974 with the West Midlands Police.[73] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1849 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835.[74] The town was then made a County Borough
County Borough
in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888.[74] In 1933, the boundaries of the borough expanded, taking in areas from Cannock
Cannock
Rural District and Seisdon
Seisdon
Rural District, with very little of the surrounding urban area being affected,[75] with only Heath Town Urban District being abolished. The bulk of the urban districts of Bilston
Bilston
(a borough itself after 1933), Tettenhall
Tettenhall
and Wednesfield
Wednesfield
were added to the borough in 1966, along with the northern section of the urban district of Coseley
Coseley
and parts from the north of Sedgley
Sedgley
and the west of Willenhall. The vast majority of these areas were traditionally part of the Parish of Wolverhampton, and were part of the original Parliamentary Borough.[75] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
was one of only two County Boroughs (the other being Liverpool) to have no changes made to the boundary during the 1974 reorganisation of local government, the borough already having a population larger than the 250,000 required for education authorities. This contrasted with both the Redcliffe-Maud Report, and the initial White Paper for the 1974 reforms[76] where large areas of the present South Staffordshire
Staffordshire
district were to be added to the borough. During the 1974 reforms it was placed within the West Midlands Metropolitan County. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
was also a Royal Peculiar
Royal Peculiar
covering a large area.[77] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Council[edit] Main article: Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Council See also: List of Mayors of Wolverhampton The council offices are in the Civic Centre, which is located in St. Peter's Square in the city centre.[78] The city council's motto is "Out of darkness cometh light".[79] The Labour Party currently control the council and have been in majority on the council since 1974, with the exceptions of 1978–1979, 1987, 1992–1994 and 2008–2010.[80] The Labour party won 18 out of 20 council seats that were up for election in 2016. Conservative Councillor Barry Findlay is Mayor of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
for 2016–17.[81] Honorary Aldermen[edit] The Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
(Section 249) provides for appointment of Honorary Aldermen. The names of Honorary Aldermen are inscribed on a roll of honour board. This is situated on the ground floor of the Civic Centre.

Former Councillor Mrs Hodson, January 1999 Former Councillor Mrs Howells, January 1999 Councillor Mrs D Seiboth, October 2000 Councillor N.G. Davies, September 2002 Councillor Carpenter, September 2002 Councillor A Hart, December 2007 Councillor R Hart, December 2008 Councillor T Bowen, November 2009 Former Councillor Surjan Singh Duhra, July 2011 Former Councillor Mrs Paddy Bradley, September 2012 Former Councillor John Davis, September 2012

Police[edit] The main police station for Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is based on Bilston Street[82] in the city centre. Wolverhampton Borough Police
Wolverhampton Borough Police
became part of West Midlands Constabulary in 1966.[83] Policing is currently delivered by West Midlands Police.[82] Freemen of Wolverhampton[edit] Below is a list of people granted the title 'Freeman of Wolverhampton':[84][85]

Right Honourable Henry Hartley Fowler, MP, 11 February 1892 Right Honourable Charles Pelham Villiers
Charles Pelham Villiers
MP, 11 May 1897 Sir Charles Tertius Mander, Bt, 24 May 1897 Sir Joseph Cockfield Dimsdale, MP, 29 July 1902 Sir Alfred Hickman, MP, 29 July 1902 Alderman William Highfield Jones, 29 July 1902 Sir George Hayter Chubb, 14 October 1909 Alderman John Marston, 14 October 1909 Alderman Joseph Jones, 14 August 1912 Right Honourable David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
MP, 23 November 1918 Field Marshal Earl Haig of Bemersyde, 16 October 1919 Alderman Albert Baldwin Bantock, 9 November 1926 Alderman Levi Johnson, 9 November 1926 Alderman Thomas William Dickinson, 18 July 1938 Alderman Thomas Austin Henn, 7 October 1943 Alderman Alan Davies, 29 October 1945 Sir Charles Arthur Mander, 29 October 1945 Joseph Harold Sheldon (1920–1964), 24 March 1958. Pediatrician, see Freeman–Sheldon syndrome Sir Charles Wheeler, 24 March 1958 Denise Lewis
Denise Lewis
OBE, 13 December 2000 Sir Jack Hayward, OBE, 9 July 2003 Veterans of the Princess Irene Brigade
Princess Irene Brigade
who were members of the Dutch Army
Dutch Army
stationed at Wrottesley Park during World War II, 19 August 2006 Dennis Turner, Baron Bilston, The Lord Bilston, 20 December 2006 Hugh Porter, MBE, 17 December 2008 Rachael Heyhoe Flint, Baroness Heyhoe Flint, OBE, DL, 3 November 2010

Demography[edit]

Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Compared

2001 UK Census Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
(urban) Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
(borough) West Midlands conurbation England

Total population 251,462 236,582 2,284,093 49,138,831

White 78.9% 77.8% 79.6% 90.9%

Asian 13.6% 14.3% 13.5% 4.6%

Black 4.4% 4.6% 3.9% 2.3%

Source: Office for National Statistics[86][87]

The 2001 Census gives the Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Urban Subdivision as the second largest in the West Midlands conurbation. The figure given for Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is 251,462 which also includes areas outside the borough (236,583). By this reckoning it is the 12th largest city in England outside London. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
has a relatively old population, with the proportion of the population aged 60 and over being larger than the proportion of children aged 15 or under. The proportion of young people in the city has decreased between the 1991 Census and the 2001 Census by 7.4%, compared with an England
England
and Wales
Wales
average increase of 1.7%. The proportion of females within the city (51%) is slightly higher than that of males (49%). Of adults aged over 16, 31.3% were single, 43.4% were married for the first time, 7.7% divorced and 9.6% were widowed.[88] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
has a White British population of 78.9%, with 22.2% of residents classifying themselves as non-white in the 2001 Census, with the largest non-white category being Indian at 12.3%, which compares with a West Midlands average of 6.2% and an England
England
and Wales
Wales
average of 2.1%. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
had a significant Asian population who mainly reside in Penn, Farndale and Whitmore Reans
Whitmore Reans
areas of the city. It has a high black population who mainly reside in the Heath Town
Heath Town
and Whitmore Reans
Whitmore Reans
areas of the city. The city is well multicultural and racial tensions and prejudices are amongst the lowest in the country. Based upon the 2001 census, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
has a Christian population of 67.4% and non-Christian religions of 13.6% of people, compared with 5.5% for England
England
and Wales. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
has the fourth largest Sikh community in England
England
and Wales. Sikhs accounting for 7.6% of Wolverhampton's population in 2001. Wolverhampton's Sikh
Sikh
Population rose to 9.1% in the 2011 census. The number of Hindus is also higher than the England
England
and Wales
Wales
average ( Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
3.9%, England
England
and Wales
Wales
1.1%), while the proportion of people following Judaism
Judaism
and Islam
Islam
was below the average for England
England
and Wales. The figure for Buddhism
Buddhism
is in line with the England
England
and Wales
Wales
average. The 2009 British Social Attitudes Survey, which covers Great Britain but not Northern Ireland, indicated that over 50% of the population would self classify as not religious at all and this should be reflected in the current general Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
population.

Religion within Wolverhampton

2001 UK Census Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
(urban) Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
(borough) West Midlands conurbation England

Total population 251,462 236,582 2,284,093 49,138,831

Christian 67.4% 66.5% 67.0% 71.7%

Sikh 7.2% 7.6% 3.4% 0.6%

Hindu 3.7% 3.9% 1.8% 1.1%

Muslim 1.6% 1.7% 7.9% 3.0%

No religion 11.3% 11.3% 11.5% 14.8%

Not stated 8.2% 8.4% 7.8% 7.7%

Source: Office for National Statistics[89][90]

According to the 2001 Census, 62.2% of the population of the city between the ages of 16 and 75 are considered to be economically active, with 37.5% holding full-time employment, 11.3% part-time employment, 5.4% self-employed and 2.6% being full-time students with other employment. Of those who are economically inactive, 14.4% were retired, 7.1% were looking after homes or families, whilst 5.1% were full-time students without other employment.[91] Degree-level qualifications (or above) were held by 13.6% of the population (compared with 19.8% in England
England
and Wales), while 40.7% possessed no qualifications (compared with 29.1% across England
England
and Wales).[92] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is within the top 11% of local council areas in England and Wales
Wales
(excluding London Boroughs) for public transport use for travelling to work at 16% of the total. 63% used private transport, either as a driver or passenger, 13% cycled or travelled on foot, whilst 8% worked from home.[93] Car ownership is lower than the average for England
England
and Wales
Wales
with 35.2% of households not owning a car, compared with 26.8% nationally. Single car ownership is in line with national averages (Wolverhampton 42.9%, England
England
and Wales
Wales
43.8%), while the proportion of households owning more than one car is lower than the national average.[94] Within the city there is an LGBT community with an LGBT club in the city centre. According to the 2001 Census, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is one of the 243 Travel to Work Areas in the United Kingdom. There were 163,378 people resident within the TTWA who were in employment, and 157,648 jobs. The TTWA extends outside the city itself into the local council districts of Dudley, Walsall, South Staffordshire
Staffordshire
and Shropshire
Shropshire
and has an area of 405 km2 (156 sq mi).[95] According to Eurostat
Eurostat
data, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
has its own Larger Urban Zone,[96][97] which had a total resident population in 2004 of 344,400.[98] Population change[edit] The tables below detail the population change since 1750, separating that of the city itself and the geographical area now administered by Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Council.

Historical population of Wolverhampton

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1750 7,454 —    

1801 20,710 +2.02%

1811 29,253 +3.51%

1821 35,816 +2.04%

1831 46,937 +2.74%

1841 68,426 +3.84%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1851 90,301 +2.81%

1861 111,033 +2.09%

1871 68,291 −4.74%

1881 75,766 +1.04%

1891 82,662 +0.87%

1901 94,107 +1.31%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1911 95,328 +0.13%

1921 102,342 +0.71%

1931 133,212 +2.67%

1939 143,213 +0.91%

1951 162,172 +1.04%

1961 150,825 −0.72%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1971 269,168 +5.96%

1981 265,631 −0.13%

1991 257,943 −0.29%

2001 251,462 −0.25%

2011 N/A —    

Source: Issac Taylor's Map 1750[16] • Township 1801–1881[99] • Urban Sanitary District 1891[100] • County Borough
County Borough
1901–1971[101] • Urban Subdivision 1981–2011[102][103][104]

Historical population of area now administered by Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Council

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1750 N/A —    

1801 11,786 —    

1811 15,597 +2.84%

1821 19,012 +2.00%

1831 23,067 +1.95%

1841 54,365 +8.95%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1851 70,112 +2.58%

1861 87,254 +2.21%

1871 104,395 +1.81%

1881 121,537 +1.53%

1891 130,868 +0.74%

1901 145,645 +1.08%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1911 162,098 +1.08%

1921 178,068 +0.94%

1931 195,621 +0.94%

1939 214,359 +1.15%

1951 234,893 +0.77%

1961 251,435 +0.68%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1971 269,166 +0.68%

1981 252,474 −0.64%

1991 248,454 −0.16%

2001 236,573 −0.49%

2011 249,470 +0.53%

Source: Vision of Britain[105]

Economy[edit] Traditionally, Wolverhampton's economy has been dominated by iron, steel, automobiles, engineering and manufacturing industries. Many of the traditional industries in the city have closed or dramatically downsized over the years. However, by 2008 the economy was dominated by the service sector, with 74.9% of the city's employment being in this area. The major subcomponents of this sector are in public administration, education and health (32.8% of the total employment), while distribution, hotels and restaurants take up 21.1%, and finance and IT takes up 12.7%. The largest non-service industry was that of manufacturing (12.9%), whilst 5.2% of the total employment is related to the tourism industry.[106] The largest single employer within the city is Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Council.[107] which has over 12,000 staff[108] Other large employers within the city include:

Banking: Birmingham
Birmingham
Midshires (Headquarters) Building materials: Tarmac and Carvers Builders Merchant Education: University of Wolverhampton
University of Wolverhampton
and City of Wolverhampton College Construction: Carillion
Carillion
(Headquarters) Brewing: Marston's
Marston's
(Headquarters) Aerospace: H S Marston, MOOG and Goodrich Actuation Systems Retail: Beatties
Beatties
(now owned by House of Fraser) Manufacturing: Chubb Locks, Jaguar Land Rover
Jaguar Land Rover
(Engine Assembly Plant) National Health Service (NHS): New Cross Hospital

Jaguar Land Rover In 2014 Jaguar Land Rover
Jaguar Land Rover
opened a £500 million Engine Assembly Plant at the i54 business park, Wolverhampton. Unveiled by Her Majesty, the plant produces 2.0-litre 4-cylinder Ingenium diesel and petrol engines. Having already been expanded once before, in 2015 it was announced that the factory would be doubling in size to 200,000 sq m (2,152,782 sq ft), costing $450 million.[109] This expansion would see the workforce double from 700 to 1,400.[110] Goodyear Goodyear opened a large factory on Stafford
Stafford
Road, Fordhouses, in 1927. However, it was decided in December 2003 that tyre production at the plant would be discontinued with the loss of more than 400 jobs. This came after some 2,000 job losses at the plant since 1997. The end of production came in 2004 but the factory remains open for tyre moulding and tractor tyre production.[111] Tallest buildings[edit]

Victoria Halls (Building 1), the tallest building in Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
at 75m (246ft)

See also: List of tallest buildings and structures in Wolverhampton

Rank Building Use Height Floors Built

1 Victoria Halls (Building 1) Residential 246 ft (75 m) 25 2009

2= Brockfield House Residential 203 ft (62 m) 22 1969

2= Hampton View Residential 203 ft (62 m) 22 1969

4= St. Cecilias Residential 184 ft (56 m) 20 1970

4= Wodensfield Tower Residential 184 ft (56 m) 20 1966

4= William Bentley Court Residential 184 ft (56 m) 20 1966

4= Longfield House Residential 184 ft (56 m) 20 1969

4= Campion House Residential 184 ft (56 m) 20 1969

9 St. Luke's Church Church 171 ft (52 m)

1861

10 Pennwood Court Residential 151 ft (46 m) 17 1968

Regeneration[edit] In recent years, Wolverhampton City Council
Wolverhampton City Council
have embarked on many city improvements and regeneration schemes.[112] One such project was "Summer Row", a new £300 million retail quarter for Wolverhampton city centre. The project would have involved clearing existing buildings, and in 2006 a compulsory purchase order was issued to over 200 owner / occupiers in the surrounding area.[113] Construction of Summer Row was originally earmarked for 2008, with a completion date listed as 2010,[114] but the 2008 recession put the project on hold. In January 2011, the Summer Row project was officially declared dead[115] as the government permission for the compulsory purchase order expiry date rolled round without the council having found the necessary financial backing for the project. Mander Centre Redevelopment Debenhams, who were listed as the anchor store of Summer Row, announced they were still keen in opening a department store in Wolverhampton. It was revealed they would open an anchor store in a £35 million redevelopment of the Mander Centre. To be completed in 2017, the 90,000 sq.ft store would create 120 jobs.[116] The redevelopment will also see the Mander Centre be fully refurbished and reconfigured. A number of larger stores will be created, replacing smaller ones. The reconfiguration will see the relocation of the toilets, escalators and elevators. The lower Central arcade will be removed and Tesco and TJ Hughes will be demolished to make way for the 3-storey Debenhams
Debenhams
store.[117] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Interchange Project Wolverhampton's Interchange Project is a major redevelopment of the city's east side area worth around £120 million.

The i10 building contains 12,400 sq.ft of leisure and retail space on the ground floor and 36,000 sq.ft of office space above

Phase 1, which was completed in 2012, consisted of demolishing the old bus station and replacing it with a new £22.5 million station. This phase also included a new footbridge across the ring road towards the railway station, highway and pedestrian works, new offices for Centro and a Sainsbury's
Sainsbury's
convenience store.[118] Phase 2 which was completed in late 2015, involved the construction of the £10.6 million i10 building adjacent to the new bus station. The building contains 12,400 sq.ft of leisure and retail space on the ground floor and 36,000 sq.ft of office space above.[119] Phase 3 began in early 2016 on expanding the train station's multi-storey car park. To be completed by December 2016, the car park will increase in capacity from 450 to over 800 spaces.[120] The expansion of the multi-storey car park will include a new cycle and motorcycle parking, short stay parking, passenger drop off point and a taxi rank adjacent to the car park. A new entrance will be created.[121]

Transport[edit] Road[edit] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
city centre forms the main focal point for the road network within the northwestern part of the West Midlands conurbation, and out into the rural hinterland of Staffordshire
Staffordshire
and Shropshire. The road network within the boundaries of the city council area is entirely maintained by Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Council, whilst those parts of the urban area outside the city council area have their networks maintained by Staffordshire
Staffordshire
County Council, with the exception of M54 and A449 on the northern fringes of the urban area which are maintained by the Highways Agency.[122]

Wolverhampton's Ring Road

Major historical improvements to the city's road network include Thomas Telford's Holyhead
Holyhead
Road (now part of A41), which was constructed between 1819 and 1826 to improve communications between London and Holyhead, and hence to Ireland. The majority of work within the city saw improvement to the contemporary network, though the both Wellington Road in Bilston[123] and the cutting at the Rock near Tettenhall
Tettenhall
were newly constructed for the road, although the improvements at The Rock were constructed by the local Turnpike Trust rather than Telford
Telford
himself.[124] In 1927, the A4123 Birmingham- Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
New Road was constructed as both an unemployment relief project, and to relieve pressure on Telford's road through the Black Country.[125] It was the first purpose built inter-city road in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
within the 20th century,[126] and was said to be the longest stretch of new road in Britain since the Romans. It took just three years to complete and cost £600,000.[127] Also in 1927, the first automatic traffic lights in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
were installed in Princes Square in the city centre.[41] Princes Square was also the location of the United Kingdom's first pedestrian safety barriers, which were erected in 1934.[42] In 1960, plans were announced to build a Ring Road around the centre of Wolverhampton. By the end of the 1960s, more than half of the Ring Road had been completed, stretching from Snow Hill to Stafford
Stafford
Street (via Penn Road, Chapel Ash
Chapel Ash
and Waterloo Road), followed a few years later by a section between Snow Hill and Bilston
Bilston
Street. However, the final section between Bilston
Bilston
Street and Stafford
Stafford
Street (via Wednesfield
Wednesfield
Road) was not completed until 1986.

The M54 motorway
M54 motorway
to the northwest of the city

Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is near to several motorways, with four being located within 7 miles (11 km) of the city centre. The first to be constructed in the area was the M6, which opened in sections between 1966 and 1970,[128] and connects the city with the north-west of England
England
(including Manchester
Manchester
and Liverpool), Scotland
Scotland
as well as Birmingham
Birmingham
and Coventry
Coventry
to the east, and London via the M1. Together with the M5, which opened in the area in 1970[128] and links the city with the south-west of England, and London via the M40, the two motorways form a north-south bypass for the city. The section of M6 motorway
M6 motorway
nearest to the city is one of the busiest within the UK,[129] and to relieve congestion on this stretch, the M6 Toll which bypasses both the Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
and Birmingham
Birmingham
sections of the M6 motorway
M6 motorway
was opened in 2003.[128] The M54 motorway
M54 motorway
forms a northern bypass to the city, passing just within the fringes of the urban area, and links the city with Telford, Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury
and Wales. It opened in 1983.[128] In addition to the motorways presently constructed, there have also been several proposed near to the city that have not been constructed, or have been constructed to a lower standard. Included within these are the Bilston
Bilston
Link Motorway, which was first proposed in the 1960s and was eventually constructed to a lower standard in the 1980s as the A454/A463 Black Country
Black Country
Route;[130] and the Western Orbital or Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Western Bypass, which was first proposed in the 1970s as a bypass for the western side of the city and the wider Black Country conurbation.[131] Currently proposed by the Highways Agency
Highways Agency
is the M54 to M6 / M6 (Toll) Link Road. The route was initially proposed in the 2000s to relieve the overloaded sections of A460 and A449 near the city, and to replace a section of the cancelled Western Orbital. Whilst it appears in the current roads programme, a date for the start of construction has not been set.[132] Rail[edit] Wolverhampton's first railway opened in 1837, with the opening of the Grand Junction Railway, the first long-distance line in Great Britain. The main station for the city was, however, not located in the city centre, but at Wednesfield
Wednesfield
Heath, now Heath Town
Heath Town
on the east side of the city.[25] This station was considered to be a First Class station, though its location was obviously not ideal and it became a goods station after passenger services ceased in 1873. The station buildings were demolished in 1965, but the main station area is now a nature reserve just off Powell Street, called Station Fields and part of the edge of the northbound platform is still in situ. The track running through the station site is, however, still in use.[26]

Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
railway station

The first station in the city centre was opened by the Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury
and Birmingham
Birmingham
Railway in 1849. This station was only intended to be temporary, and was located on the north side of Wednesfield
Wednesfield
Road beside Broad Street Basin. The station was constructed as the opening of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
High Level was delayed. The station closed in 1852, and was demolished in the mid-1970s.[133] In addition to the temporary station, Wolverhampton railway works
Wolverhampton railway works
were also established in 1849 by the Shrewsbury and Birmingham Railway
Shrewsbury and Birmingham Railway
and became the Northern Division workshop of the Great Western Railway
Great Western Railway
in 1854.[27] The permanent station on the line finally opened on 24 June 1852, and was initially known as Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
General, before being renamed as Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Queen Street in 1853, and finally Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
High Level in 1855. The station was initially a joint station between the Shrewsbury and Birmingham Railway
Shrewsbury and Birmingham Railway
and the London and North Western Railway, though there were problems in the relationships between the two companies, and the station became solely LNWR in 1854 before the Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
and Walsall
Walsall
Railway (later part of the Midland Railway) gained access to the station in 1867. The original High Level station was demolished in 1965 as part of the electification of the West Coast Mainline, and was replaced by the current buildings on the site.[134] Two years after the opening of the High Level station, the Oxford, Worcester
Worcester
and Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Railway (OWW) opened their city centre station immediately to the east of High Level. Initially called Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Joint, it was renamed Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Low Level in 1856. As well as the OWW, the station also served the Birmingham, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
and Dudley
Dudley
Railway and the Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury
and Birmingham Railway. As the first two companies were supported by the Great Western Railway, broad gauge track was laid to the station, meaning that Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Low Level became the most northerly station on the broad gauge network before being converted to standard gauge in 1869. Despite being featured in the second Beeching Report, The Development of the Major Railway Trunk Routes in February 1965 as being on a line earmarked for further investment, services were withdrawn progressively from Low Level starting in 1967 soon after it had been transferred administratively from the Western Region of British Railways to the London Midland region. London services were transferred to the newly electrified High Level station. Low Level was converted into a Parcels Concentration Depot in 1970, and the final passenger services were withdrawn in 1972.[135] These services (to and from Birmingham
Birmingham
Snow Hill) were only suspended and never legally withdrawn by British Rail, and so technically the station is still open.[136]

Dunstall Park railway station
Dunstall Park railway station
in 1958

There were also a number of suburban stations in Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
– including Dunstall Park and Bushbury
Bushbury
north of the city centre; Tettenhall
Tettenhall
and Compton to the west side of the city on the GWR's Wombourne
Wombourne
Branch Line; Wednesfield
Wednesfield
and Heath Town
Heath Town
on the Wolverhampton and Walsall
Walsall
Railway; Portobello on the Walsall
Walsall
to Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Line; Priestfield and Bilston
Bilston
Central on the Birmingham
Birmingham
Snow Hill to Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Low Level Line; and Bilston
Bilston
West and Daisy Bank on the Oxford-Worcester- Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Line. Today, all of the suburban rail stations within the city have been closed, although Coseley, Codsall and Bilbrook are just outside the boundaries. The former High Level station, now simply known as Wolverhampton station is today one of the major stations on the West Coast Main Line. It has regular rail services to London Euston, Birmingham
Birmingham
New Street and Manchester
Manchester
Piccadilly, as well as most other major cities in the UK. In addition to the long-distance services, there are many local services, including those on the Cambrian Line
Cambrian Line
into Wales, the Walsall
Walsall
to Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Line to Walsall, the Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
to Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury
Line to Telford
Telford
and Shrewsbury; and the Rugby-Birmingham- Stafford
Stafford
Line to Stafford
Stafford
and Coventry.[137][138] The 1960s buildings of the station are proposed for redevelopment, with the main station buildings being demolished in a project called Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Interchange.[139] It was due to open in 2012,[140] but work has been delayed whilst funding is sought.[141] Buses[edit] See also: Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
bus station Buses in the city are run commercially by a number of bus operators, the largest provider of services is National Express West Midlands. As well as serving suburbs of the city, buses from the centre of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
also provide a direct link with the city of Birmingham and connections to Walsall, Telford, West Bromwich, Stourbridge, Cannock, Stafford, Sedgley, Bilston, Bloxwich, Bridgnorth
Bridgnorth
and Dudley. The city's bus station operated by Transport for West Midlands
Transport for West Midlands
is situated at Piper's Row, near to the railway station, providing an interchange between the two modes of transport. The station has recently had a complete rebuild. Its previous Piper's Row incarnation opened on 26 October 1986, just six years after its predecessor of 1981.[142] The station underwent a further upgrade in 1990 which saw the grade II listed Queen's Building incorporated into the bus station. A mild refurbishment took place in 2005/06 with new toilets and the addition of a coach stand. In July 2009 plans were unveiled for a complete rebuild of the bus station, which was part of Wolverhampton's Interchange Project. The bus station closed in April 2010 and was subsequently demolished. A £22.5 million station opened in July 2011.[143] Bilston
Bilston
bus station[edit]

Bilston
Bilston
bus station is a small bus interchange located in Bilston
Bilston
Town Centre, Wolverhampton. It opened in 1991 as a new bus station to serve the town of Bilston
Bilston
and became an interchange on 31 May 1999 when the Midland Metro
Midland Metro
service opened on the adjacent railway line that had been disused since the end of 1982. Around 22 bus services operated by 11 operators serve the station which is a short, walkable distance from Bilston
Bilston
Central tram stop, which links the town to Birmingham, West Bromwich, Wednesbury
Wednesbury
and Wolverhampton. The station is built around a large square building which features a shop. Metro[edit] Main article: Midland Metro

The new replacement Urbos 3 trams

The Midland Metro, a light rail system, currently connects Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
St. George's to Grand Central tram stop
Grand Central tram stop
via West Bromwich and Wednesbury, mostly following the former Birmingham
Birmingham
Snow Hill- Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Low Level Line. There are plans for further lines within the city, with both a city centre loop and a line to Walsall via Wednesfield
Wednesfield
and Willenhall, mostly following the route of the closed Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
and Walsall
Walsall
Railway.[144] In 2014/15, Centro announced in a £40 million deal, they would be replacing the entire fleet of the 16 T69 trams with 21 Urbos 3 trams. The new Urbos 3 trams are 9 metres longer; at 33 metres, with the ability of carrying 210 passengers, compared to the 156 from the T69.[145] Additionally with the upgraded trams, Wolverhampton's Metro Line will be expanded. As part of the Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Interchange Project; the Metro line would be extended from Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
St. George's to Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
railway station, creating one stop at Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Bus Station and subsequently ending at the railway station. It is scheduled to be operational by 2019.[146] Air[edit] Wolverhampton's original airport was at Pendeford, opened in 1938 and closed on 31 December 1970.[147] The current Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Airport, renamed from Halfpenny Green, is a small general aviation airfield located 8 miles (12.9 km) southwest of the city. Expansion of the airport has been suggested, but this has been successfully resisted by local residents. The nearest major airport is Birmingham
Birmingham
International Airport, approximately 25 miles (40.2 km) away. The airport is easy to reach by train, with a direct express service to it. By car, it can actually sometimes be quicker to reach Manchester
Manchester
Airport instead, due to traffic delays on the M6 eastbound motorway towards Birmingham International. Waterways[edit] Main article: Birmingham
Birmingham
Canal Navigations There are no navigable rivers within the city, but there are 17 mi (27 km) of navigable canals. The Birmingham
Birmingham
Canal Main Line passes through the city centre, connecting with the remaining portion of the Wednesbury
Wednesbury
Oak Loop at Deepfields Junction, and the Wyrley & Essington
Essington
Canal at Horseley Fields
Horseley Fields
Junction, before passing between the railway station and the bus station in the city centre and then descending 132 feet (40m) through the 21 Wolverhampton Locks and terminating at Aldersley
Aldersley
Junction where it meets the Staffordshire
Staffordshire
and Worcestershire
Worcestershire
Canal, which in turn connects with the Shropshire
Shropshire
Union Canal at Autherley Junction.[148] Cycling[edit] Most places in the borough and some of the neighbouring villages in South Staffordshire
Staffordshire
are within easy reach of the city centre by pedal cycle and terrain is moderately hilly. Climbs tend to be of two to three minutes duration. Cycling benefits from the 20 miles per hour (32 km/h) city centre within the Ring Road and a number of routes that use quieter roads and paths to avoid the ten 'A' roads that radiate from the Ring Road. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is on the Smethwick
Smethwick
to Telford
Telford
section of Sustrans
Sustrans
National Cycle Network
National Cycle Network
Route 81.[149] This follows the Birmingham
Birmingham
Main Line Canal towpath from Smethwick
Smethwick
to Broad Street Basin, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
where the route splits in two. The choice here is between riding the 21 locks section of the Birmingham
Birmingham
Main Line Canal to Aldersley
Aldersley
Junction or taking the Cross-City route braid to visit the city centre, West Park or Smestow Valley Leisure Ride before returning to Aldersley
Aldersley
Junction. NCN81 continues to Autherley Junction along the towpath of the Staffordshire
Staffordshire
and Worcestershire Canal and then along the east bank towpath of the Shropshire
Shropshire
Union Canal as far as Pendeford
Pendeford
Mill Lane before turning to Bilbrook in Staffordshire. The lanes of nearby South Staffordshire
Staffordshire
and east Shropshire
Shropshire
provide ideal cycle touring conditions.[150] Culture[edit] Music[edit] The rock groups Slade, Sahotas, Cornershop, The Mighty Lemon Drops and Babylon Zoo came from Wolverhampton, as do electronic musician Bibio, soul/R&B singer Beverley Knight, drum and bass guru Goldie, roots reggae maestro Macka B. Kevin Rowland
Kevin Rowland
of Dexys Midnight Runners
Dexys Midnight Runners
was born in Wednesfield, Wolverhampton. Hip Hop
Hip Hop
music producer S-X who has worked with T.I., J. Cole, Birdman & Lil Wayne
Lil Wayne
was born and raised and still lives in Wolverhampton. In 2010, Wolverhampton-born singer Liam Payne
Liam Payne
came third in the British television music show The X Factor with his boy band One Direction, who in March 2012 became the first British group to go straight to the top of the US music charts with their debut album, Up All Night. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
has a number of live music venues; the largest occasionally used being the football ground, Molineux Stadium, which was used for a Bon Jovi
Bon Jovi
concert in 2003,[151] but the biggest indoor venue regularly used is Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Civic Hall, with a standing capacity of 3,000.[152] Second to that is Wulfrun
Wulfrun
Hall (part of the same complex as the Civic Hall, which is owned and operated by the City Council) which has a standing capacity of just over 1,100.[153] The Civic Halls complex also has a newer venue, The Slade
Slade
Rooms (named after the 1970s rock band), which has a capacity of approximately 550 standing. There are also a number of smaller venues with capacities of between 100 and 250, although the longest-established of these, the Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Varsity, is now closed, as is the Little Civic. Other venues include the Light Bar in Fryer Street, the 'Numa Bar' and the Dog & Doublet (next to the old Little Civic), although the situation in this area of entertainment remains fluid. The 18th-century St John's Church is a popular venue for smaller scale classical concerts. The city is also home to Regent Records, a choral and organ music recording company, and Wolf Town DIY, an independent record label that primarily releases punk and alternative music by underground artists.[154] The Midland Box Office is the primary sales point for most of Wolverhampton's venues and is situated in Queen Square, it is manned by a small team of dedicated and enthusiastic staff.[155] The city's main choral groups include the City of Wolverhampton Choir,[156] (a choral society founded as the Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Civic Choir in 1947) and the Choir of St. Peter's Collegiate Church. Arts and museums[edit] The City is currently hosting its largest ever arts event - "Wolves in Wolves". Between July and September 2017, the City has 30 huge wolf statues decorating its streets, parks and buildings along a "wolf Trail". Each Wolf has been uniquely decorated by both local and visiting international artists, the project being fully sponsored by local businesses, charities and public sponsors. The event is the brainchild of City of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Council employee Manor Singh who has also assisted in the project delivery. Visit the Wolves in Wolves website http://wolvesinwolves.co.uk/ The Grand Theatre on Lichfield
Lichfield
Street is Wolverhampton's largest theatre, opening on 10 December 1894. It was designed by C. J. Phipps and completed within six months. Included amongst the people to have appeared at the theatre are Henry Irving, Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
and Sean Connery. It was also used by politicians including Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George. The theatre was closed between 1980 and 1982.[157] The Arena Theatre on Wulfruna Street, within the University of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is the secondary theatre, seating 150. It hosts both professional and amateur performances.[158] Cinema is catered for by a multiplex Cineworld
Cineworld
located at Bentley Bridge, Wednesfield,[159] and a smaller cinema, Light House Media Centre, housed in the former Chubb Buildings on Fryer Street.[160] Cineworld
Cineworld
caters mainly for popular tastes, showing Hollywood films and other big-budget films as well as some Bollywood
Bollywood
films whilst Light House shows a range of older and subtitled films as well as some selected new releases. Light House has also played host to visual art shows, an International Animation Festival and incorporates a small café.

Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Art Gallery

The City's Arts & Museums service, run by the council, covers three sites: Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Art Gallery, home to England's biggest Pop art collection after that held at the Tate;[161] Bantock House, a fine historic house with Edwardian interior with a museum of Wolverhampton located within Bantock Park;[162] Bilston
Bilston
Craft Gallery with exhibitions of contemporary crafts.[163] The Black Country
Black Country
Living Museum, situated in nearby Dudley, has a large collection of artefacts and buildings from across the Black Country, including an extensive collection associated with the city.[164] Eagle Works Studios and Gallery situated in Chapel Ash, is a self run artists' group. It provides studio accommodation for eighteen visual artists, mostly painters. Its small gallery holds a regular programme of exhibitions to show and promote contemporary art in the city.[165] The National Trust owns two properties on the edge of the city that are open to the public: Wightwick Manor, which is a Victorian manor house and one of only a few surviving examples of a house built and furnished under the influence of the Arts and Crafts movement,[166] and Moseley Old Hall, which is famous as one of the resting places of Charles II of England
England
during his escape to France following defeat at the Battle of Worcester
Worcester
in 1651.[167] English Heritage
English Heritage
owns Boscobel House, within Shropshire, another refuge of Charles II.[168] Nearby museums also include the Royal Air Force Museum, at RAF Cosford and the RAF Fire Service Museum at Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Airport.,[169] whilst Chillington Hall, which boasts of grounds designed by Capability Brown,[170] and Himley Hall
Himley Hall
are nearby examples of houses open to the public. Libraries[edit]

Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Central Library

Located on the corner of Garrick Street and St George's Parade, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Central Library is a Grade II listed building, designed by architect Henry T. Hare and opened in 1902. It was originally commissioned to commemorate Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee using funds raised by the Mayor, Alderman S Craddock, and by a grant of £1,000 from Andrew Carnegie. This new library improved public access to information and reading material, replacing its cramped predecessor in the old Garrick Street Police Station.[171] The terracotta exterior has a tripartite theme of related, but distinct façades. The entrance façade is the architect's centrepiece and is decorated with a frieze under the triple window which carries the Royal Coat of Arms and the Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Coat of Arms. The other two façades celebrate English literary giants; Chaucer, Dryden, Pope, Shelley, Byron and Spenser on one side and Milton and Shakespeare on the other.[171] An extension for a newsroom and a students' room was added in 1936 followed by a small brick and concrete extension at the rear in the 1970s.[171] Wolverhampton City Council
Wolverhampton City Council
also operate 14 branch libraries within the city.[172] Media[edit] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is home to the Express & Star newspaper, which boasts of having the largest circulation of any provincial daily evening newspaper in the UK.[173] Parent company Midland News Association is based in Wolverhampton. The city is home to three radio stations: the community radio station WCR FM
WCR FM
which broadcasts solely to the city, whilst The Wolf and Beacon Radio have been absorbed into regional stations Signal 107
Signal 107
and Free Radio respectively, though both still broadcast from their studios in the city. In December 2005, the BBC commissioned the poet Ian McMillan to write a poem about Wolverhampton, along with four other towns which apparently "had a reputation they didn't deserve".[174] Education[edit]

University of Wolverhampton

See also: List of schools in Wolverhampton The University of Wolverhampton
University of Wolverhampton
is the main provider of higher education in the city. The university currently has more than 23,000 students. In 1835, the Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Mechanics' Institute was founded, and its lineage can be traced via the Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
and Staffordshire Technical College (1935), to The Polytechnic, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
(1969) to today's University of Wolverhampton, given university status in 1992. The main university campus is in the city centre, with other campuses at Compton, and in the nearby towns of Walsall
Walsall
and Telford. Wolverhampton Grammar School
Wolverhampton Grammar School
was founded in 1512, making it one of the oldest active schools in the UK.[175] Old boys include Mervyn King, Governor of the Bank of England
England
since July 2003, and Sir David Wright, former British Ambassador to Japan. Wolverhampton Girls' High School is a well known selective school which has produced top of league table results within Wolverhampton.[176] Notable old girls include the former English Women's Cricket Captain Rachael Heyhoe-Flint
Rachael Heyhoe-Flint
and Baroness Hayman, first Lord Speaker
Lord Speaker
of the House of Lords, as well as Georgia Elwiss, a member of the current 2015 women's cricket team. St Peter's Collegiate School was founded in 1847 in buildings adjacent to S. Peter's Collegiate Church in Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
town centre. It moved to the present extensive green site at Compton Park in 1965. S. Peter's is the oldest established educational institution currently in the state sector in Wolverhampton, with a tradition of academic, cultural and sporting excellence nourished by Christian spiritual and moral values. Previous students include record breaking goal scoring footballer Arthur Rowley and Ben Godfrey, a TV presenter and reporter on Midlands Today. Other notably historic schools include The Royal Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
School (founded in 1850),[177] and Tettenhall
Tettenhall
College (1863),[178] which educated the winner of Nobel Prize for Chemistry, Professor Sir Arthur Harden. City of Wolverhampton College
City of Wolverhampton College
is the main further education college in the city. Wolverhampton, unlike a number of nearby areas such as Dudley
Dudley
and South Staffordshire, has always had traditional age range schools; 5–7 infants, 7–11 juniors and 11-16/18 secondary schools. Some secondary schools have sixth form facilities for children aged 16+. Sport[edit]

Molineux Stadium, home of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Wanderers

Football[edit] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is represented in the Championship, the second tier of English football, by Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C.
Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C.
"Wolves", as they are known, are one of the oldest English football clubs, and were one of the 12 founder members of the Football League. Their most successful period was the 1950s, where they won three Football League Championships (then the highest division) and two FA Cups, and were involved in the earliest European friendlies. They were hailed by the press as "The Unofficial World Champions" after one of their most famous victories, against Budapest Honvéd FC
Budapest Honvéd FC
of Hungary. They were also the first English team to play in the Soviet Union. These victories instigated the birth of the European Cup competition which later evolved into the UEFA Champions' League (see European Cup and Champions League history). In total, they have won three Football League
Football League
titles (prior to the top division becoming the Premier League), four FA Cups, have two League Cup victories and many other minor honours, including reaching the UE FA Cup
FA Cup
Final in 1972, and appearances in the last eight of both the UEFA European Cup, and the European Cup Winners' Cup, but spent just one season in the top division between 1984 and 2009. They are also the only club to have won five different league titles; they have championed all four tiers of the professional English league, as well as the long-defunct northern section of the Third Division. Wolves have a long-established rivalry with West Bromwich
West Bromwich
Albion. Separated by 12 mi (19 km), the two clubs have faced each other over 160 times since 1886.[179] Aston Villa
Aston Villa
and Birmingham
Birmingham
City FC are also close rivals of Wolves, having played them 121[180] and 136[181] times respectively. Geographically, Walsall
Walsall
FC are closest to Wolves, but rarely compete at the same level. Since 1886, the two clubs have only played 16 times against each other.[182] Several other Wolverhampton-based clubs play non-league football, notably AFC Wulfrunians
AFC Wulfrunians
in the Midland Football League
Football League
Premier Division and Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Casuals F.C., Wednesfield
Wednesfield
F.C., Wolverhampton Sporting Community F.C.
Wolverhampton Sporting Community F.C.
and Bilston
Bilston
Town F.C. in the West Midlands (Regional) League. Athletics[edit] Wolverhampton's Aldersley
Aldersley
Leisure Village is also home to Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
& Bilston
Bilston
Athletics Club, which was formed in 1967 with a merger between Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Harriers and Bilston
Bilston
Town Athletic Club. They have won the National League Division One for men from 1975 to 1982, and the Men's National Cup finals in 1976, 1977, 1979 and 1980. It also represented Britain in the European Clubs Cup from 1976 to 1983 with the best finishing position of third.[183] Olympic Medallists in athletics Sonia Lannaman and Tessa Sanderson lived within the city.[184] Cycling[edit] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Wheelers is the city's oldest cycling club (formed in 1891), and was home to Hugh Porter
Hugh Porter
who won four world championship pursuit titles; and Percy Stallard who has been credited with bringing cycle road racing to Britain when he held the Llangollen to Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
race on 7 June 1942.[185] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Wheelers make extensive use of the velodrome at Aldersley
Aldersley
Stadium. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
was also the home of Trevor Gadd, who was a six time British National Cycle champion and two-time silver medallist at the 1978 Commonwealth Games, as well as a fifth-place finisher in the 1977 UCI Track Cycling World Championships in Venezuela. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
has also hosted the Tour of Britain, with a stage start in 2006, a stage finish in 2007 and a sprint finish in 2008. It is also home to Wednesfield
Wednesfield
Aces cycle speedway who are based on Ashmore Park. Horse and greyhound racing[edit] Wolverhampton Racecourse is located at Dunstall Park, just to the north of the city centre. This was one of the first all-weather horse racing courses in the UK and is Britain's only floodlit horse race track. There is also greyhound racing at Monmore Green. West Park, a large park near the city centre, was converted from a racecourse. A horse by the name of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
was among the leading contenders for the 1849 Grand National at Aintree
Aintree
but did not complete the course. Motor sports[edit]

Sunbeam 1000HP at National Motor Museum in Beaulieu, UK

Sunbeam built many early Grand Prix cars and was the only British make to win a Grand Prix in the first half of the 20th century.[186] Sunbeam also built several holders of the Land speed record, including the first vehicle to travel at over 200 miles per hour (322 km/h), the Sunbeam 1000 hp. AJS
AJS
was heavily involved in motorcycle racing either side of World War II, which included winning the 1949 World Championship in the 500cc category. Kieft Cars
Kieft Cars
built Formula Three
Formula Three
cars in the early 1950s. Their best known driver was Stirling
Stirling
Moss.[187] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Wolves, one of the leading speedway clubs in the UK represents the city, participating in the Elite League at the Monmore Green stadium. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Speedway is one of the oldest speedway tracks in the world that is still in operation being first used, albeit briefly in 1928. The track re-opened in 1950 for a single meeting and in 1952 the Wasps competed in the Third Division on the National League. The track closed early in 1954 and did not re-open until 1961 when the Wolves were introduced to the Provincial League. The track has almost been an ever-present ever since and currently operates in the British Elite League.[188] Ole Olsen (in 1971 and 1975), Sam Ermolenko
Sam Ermolenko
(in 1993) and Tai Woffinden
Tai Woffinden
(in 2013) were riders for the club when they became World Speedway Champions. The Wolves are defending Elite League champions, having defeated the Belle Vue Aces in the 2016 play off final.[189] Le Mans 24 Hours winner Richard Attwood
Richard Attwood
is from the city. Marathon[edit] Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
is home to the Carver Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Marathon. The marathon is part of a series of events whose main goal is to raise money for charity.

Places of interest[edit]

Key

Abbey/Priory/Cathedral

Accessible open space

Amusement/Theme Park

Castle

Country Park

English Heritage

Forestry Commission

Heritage railway

Historic House

Museum (free/not free)

National Trust

Theatre

Zoo

Wolves in Wolves
Wolves in Wolves
http://wolvesinwolves.co.uk/ Bantock House Museum and Park Bilston
Bilston
Craft Gallery Mander Centre Molineux Stadium
Molineux Stadium
( Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Wanderers F.C.) Moseley Old Hall
Moseley Old Hall
St Peter's Collegiate Church
St Peter's Collegiate Church
West Park Wightwick Manor
Wightwick Manor
Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Archives Wolverhampton Art Gallery
Wolverhampton Art Gallery
Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Civic Hall Wolverhampton Grand Theatre
Wolverhampton Grand Theatre
Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Racecourse

Notable people[edit]

Statue of Billy Wright outside Molineux Stadium

Main article: List of people from Wolverhampton There are a number of notable people who are associated with Wolverhampton. Political figures include Enoch Powell
Enoch Powell
MP, Sir Charles Pelham Villiers MP – who holds the record for the longest serving MP, Helene Hayman, Baroness Hayman who was the first Lord Speaker
Lord Speaker
within the House of Lords, former Cabinet minister Stephen Byers, Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson
who briefly worked as a writer for the Express & Star, David Wright, a former UK Ambassador to Japan and Button Gwinnett, who was a signatory of the US Declaration of Independence and briefly served as Governor of Georgia. There are many sportspeople associated with the city, with footballers such as Billy Wright, Steve Bull, Bert Williams and Jimmy Mullen; along with Percy Stallard and Hugh Porter
Hugh Porter
within the world of cycling, the Olympic medallist swimmer Anita Lonsbrough, professional darts player Wayne Jones, racing driver and winner of the 24 hours of Le Mans Richard Attwood
Richard Attwood
as well as athletes such as Tessa Sanderson
Tessa Sanderson
and Denise Lewis
Denise Lewis
and cricketer Vikram Solanki
Vikram Solanki
who grew up here and played for Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Cricket Club before joining Worcestershire. Entertainers include actors Nigel Bennett, Goldie, Frances Barber, Meera Syal and Eric Idle; and musicians Noddy Holder, Dave Hill, Beverley Knight, Dave Holland, Maggie Teyte, Edward Elgar, Mitch Harris, Robert Plant, Paul Raven, and Liam Payne
Liam Payne
of the group One Direction; and television presenters Suzi Perry, Mark Rhodes and Mark Speight. Within the area of commerce and industry, Sir Alfred Hickman (first Chairman of Tarmac), Sir Geoffrey Mander, John Marston founder of Sunbeam Cycles
Sunbeam Cycles
and Sunbeam Motor Car Company, John ' Iron
Iron
Mad' Wilkinson (pioneer of Cast iron) and Mervyn King Governor of the Bank of England
England
are amongst the most notable. Prof Ernest Geoffrey Cullwick, a specialist in electromagnetism and its effects on atomic particles, was born and raised in Wolverhampton.

See also[edit]

1835 Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
riot

Notes[edit]

^ "2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England
England
and Wales". ONS. Retrieved 12 December 2012.  ^ "2011 Census: KS101EW Usual resident population, local authorities in England
England
and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012.  ^ KS01 Usual resident population Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas Office for National Statistics. Hectares converted into km2 ^ a b Keith Farley (1985). " Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
985 – 1985". Wolverhampton History & Heritage Society. Retrieved 8 July 2007.  ^ a b Horovitz, David (2005). The Place-names of Staffordshire. pp. 585, 662. ISBN 0955030900.  ^ Upton, Chris (2007). A History of Wolverhampton. The History Press. pp. 8, 179. ISBN 186077508X.  ^ Rudi Herbert. "An Architectural Walk". Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
History & Heritage Society. Archived from the original on 2 December 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2007.  ^ "Anglicanism". Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Council. 2005. Retrieved 13 November 2012.  ^ Plea Rolls of the Court of Common Pleas; National Archives; CP 40/483; Year 1381; http://aalt.law.uh.edu/AALT6/R2/CP40no483/483_0027.htm; 6th entry (split between 2 lines) ^ "Historic Cities in Western Europe". City Mayors. Retrieved 17 June 2008.  ^ "The History of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
the City and its People". Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Archives and Local Studies. Retrieved 13 June 2008.  ^ Horovitz, David (2010). Notes and Materials on the Battle of Tettenhall
Tettenhall
910 A.D., and Other Researches. ISBN 978-0-9550309-1-8.  ^ " Wolverhampton City Council
Wolverhampton City Council
– Wodensfield School". Wolverhampton City Council. Archived from the original on 1 September 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2007.  ^ "Wodensfield Tower". Skyscraper Page. Retrieved 8 July 2007.  ^ a b c "Lady Wulfruna". Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
History and Heritage Society. Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2008.  ^ a b c d e f g "History of Wolverhampton". Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
History and Heritage Society. Retrieved 13 June 2008.  ^ Mander, G.P. (1960) A History Of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
to the Early Nineteenth Century. Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Corporation. Page 19 ^ "Domesday Book". Retrieved 6 January 2015.  ^ " Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Coat of Arms – Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
History". Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Council. Retrieved 11 June 2008.  ^ " Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Grammar School". Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Grammar School. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2008.  ^ "Up to 1700, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
History & Heritage Website". Localhistory.scit.wlv.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2012.  ^ "Time Line for Rowley". Rowleyvillage.webs.com. Retrieved 24 July 2012.  ^ Rana, Suhail (2009). "New evidence supporting Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
as the location of the first working Newcomen engine". International Journal for the history of Engineering and Technology. 72 (2): 162–173.  ^ a b "A History of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
985–1985". John Woodfield. Archived from the original on 28 August 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2008.  ^ a b "The first trunk line – The Grand Junction Railway" (PDF). Virgin Trains. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2008.  ^ a b " Heath Town
Heath Town
Station". Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
History and Heritage Society. Archived from the original on 8 October 2006. Retrieved 1 July 2008.  ^ a b "A History of Manufacturing in Wolverhampton". John Woodfield. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2008.  ^ "Queen Victoria's Visit to Wolverhampton". Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Archives & Local Studies. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 17 June 2008.  ^ "Wolverhampton". The Drill Hall Project. Retrieved 4 September 2017.  ^ "History of Wolverhampton
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wolverhampton.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Wolverhampton.

Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
Civic and Historical Society BBC Black Country Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Council The Parish Of Central Wolverhampton The Archive of Hart Photography Ltd. Website – Images of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Center under development during the 1960s Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) The Wolves Beat website – Famous Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
people

v t e

Wards of Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
City Council

Bilston
Bilston
East Bilston
Bilston
North Blakenhall Bushbury
Bushbury
North Bushbury
Bushbury
South and Low Hill East Park Ettingshall Fallings Park Graiseley Heath Town Merry Hill Oxley Park Penn St Peter's Spring Vale Tettenhall
Tettenhall
Regis Tettenhall
Tettenhall
Wightwick Wednesfield
Wednesfield
North Wednesfield
Wednesfield
South

v t e

Ceremonial county of West Midlands

Metropolitan districts

City of Birmingham City of Coventry City of Wolverhampton Metropolitan Borough of Dudley Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell Metropolitan Borough of Solihull Metropolitan Borough of Walsall

Major settlements

Aldridge Bilston Birmingham Blackheath Bloxwich Brierley Hill Brownhills Coventry Cradley Heath Darlaston Dudley Fordbridge Halesowen Oldbury Rowley Regis Smethwick Solihull Stourbridge Sutton Coldfield Tipton Walsall Wednesbury West Bromwich Willenhall Wolverhampton See also: West Midlands

Rivers

River Blythe River Cole River Penk River Rea Smestow Brook River Sherbourne River Sow River Sowe River Stour River Tame

Canals

Birmingham
Birmingham
Canal Navigations Shropshire
Shropshire
Union Canal Staffordshire
Staffordshire
& Worcestershire Worcester
Worcester
& Birmingham

Topics

Places Population of major settlements Parliamentary constituencies SSSIs Country houses Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings Conservation areas History Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs Museums

Black Country Birmingham
Birmingham
Airport Coventry/Bedworth Urban Area Transport for West Midlands West Midlands conurbation West Midlands Combined Authority Mayor of the West Midlands

v t e

Districts of the West Midlands Region

Herefordshire

Herefordshire

Shropshire

Shropshire Telford
Telford
and Wrekin

Staffordshire

Cannock
Cannock
Chase East Staffordshire Lichfield Newcastle-under-Lyme South Staffordshire Stafford Staffordshire
Staffordshire
Moorlands Stoke-on-Trent Tamworth

Warwickshire

North Warwickshire Nuneaton and Bedworth Rugby Stratford-on-Avon Warwick

West Midlands

Birmingham Coventry Dudley Sandwell Solihull Walsall Wolverhampton

Worcestershire

Bromsgrove Malvern Hills Redditch Worcester Wychavon Wyre Forest

v t e

Cities of the United Kingdom

England

Bath Birmingham Bradford Brighton and Hove Bristol Cambridge Canterbury Carlisle Chelmsford Chester Chichester Coventry Derby Durham Ely Exeter Gloucester Hereford Kingston upon Hull Lancaster Leeds Leicester Lichfield Lincoln Liverpool London Manchester Newcastle upon Tyne Norwich Nottingham Oxford Peterborough Plymouth Portsmouth Preston Ripon St Albans Salford Salisbury Sheffield Southampton Stoke-on-Trent Sunderland Truro Wakefield Wells Westminster Winchester Wolverhampton Worcester York

Scotland

Aberdeen Dundee Edinburgh Glasgow Inverness Perth Stirling

Wales

Bangor Cardiff Newport St Asaph St Davids Swansea

Northern Ireland

Armagh Belfast Derry Lisburn Newry

v t e

Metropolitan districts of England

Districts

Barnsley Birmingham Bolton Bradford Bury Calderdale Coventry Doncaster Dudley Gateshead Kirklees Knowsley Leeds Liverpool Manchester Newcastle upon Tyne North Tyneside Oldham Rochdale Rotherham Salford Sandwell Sefton Sheffield Solihull South Tyneside St Helens Stockport Sunderland Tameside Trafford Wakefield Walsall Wigan Wirral Wolverhampton

Councils

Barnsley Birmingham Bolton Bradford Bury Calderdale Coventry Doncaster Dudley Gateshead Kirklees Knowsley Leeds Liverpool Manchester Newcastle upon Tyne North Tyneside Oldham Rochdale Rotherham Salford Sandwell Sefton Sheffield Solihull South Tyneside St Helens Stockport Sunderland Tameside Trafford Wakefield Walsall Wigan Wirral Wolverhampton

Local elections

Barnsley Birmingham Bolton Bradford Bury Calderdale Coventry Doncaster Dudley Gateshead Kirklees Knowsley Leeds Liverpool Manchester Newcastle upon Tyne North Tyneside Oldham Rochdale Rotherham Salford Sandwell Sefton Sheffield Solihull South Tyneside St Helens Stockport Sunderland Tameside Trafford Wakefield Walsall Wigan Wirral Wolverhampton

v t e

Cultural venues in Wolverhampton

Arena Theatre Grand Theatre Art Gallery Molineux Stadium Civic, Wulfrun
Wulfrun
& Little Civic Halls

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 145414509 LCCN: n80079

.