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Wolfgang Schäuble
Wolfgang Schäuble
([ˈvɔlfɡaŋ ˈʃɔʏblə] born 18 September 1942) is a German lawyer and politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) whose political career has spanned more than four decades. He is one of the most experienced and longest serving politicians in German history and since 2017 has been the President of the Bundestag. Born in Freiburg Im Breisgau
Freiburg Im Breisgau
in 1942,[1] Schäuble studied at both the University of Freiburg
University of Freiburg
and the University of Hamburg
University of Hamburg
and subsequently began a career in law at the district court of Offenburg
Offenburg
in 1978. His political career began in 1969 as a member of the Junge Union, the youth division of the CDU; in 1972, Schäuble was elected to the Bundestag
Bundestag
by means of winning an electorate seat, where, as of 2017, he continues to serve to this day. Schäuble’s Ministerial career began in 1984 when he was appointed Minister for Special
Special
Affairs by Chancellor Helmut Kohl. In a 1989 reshuffle, Schäuble was made Minister of the Interior, where he led negotiations for reunification on the behalf of the Federal Republic of Germany.[2][3] During his tenure as Minister of the Interior, Schäuble was one of the most popular politicians in Germany
Germany
and was regularly mentioned as a possible future Chancellor,[4] though he faced occasional criticism from civil rights activists for his law and order policies.[5] After the defeat of the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
in the 1998 federal election, Schäuble succeeded his mentor Helmut Kohl
Helmut Kohl
as Chairman of the CDU, a position he held for less than two years before resigning his post in the aftermath of the 1999 party financing scandal.[6] In 2005, Schäuble again became Minister of the Interior in the Cabinet of Chancellor Angela Merkel, in 2009 Minister of Finance,[1] a position he remained in for almost eight years. Described in this capacity as “Germany's second most powerful person” after Merkel,[7] he took a hard-line towards Southern European countries during the eurozone crisis[8] and rejected calls from the International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
to give Greece
Greece
more time to rein in deficits.[9] A proponent of austerity policies, Schäuble’s 2014 budget allowed Germany
Germany
to not take on any new debt for the first time since 1969,[10][11] which is generally known as Black Zero in CDU election campaigns. On 27 September 2017 the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
group in the Bundestag
Bundestag
announced Schäuble’s nomination as President of the Bundestag[12] He was elected to that position on 24 October 2017.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Early career 3 Political career

3.1 Member of Parliament, 1972 to present 3.2 Federal Minister for Special
Special
Affairs, 1984–1989 3.3 Federal Minister of the Interior, 1989–1991 3.4 CDU Party Chairman, 1998–2000 3.5 Federal Minister of the Interior, 2005–2009 3.6 Federal Minister of Finance, 2009–2017 3.7 President of the German Parliament, 2017–present

4 Political views

4.1 European integration 4.2 Foreign policy 4.3 Domestic policy 4.4 Domestic security

5 Criticism

5.1 Law and order politics 5.2 Relations with Greece 5.3 Tax loopholes

6 Other activities (selection)

6.1 Corporate boards 6.2 Non-profits

7 Recognition (selection) 8 Personal life

8.1 Assassination attempt and resulting health issues

9 Selected works 10 References 11 External links

Early life and education[edit]

Schäuble in early years

Schäuble was born in Freiburg im Breisgau, as the son of a tax finance advisor. He is the middle brother of three.[1] After completing his Abitur
Abitur
in 1961, Schäuble studied law and economics at the University of Freiburg
University of Freiburg
and the University of Hamburg, which he completed in 1966 and 1970 by passing the First and Second State Examinations respectively, becoming a fully qualified lawyer. In 1971 Schäuble obtained his doctorate in law, with a dissertation called "The public accountant's professional legal situation within accountancy firms". Early career[edit] Schäuble entered the tax administration of the state of Baden-Württemberg, eventually becoming a senior administration officer in the Freiburg tax office. Subsequently he became a practising registered lawyer at the district court of Offenburg, from 1978 to 1984. Political career[edit] Schäuble's political career began in 1961 with him joining the Junge Union ("Young Union"), the youth division of the CDU. During his studies he served as chairman of the Ring Christlich-Demokratischer Studenten (Association of Christian-Democrat Students, RCDS), in Hamburg and Freiburg. In 1965 Schäuble also became a member of the CDU. From 1969 to 1972, he was district chairman of the Junge Union
Junge Union
in South Baden. From 1976 to 1984, he served as chairman of the CDU National Committee for Sport.

Wolfgang Schäuble
Wolfgang Schäuble
and Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
in the German Bundestag, 2014

Member of Parliament, 1972 to present[edit] Schäuble has been a member of the Bundestag
Bundestag
since 1972. From 1981 to 1984 he was parliamentary whip of the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
group and in November 1991 he became its chairman. Schäuble gave up this position in 2000 as another consequence of the financing scandal. Between October 2002 and 2005, Schäuble served as the parliamentary group’s deputy chairman, under the leadership of Angela Merkel. Schäuble has always been elected to the Bundestag
Bundestag
by means of winning an electorate seat, rather than through a list placing in Germany's system of proportional political representation.

1989: Wolfgang Schäuble
Wolfgang Schäuble
(front centre), German Federal Minister of the Interior

Federal Minister for Special
Special
Affairs, 1984–1989[edit] On 15 November 1984 Schäuble was appointed as Minister for Special Affairs and head of the Chancellery by Chancellor Helmut Kohl. When in 1986 Soviet press belabored Kohl for having, in a magazine interview, made a comparison between the propaganda skills of Mikhail S. Gorbachev and Joseph Goebbels, Schäuble was reported to have counseled the Chancellor against writing Gorbachev an apology for the remark, saying it would be misunderstood as a sign of weakness.[13] In his capacity as Minister for Special
Special
Affairs, Schäuble was put in charge of the preparations for the first official state visit of Erich Honecker, Chairman of the State Council of the German Democratic Republic (GDR), in 1987. By that time, he was widely considered to be one of Kohl's closest advisers.[14] Federal Minister of the Interior, 1989–1991[edit] In a cabinet reshuffle Schäuble was made Minister of the Interior on 21 April 1989. In this role he also led the negotiations on behalf of the Federal Republic of Germany
Federal Republic of Germany
for reunification with the GDR in 1990. He and East German State Secretary Günther Krause
Günther Krause
signed the Unification Treaty on 31 August 1990.[2][3] In a speech to parliament in 1991, Schäuble clinched the argument in favour of moving the German capital from Bonn
Bonn
to Berlin.[15] In the 1990s Schäuble was one of the most popular politicians in Germany[citation needed] and there was constant speculation that he would replace Kohl as Chancellor, whose popularity was declining.[4] In November 1991, Schäuble became the Christian Democrats' parliamentary floor leader, replacing 71-year-old Alfred Dregger, in a move that made him Kohl's likely heir-apparent.[16] In 1997 Helmut Kohl stated that Schäuble was his desired candidate to succeed him, but he did not want to hand over power until 2002 when the European monetary union would be completed with the introduction of the euro.[citation needed] However, as the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
lost the 1998 election, Schäuble never became Chancellor. After Eberhard Diepgen
Eberhard Diepgen
was voted out as mayor of Berlin, Schäuble was in talks to be the top candidate for the early election on 21 October 2001, but was rejected by the Berlin branch of the CDU in favour of Frank Steffel. Some quarters of the CDU and CSU wanted to put Schäuble forward as their candidate for the office of German President, the largely ceremonial head of state, at the beginning of March 2004, due to his extensive political experience. In spite of support from the Premiers of Bavaria
Bavaria
( Edmund Stoiber
Edmund Stoiber
(CSU)) and Hesse
Hesse
(Roland Koch (CDU)),[citation needed] Schäuble did not receive the party's nomination in the end because CDU leader Angela Merkel, other CDU politicians and the liberal FDP party spoke out against him. This was because the election contributions scandal involving Schäuble that first came to light in late 1999 had never been entirely resolved.[citation needed] CDU Party Chairman, 1998–2000[edit] After the CDU was defeated in the 1998 federal election, Schäuble succeeded Helmut Kohl
Helmut Kohl
as chairman of the CDU. Only 15 months later,[6] he resigned from this post as well as from the leadership of the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
parliamentary group in 2000 in the wake of the party financing scandal, over the acceptance of cash donation over DM 100,000 contributed by the arms dealer and lobbyist Karlheinz Schreiber back in 1994.[17] Schäuble's resignation initiated a generational change among the Christian Democrats, with Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
taking over as CDU leader and Friedrich Merz
Friedrich Merz
as chairman of the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
parliamentary group.[6][18][18][19] Federal Minister of the Interior, 2005–2009[edit] Ahead of the 2005 elections, Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
included Schäuble in her shadow cabinet for the Christian Democrats’ campaign to unseat incumbent Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
as chancellor. During the campaign, Schäuble served as Merkel's expert for security and foreign policy.[20] Following the elections, Schäuble was mentioned as potential candidate for the office of Federal Minister of Defense.[21] In the subsequent negotiations to form a coalition government, however, he led the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
delegation in the working group on interior policy; his co-chair from the SPD
SPD
was Brigitte Zypries.[22] Once the new government was formed, Schäuble once again became Minister of the Interior, this time in the Grand Coalition under Chancellor Angela Merkel. Between 2007 and 2009, Schäuble was one of 32 members of the Second Commission on the modernization of the federal state, which had been established to reform the division of powers between federal and state authorities in Germany. Federal Minister of Finance, 2009–2017[edit] Following the 2009 federal election, Schäuble, by then one of Germany's most seasoned politicians,[23] became Minister of Finance in October 2009. Then aged 67, he was the oldest man in the cabinet and the longest-serving member of the parliament[1] in the history of the Federal Republic.[15] He was also one of seven conservative ministers in Merkel's outgoing government who remained in power.[24] By 2014, the Wall Street Journal
Wall Street Journal
called Schäuble "Germany's second most powerful person after Chancellor Angela Merkel."[7] During his time in office, Schäuble has widely been regarded the most vocal advocate in the government of European integration,[25] and a passionate proponent of co-operation with France.[26] Along with Chancellor Angela Merkel, however, he has often taken a hard line toward some Southern European countries during the eurozone crisis.[8] In 2012, Schäuble rejected calls from the chairwoman of the International Monetary Fund, Christine Lagarde, to give Greece
Greece
more time to make additional spending cuts to rein in deficits.[9] That same year, President Karolos Papoulias
Karolos Papoulias
of Greece
Greece
accused Schäuble of insulting his nation.[27] In October 2013, Schäuble was accused by the former Portuguese Prime Minister, José Sócrates, for regularly placing news in the media against Portugal during the eurozone crisis prior to the Portuguese bailout; Sócrates called him a "Sly Minister of Finance".[28] A leading advocate of austerity during the eurozone crisis[10]— Schäuble in 2014 pushed through a national budget of 299 billion euros that allowed Germany
Germany
not to take on any new debt for the first time since 1969.[11] In the first half of 2016, he recorded a 18.5 billion euros budget surplus.[29] He has been described variously as the "personification of fiscal discipline"[30] and "Europe's foremost ayatollah of austerity"[31]—Schäuble's reputation for tough control of spending has been helped by Germany's rapid recovery from recession but he has repeatedly rebuffed calls from government supporters for vote-winning tax cuts.[26] Throughout his tenure, he stood by his position that structural reforms such as overhauling labor markets in Europe are the way out of a low-growth spiral.[32] In 2013, for example, Schäuble and Vítor Gaspar, his counterpart in Portugal, announced a plan to use the German state development bank KfW
KfW
to help set up a financial institution to assist Portuguese under age 25 in getting jobs or job training.[33] In 2012, following the resignation of Jean-Claude Juncker
Jean-Claude Juncker
as president of the 17 euro zone finance ministers, known as the Eurogroup, suggestions soon gathered pace that Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
was pressing for Schäuble to take up the position;[15][27] the job later went to Jeroen Dijsselbloem
Jeroen Dijsselbloem
instead. In the negotiations to form a coalition government following the 2013 federal elections, he led the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
delegation in the financial policy working group; his co-chair from the SPD
SPD
was the Mayor of Hamburg, Olaf Scholz.[34] Between 2014 and 2015, Schäuble and Scholz again led the negotiations on overhauling the so-called solidarity surcharge on income and corporate tax (Solidaritätszuschlag) and reorganizing financial relations between Germany's federal government and the federal states.[35] In a letter to the European Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs Pierre Moscovici
Pierre Moscovici
in late 2014, Schäuble and the finance ministers of the eurozone's other big economies – Michel Sapin
Michel Sapin
of France
France
and Pier Carlo Padoan
Pier Carlo Padoan
of Italy
Italy
– urged the European Commission
European Commission
to draw up EU-wide laws to curb corporate tax avoidance and prevent member states from offering lower taxes to attract investors, calling for a comprehensive anti-BEPS (Base Erosion and Profit Shifting) directive for member states to adopt by the end of 2015.[36] On Schäuble's initiative, Germany
Germany
became a founding member of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.[37] At a 2015 meeting of the G-20 major economies, he called for better integration of Islamic finance into the international financial system.[38] When Federal President Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
announced in June 2016 that he would not stand for reelection, Schäuble was soon mentioned by German and international media as likely successor;[39][40] the post eventually went to Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
instead. From late 2016, Schäuble served as member of the German government's cabinet committee on Brexit
Brexit
at which ministers discuss organizational and structural issues related to the United Kingdom's departure from the European Union.[41] President of the German Parliament, 2017–present[edit] Following the 2017 elections, Schäuble was nominated by the majority CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
parliamentary group as the next president of the Bundestag, succeeding Norbert Lammert.[42] In his capacity as president, he chairs the parliament’s Council of Elders, which – among other duties – determines daily legislative agenda items and assigning committee chairpersons based on party representation. Political views[edit] European integration[edit] Echoing earlier proposals made by Prime Minister Édouard Balladur
Édouard Balladur
of France, Schäuble and fellow lawmaker Karl Lamers in 1994 urged the European Union
European Union
to adopt a policy they called "variable geometry" under which five countries most committed to integration – Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxemburg – would proceed swiftly toward monetary union, joint foreign and defense policies and other forms of integration.[43] In 2014, both reiterated their ideas in an op-ed for the Financial Times, renewing their call for a core group of European Union
European Union
countries to move ahead faster with economic and political integration.[44] Countries such as Britain should put forward proposals for returning some competences to national governments, they said, while "the EU should focus mainly on the following areas: a fair and open internal market; trade; currency and financial markets; climate, environment and energy; and foreign and security policy."[45] Also, they proposed the establishment of a European budget commissioner with powers to reject national budgets if they do not correspond to the jointly agreed rules and a "eurozone parliament" comprising the MEPs of eurozone countries to strengthen the democratic legitimacy of decisions affecting the single currency bloc.[45] On 21 November 2011 Schäuble said the euro would emerge stronger from the current crisis, and ultimately all non-members would be convinced to sign up. He said Great Britain would eventually join the euro (but that he respected Britain's decision to keep the pound).[46] On a British exit from the EU, Schäuble argued in 2014 that Britain's EU membership was particularly important for Germany
Germany
as both countries share a market-oriented reform approach in many economic and regulatory questions.[47] In 2015, then-Finance Minister Yanis Varoufakis
Yanis Varoufakis
of Greece
Greece
called Schäuble "the intellectual force behind the project of European Monetary Union."[48] In 2015, Schäuble raised the idea of stripping the European Commission of regulatory powers, expressing concern over its neutrality and willingness to fulfil its role as "guardian of the treaties", in particular with regard to the enforcement of rules on budget discipline; unnamed diplomats were cited by Reuters
Reuters
as stating that this was not incompatible with his reputation as "a veteran pro-European who has long favored turning the Commission over time into a European 'government'".[49][50] Following the Brexit
Brexit
in 2016, Schäuble urged Member States to be more pragmatic and take an intergovernmental approach to solving problems.[51] Foreign policy[edit] Schäuble is considered a "committed transatlanticist"[52] On 7 June 2011, he was among the guests invited to the state dinner hosted by President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
in honor of Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
at the White House.[53] In 2002, shortly before the Iraq War, Schäuble accused German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
of "strengthening Saddam Hussein" by undermining the unanimity of international pressure on Iraq to open up to United Nations weapons inspectors.[54] On Schröder's initiative to join forces with President Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
of France
France
and President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
of Russia in opposing the war, Schäuble commented: "This triangular relationship involving Berlin, Paris and Moscow was a dangerous development. It was very dangerous for the small countries in Europe because they perceived it as an axis and you can understand why. We want good relations with Russia but we do not want those relations to be misunderstood."[55] Schäuble, in contrast to many German politicians, subsequently defended the United States' decision to invade Iraq. By 2006, he said he thought the overthrow of Saddam Hussein was in itself correct, but that he was "doubtful" from the outset about the Iraq war because it resulted from a unilateral decision by the US.[56] Schäuble accused Chancellor Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
of lacking an appropriate historical conscience, because he accepted alleged human rights violations by the Russian Government without criticism. On 31 March 2014, Schäuble compared the annexation of the Sudetenland
Sudetenland
by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in 1938 to the annexation of Crimea by Russia in the 2014 Crimean crisis. Similar to Vladimir Putin, Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
had claimed that "ethnic Germans" in peripheral regions of what was then Czechoslovakia required protection.[57] Domestic policy[edit] In 1999 Schäuble initiated a CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
petition campaign against the reform of German citizenship law under the slogan "Integration: yes — double citizenship: no". In response to anti-immigrant rallies in the eastern city of Dresden in late 2014, Schäuble said that immigration is good for Germany
Germany
and politicians must explain better that everyone stands to gain from it; at the time, the number of asylum seekers in Germany, many from Syria, had more than doubled within a year to around 200,000, and net immigration was at its highest level in two decades. "Just as we used millions of refugees and expellees after World War Two to rebuild.. so we need immigration today," Schäuble told Bild
Bild
when asked about the popularity of anti-immigration policies.[58] Also, he held that "people are right to fear Islamist terrorism. But not Islam."[58] In September 2015, he urged the Member States of the European Union
European Union
to quickly establish a common European asylum law.[59] Schäuble was among the high-ranking guests attending the re-opening of Rykestrasse Synagogue, Germany's largest synagogue, in September 2007.[60] In May 2008, he banned two right-wing organizations he described as "reservoirs of organized Holocaust
Holocaust
deniers."[61] In 2009, he also banned the Homeland-Faithful German Youth, a far-right group, on grounds that it organizes seemingly harmless, such as holiday activities, to promote racist and Nazi ideology among children and young people.[62] Between 2015 and 2016, Schäuble and the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany, which manages aid to Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors, negotiated a budget of some $500 million, the largest one-time increase in homecare funding for survivors the organization has ever secured.[63] Schäuble had long been considered as one of several prominent conservatives who are in favor of shifting the CDU's restrictive stance on gay marriage.[64] In June 2017, however, he voted against Germany’s introduction of same-sex marriage.[65] Domestic security[edit] Schäuble has been calling for more muscular policies to combat terrorism since he joined the first Merkel government in 2005.[66] Shortly after he assumed the position of Minister of the Interior, the 2006 German train bombing plot
2006 German train bombing plot
became the closest Germany
Germany
is known to have come to a large-scale terrorist attack since 11 September 2001, and Schäuble publicly stated the country escaped that one only through luck.[66] As a consequence of the terrorism threats, Schäuble proposed several controversial measures. Ahead of the 2006 FIFA World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
in Germany, he repeatedly advocated for amending the constitution to allow the military's use for domestic security purposes.[67] Among the methods that he believed Germans should at least debate are preventative detention of people suspected of terrorist activities and assassinations of the leaders of terrorist organizations.[66] In March 2007, Schäuble said in an interview that the application of presumption of innocence should not be relevant for the authorization of counter-terrorist operations.[68] Later that same year Schäuble proposed the introduction of legislation that would allow the German Federal Government to carry out targeted killing of terrorists, as well as outlaw the use of the Internet and cell phones for people suspected of being terrorist sympathizers.[69] On 27 February 2008, he called on all European newspapers to print the Muhammad cartoons with the explanation: "We also think they're pathetic, but the use of press freedom is no reason to resort to violence."[70] In July 2009, Schäuble said in an interview that Berlin would have to "clarify whether our constitutional state is sufficient for confronting new threats."[71][72] He said that the legal problems his office had to struggle with "extend all the way to extreme cases such as so-called targeted killing ... Imagine someone knew what cave Osama bin Laden is sitting in. A remote-controlled missile could then be fired in order to kill him."[71][72] The interviewer said: "Germany's federal government would probably send a public prosecutor there first, to arrest bin Laden."[71][72] Schäuble responded: "And the Americans would execute him with a missile, and most people would say: 'thank God'."[71][72] In the wake of the deadly attacks in Paris on the offices of satirical publication Charlie Hebdo
Charlie Hebdo
and a kosher supermarket in January 2015, Schäuble and his French counterpart Michel Sapin
Michel Sapin
wrote a letter to the European Commission, calling for continent-wide legislation to better trace financial flows and freeze the assets of terrorists living in the European Union.[73] Criticism[edit]

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Law and order politics[edit] Criticism of Schäuble centers on his law and order politics during his second term as Federal Minister of the Interior, especially in the field of counter-terrorism, for which he has been criticised by some civil rights activists. Vocal opponents include the open-source software community.[5] The latest decisions of his ministry have led to a campaign dubbed Stasi 2.0 by its initiators, claiming intentional resemblance to the East German Ministerium für Staatssicherheit.[74] Controversy was sparked by Schäuble's recommendation in a 2007 interview of a book by Otto Depenheuer, who defended the Guantanamo Bay detention camp as a "legally permissible response in the fight of constitutional civilisation against the barbarity of terrorism".[75] As a protest against his support for the increasing use of biometric data, the hacker group Chaos Computer Club
Chaos Computer Club
published one of Schäuble's fingerprints in the March 2008 edition of its magazine Datenschleuder. The magazine also included the print on a film that readers could use to fool fingerprint readers.[76] In November 2008, a bill giving the Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA) more authority failed when some states abstained from the vote in the Bundesrat, the legislative representative of the states. Subsequently, Schäuble suggested changing Bundesrat's voting procedures to discount abstention votes from the total. Many politicians of the opposition criticized his proposal, and some called for his resignation.[77][78] In February 2009, Schäuble's homepage was hacked due to a security flaw in the TYPO3
TYPO3
CMS and its non-secure password gewinner ("winner"). The hack consisted of a defacement that placed a large, easily visible link on his front page to the homepage of the German Working Group on Data Retention.[79] Relations with Greece[edit]

Triptych "Der griechische Altar. Merkel und Schäuble als falsche Caritas" shows the german role during the Greek government-debt crisis, painting from Matthias Laurenz Gräff
Matthias Laurenz Gräff
(2015) [80] [81]

Schäuble came under criticism for his actions during the "Grexit" crisis of 2015: it was suggested by Yanis Varoufakis
Yanis Varoufakis
that Schäuble had intended to force Greece
Greece
out of the Euro
Euro
even before the election of the left-wing Syriza government in Greece.[82] This was confirmed by former US Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner in early 2014; calling Schäuble's plan "frightening," Geithner recorded that Schäuble believed a Greek exit from the Eurozone
Eurozone
would scare other countries in to line.[83] Schäuble also received extensive criticism toward his austerity recommendations from Twitter
Twitter
via the hashtag #ThisIsACoup.[84] Such criticism focused on the fact that Schäuble's insistence on policies of austerity was contradicted both by the empirical evidence that the policies he had insisted on had shrunk the Greek economy by 25%, a degree hitherto paralleled only in wartime, but also by reports from the IMF insisting that only massive debt relief, not further austerity, could be effective.[85][86] Tax loopholes[edit] When a parliamentary inquiry was set up in 2017 to look into a banks dividend scandal, Schäuble had to confront public criticism that he waited too long to ban a double ownership loophole that let two parties claim ownership of the same shares and allowed both parties to claim tax rebates, causing the state to lose billions of euros in tax.[87] Other activities (selection)[edit] Corporate boards[edit]

KfW, Deputy Chairman of the Board of Supervisory Directors (2009-2017) Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
(AIIB), Ex-Officio Member of the Board of Governors (2016-2017)[88]

Non-profits[edit]

Friends of the Festspielhaus Baden-Baden, Chairman Deutsche Nationalstiftung, Member of the Board of Trustees Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Member of the Board of Trustees Deutsche Stiftung Querschnittlähmung (German Paraplegia Foundation), Member of the Board of Trustees Deutsches Museum, Member of the Board of Trustees[89] Friends of the Berliner Philharmonie, Member of the Board of Trustees House of Finance, Goethe University Frankfurt, Member of the Board of Trustees International Foundation for Research in Paraplegia, Member of the Board of Trustees Max Planck Society, Member of the Board of Trustees RAG-Stiftung, ex-officio Member of the Board of Trustees Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman
Foundation, Member of the Board of Directors 2011 FIFA
FIFA
Women's World Cup, Member of the Board of Trustees[90]

Recognition (selection)[edit]

1986: Order of Merit of the Italian Republic 1988: Grand-Officier de l'Ordre National du Mérite by the President of France 1989: Grand Commander (Commander with the star) of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany 1991: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany 1992: Honorary Doctorate of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg 1998: Konrad-Adenauer-Preis 1998: Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur 2005: Honorary Doctorate of the University of Fribourg 2006: Honorary Doctorate of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn 2008: Order of Merit of Baden-Württemberg 2009: Honorary Doctorate of the University of Tübingen 2010: Toleranzpreis der Evangelischen Akademie Tutzing 2011: Honorary Doctorate of the Corvinus University of Budapest 2011: Order of the Oak Crown
Order of the Oak Crown
of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg 2012: International Charlemagne Prize
Charlemagne Prize
of Aachen[91] 2014: Award for Understanding and Tolerance of the Jewish Museum Berlin 2015: Bambi Award 2017: Kissinger Prize

Personal life[edit]

Schäuble with his wife Ingeborg Schäuble (2007)

Schäuble has been married to economist Ingeborg Schäuble since 1969. They have four children:[92] three daughters Christine, Juliane and Anna, and one son Hans-Jörg. His late brother, Thomas Schäuble (1948–2013), was a former Interior Minister of Baden-Württemberg, and an executive chairman of the Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
state brewery Rothaus
Rothaus
from 2004 to 2013. His son-in-law is Thomas Strobl, who currently serves as Interior Minister of Baden-Württemberg. When Schäuble celebrated his 70th birthday at the Deutsches Theater in Berlin in September 2012, Chancellor Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
and Christine Lagarde, the managing director of the International Monetary Fund, delivered the keynote speeches in his honor.[93] Assassination attempt and resulting health issues[edit] On 12 October 1990, at the age of 48, Schäuble was the target of an assassination attempt by Dieter Kaufmann, who fired three shots at him after an election campaign event attended by about 300 people in Oppenau.[14][92] Kaufmann injured a bodyguard, and severely injured Schäuble's spinal cord and face.[92] Schäuble was left paralysed from the attack and has used a wheelchair ever since. The would-be assassin was declared mentally ill by the judges, and committed to a clinic because of psychoneurosis. He was released in 2004. Meanwhile, Schäuble returned to work within three months, even while he was still living in a rehabilitation unit, learning to manoeuvre while paralysed below the waist.[1] For his last rally in the 1990 elections, Chancellor Helmut Kohl
Helmut Kohl
traveled to Offenburg, where Schäuble made his first public appearance after the assassination attempt to a crowd of about 9,000.[94] In May 2010, on his way to Brussels for an emergency meeting of European Union
European Union
finance ministers, Schäuble found himself in the intensive care unit of a Belgian hospital, battling complications from an earlier operation and an allergic reaction to a new antibiotic.[95] At that point, the German news media speculated about his resignation, and even his chances of survival.[96] However, Chancellor Angela Merkel twice declined Schäuble's offer to step down during a period of ill health in 2010.[97] Selected works[edit] Schäuble has written a number of books including

Der Vertrag. Wie ich über die deutsche Einheit verhandelte (The treaty: How I conducted the negotiations on German unification, 1991); Und der Zukunft zugewandt (Looking to the future, 1994); Und sie bewegt sich doch (And yet it moves, 1998); Mitten im Leben (In the prime of life, 2000); Scheitert der Westen? Deutschland, Die neue Weltordnung (Is the West failing? Germany
Germany
and the new world order, 2003) and Zukunft mit Maß. Was wir aus der Krise lernen können (Future of moderation: What we can learn from the crisis, 2009).[98] 60 Jahre Grundgesetz: Verfassungsanspruch und Wirklichkeit, in: Robertson-von Trotha, Caroline Y.
Robertson-von Trotha, Caroline Y.
(ed.): 60 Jahre Grundgesetz. Interdisziplinäre Perspektiven (= Kulturwissenschaft interdisziplinär/Interdisciplinary Studies on Culture and Society, Vol. 4), Baden-Baden 2009

References[edit]

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Bonn
Journal; Kohl's Protege Turns Into Kohl's Challenger". The New York Times.  ^ a b "German Linux Community Boycotting LinuxTag - Slashdot". slashdot.org.  ^ a b c Cecilie Rohwedder (17 February 2000), Schaeuble Resigns From CDU Posts In Hopes of Reducing Party Scandal Wall Street Journal. ^ a b Anton Troianovski and Marcus Walker (23 May 2014), Q&A With German Finance Minister Wolfgang Schäuble
Wolfgang Schäuble
Wall Street Journal. ^ a b Jack Ewing (12 December 2010), Germany
Germany
Signals Support for Euro-Zone Members The New York Times. ^ a b Alan Cowell and Nicholas Kulish (12 October 2012), Nobel Committee Gives Peace Prize to European Union
European Union
The New York Times. ^ a b Paul Taylor (4 March 2013), Jolt From Italy's Elections May Not Be Enough The New York Times. ^ a b Erik Kirschbaum and Michelle Martin (9 September 2014), No new debt for Germany
Germany
in 2015, first time since 1969 Reuters. ^ Emma Anderson (September 27, 2017), Schäuble to be nominated as German parliament president: report Politico Europe ^ James M. Markham (14 December 1986), Kohl's Party, Eyes on Vote, Shifts to Right The New York Times. ^ a b Schmemann, Serge (13 October 1990). "German Interior Minister Is Shot at Political Rally". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 October 2012.  ^ a b c Ian Traynor (20 September 2012), Germany's Wolfgang Schäuble at 70 – still at heart of efforts to save eurozone The Guardian. ^ Tyler Marshall (16 November 1991), Social Democrats Tire of Losses, Try New Faces Los Angeles Times. ^ "The scandal that rocked the government of Helmut Kohl", Deutsche Welle (18 January 2010): "Schaeuble, Germany's current finance minister, insisted he had forwarded the money to the CDU's then treasurer, Brigitte Baumeister, and had nothing to do with the illegal booking of the money. Baumeister rejected the accusation, saying she had handed over the money to Schaeuble in an envelope. The allegations were never proved in court but the affair cost Schaueble his job." ^ a b SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg, Germany
Germany
(11 January 2000). "CDU-Spendenaffäre: "Schäuble war Mittäter"". SPIEGEL ONLINE. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ http://www.newsweek.com/scandal-sinks-schauble-162255 ^ Charles Hawley (20 October 2005), Letter from Berlin: Taming the Lions with Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
Spiegel Online. ^ Ministry Distribution in German Coalition Pact Washington Post, 10 October 2005. ^ Timot Szent-Ivanyi (25 October 2005), Gutverdiener sollen höhere Kassenbeiträge zahlen Berliner Zeitung. ^ Jack Ewing (24 January 2014), Germany's Finance Minister Praises Progress Made in Crisis Countries The New York Times. ^ Sarah Marsh (25 October 2009), New Merkel minister defends tax cuts after attacks, Reuters. ^ Alison Smale (14 October 2014), French Minister Attends German Cabinet Session The New York Times. ^ a b Quentin Peel (5 December 2010), Wolfgang Schäuble, a profile Financial Times. ^ a b Stephen Castle and Jack Ewing (16 March 2012), "The Derby for 'Mr. Euro,' and Lots of Other Top Jobs, Is Just Getting Started", The New York Times ^ Meireles, Luísa (22 October 2013). "Alemanha reage a declarações de Sócrates". Expresso.  ^ Stefan Wagstyl (August 24, 2016), German budget surplus swells to €18.5bn Financial Times. ^ Landon Thomas Jr. and Jack Ewing (12 February 2015), Greek Debt Standoff Awaits a Decisive Move New York Times. ^ Charlemagne. "Europe's fault lines". The Economist. 414 (7–13 February 2015): 33.  ^ Patrick Donahue and Birgit Jennen (21 October 2014), "Schaeuble Says Germany's Balanced-Budget Goal Is No 'Fetish'", Bloomberg. ^ Melissa Eddy (22 May 2013), Germany
Germany
Works to Ease High Youth Unemployment The New York Times. ^ Patrick Donahue (28 October 2013), Merkel Enters Concrete SPD
SPD
Talks as Finance Post Looms Bloomberg News. ^ Rainer Buergin (4 March 2015), Merkel Weighs End of Reunification Tax for East Germany
East Germany
Bloomberg Business. ^ Gernot Heller (1 December 2014), Germany, France
France
and Italy
Italy
urge EU to write common corporate tax laws Reuters. ^ Matthias Sobolewski (17 March 2015), Schaeuble confirms Germany
Germany
is a founding member of China-led AIIB bank Reuters. ^ Gernot Heller (5 September 2015), G20- Germany
Germany
urges more Islamic finance integration globally Reuters. ^ Stefan Wagstyl (June 6, 2016), German presidency jostling begins as Gauck prepares to quit Financial Times. ^ Kate Connolly (June 6, 2016), Headache for Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
as German president Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
steps down The Guardian. ^ Joseph Nasr (January 13, 2017), Merkel to chair first Brexit committee meeting next week Reuters. ^ Emma Anderson (September 27, 2017), Schäuble to be nominated as German parliament president: report Politico Europe. ^ Stephen Kinzer
Stephen Kinzer
(4 September 1994), German Plan for Phased Union of Europe Provokes Controversy The New York Times. ^ Paul Taylor (1 September 2014), Twenty years on, Schaeuble pleads again for core Europe Reuters. ^ a b Karl Lamers and Wolfgang Schäuble
Wolfgang Schäuble
(31 August 2014), More integration is still the right goal for Europe Financial Times. ^ Waterfield, Bruno; Hope, Christopher (18 Nov 2011). "Britain 'will join euro before long', says German finance minister". Retrieved 11 July 2015.  ^ Stefan Wagstyl and Jeevan Vasagar (30 June 2014), German finance minister Schäuble pledges to keep UK in Europe Financial Times. ^ Jack Ewing and James Kanter (4 February 2015), E.C.B. Move Is Setback to Greece
Greece
on Debt Relief New York Times. ^ Busemann, Hans-Edzard (30 July 2015). "Germany's Schaeuble wants to rebalance EU Commission's role". Reuters. Retrieved 15 August 2015.  ^ Vasagar, Jeevan; Spiegel, Peter; Chassany, Anne-Sylvaine (30 July 2015). "Schäuble outlines plan to limit European Commission
European Commission
powers". Financial Times. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Michelle Martin (July 3, 2016), German politicians call for improvements to EU after Brexit
Brexit
vote Reuters. ^ TRANSCRIPT: Globalizing World Requires Transatlantic Partnership and Leadership - A Conversation With German Finance Minister Wolfgang Schäuble, 11 April 2014 Archived 19 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Council on Foreign Relations. ^ Expected Attendees at Tonight's State Dinner Office of the First Lady of the United States, press release of 7 June 2011. ^ Stephen Erlanger (17 August 2002), U.S. Quietly Chides German For His Dissension on Iraq New York Times. ^ Judy Dempsey (26 August 2005), Merkel adviser seeks more-integrated EU International Herald Tribune. ^ War on Terror: Merkel Demands Respect for International Law Spiegel Online, 11 September 2006. ^ "Fighting Words: Schäuble Says Putin's Crimea Plans Reminiscent of Hitler", Der Spiegel, 31 March 2014 ^ a b Madeline Chambers (27 December 2014), Germany
Germany
needs immigration, Finance Minister says after anti-asylum rallies Reuters. ^ Michelle Martin (1 October 2015), German finance minister seeks common EU asylum law quickly -paper Reuters. ^ Anshel Pfeffer (2 September 2007), Restored Berlin synagogue opens doors Haaretz. ^ Germany
Germany
launches nationwide crackdown on neo-Nazi youth group Haaretz, 9 October 2008. ^ Germany
Germany
bans group preaching Nazi ideology to children Haaretz, 31 March 2009. ^ Germany
Germany
to Increase Aid to Holocaust
Holocaust
Survivors Through 2018 Haaretz, July 6, 2016. ^ Charles Hawley (5 March 2013), Campaign Conundrum: Merkel Walks a Fine Line on Gay Rights Der Spiegel. ^ Diese Unionsabgeordneten stimmten für die Ehe für alle Die Welt, June 30, 2017. ^ a b c Mark Landler (13 July 2007), Germans Weigh Civil Rights and Public Safety The New York Times. ^ Law to shoot down airliners overturned International Herald Tribune, 15 February 2006. ^ Schäuble will Unschuldsvermutung nicht gelten lassen, www.tagesschau.de, 18 April 2007[dead link] ^ "German minister's proposal causes uproar", AFP (IOL), 9 July 2007. ^ "German Minister Calls on EU Press to Publish Mohammed Cartoon". DW.COM.  ^ a b c d Susanne Koelbl (28 July 2008). "Terrorism Interview with German Interior Minister Wolfgang Schäuble: 'We Could Be Struck at Anytime'". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 29 May 2010.  ^ a b c d "Schäuble in Trouble: Interior Minister in Crisis Over 'Targeted Killings' Remark". Der Spiegel. 16 July 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2010.  ^ Harriet Torry (31 March 2015), Germany, France
France
Urge EU to Clamp Down on Terrorist Financing Wall Street Journal. ^ Georg Löwisch. "Protestsymbolschöpfer: Der Mann hinter der Schäublone". taz.de.  ^ Gunter Hofmann (9 August 2007). "Schäubles Nachtlektüre". Die Zeit issue 33/2007 (in German). Hamburg. p. 7. Retrieved 29 December 2007. [permanent dead link] ^ CCC publishes fingerprints of Wolfgang Schäuble, the German Home Secretary Archived 15 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Heise Online, 31 March 2008, Retrieved 16 December 2010 ^ ddp/ks (21 November 2008). "Schäubles vorschlag stößt auf Welle der Empörung". Welt Online (in German). Retrieved 22 November 2008.  ^ "Schäuble erntet Fassungslosigkeit". Tagesschau (in German).  ^ "Typo3 hack on German Interior Minister's web site". Heise Online.  ^ Demokratisch-links.de. Merkels Abschiebekultur ^ Demokratisch-links.de. 100.000-Mark-Schäuble. Eine Geisterstunde der Demokratie ^ "Dr Schäuble's Plan for Europe: Do Europeans approve? – Article to appear in Die Zeit
Die Zeit
on Thursday 16th July 2015 - Yanis Varoufakis". Yanis Varoufakis. 13 July 2015.  ^ " Timothy Geithner
Timothy Geithner
reveals Schauble's plan to kick Greece
Greece
out of the euro and 'terrify' the rest of Europe". thepressproject.gr. 14 May 2014.  ^ "#ThisIsACoup: Germany
Germany
faces backlash over tough Greece
Greece
bailout demands". the Guardian. 12 July 2015.  ^ "How bad is Greece's economy? These charts will tell you". Slate Magazine. 18 February 2015.  ^ Larry Elliott (14 July 2015). "Athens to vote as IMF warns Greece needs extra debt relief above bailout". the Guardian.  ^ Matthias Sobolewski (February 16, 2017), Schaeuble defends himself, regulator over banks dividend scandal Reuters. ^ Board of Governors Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
(AIIB). ^ Board of Trustees Deutsches Museum. ^ WM-Kuratorium unter Vorsitz von Dr. Thomas Bach FIFA, press release of 30 September 2008. ^ Ondruskova, Iveta (2012-05-17). "Schäuble receives Charlemagne Prize". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 2014-12-16. Retrieved 2014-12-16.  ^ a b c Ray Moseley (13 October 1990). "German Cabinet Member Shot, Seriously Wounded By Attacker". Chicago Tribune. Berlin. Retrieved 11 September 2013.  ^ Jack Ewing (17 April 2013), Euro
Euro
Zone Crisis Has Increased I.M.F.'s Power The New York Times. ^ Serge Schmemann (1 December 1990), Kohl, Dominating Campaign, Acts as if He's Already Won The New York Times. ^ Quentin Peel (19 May 2010), Schäuble interview: Berlin's strictures Financial Times. ^ Nicholas Kulish and Jack Ewing (18 November 2011), Seeing in Crisis the Last Best Chance to Unite Europe The New York Times. ^ Rainer Buergin and Birgit Jennen (20 September 2013), Schaeuble Seen Keeping Finance Post Even in SPD
SPD
Coalition Bloomberg News. ^ Speakers: Wolfgang Schäuble
Wolfgang Schäuble
Brussels Economic Forum, 18 May 2011.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wolfgang Schäuble.

Wolfgang Schäuble: "Muslims Should Feel at Home in Germany"

Political offices

Preceded by Waldemar Schreckenberger Chancellery Chief of Staff 1984–1989 Succeeded by Rudolf Seiters

Minister for Special
Special
Affairs 1984–1989

Preceded by Friedrich Zimmermann Minister of the Interior 1989–1991

Preceded by Otto Schily Minister of the Interior 2005–2009 Succeeded by Thomas de Maizière

Preceded by Peer Steinbrück Minister of Finance 2009–2017 Succeeded by Peter Altmaier Acting

Preceded by Norbert Lammert President of the Bundestag 2017–present Incumbent

Party political offices

Preceded by Alfred Dregger Chair of the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
in the Bundestag 1991–2000 Succeeded by Friedrich Merz

Preceded by Helmut Kohl Leader of the Christian Democratic Union 1998–2000 Succeeded by Angela Merkel

Wolfgang Schäuble
Wolfgang Schäuble
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First Merkel Cabinet (2005–2009)

Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(CDU) Franz Müntefering/ Olaf Scholz
Olaf Scholz
(since 22 November 2007; SPD) Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
(SPD) Wolfgang Schäuble
Wolfgang Schäuble
(CDU) Brigitte Zypries
Brigitte Zypries
(SPD) Peer Steinbrück
Peer Steinbrück
(SPD) Michael Glos/ Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg
Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg
(since 10 February 2009; CSU) Horst Seehofer/ Ilse Aigner
Ilse Aigner
(since 31 October 2008; CSU) Franz Josef Jung
Franz Josef Jung
(CDU) Ursula von der Leyen
Ursula von der Leyen
(CDU) Ulla Schmidt
Ulla Schmidt
(SPD) Wolfgang Tiefensee
Wolfgang Tiefensee
(SPD) Sigmar Gabriel
Sigmar Gabriel
(SPD) Annette Schavan
Annette Schavan
(CDU) Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul
Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul
(SPD) Thomas de Maizière
Thomas de Maizière
(CDU)

v t e

Second Merkel Cabinet (2009–2013)

Guido WesterwelleV Philipp RöslerAV Angela Merkel Thomas de Maizière Hans-Peter FriedrichC Sabine Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger Wolfgang Schäuble Rainer Brüderle Franz Josef Jung Ursula von der LeyenB Ilse Aigner Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg Thomas de MaizièreC Ursula von der Leyen Kristina SchröderB Daniel BahrC Peter Ramsauer Norbert Röttgen Peter AltmaierD Annette SchavanE Dirk Niebel Ronald Pofalla Johanna Wanka

Bold: Chancellor; A: Served as Minister of Health 2009–2011 and then served as Minister of Economics and Technology and Vice-Chancellor (2011–present); B: Served from 2009; C: Served from 2011; D: Served from 2012; E: Served until 2013 V: Vice-Chancellor.

v t e

Third Merkel Cabinet
Third Merkel Cabinet
(2013–2018)

Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(CDU) Sigmar Gabriel
Sigmar Gabriel
(SPD) Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
(until 27 January 2017, SPD) Brigitte Zypries
Brigitte Zypries
(since 27 January 2017, SPD) Thomas de Maizière
Thomas de Maizière
(CDU) Heiko Maas
Heiko Maas
(SPD) Wolfgang Schäuble
Wolfgang Schäuble
(CDU) Andrea Nahles
Andrea Nahles
(SPD) Christian Schmidt (since 17 February 2014, CSU) Hans-Peter Friedrich
Hans-Peter Friedrich
(until 17 February 2014, CSU) Ursula von der Leyen
Ursula von der Leyen
(CDU) Manuela Schwesig
Manuela Schwesig
(until 2 June 2017, SPD) Katarina Barley
Katarina Barley
(since 2 June 2017, SPD) Hermann Gröhe
Hermann Gröhe
(CDU) Alexander Dobrindt
Alexander Dobrindt
(CSU) Barbara Hendricks (SPD) Johanna Wanka
Johanna Wanka
(CDU) Gerd Müller (CSU) Peter Altmaier
Peter Altmaier
(CDU)

v t e

Finance Ministers of Germany

German Empire (1871–1918)

Adolf von Scholz Franz Emil Emanuel von Burchard Karl Rudolf Jacobi Baron Helmuth von Maltzahn Arthur von Posadowsky-Wehner Max Franz Guido von Thielmann Baron Hermann von Stengel Reinhold Sydow Adolf Wermuth Hermann Kühn Karl Helfferich Siegfried von Roedern

Weimar Republic (1918–1933)

Eugen Schiffer Bernhard Dernburg Matthias Erzberger Joseph Wirth Andreas Hermes Rudolf Hilferding Hans Luther Otto von Schlieben Hans Luther Peter Reinhold Heinrich Köhler Rudolf Hilferding Paul Moldenhauer Heinrich Brüning Hermann Dietrich

Third Reich (1933–1945)

Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk

East Germany (1949–1990)

Hans Loch Willy Rumpf Siegfried Böhm Werner Schmieder Ernst Höfner Uta Nickel Walter Romberg Werner Skowron

Federal Republic of Germany (1949–)

Fritz Schäffer Franz Etzel Heinz Starke Rolf Dahlgrün Kurt Schmücker Franz Josef Strauss Alex Möller Karl Schiller Helmut Schmidt Hans Apel Hans Matthöfer Manfred Lahnstein Gerhard Stoltenberg Theo Waigel Oskar Lafontaine Hans Eichel Peer Steinbrück Wolfgang Schäuble Peter Altmaier(Acting) Olaf Scholz

v t e

Interior Ministers of Germany

Imperial Interior Secretaries (1871–1918)

Karl Hofmann Karl Heinrich von Boetticher Arthur von Posadowsky-Wehner Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg Clemens von Delbrück Karl Helfferich Max Wallraf Karl Trimborn

Weimar Republic (1918–1933)

Friedrich Ebert Hugo Preuß Eduard David Erich Koch-Weser Georg Gradnauer Adolf Köster Rudolf Oeser Wilhelm Sollmann Karl Jarres Martin Schiele Otto Geßler Wilhelm Külz Walter von Keudell Carl Severing Joseph Wirth Wilhelm Groener Wilhelm von Gayl Franz Bracht

Nazi Germany (1933–1945)

Wilhelm Frick Heinrich Himmler Paul Giesler Wilhelm Stuckart

German Democratic Republic (1949–1990)

Karl Steinhoff Willi Stoph Karl Maron Friedrich Dickel Lothar Ahrendt Peter-Michael Diestel

Federal Republic of Germany (1949–)

Gustav Heinemann Robert Lehr Gerhard Schröder Hermann Höcherl Paul Lücke Ernst Benda Hans-Dietrich Genscher Werner Maihofer Gerhart Baum Jürgen Schmude Friedrich Zimmermann Wolfgang Schäuble Rudolf Seiters Manfred Kanther Otto Schily Wolfgang Schäuble Thomas de Maizière Hans-Peter Friedrich Horst Seehofer

v t e

Presidents of the Bundestag

Erich Köhler Hermann Ehlers Eugen Gerstenmaier Kai-Uwe von Hassel Annemarie Renger Karl Carstens Richard Stücklen Rainer Barzel Philipp Jenninger Rita Süssmuth Wolfgang Thierse Norbert Lammert Wolfgang Schäuble

v t e

Chairmen of the CDU/CSU
CDU/CSU
Group

Konrad Adenauer Heinrich von Brentano
Heinrich von Brentano
di Tremezzo Heinrich Krone Heinrich von Brentano
Heinrich von Brentano
di Tremezzo Rainer Barzel Karl Carstens Helmut Kohl Alfred Dregger Wolfgang Schäuble Friedrich Merz Angela Merkel Volker Kauder

v t e

Chairpeople of the Christian Democratic Union of Germany

Konrad Adenauer Ludwig Erhard Kurt Georg Kiesinger Rainer Barzel Helmut Kohl Wolfgang Schäuble Angela Merkel

v t e

Chiefs of Staff of the German Chancellery

Franz-Josef Wuermeling Otto Lenz Hans Globke Ludger Westrick Werner Knieper Karl Carstens Horst Ehmke Horst Grabert Manfred Schüler Manfred Lahnstein Gerhard Konow Waldemar Schreckenberger Wolfgang Schäuble Rudolf Seiters Friedrich Bohl Bodo Hombach Frank-Walter Steinmeier Thomas de Maizière Ronald Pofalla Peter Altmaier

v t e

Recipients of the Charlemagne Prize

1950–1975

1950 Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi 1951 Hendrik Brugmans 1952 Alcide De Gasperi 1953 Jean Monnet 1954 Konrad Adenauer 1955 1956 Winston Churchill 1957 Paul-Henri Spaak 1958 Robert Schuman 1959 George Marshall 1960 Joseph Bech 1961 Walter Hallstein 1962 1963 Edward Heath 1964 Antonio Segni 1965 1966 Jens Otto Krag 1967 Joseph Luns 1968 1969 European Commission 1970 François Seydoux de Clausonne 1971 1972 Roy Jenkins 1973 Salvador de Madariaga 1974 1975

1976–2000

1976 Leo Tindemans 1977 Walter Scheel 1978 Konstantinos Karamanlis 1979 Emilio Colombo 1980 1981 Simone Veil 1982 King Juan Carlos I 1983 1984 1985 1986 People of Luxembourg 1987 Henry Kissinger 1988 François Mitterrand / Helmut Kohl 1989 Brother Roger 1990 Gyula Horn 1991 Václav Havel 1992 Jacques Delors 1993 Felipe González 1994 Gro Harlem Brundtland 1995 Franz Vranitzky 1996 Queen Beatrix 1997 Roman Herzog 1998 Bronisław Geremek 1999 Tony Blair 2000 Bill Clinton

2001–present

2001 György Konrád 2002 Euro 2003 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing 2004 Pat Cox / Pope John Paul II1 2005 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 2006 Jean-Claude Juncker 2007 Javier Solana 2008 Angela Merkel 2009 Andrea Riccardi 2010 Donald Tusk 2011 Jean-Claude Trichet 2012 Wolfgang Schäuble 2013 Dalia Grybauskaitė 2014 Herman Van Rompuy 2015 Martin Schulz 2016 Pope Francis 2017 Timothy Garton Ash

1 Received extraordinary prize.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 24659096 LCCN: n91106180 ISNI: 0000 0001 0879 6195 GND: 118814311 SUDOC: 031342205 BNF: cb122575795 (data)

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