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Weaving
Weaving
is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting, crocheting, felting, and braiding or plaiting. The longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. ( Weft
Weft
or is an old English word meaning "that which is woven".[a]) The method in which these threads are inter-woven affects the characteristics of the cloth.[1] Cloth
Cloth
is usually woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band which meets this definition of cloth (warp threads with a weft thread winding between) can also be made using other methods, including tablet weaving, back-strap, or other techniques without looms.[2] The way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave. The majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves: plain weave, satin weave, or twill. Woven cloth can be plain (in one colour or a simple pattern), or can be woven in decorative or artistic design.

Contents

1 Process and terminology 2 History

2.1 Middle East and Africa 2.2 The Americas 2.3 China and East Asia 2.4 Medieval Europe 2.5 Industrial Revolution

3 The role of the weaver

3.1 Hand loom weavers 3.2 Power loom
Power loom
weavers 3.3 Craft Weavers 3.4 Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Weaving
Weaving
Workshop

4 Other cultures

4.1 Weaving
Weaving
in the American Colonies (1500–1800) 4.2 American Southwest 4.3 Amazon cultures

5 Computer science 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Bibliography 10 External links

Process and terminology[edit] Main articles: Loom
Loom
and Power Loom In general, weaving involves using a loom to interlace two sets of threads at right angles to each other: the warp which runs longitudinally and the weft (older woof) that crosses it. One warp thread is called an end and one weft thread is called a pick. The warp threads are held taut and in parallel to each other, typically in a loom. There are many types of looms.[3] Weaving
Weaving
can be summarized as a repetition of these three actions, also called the primary motion of the loom.

Shedding: where the ends are separated by raising or lowering heald frames (heddles) to form a clear space where the pick can pass Picking: where the weft or pick is propelled across the loom by hand, an air-jet, a rapier or a shuttle. Beating-up or battening: where the weft is pushed up against the fell of the cloth by the reed.[4]

The warp is divided into two overlapping groups, or lines (most often adjacent threads belonging to the opposite group) that run in two planes, one above another, so the shuttle can be passed between them in a straight motion. Then, the upper group is lowered by the loom mechanism, and the lower group is raised (shedding), allowing to pass the shuttle in the opposite direction, also in a straight motion. Repeating these actions form a fabric mesh but without beating-up, the final distance between the adjacent wefts would be irregular and far too large. The secondary motion of the loom are the:

Let off Motion: where the warp is let off the warp beam at a regulated speed to make the filling even and of the required design Take up Motion: Takes up the woven fabric in a regulated manner so that the density of filling is maintained

The tertiary motions of the loom are the stop motions: to stop the loom in the event of a thread break. The two main stop motions are the

warp stop motion weft stop motion

The principal parts of a loom are the frame, the warp-beam or weavers beam, the cloth-roll (apron bar), the heddles, and their mounting, the reed. The warp-beam is a wooden or metal cylinder on the back of the loom on which the warp is delivered. The threads of the warp extend in parallel order from the warp-beam to the front of the loom where they are attached to the cloth-roll. Each thread or group of threads of the warp passes through an opening (eye) in a heddle. The warp threads are separated by the heddles into two or more groups, each controlled and automatically drawn up and down by the motion of the heddles. In the case of small patterns the movement of the heddles is controlled by "cams" which move up the heddles by means of a frame called a harness; in larger patterns the heddles are controlled by a dobby mechanism, where the healds are raised according to pegs inserted into a revolving drum. Where a complex design is required, the healds are raised by harness cords attached to a Jacquard machine. Every time the harness (the heddles) moves up or down, an opening (shed) is made between the threads of warp, through which the pick is inserted. Traditionally the weft thread is inserted by a shuttle.[4][5] On a conventional loom, the weft thread is carried on a pirn, in a shuttle that passes through the shed. A handloom weaver could propel the shuttle by throwing it from side to side with the aid of a picking stick. The "picking΅ on a power loom is done by rapidly hitting the shuttle from each side using an overpick or underpick mechanism controlled by cams 80–250 times a minute.[4] When a pirn is depleted, it is ejected from the shuttle and replaced with the next pirn held in a battery attached to the loom. Multiple shuttle boxes allow more than one shuttle to be used. Each can carry a different colour which allows banding across the loom.

Weaving
Weaving
pattern cards used by Skye Weavers, Isle of Skye, Scotland

The rapier-type weaving machines do not have shuttles, they propel the weft by means of small grippers or rapiers that pick up the filling thread and carry it halfway across the loom where another rapier picks it up and pulls it the rest of the way.[6] Some carry the filling yarns across the loom at rates in excess of 2,000 metres per minute. Manufacturers such as Picanol have reduced the mechanical adjustments to a minimum, and control all the functions through a computer with a graphical user interface. Other types use compressed air to insert the pick. They are all fast, versatile and quiet.[7] The warp is sized in a starch mixture for smoother running. The loom warped (loomed or dressed) by passing the sized warp threads through two or more heddles attached to harnesses. The power weavers loom is warped by separate workers. Most looms used for industrial purposes have a machine that ties new warps threads to the waste of previously used warps threads, while still on the loom, then an operator rolls the old and new threads back on the warp beam. The harnesses are controlled by cams, dobbies or a Jacquard head.

A 3/1 twill, as used in denim

The raising and lowering sequence of warp threads in various sequences gives rise to many possible weave structures:

plain weave: plain, and hopsacks, poplin, taffeta,[8] poult-de-soie, pibiones and grosgrain. twill weave: these are described by weft float followed by warp float, arranged to give diagonal pattern. 2/1 twill, 3/3 twill, 1/2 twill. These are softer fabrics than plain weaves.,[9] satin weave: satins and sateens,[10] complex computer-generated interlacings. pile fabrics : such as velvets and velveteens [10]

Both warp and weft can be visible in the final product. By spacing the warp more closely, it can completely cover the weft that binds it, giving a warp faced textile such as repp weave.[8] Conversely, if the warp is spread out, the weft can slide down and completely cover the warp, giving a weft faced textile, such as a tapestry or a Kilim
Kilim
rug. There are a variety of loom styles for hand weaving and tapestry.[8] History[edit]

Weaving
Weaving
in ancient Egypt

There are some indications that weaving was already known in the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
era, as early as 27,000 years ago. An indistinct textile impression has been found at the Dolní Věstonice site.[11] According to the find, the weavers of Upper Palaeolithic were manufacturing a variety of cordage types, produced plaited basketry and sophisticated twined and plain woven cloth. The artifacts include imprints in clay and burned remnants of cloth.[12] The oldest known textiles found in the Americas are remnants of six finely woven textiles and cordage found in Guitarrero Cave, Peru. The weavings, made from plant fibres, are dated between 10100 and 9080 BCE.[13] Middle East and Africa[edit]

Weaving
Weaving
using the long cotton strands, typical for the Dogon culture, Tireli, Mali 1984

The earliest known Neolithic
Neolithic
textile production in the Old World is supported by a 2013 find of a piece of cloth woven from hemp, in burial F. 7121 at the Çatalhöyük
Çatalhöyük
site[14] suggested to be from around 7000 B.C.[15][16] Further finds come from the advanced civilisation preserved in the pile dwellings in Switzerland.[citation needed] Another extant fragment from the Neolithic
Neolithic
was found in Fayum, at a site dated to about 5000 BCE.[17] This fragment is woven at about 12 threads by 9 threads per cm in a plain weave. Flax
Flax
was the predominant fibre in Egypt at this time (3600 BCE) and continued popularity in the Nile
Nile
Valley, though wool became the primary fibre used in other cultures around 2000 BCE.[citation needed][b] Weaving was known in all the great civilisations, but no clear line of causality has been established. Early looms required two people to create the shed and one person to pass through the filling. Early looms wove a fixed length of cloth, but later ones allowed warp to be wound out as the fell progressed. The weavers were often children or slaves. Weaving
Weaving
became simpler when the warp was sized. The Americas[edit] Main articles: Textile
Textile
arts of indigenous peoples of the Americas and Andean textiles

Example of weaving characteristic of Andean civilizations.

Tunic woven for Inca leader.

The Indigenous people of the Americas
Indigenous people of the Americas
wove textiles of cotton throughout tropical and subtropical America and in the South American Andes
Andes
of wool from camelids, primarily domesticated llamas and alpacas. Cotton
Cotton
and the camelids were both domesticated by about 4,000 BCE.[18] American weavers are "credited with independently inventing nearly every non-mechanized technique known today."[19] In the Inca Empire of the Andes, women did most of the weaving using backstrap looms to make small pieces of cloth and vertical frame and single-heddle looms for larger pieces.[20] Andean textile weavings were of practical, symbolic, religious, and ceremonial importance and used as currency, tribute, and as a determinant of social class and rank. Sixteenth-century Spanish colonists were impressed by both the quality and quantity of textiles produced by the Inca Empire.[21] Some of the techniques and designs are still in use in the 21st century.[22] The oldest-known weavings in North America come from the Windover Archaeological Site in Florida. Dating from 4900 to 6500 B.C. and made from plant fibres, the Windover hunter-gatherers produced "finely crafted" twined and plain weave textiles.[23]

China and East Asia[edit] The weaving of silk from silkworm cocoons has been known in China since about 3500 BCE. Silk
Silk
that was intricately woven and dyed, showing a well developed craft, has been found in a Chinese tomb dating back to 2700 BCE. Sericulture
Sericulture
and silk weaving spread to Korea
Korea
by 200 BCE, to Khotan
Khotan
by 50 CE, and to Japan
Japan
by about 300 CE.

A teenager working a backstrap loom in 1920s Bali

The pit-treadle loom may have originated in India though most authorities establish the invention in China.[24] Pedals were added to operate heddles. By the Middle Ages such devices also appeared in Persia, Sudan, Egypt and possibly the Arabian Peninsula, where "the operator sat with his feet in a pit below a fairly low-slung loom." In 700 CE, horizontal looms and vertical looms could be found in many parts of Asia, Africa and Europe. In Africa, the rich dressed in cotton while the poorer wore wool.[25] By the 12th century it had come to Europe either from the Byzantium or Moorish Spain
Spain
where the mechanism was raised higher above the ground on a more substantial frame.[25][26] Medieval Europe[edit] The predominant fibre was wool, followed by linen and nettlecloth for the lower classes. Cotton
Cotton
was introduced to Sicily
Sicily
and Spain
Spain
in the 9th century. When Sicily
Sicily
was captured by the Normans, they took the technology to Northern Italy
Northern Italy
and then the rest of Europe. Silk
Silk
fabric production was reintroduced towards the end of this period and the more sophisticated silk weaving techniques were applied to the other staples.[27] The weaver worked at home and marketed his cloth at fairs.[27] Warp-weighted looms were commonplace in Europe before the introduction of horizontal looms in the 10th and 11th centuries. Weaving
Weaving
became an urban craft and to regulate their trade, craftsmen applied to establish a guild. These initially were merchant guilds, but developed into separate trade guilds for each skill. The cloth merchant who was a member of a city's weavers guild was allowed to sell cloth; he acted as a middleman between the tradesmen weavers and the purchaser. The trade guilds controlled quality and the training needed before an artisan could call himself a weaver.[27]

Weaver, Nürnberg, c. 1425

By the 13th century, an organisational change took place, and a system of putting out was introduced. The cloth merchant purchased the wool and provided it to the weaver, who sold his produce back to the merchant. The merchant controlled the rates of pay and economically dominated the cloth industry.[27] The merchants' prosperity is reflected in the wool towns of eastern England; Norwich, Bury St Edmunds and Lavenham
Lavenham
being good examples. Wool
Wool
was a political issue.[28] The supply of thread has always limited the output of a weaver. About that time, the spindle method of spinning was replaced by the great wheel and soon after the treadle-driven spinning wheel. The loom remained the same but with the increased volume of thread it could be operated continuously.[27] The 14th century saw considerable flux in population. The 13th century had been a period of relative peace; Europe became overpopulated. Poor weather led to a series of poor harvests and starvation. There was great loss of life in the Hundred Years War. Then in 1346, Europe was struck with the Black Death
Black Death
and the population was reduced by up to a half. Arable land was labour-intensive and sufficient workers no longer could be found. Land prices dropped, and land was sold and put to sheep pasture. Traders from Florence
Florence
and Bruges
Bruges
bought the wool, then sheep-owning landlords started to weave wool outside the jurisdiction of the city and trade guilds. The weavers started by working in their own homes then production was moved into purpose-built buildings. The working hours and the amount of work were regulated. The putting-out system had been replaced by a factory system.[27] The migration of the Huguenot Weavers, Calvinists fleeing from religious persecution in mainland Europe, to Britain around the time of 1685 challenged the English weavers of cotton, woollen and worsted cloth, who subsequently learned the Huguenots' superior techniques.[29] Industrial Revolution[edit] Main article: Textile
Textile
manufacture during the Industrial Revolution

By 1892, most cotton weaving was done in similar weaving sheds, powered by steam.

Before the Industrial Revolution, weaving was a manual craft and wool was the principal staple. In the great wool districts a form of factory system had been introduced but in the uplands weavers worked from home on a putting-out system. The wooden looms of that time might be broad or narrow; broad looms were those too wide for the weaver to pass the shuttle through the shed, so that the weaver needed an expensive assistant (often an apprentice). This ceased to be necessary after John Kay invented the flying shuttle in 1733. The shuttle and the picking stick sped up the process of weaving.[30] There was thus a shortage of thread or a surplus of weaving capacity. The opening of the Bridgewater Canal
Bridgewater Canal
in June 1761 allowed cotton to be brought into Manchester, an area rich in fast flowing streams that could be used to power machinery. Spinning was the first to be mechanised (spinning jenny, spinning mule), and this led to limitless thread for the weaver. Edmund Cartwright
Edmund Cartwright
first proposed building a weaving machine that would function similar to recently developed cotton-spinning mills in 1784, drawing scorn from critics who said the weaving process was too nuanced to automate.[31] He built a factory at Doncaster
Doncaster
and obtained a series of patents between 1785 and 1792. In 1788, his brother Major John Cartwight built Revolution Mill at Retford
Retford
(named for the centenary of the Glorious Revolution). In 1791, he licensed his loom to the Grimshaw brothers of Manchester, but their Knott Mill burnt down the following year (possibly a case of arson). Edmund Cartwight was granted a reward of £10,000 by Parliament for his efforts in 1809.[32] However, success in power-weaving also required improvements by others, including H. Horrocks of Stockport. Only during the two decades after about 1805, did power-weaving take hold. At that time there were 250,000 hand weavers in the UK.[33] Textile
Textile
manufacture was one of the leading sectors in the British Industrial Revolution, but weaving was a comparatively late sector to be mechanised. The loom became semi-automatic in 1842 with Kenworthy and Bulloughs Lancashire Loom. The various innovations took weaving from a home-based artisan activity (labour-intensive and man-powered) to steam driven factories process. A large metal manufacturing industry grew to produce the looms, firms such as Howard & Bullough of Accrington, and Tweedales and Smalley and Platt Brothers. Most power weaving took place in weaving sheds, in small towns circling Greater Manchester away from the cotton spinning area. The earlier combination mills where spinning and weaving took place in adjacent buildings became rarer. Wool
Wool
and worsted weaving took place in West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
and particular Bradford, here there were large factories such as Lister's or Drummond's, where all the processes took place.[34] Both men and women with weaving skills emigrated, and took the knowledge to their new homes in New England, to places like Pawtucket and Lowell. Woven 'grey cloth' was then sent to the finishers where it was bleached, dyed and printed. Natural dyes were originally used, with synthetic dyes coming in the second half of the 19th century. The need for these chemicals was an important factor in the development of the chemical industry.[citation needed] The invention in France
France
of the Jacquard loom
Jacquard loom
in about 1803, enabled complicated patterned cloths to be woven, by using punched cards to determine which threads of coloured yarn should appear on the upper side of the cloth. The jacquard allowed individual control of each warp thread, row by row without repeating, so very complex patterns were suddenly feasible. Samples exist showing calligraphy, and woven copies of engravings. Jacquards could be attached to handlooms or powerlooms.[citation needed] The role of the weaver[edit] A distinction can be made between the role and lifestyle and status of a handloom weaver, and that of the powerloom weaver and craft weaver. The perceived threat of the power loom led to disquiet and industrial unrest. Well known protests movements such as the Luddites and the Chartists had hand loom weavers amongst their leaders. In the early 19th century power weaving became viable. Richard Guest in 1823 made a comparison of the productivity of power and hand loom weavers:

A very good Hand Weaver, a man twenty-five or thirty years of age, will weave two pieces of nine-eighths shirting per week, each twenty-four yards long, and containing one hundred and five shoots of weft in an inch, the reed of the cloth being a forty-four, Bolton count, and the warp and weft forty hanks to the pound, A Steam Loom Weaver, fifteen years of age, will in the same time weave seven similar pieces.[35]

He then speculates about the wider economics of using powerloom weavers:

...it may very safely be said, that the work done in a Steam Factory containing two hundred Looms, would, if done by hand Weavers, find employment and support for a population of more than two thousand persons.[36]

Hand loom weavers[edit] Hand loom weavers were mainly men – due to the strength needed to batten.[37] They worked from home sometimes in a well lit attic room. The women of the house would spin the thread they needed, and attend to finishing. Later women took to weaving, they obtained their thread from the spinning mill, and working as outworkers on a piecework contract. Over time competition from the power looms drove down the piece rate and they existed in increasing poverty. Power loom
Power loom
weavers[edit] Further information: Queen Street Mill Power loom
Power loom
workers were usually girls and young women. They had the security of fixed hours, and except in times of hardship, such as in the cotton famine, regular income. They were paid a wage and a piece work bonus. Even when working in a combined mill, weavers stuck together and enjoyed a tight-knit community.[38] The women usually minded the four machines and kept the looms oiled and clean. They were assisted by 'little tenters', children on a fixed wage who ran errands and did small tasks. They learnt the job of the weaver by watching.[37] Often they would be half timers, carrying a green card which teacher and overlookers would sign to say they had turned up at the mill in the morning and in the afternoon at the school.[39] At fourteen or so they come full-time into the mill, and started by sharing looms with an experienced worker where it was important to learn quickly as they would both be on piece work.[40] Serious problems with the loom were left to the tackler to sort out. He would inevitably be a man, as were usually the overlookers. The mill had its health and safety issues, there was a reason why the women tied their hair back with scarves. Inhaling cotton dust caused lung problems, and the noise was causing total hearing loss. Weavers would mee-maw[41][42] as normal conversation was impossible. Weavers used to 'kiss the shutttle' that is suck thread though the eye of the shuttle- this left a foul taste in the mouth due to the oil which was also carcinogenic.[43] Craft Weavers[edit]

Pedal powered loom used by Skye Weavers, Isle of Skye, Scotland

Arts and Crafts was an international design philosophy that originated in England[44] and flourished between 1860 and 1910 (especially the second half of that period), continuing its influence until the 1930s.[45] Instigated by the artist and writer William Morris (1834–1896) during the 1860s[44] and inspired by the writings of John Ruskin
John Ruskin
(1819–1900), it had its earliest and most complete development in the British Isles[45] but spread to Europe and North America.[46] It was largely a reaction against mechanisation and the philosophy advocated of traditional craftsmanship using simple forms and often medieval, romantic or folk styles of decoration. Hand weaving was highly regard and taken up as a decorative art. Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Weaving
Weaving
Workshop[edit] In the 1920s the weaving workshop of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
design school in Germany aimed to raise weaving, previously seen as a craft, to a fine art, and also to investigate the industrial requirements of modern weaving and fabrics.[47] Under the direction of Gunta Stölzl, the workshop experimented with unorthodox materials, including cellophane, fiberglass, and metal.[48] From expressionist tapestries to the development of soundproofing and light-reflective fabric, the workshop’s innovative approach instigated a modernist theory of weaving.[48] Former Bauhaus
Bauhaus
student and teacher Anni Albers
Anni Albers
published the seminal 20th-century text On Weaving
Weaving
in 1965.[49] Other notables from the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
weaving workshop include Otti Berger, Margaretha Reichardt, and Benita Otte. Other cultures[edit] Weaving
Weaving
in the American Colonies (1500–1800)[edit] Colonial America
Colonial America
relied heavily on Great Britain
Great Britain
for manufactured goods of all kinds. British policy was to encourage the production of raw materials in colonies and discourage manufacturing. The Wool
Wool
Act 1699 restricted the export of colonial wool.[50][51] As a result, many people wove cloth from locally produced fibres. The colonists also used wool, cotton and flax (linen) for weaving, though hemp could be made into serviceable canvas and heavy cloth. They could get one cotton crop each year; until the invention of the cotton gin it was a labour-intensive process to separate the seeds from the fibres. A plain weave was preferred as the added skill and time required to make more complex weaves kept them from common use. Sometimes designs were woven into the fabric but most were added after weaving using wood block prints or embroidery. American Southwest[edit] Main article: Navajo Weaving

Weaving
Weaving
a traditional Navajo rug

Textile
Textile
weaving, using cotton dyed with pigments, was a dominant craft among pre-contact tribes of the American southwest, including various Pueblo
Pueblo
peoples, the Zuni, and the Ute tribes. The first Spaniards to visit the region wrote about seeing Navajo blankets. With the introduction of Navajo-Churro sheep, the resulting woolen products have become very well known. By the 18th century the Navajo had begun to import yarn with their favorite color, Bayeta red. Using an upright loom, the Navajos wove blankets worn as garments and then rugs after the 1880s for trade. Navajo traded for commercial wool, such as Germantown, imported from Pennsylvania.[citation needed] Under the influence of European-American settlers at trading posts, Navajos created new and distinct styles, including "Two Gray Hills" (predominantly black and white, with traditional patterns), "Teec Nos Pos" (colorful, with very extensive patterns), "Ganado" (founded by Don Lorenzo Hubbell), red dominated patterns with black and white, "Crystal" (founded by J. B. Moore), Oriental and Persian styles (almost always with natural dyes), "Wide Ruins," "Chinlee," banded geometric patterns, "Klagetoh," diamond type patterns, "Red Mesa" and bold diamond patterns. Many of these patterns exhibit a fourfold symmetry, which is thought to embody traditional ideas about harmony, or hózhó.[citation needed] Amazon cultures[edit] Among the indigenous people of the Amazon basin
Amazon basin
densely woven palm-bast mosquito netting, or tents, were utilized by the Panoans, Tupinambá, Western Tucano, Yameo, Záparoans, and perhaps by the indigenous peoples of the central Huallaga River
Huallaga River
basin (Steward 1963:520). Aguaje palm-bast (Mauritia flexuosa, Mauritia minor, or swamp palm) and the frond spears of the Chambira palm (Astrocaryum chambira, A.munbaca, A.tucuma, also known as Cumare or Tucum) have been used for centuries by the Urarina
Urarina
of the Peruvian Amazon to make cordage, net-bags hammocks, and to weave fabric. Among the Urarina, the production of woven palm-fiber goods is imbued with varying degrees of an aesthetic attitude, which draws its authentication from referencing the Urarina's primordial past.[citation needed] Urarina mythology attests to the centrality of weaving and its role in engendering Urarina
Urarina
society. The post-diluvial creation myth accords women's weaving knowledge a pivotal role in Urarina
Urarina
social reproduction. [52] Even though palm-fiber cloth is regularly removed from circulation through mortuary rites, Urarina
Urarina
palm-fiber wealth is neither completely inalienable, nor fungible since it is a fundamental medium for the expression of labor and exchange. The circulation of palm-fiber wealth stabilizes a host of social relationships, ranging from marriage and fictive kinship (compadrazco, spiritual compeership) to perpetuating relationships with the deceased.[53] Computer science[edit] The Nvidia
Nvidia
Parallel Thread Execution ISA derives some terminology (specifically the term Warp to refer to a group of concurrent processing threads) from historical weaving traditions.[54] See also[edit]

Fashion portal

Basket
Basket
weaving Persian weave Petate Textile
Textile
manufacturing terminology Weaving
Weaving
(mythology)

Notes[edit]

A woman weaving. Ukiyo-e
Ukiyo-e
woodblock print by Yōshū Chikanobu, 1890

^ deriving from an obsolete past participle of weave (Oxford English Dictionary, see "weft" and "weave". ^ Easton's Bible Dictionary (1897)
Easton's Bible Dictionary (1897)
refers to numerous Biblical references to weaving:

Weaving
Weaving
was an art practised in very early times (Ex 35:35). The Egyptians were specially skilled in it (Isa 19:9; Ezek 27:7), and some have regarded them as its inventors.

In the wilderness, the Hebrews practised weaving (Ex 26:1, 26:8; 28:4, 28:39; Lev 13:47). It is referred to subsequently as specially the women's work (2 Kings 23:7; Prov 31:13, 24). No mention of the loom is found in Scripture, but we read of the "shuttle" (Job 7:6), "the pin" of the beam (Judg 16:14), "the web" (13, 14), and "the beam" (1 Sam 17:7; 2 Sam 21:19). The rendering, "with pining sickness," in Isa. 38:12 (A.V.) should be, as in the Revised Version, "from the loom," or, as in the margin, "from the thrum." We read also of the "warp" and "woof" (Lev. 13:48, 49, 51–53, 58, 59), but the Revised Version margin has, instead of "warp," "woven or knitted stuff."

References[edit]

^ Collier 1974, p. 92 ^ Dooley 1914 ^ Collier 1974, p. 102 ^ a b c Collier 1974, p. 104 ^ Dooley 1914, p. 54 ^ Collier 1974, p. 110 ^ "Cotton: From Field to Fabric" (PDF). Memphis, Tennessee: Cotton Counts. Retrieved 31 October 2011.  ^ a b c Collier 1974, p. 114 ^ Collier 1974, p. 115 ^ a b Collier 1974, p. 116 ^ "Dolni Vestonice and Pavlov sites". Donsmaps.com. Retrieved 2016-04-26.  ^ "BBC News - SCI/TECH - Woven cloth dates back 27,000 years". news.bbc.co.uk.  ^ Stacey, Kevin. "Carbon dating identifies South America's oldest textiles." University of Chicago Press Journals. 13 April 2013; Jolie, Edward A., Lynch, Thomas F. Geib, Phil R, and Adovasio, J. M. "Cordage, Textiles, and the Late Pleistocent Peopling of the Andes," Current Anthropology, http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/full/10.1086/659336, accessed 6 Oct 2016 ^ Hodder, Ian (2013). "2013 Season Review" (PDF). Çatal Newsletter. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-13. Retrieved 7 February 2014.  ^ "Pavlov VI: an Upper Palaeolithic living unit Miriam Nývltová Fišáková". Academia.edu. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2016-04-26.  ^ "Centuries-old fabric found in Çatalhöyük". hurriyet daily news. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.  ^ "Woven linen". University College London. 2003. Retrieved 2015-03-19.  ^ Rajpal, Vijay Rani, Rao, S. Rama, and Raina, S. N. (2016), Gene Pool Diversity and Crop Improvement, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, p. 117; "The History of Llamas
Llamas
and Alpacas
Alpacas
in South America," http://archaeology.about.com/od/domestications/qt/Llama-And-Alpaca.htm, accessed 6 Oct 2016 ^ Stanfield-Mazzi, Maya (2012), " Textile
Textile
Traditions of the Andes", http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199766581/obo-9780199766581-0022.xml, accessed 6 Oct 2016 ^ McEwam. Gordon F. (2006), The Incas: New Perspectives, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., p. 167; Cartwright, Mark, "Inca Textiles", Ancient History Encyclopedia, http://www.ancient.eu/article/791, accessed 7 Oct 2016 ^ Morris, Craig and Von Hagen, Adriana (1993), The Inka Empire and its Andean Origins, American Museum of Natural History, New York: Abbeville Press, pp. 185-191 ^ "The Murúa Code", Natural History Magazine, http://www.naturalhistorymag.com/features/112333/the-mur-a-code, accessed 7 Oct 2016 ^ Spike, Tamara. Review of Doran, Glen H., ed. Windover: Multidisciplinary Investagations of an Early Archaic Florida
Florida
Cemetery, H. Florida, H-Net Reviews, http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=7863; Tyson, Peter, "America's Bog People" NOVA, http://pbs.org/wgbh/nova/ancient/americas-bog-people.html, accessed 7 Oct 2016 ^ Broudy, Eric (1979). The Book of Looms: A History of the Handloom from Ancient Times to the Present. University Press of New England. pp. 111–112. ISBN 978-0874516494.  ^ a b Pacey, Arnold (1991), Technology
Technology
in world civilization: a thousand-year history, MIT Press, pp. 40–1, ISBN 0-262-66072-5  ^ Jenkins, D.T., ed. (2003). The Cambridge History of Western Textiles, Volume 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 194. ISBN 978-0521341073.  ^ a b c d e f Backer ^ George Unwin (editor) (1918). "The estate of merchants, 1336–1365: IV – 1355–65". Finance and trade under Edward III: The London lay subsidy of 1332. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 18 November 2011. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Page, William, ed. (1911). "Industries: Silk-weaving". A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 2: General; Ashford, East Bedfont with Hatton, Feltham, Hampton with Hampton Wick, Hanworth, Laleham, Littleton. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 18 November 2011.  ^ Guest 1823, p. 8 ^ "Historic Figures: Edmund Cartwright". BBC.  ^ W. English, The Textile
Textile
Industry (1969), 89–97; W. H. Chaloner, People and Industries (1093), 45–54 ^ Timmins ^ Bellerby 2005, p. 17 ^ Guest 1823, p. 47 ^ Guest 1823, p. 48 ^ a b Freethy 2005, p. 62 ^ Bellerby 2005, p. 24 ^ Freethy 2005, p. 86 ^ Freethy 2005, p. 70 ^ Freethy 2005, p. 123 ^ Bellerby 2005, p. 48 ^ Freethy 2005, p. 121 ^ a b Triggs, Oscar Lovell (1902). Chapters in the History of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Retrieved 2010-08-28.  ^ a b Campbell, Gordon (2006). The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518948-3.  ^ Wendy Kaplan and Alan Crawford, The Arts & Crafts Movement in Europe & America: Design for the Modern World, Los Angeles County Museum of Art ^ Smith, T'ai. (2014) Bauhaus
Bauhaus
weaving theory: From feminine craft to mode of design. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. ^ a b Winton, A.G. The Bauhaus Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History Metropolitan Museum of Art. (Accessed: 11 December 2016). ^ Albers, Anni. (1965) On weaving. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. ^ "An Act for continuing severall Laws therein mentioned, and for explaining the Act intituled An Act to prevent the Exportation of Wooll out of the Kingdoms of Ireland and England into Forreigne Parts and for the Incouragement of the Woollen Manufactures in the Kingdom of England", Statutes of the Realm, 1695–1701, vol. 7, pp. 600–02., 1820, retrieved 16 February 2007  ^ John A. Garraty; Mark C. Carnes (2000). "Chapter Three: America in the British Empire". A Short History of the American Nation (8th ed.). Longman. ISBN 0-321-07098-4.  ^ Bartholomew Dean 2009 Urarina
Urarina
Society, Cosmology, and History in Peruvian Amazonia, Gainesville: University Press of Florida ISBN 978-0-8130-3378-5 [1] ^ Bartholomew Dean. "Multiple Regimes of Value: Unequal Exchange and the Circulation of Urarina
Urarina
Palm- Fiber
Fiber
Wealth" Museum Anthropology February 1994, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 3–20 available online)(paid subscription). ^ Nvidia
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PTX ISA, accessed 2017-10-27 [2]

Bibliography[edit]

Backer, Patricia (10 June 2005), " Technology
Technology
in the Middle Ages, History of Technology", Technology
Technology
and Civilization (Tech 198), San Jose, California, USA: San Jose State University, retrieved 18 November 2011  Bellerby, Rachel (2005), Chasing the Sixpence: The lives of Bradford Mill Folk, Ayr: Fort Publishing Ltd, ISBN 0-9547431-8-0  Collier, Ann M (1974), A Handbook of Textiles, Pergamon Press, p. 258, ISBN 0-08-018057-4  Dooley, William H. (1914), Textiles (Project Gutenberg ed.), Boston, USA: D.C. Heath and Co., retrieved 30 October 2011  Freethy, Ron (2005), Memories of the Lancashire
Lancashire
Cotton
Cotton
Mills, Aspects of Local History, Newbury, Berkshire: Countryside Books, ISBN 978-1-84674-104-3  Guest, Richard (1823). A compendious history of the cotton-manufacture. Manchester: Author, Printed by Joseph Pratt, Chapel Walks. Retrieved 2011-11-23.  Geoffrey Timmins (1993), The last shift: the decline of handloom weaving in nineteenth-century Lancashire, Manchester
Manchester
University Press ND, ISBN 0-7190-3725-5  This article incorporates text from Textiles by William H. Dooley, Boston, D.C. Heath and Co., 1914, a volume in the public domain and available online from Project Gutenberg

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Weaving.

Encyclopædia Britannica 1911 – Weaving
Weaving
at the Wayback Machine (archived May 28, 2013) Resource collection An on-line repository of articles (4720), books (459), illustrations (271), patents (398) and periodicals (1322) relating to weaving. British Pathé Weaving
Weaving
Linen
Linen
1940-1949 Educational film Illustrated Guide of Tilling and Weaving: Rural Life in China from 1696

v t e

Lancashire
Lancashire
cotton

Architects

David Bellhouse Bradshaw Gass & Hope F.W. Dixon & Son Edward Potts Potts, Pickup & Dixon Stott Sidney Stott
Stott
(later Sir Philip)

Engine makers

Daniel Adamson Ashton Frost Ashworth & Parker Bateman & Sherratt Boulton & Watt Browett, Lindley & Co Buckley & Taylor Carels Frères Earnshaw & Holt Fairbairn W & J Galloway & Sons Benjamin Goodfellow Hick, Hargreaves & Co Benjamin Hick and Sons John Musgrave & Sons J & W McNaught Petrie of Rochdale William Roberts & Co of Nelson George Saxon Scott & Hodgson Urmson & Thompson Yates of Blackburn Yates & Thom Willans & Robinson J & E Wood Woolstenhulmes & Rye

Machinery makers

Brooks & Doxey Butterworth & Dickinson Curtis, Parr & Walton Dobson & Barlow John Hetherington & Sons Joseph Hibbert John Pilling and Sons Harling & Todd Howard & Bullough Geo. Hattersley Asa Lees Mather & Platt Parr, Curtis & Madely British Northrop Loom
Loom
Co Pemberton & Co Platt Brothers Taylor, Lang & Co Textile
Textile
Machinery Makers Tweedales & Smalley T. Wildman & Sons

Mill owners

Elkanah Armitage Henry Ashworth Hugh Birley Hugh Hornby Birley Joseph Brotherton James Burton Peter Drinkwater Nathaniel Eckersley John Fielden William Gray Richard Howarth William Houldsworth John Kennedy Charles Macintosh Hugh Mason Samuel Oldknow Robert Peel John Rylands

Limited companies

Oldham Limiteds Fine Spinners and Doublers Lancashire
Lancashire
Cotton
Cotton
Corporation Combined Egyptian Mills Ltd Courtaulds Bagley & Wright

Industrial processes

Textile
Textile
manufacturing Cotton-spinning machinery Dref Friction Spinning Dandy loom Magnetic ring spinning Open end spinning Ring spinning Spinning frame Spinning jenny Spinning mule Steaming Water frame Roberts Loom Lancashire
Lancashire
Loom Lancashire
Lancashire
boiler

Associations

Amalgamated Association of Beamers, Twisters and Drawers (Hand and Machine) Amalgamated Association of Operative Cotton
Cotton
Spinners Amalgamated Textile
Textile
Warehousemen's Association Amalgamated Textile
Textile
Workers' Union Amalgamated Weavers' Association Burnley, Nelson, Rossendale and District Textile
Textile
Workers' Union General Union of Lancashire
Lancashire
and Yorkshire Warp Dressers' Association General Union of Loom
Loom
Overlookers North East Lancashire
Lancashire
Amalgamated Weavers' Association Northern Counties Textile
Textile
Trades Federation Northern Textile
Textile
and Allied Workers' Union National Union of Textile
Textile
and Allied Workers The Textile
Textile
Institute United Textile
Textile
Factory
Factory
Workers' Association

Employment practices

More looms Kissing the shuttle Mule spinners' cancer Piece-rate list

Lists of mills

LCC mills Bolton Bury Cheshire Derbyshire Lancashire Manchester Oldham (borough) Preston Rochdale Salford Stockport Tameside Wigan Yorkshire

Museums

Bancroft Shed Helmshore Mills Queen Street Mill Weavers' Triangle Quarry Bank Mill, Styal

Pioneers

Richard Arkwright Samuel Crompton James Hargreaves Thomas Highs John Kay (flying shuttle) John Kay (spinning frame) Robert Owen

v t e

Decorative arts
Decorative arts
and handicrafts

Textile

Banner-making Canvas
Canvas
work Cross-stitch Crocheting Embroidery Felting Friendship bracelet Knitting Lace-making Lucet Macrame Millinery Needlepoint Needlework Patchwork Quilting Ribbon embroidery Rug hooking Rug making Sewing Shoemaking Spinning (textiles) String art Tapestry Tatting Tie-dye Weaving

Paper

Altered book Bookbinding Calligraphy Cardmaking Cast paper Collage

Decoupage Photomontage

Iris folding Jianzhi Origami

Kirigami Moneygami

Embossing Marbling Papercraft Papercutting Papermaking Paper
Paper
toys Papier-mâché Pop-up book Quilling Scrapbooking Stamping Wallpaper

Wood

Bentwood Cabinetry Carpentry Chip carving Ébéniste Fretwork Intarsia Marquetry Wood burning Wood carving Woodturning

Ceramic

Azulejo Bone china Earthenware Porcelain Pottery Stoneware Terracotta

Glass

Cameo glass Glassware Stained glass

Metal

Engraving Jewellery Goldsmith Silversmith

Other

Assemblage Balloon modelling Beadwork Bone carving Doll
Doll
making Dollhouse Egg decorating Engraved gems Hardstone carving Lathart Lapidary Leatherworking Miniatures Micromosaic Mosaic

Glass mosaic

Pietra dura Pressed flower craft Scrimshaw Straw marquetry Wall decal

v t e

Fabric

Woven

Aertex Airdura Airguard Barathea Barkcloth Batiste Bedford cord Bengaline Beta cloth Bombazine Brilliantine Broadcloth Buckram Bunting Burlap C change Calico Cambric Canvas Chambray Capilene Cedar bark Challis Char cloth Charmeuse Charvet Cheesecloth Chiffon Chino Chintz Cloqué Cloth
Cloth
of gold Cordura Corduroy Duck Coutil Crape Crêpe Cretonne Dazzle Denim Dimity Donegal tweed Dornix Dowlas Drill Drugget Eolienne Flannel Foulard Fustian Gabardine Gauze Gazar Georgette Ghalamkar Gingham Grenadine Grenfell Cloth Grosgrain Habutai Haircloth Harris Tweed Herringbone Himroo Hodden Irish linen Jamdani Kerseymere Khādī Khaki drill Kente cloth Lamé Lawn Linsey-woolsey Loden Longcloth Mackinaw Madapolam Madras Moleskin Muslin Nainsook Nankeen Ninon Oilskin Organdy Organza Osnaburg Ottoman Oxford Paduasoy Percale Pongee Poplin Rakematiz Rayadillo Rep Rinzu Ripstop Russell cord Saga Nishiki Samite Sateen Satin Saye Scarlet Seersucker Sendal Serge Scrim Shot silk Stuff Taffeta Tais Toile Tucuyo Tweed Twill Ultrasuede Vegetable flannel Ventile Vinyl coated polyester Viyella Voile Wadmal Wigan Whipcord Zephyr Zorbeez

Figured woven

Brocade Camlet Damask Lampas Songket

Pile woven

Baize Chenille Corduroy Crimplene Fustian Mockado Moquette Plush Polar fleece Terrycloth Velours du Kasaï Velvet Velveteen Zibeline

Nonwoven

Felt Cedar bark

Knitted

Boiled wool Coolmax Machine knitting Milliskin Jersey Velour

Netted

Bobbinet Carbon fiber Lace Mesh Needlerun net Ninon Tulle

Technical

Ballistic nylon Ban-Lon Conductive Darlexx E-textiles Gannex Gore-Tex Silnylon Spandex Stub-tex SympaTex Windstopper

Patterns

Argyle Bizarre silk Chiné Herringbone Houndstooth Paisley Pin stripes Polka dot Shweshwe Tartan
Tartan
(plaid) Tattersall

Textile
Textile
fibers

Acrylic Alpaca Angora Cashmere Coir Cotton Eisengarn Hemp Jute Kevlar Linen Mohair Nylon Microfiber Olefin Pashmina Polyester Piña Ramie Rayon Sea silk Silk Sisal Spandex Spider silk Wool

Finishing and printing

Androsia Batik Beetling Bingata Bògòlanfini Burnout Calendering Decatising Devoré Finishing Fulling Heatsetting Mercerization Moire Nap Rogan printing Rōketsuzome Roller printing Sanforization Tenterhook Textile
Textile
printing Warp printing Waxed cotton Woodblock printing Indienne

Fabric mills

Carlo Barbera Cerruti Dormeuil Drago Ermenegildo Zegna E. Thomas Holland & Sherry Larusmiani Loro Piana Reda Scabal Vitale Barberis Canonico

Related

Dyeing Fiber History of textiles History of silk Knitting Pandy Shrinkage Swatches and strike-offs Synthetic fabric Terminology Manufacturing Preservation Weaving Yarn

v t e

Textile
Textile
arts

Fundamentals

Applique Beadwork Crochet Dyeing Embroidery Fabric Felting Fiber Knitting Lace Macramé Nålebinding Needlework Patchwork Passementerie Plying Quilting Rope Rug making Sewing Stitch Textile
Textile
printing Weaving Yarn

History of ...

Byzantine silk Clothing and textiles Silk Quilting Silk
Silk
in the Indian subcontinent Textile
Textile
manufacturing by pre-industrial methods Textiles in the Industrial Revolution Modern Industrial Textile
Textile
Production Timeline of textile technology

Regional and ethnic

African Andean Australian Aboriginal Hmong Indigenous peoples of the Americas Korean Māori Mapuche Maya Mexican Navajo Oaxacan

Related

Blocking Fiber
Fiber
art Mathematics and fiber arts Manufacturing Preservation Recycling Textile
Textile
industry Textile
Textile
museums Units of measurement Wearable fiber art

Glossaries

Dyeing
Dyeing
terms Sewing
Sewing
terms Textile
Textile
terms

v t e

Braiding

Theory

Braid
Braid
group Braid
Braid
theory Brunnian link

Practice

Braid Braiding
Braiding
machine Braided rope 3D weaving 3D composites 3D braided fabrics Weaving

v t e

Weaving

Weaves

Basketweave Charvet Coverlet Dobby Double weave Even-weave Lampas Oxford Pile weave Piqué Plain weave Satin
Satin
weave Shot Twill Gabardine

Components

Textiles Warp and weft Yarn

Tools and techniques

Barber-Colman knotter Beamer Chilkat weaving Fingerweaving Flying shuttle Heald (Heddle) Ikat Inkle weaving Jacquard weaving Kasuri Loom Navajo weaving Pibiones Reed Salish weaving Shed Shuttle Sizing

Sizing
Sizing
machine

Tablet weaving Tāniko Tapestry Temple

Types of looms

Air jet loom Dobby loom Jacquard loom Hattersley loom Horrocks loom Lancashire
Lancashire
loom Northrop loom Power loom Rapier loom Roberts Loom Warp weighted loom

Weavers

Acesas Anni Albers Otti Berger Ada Dietz Micheline Beauchemin Thomas Ferguson & Co Ltd Elisabeth Forsell Dorothy Liebes Ethel Mairet Maria Elisabet Öberg Lilly Reich Margaretha Reichardt John Rylands Brigitta Scherzenfeldt Clara Sherman Gunta Stölzl Judocus de Vos Margaretha Zetterberg

Employment practices

More looms Kissing the shuttle Piece-rate list

Mills

Bancroft Mill Queen Street Mill

v t e

Prehistoric technology

Prehistory

timeline outline Stone Age subdivisions New Stone Age

Technology

history

Tools

Farming

Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution

founder crops New World crops

Ard / plough Celt Digging stick Domestication Goad Irrigation Secondary products Sickle Terracing

Food processing

Fire Basket Cooking

Earth oven

Granaries Grinding slab Ground stone Hearth

Aşıklı Höyük Qesem Cave

Manos Metate Mortar and pestle Pottery Quern-stone Storage pit

Hunting

Arrow Boomerang

throwing stick

Bow and arrow

history

Nets Spear

Spear-thrower baton harpoon woomera Schöningen Spears

Projectile points

Arrowhead Bare Island Cascade Clovis Cresswell Cumberland Eden Folsom Lamoka Manis Site Plano Transverse arrowhead

Systems

Game drive system

Buffalo jump

Toolmaking

Earliest toolmaking

Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian

Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian
Gravettian
culture Hafting Hand axe

Grooves

Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction

analysis debitage flake

Lithic technology Magdalenian
Magdalenian
culture Metallurgy Microblade technology Mining Prepared-core technique Solutrean
Solutrean
industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu technique

Other tools

Adze Awl

bone

Axe Bannerstone Blade

prismatic

Bone tool Bow drill Burin Canoe

Oar Pesse canoe

Chopper

tool

Cleaver Denticulate tool Fire plough Fire-saw Hammerstone Knife Microlith Quern-stone Racloir Rope Scraper

side

Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel

illustration

Architecture

Ceremonial

Göbekli Tepe Kiva Standing stones

megalith row Stonehenge

Pyramid

Dwellings

Neolithic
Neolithic
architecture British megalith architecture Nordic megalith architecture Burdei Cave Cliff dwelling Dugout Hut

Quiggly hole

Jacal Longhouse Mud brick

Mehrgarh

Neolithic
Neolithic
long house Pit-house Pueblitos Pueblo Rock shelter

Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave

Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house

Alp pile dwellings

Wattle and daub

Water management

Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water well

Other architecture

Archaeological features Broch Burnt mound

fulacht fiadh

Causewayed enclosure

Tor enclosure

Circular enclosure

Goseck

Cursus Henge

Thornborough

Oldest buildings Megalithic architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway

Sweet Track

Arts and culture

Material goods

Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles

timeline

Cosmetics Glue Hides

shoes Ötzi

Jewelry

amber use

Mirrors Pottery

Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware

Sewing
Sewing
needle Weaving Wine

Winery wine press

PrehistArt

Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic

Blombos Cave

List of Stone Age
Stone Age
art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved Stone Balls Cave
Cave
paintings

painting pigment

Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art

Stone carving

Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle

list British Isles and Brittany

Venus figurines

Burial

Burial mounds

Bowl barrow Round barrow

Mound Builders
Mound Builders
culture

U.S. sites

Chamber tomb

Severn-Cotswold

Cist

Dartmoor kistvaens

Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen

Great dolmen

Funeral pyre Gallery grave

transepted wedge-shaped

Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow

unchambered Grønsalen

Megalithic tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairn

Other cultural

Astronomy

sites lunar calendar

Behavioral modernity Origin of language

trepanning

Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology

music archaeology

Prehistoric music

Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi

Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion

Paleolithic
Paleolithic
religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use

Prehistoric warfare Symbo

.