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SWAMI VIVEKANANDA Bengali: ( listen ), Shāmi Bibekānondo; 12 January 1863 – 4 July 1902), born NARENDRANATH DATTA (Bengali: ), was an Indian Hindu
Hindu
monk , a chief disciple of the 19th-century Indian mystic Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
. He was a key figure in the introduction of the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga
Yoga
to the Western world and is credited with raising interfaith awareness, bringing Hinduism
Hinduism
to the status of a major world religion during the late 19th century. He was a major force in the revival of Hinduism
Hinduism
in India, and contributed to the concept of nationalism in colonial India
India
. Vivekananda
Vivekananda
founded the Ramakrishna Math and the Ramakrishna Mission
Ramakrishna Mission
. He is perhaps best known for his speech which began, "Sisters and brothers of America ...," in which he introduced Hinduism
Hinduism
at the Parliament of the World\'s Religions in Chicago
Chicago
in 1893.

Born into an aristocratic Bengali family of Calcutta , Vivekananda was inclined towards spirituality. He was influenced by his Guru
Guru
, Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Deva, from whom he learnt that all living beings were an embodiment of the divine self; therefore, service to God could be rendered by service to mankind. After Ramakrishna's death, Vivekananda toured the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
extensively and acquired first-hand knowledge of the conditions prevailing in British India
India
. He later travelled to the United States, representing India
India
at the 1893 Parliament of the World Religions. Vivekananda
Vivekananda
conducted hundreds of public and private lectures and classes, disseminating tenets of Hindu philosophy in the United States, England and Europe. In India, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
is regarded as a patriotic saint and his birthday is celebrated there as National Youth Day .

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life (1863–88)

* 1.1 Birth and childhood

* 2 Education

* 2.1 Spiritual apprenticeship - influence of Brahmo Samaj
Brahmo Samaj
* 2.2 With Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* 2.3 Founding of first Ramakrishna Math at Baranagar
Baranagar
* 2.4 Monastic vows

* 3 Travels in India
India
(1888–93)

* 4 First visit to the West (1893–97)

* 4.1 Parliament of the World\'s Religions * 4.2 Lecture tours in the UK and US

* 5 Back in India
India
(1897–99) * 6 Second visit to the West and final years (1899–1902) * 7 Death * 8 Teachings and philosophy * 9 Influence and legacy

* 10 Works

* 10.1 Lectures * 10.2 Literary works * 10.3 Publications

* 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References

* 14 Sources

* 14.1 Printed sources * 14.2 Web-sources

* 15 Further reading * 16 External links

EARLY LIFE (1863–88)

BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD

(left) Bhubaneswari Devi (1841–1911); "I am indebted to my mother for the efflorescence of my knowledge." – Vivekananda (right) 3, Gourmohan Mukherjee Street, birthplace of Vivekananda, now converted into a museum and cultural centre

Vivekananda
Vivekananda
was born Narendranath Datta (shortened to Narendra or Naren) at his ancestral home at 3 Gourmohan Mukherjee Street in Calcutta, the capital of British India, on 12 January 1863 during the Makar Sankranti
Makar Sankranti
festival. He belonged to a traditional Bengali Kayastha
Kayastha
family and was one of nine siblings. His father, Vishwanath Datta, was an attorney at the Calcutta High Court . Durgacharan Datta, Narendra's grandfather was a Sanskrit and Persian scholar who left his family and became a monk at age twenty-five. His mother, Bhubaneswari Devi, was a devout housewife. The progressive, rational attitude of Narendra's father and the religious temperament of his mother helped shape his thinking and personality.

Narendranath was interested spiritually from a young age and used to meditate before the images of deities such as Shiva
Shiva
, Rama
Rama
, Sita
Sita
, and Mahavir Hanuman
Hanuman
. He was fascinated by wandering ascetics and monks. Naren was naughty and restless as a child, and his parents often had difficulty controlling him. His mother said, "I prayed to Shiva
Shiva
for a son and he has sent me one of his ghosts".

EDUCATION

In 1871, at the age of eight, Narendranath enrolled at Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar 's Metropolitan Institution , where he went to school until his family moved to Raipur in 1877. In 1879, after his family's return to Calcutta, he was the only student to receive first-division marks in the Presidency College entrance examination. He was an avid reader in a wide range of subjects, including philosophy, religion, history, social science, art and literature. He was also interested in Hindu
Hindu
scriptures, including the Vedas , the Upanishads
Upanishads
, the Bhagavad Gita , the Ramayana , the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Puranas
Puranas
. Narendra was trained in Indian classical music
Indian classical music
, and regularly participated in physical exercise, sports and organised activities. Narendra studied Western logic, Western philosophy and European history at the General Assembly\'s Institution (now known as the Scottish Church College). In 1881 he passed the Fine Arts examination, and completed a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1884. Narendra studied the works of David Hume
David Hume
, Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
, Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
, Georg W. F. Hegel , Arthur Schopenhauer , Auguste Comte
Auguste Comte
, John Stuart Mill and Charles Darwin . He became fascinated with the evolutionism of Herbert Spencer
Herbert Spencer
and corresponded with him, translating Spencer's book Education (1861) into Bengali. While studying Western philosophers, he also learned Sanskrit scriptures and Bengali literature. William Hastie (principal of General Assembly's Institution) wrote, "Narendra is really a genius. I have travelled far and wide but I have never come across a lad of his talents and possibilities, even in German universities, among philosophical students' Some accounts have called Narendra a shrutidhara (a person with a prodigious memory).

SPIRITUAL APPRENTICESHIP - INFLUENCE OF BRAHMO SAMAJ

See also: Swami Vivekananda and meditation

In 1880 Narendra joined Keshab Chandra Sen
Keshab Chandra Sen
's Nava Vidhan , which was established by Sen after meeting Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
and reconverting from Christianity to Hinduism. Narendra became a member of a Freemasonry lodge "at some point before 1884" and of the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj in his twenties, a breakaway faction of the Brahmo Samaj
Brahmo Samaj
led by Keshab Chandra Sen and Debendranath Tagore . From 1881 to 1884 he was also active in Sen's Band of Hope , which tried to discourage youths from smoking and drinking.

It was in this cultic milieu that Narendra became acquainted with Western esotericism
Western esotericism
. His initial beliefs were shaped by Brahmo concepts, which included belief in a formless God and the deprecation of idolatry , and a "streamlined, rationalized, monotheistic theology strongly coloured by a selective and modernistic reading of the Upanisads and of the Vedanta." Rammohan Roy , the founder of the Brahmo Samaj
Brahmo Samaj
who was strongly influenced by unitarianism , strived toward an universalistic interpretation of Hinduism. His ideas were "altered considerably" by Debendranath Tagore , who had a romantic approach to the development of these new doctrines, and questioned central Hindu
Hindu
beliefs like reincarnation and karma, and rejected the authority of the Vedas. Tagore also brought this "neo-Hinduism" closer in line with western esotericism , a development which was furthered by Keshubchandra Sen. Sen was influenced by transcendentalism , an American philosophical-religious movement strongly connected with unitarianism, which emphasised personal religious experience over mere reasoning and theology. Sen strived to "an accessible, non-renunciatory, everyman type of spirituality", introducing "lay systems of spiritual practice" which can be regarded as prototypes of the kind of Yoga-exercises which Vivekananda popularised in the west.

The same search for direct intuition and understanding can be seen with Vivekananda. Not satisfied with his knowledge of philosophy, Narendra came to "the question which marked the real beginning of his intellectual quest for God." He asked several prominent Calcutta residents if they had come "face to face with God", but none of their answers satisfied him. At this time, Narendra met Debendranath Tagore (the leader of Brahmo Samaj) and asked if he had seen God. Instead of answering his question, Tagore said "My boy, you have the Yogi
Yogi
's eyes." According to Banhatti, it was Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
who really answered Narendra's question, by saying "Yes, I see Him as I see you, only in an infinitely intenser sense." Nevertheless, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
was more influenced by the Brahmo Samaj's and its new ideas, than by Ramakrishna. It was Sen's influence who brought Vivekananda
Vivekananda
fully into contact with western esotericism, and it was also via Sen that he met Ramakrishna.

WITH RAMAKRISHNA

Main article: Relationship between Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
and Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda
See also: Swami Vivekananda\'s prayer to Kali at Dakshineswar
Dakshineswar

In 1881 Narendra first met Ramakrishna, who became his spiritual focus after his own father had died in 1884.

Narendra's first introduction to Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
occurred in a literature class at General Assembly's Institution when he heard Professor William Hastie lecturing on William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth
's poem, The Excursion . While explaining the word "trance" in the poem, Hastie suggested that his students visit Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
of Dakshineswar
Dakshineswar
to understand the true meaning of trance. This prompted some of his students (including Narendra) to visit Ramakrishna. Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
, guru of Vivekananda
Vivekananda
Vivekananda
Vivekananda
in Cossipore
Cossipore
1886

They probably first met personally in November 1881, though Narendra did not consider this their first meeting, and neither man mentioned this meeting later. At this time Narendra was preparing for his upcoming F. A. examination, when Ram Chandra Datta accompanied him to Surendra Nath Mitra 's, house where Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
was invited to deliver a lecture. According to Paranjape, at this meeting Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
asked young Narendra to sing. Impressed by his singing talent, he asked Narendra to come to Dakshineshwar.

In late 1881 or early 1882, Narendra went to Dakshineswar
Dakshineswar
with two friends and met Ramakrishna. This meeting proved to be a turning point in his life. Although he did not initially accept Ramakrishna as his teacher and rebelled against his ideas, he was attracted by his personality and began to frequently visit him at Dakshineswar. He initially saw Ramakrishna's ecstasies and visions as "mere figments of imagination" and "hallucinations". As a member of Brahmo Samaj, he opposed idol worship, polytheism and Ramakrishna's worship of Kali . He even rejected the Advaita Vedanta of "identity with the absolute" as blasphemy and madness, and often ridiculed the idea. Narendra tested Ramakrishna, who faced his arguments patiently: "Try to see the truth from all angles", he replied.

Narendra's father's sudden death in 1884 left the family bankrupt; creditors began demanding the repayment of loans, and relatives threatened to evict the family from their ancestral home. Narendra, once a son of a well-to-do family, became one of the poorest students in his college. He unsuccessfully tried to find work and questioned God's existence, but found solace in Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
and his visits to Dakshineswar
Dakshineswar
increased.

One day Narendra requested Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
to pray to goddess Kali for their family's financial welfare. Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
suggested him to go to the temple himself and pray. Following Ramakrishna's suggestion, he went to the temple thrice, but failed to pray for any kind of worldly necessities and ultimately prayed for true knowledge and devotion from the goddess. Narendra gradually grew ready to renounce everything for the sake of realising God, and accepted Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
as his Guru
Guru
.

In 1885, Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
developed throat cancer , and was transferred to Calcutta and (later) to a garden house in Cossipore
Cossipore
. Narendra and Ramakrishna's other disciples took care of him during his last days, and Narendra's spiritual education continued. At Cossipore, he experienced Nirvikalpa samadhi . Narendra and several other disciples received ochre robes from Ramakrishna, forming his first monastic order. He was taught that service to men was the most effective worship of God. Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
asked him to care for the other monastic disciples, and in turn asked them to see Narendra as their leader. Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
died in the early-morning hours of 16 August 1886 in Cossipore.

FOUNDING OF FIRST RAMAKRISHNA MATH AT BARANAGAR

Main article: Baranagar Math

After Ramakrishna's death, his devotees and admirers stopped supporting his disciples. Unpaid rent accumulated, and Narendra and the other disciples had to find a new place to live. Many returned home, adopting a Grihastha
Grihastha
(family-oriented) way of life. Narendra decided to convert a dilapidated house at Baranagar
Baranagar
into a new math (monastery) for the remaining disciples. Rent for the Baranagar
Baranagar
Math was low, raised by "holy begging" (mādhukarī). The math became the first building of the Ramakrishna Math : the monastery of the monastic order of Ramakrishna. Narendra and other disciples used to spend many hours in practising meditation and religious austerities every day. Narendra later reminisced about the early days of the monastery:

We underwent a lot of religious practice at the Baranagar
Baranagar
Math. We used to get up at 3:00 am and become absorbed in japa and meditation. What a strong spirit of detachment we had in those days! We had no thought even as to whether the world existed or not.

In 1887, Narendra compiled a Bengali song anthology named Sangeet Kalpataru with Vaishnav Charan Basak. Narendra collected and arranged most of the songs of this compilation, but could not finish the work of the book for unfavourable circumstances.

MONASTIC VOWS

In December 1886, the mother of Baburam invited Narendra and his other brother monks to Antpur village. Narendra and the other aspiring monks accepted the invitation and went to Antpur to spend few days. In Antpur, in the Christmas Eve of 1886, Narendra and eight other disciples took formal monastic vows. They decided to live their lives as their master lived. Narendranath took the name "Swami Vivekananda".

TRAVELS IN INDIA (1888–93)

Main article: Swami Vivekananda\'s travels in India
India
(1888–1893)

In 1888, Narendra left the monastery as a Parivrâjaka— the Hindu religious life of a wandering monk, "without fixed abode, without ties, independent and strangers wherever they go". His sole possessions were a kamandalu (water pot), staff and his two favourite books: the Bhagavad Gita and The Imitation of Christ . Narendra travelled extensively in India
India
for five years, visiting centres of learning and acquainting himself with diverse religious traditions and social patterns. He developed sympathy for the suffering and poverty of the people, and resolved to uplift the nation. Living primarily on bhiksha (alms), Narendra travelled on foot and by railway (with tickets bought by admirers). During his travels he met, and stayed with Indians from all religions and walks of life: scholars, dewans , rajas , Hindus, Muslims, Christians, paraiyars (low-caste workers) and government officials. Narendra left Bombay for Chicago
Chicago
on 31 May 1893 with the name "Vivekananda", as suggested by Ajit Singh of Khetri, which means "the bliss of discerning wisdom".

FIRST VISIT TO THE WEST (1893–97)

Vivekananda
Vivekananda
started his journey to the West on 31 May 1893 and visited several cities in Japan (including Nagasaki
Nagasaki
, Kobe
Kobe
, Yokohama , Osaka
Osaka
, Kyoto
Kyoto
and Tokyo), China and Canada en route to the United States, reaching Chicago
Chicago
on 30 July 1893, where the "Parliament of Religions " took place in September 1893. The Congress was an initiative of the Swedenborgian layman, and judge of the Illinois Supreme Court, Charles C. Bonney , to gather all the religions of the world, and show "the substantial unity of many religions in the good deeds of the religious life." It was one of the more than 200 adjunct gatherings and congresses of the Chicago's World's Fair, and was "an avant-garde intellectual manifestation of cultic milieus, East and West," with the Brahmo Samaj
Brahmo Samaj
and the Theosophical Society being invited as being representative of Hinduism.

Vivekananda
Vivekananda
wanted to join, but was disappointed to learn that no one without credentials from a bona fide organisation would be accepted as a delegate. Vivekananda
Vivekananda
contacted Professor John Henry Wright of Harvard University
Harvard University
, who invited him to speak at Harvard. Vivekananda wrote of the professor, "He urged upon me the necessity of going to the Parliament of Religions, which he thought would give an introduction to the nation". Vivekananda
Vivekananda
submitted an application, "introducing himself as a monk 'of the oldest order of sannyāsis ... founded by Sankara,'" supported by the Brahmo Samaj
Brahmo Samaj
representative Protapchandra Mozoombar, who was also a member of the Parliament's selection committee, "classifying the Swami as a representative of the Hindu
Hindu
monastic order."

PARLIAMENT OF THE WORLD\'S RELIGIONS

Main article: Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda
at the Parliament of the World\'s Religions (1893) (left) Vivekananda
Vivekananda
on the platform at the Parliament of Religions, September 1893; left to right: Virchand Gandhi , Dharmapala , Vivekananda (right) Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda
with the East Indian group, in the photo: (from left to right) Narasimha Chaira, Lakeshnie Narain, Vivekananda, H. Dharmapala, and Virchand Gandhi

The Parliament of the World's Religions
Parliament of the World's Religions
opened on 11 September 1893 at the Art Institute of Chicago
Chicago
as part of the World\'s Columbian Exposition . On this day, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
gave a brief speech representing India
India
and Hinduism
Hinduism
. He was initially nervous, bowed to Saraswati
Saraswati
(the Hindu
Hindu
goddess of learning) and began his speech with "Sisters and brothers of America!". At these words, Vivekananda received a two-minute standing ovation from the crowd of seven thousand. According to Sailendra Nath
Nath
Dhar, when silence was restored he began his address, greeting the youngest of the nations on behalf of "the most ancient order of monks in the world, the Vedic order of sannyasins, a religion which has taught the world both tolerance, of and universal acceptance". Vivekananda
Vivekananda
quoted two illustrative passages from the " Shiva
Shiva
mahimna stotram ": "As the different streams having their sources in different places all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take, through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee!" and "Whosoever comes to Me, through whatsoever form, I reach him; all men are struggling through paths that in the end lead to Me." According to Sailendra Nath
Nath
Dhar, "t was only a short speech, but it voiced the spirit of the Parliament."

Parliament President John Henry Barrows
John Henry Barrows
said, "India, the Mother of religions was represented by Swami Vivekananda, the Orange-monk who exercised the most wonderful influence over his auditors". Vivekananda
Vivekananda
attracted widespread attention in the press, which called him the "cyclonic monk from India". The New York Critique wrote, "He is an orator by divine right, and his strong, intelligent face in its picturesque setting of yellow and orange was hardly less interesting than those earnest words, and the rich, rhythmical utterance he gave them". The New York Herald noted, " Vivekananda
Vivekananda
is undoubtedly the greatest figure in the Parliament of Religions. After hearing him we feel how foolish it is to send missionaries to this learned nation". American newspapers reported Vivekananda
Vivekananda
as "the greatest figure in the parliament of religions" and "the most popular and influential man in the parliament". The Boston Evening Transcript reported that Vivekananda
Vivekananda
was "a great favourite at the parliament... if he merely crosses the platform, he is applauded". He spoke several more times "at receptions, the scientific section, and private homes" on topics related to Hinduism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and harmony among religions until the parliament ended on 27 September 1893. Vivekananda's speeches at the Parliament had the common theme of universality, emphasising religious tolerance. He soon became known as a "handsome oriental" and made a huge impression as an orator.

LECTURE TOURS IN THE UK AND US

"I do not come", said Swamiji on one occasion in America, "to convert you to a new belief. I want you to keep your own belief; I want to make the Methodist
Methodist
a better Methodist; the Presbyterian a better Presbyterian; the Unitarian a better Unitarian. I want to teach you to live the truth, to reveal the light within your own soul."

After the Parliament of Religions, he toured many parts of the US as a guest. His popularity opened up new views for expanding on "life and religion to thousands". During a question-answer session at Brooklyn Ethical Society, he remarked, "I have a message to the West as Buddha had a message to the East."

Vivekananda
Vivekananda
spent nearly two years lecturing in the eastern and central United States, primarily in Chicago, Detroit, Boston, and New York. He founded the Vedanta Society of New York in 1894. By spring 1895 his busy, tiring schedule had affected his health. He ended his lecture tours and began giving free, private classes in Vedanta and yoga . Beginning in June 1895, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
gave private lectures to a dozen of his disciples at Thousand Island Park in New York for two months.

During his first visit to the West he travelled to the UK twice, in 1895 and 1896, lecturing successfully there. In November 1895 he met Margaret Elizabeth Noble an Irish woman who would become Sister Nivedita . During his second visit to the UK in May 1896 Vivekananda met Max Müller
Max Müller
, a noted Indologist from Oxford University
Oxford University
who wrote Ramakrishna's first biography in the West. From the UK, Vivekananda visited other European countries. In Germany he met Paul Deussen , another Indologist. Vivekananda
Vivekananda
was offered academic positions in two American universities (one the chair in Eastern Philosophy at Harvard University and a similar position at Columbia University
Columbia University
); he declined both, since his duties would conflict with his commitment as a monk. Left: Vivekananda
Vivekananda
in Greenacre , Maine (August 1894). Right: Vivekananda
Vivekananda
at Mead sisters' house, South Pasadena in 1900.

His success led to a change in mission, namely the establishment of Vedanta centres in the West. Vivekananda
Vivekananda
adapted traditional Hindu ideas and religiosity to suit the needs and understandings of his western audiences, who were especially attracted by and familiar with western esoteric traditions and movements like Transcendentalism
Transcendentalism
and New thought
New thought
. An important element in his adaptation of Hindu religiosity was the introduction of his "four yogas" model, which includes Raja
Raja
yoga , his interpretation of Patanjali's Yoga
Yoga
sutras , which offered a practical means to realise the divine force within which is central to modern western esotericism. In 1896 his book Raja Yoga
Yoga
was published, which became an instant success and was highly influential in the western understanding of Yoga.

Vivekananda
Vivekananda
attracted followers and admirers in the US and Europe, including Josephine MacLeod , William James
William James
, Josiah Royce , Robert G. Ingersoll , Nikola Tesla , Lord Kelvin , Harriet Monroe , Ella Wheeler Wilcox , Sarah Bernhardt , Emma Calvé
Emma Calvé
and Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz . He initiated several followers : Marie Louise (a French woman) became Swami Abhayananda , and Leon Landsberg became Swami Kripananda , so that they could continue the work of the mission of the Vedanta Society. This society still is filled with foreign nationals and is also located in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
. During his stay in America, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
was given land in the mountains to the southeast of San Jose, California
San Jose, California
to establish a retreat for Vedanta students. He called it "Peace retreat", or, Shanti Asrama. The largest American centre is the Vedanta Society of Southern California in Hollywood
Hollywood
, (one of the twelve main centres). There is also a Vedanta Press in Hollywood
Hollywood
which publishes books about Vedanta and English translations of Hindu
Hindu
scriptures and texts. Christina Greenstidel of Detroit
Detroit
was also initiated by Vivekananda
Vivekananda
with a mantra and she became Sister Christine , and they established a close father–daughter relationship.

From the West, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
revived his work in India. He regularly corresponded with his followers and brother monks, offering advice and financial support. His letters from this period reflect his campaign of social service, and were strongly worded. He wrote to Akhandananda , "Go from door to door amongst the poor and lower classes of the town of Khetri and teach them religion. Also, let them have oral lessons on geography and such other subjects. No good will come of sitting idle and having princely dishes, and saying "Ramakrishna, O Lord!"—unless you can do some good to the poor". In 1895, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
founded the periodical Brahmavadin to teach the Vedanta. Later, Vivekananda's translation of the first six chapters of The Imitation of Christ was published in Brahmavadin in 1889. Vivekananda
Vivekananda
left for India
India
on 16 December 1896 from England with his disciples Captain and Mrs. Sevier and J.J. Goodwin. On the way they visited France and Italy, and set sail for India
India
from Naples
Naples
on 30 December 1896. He was later followed to India
India
by Sister Nivedita, who devoted the rest of her life to the education of Indian women and India's independence.

BACK IN INDIA (1897–99)

The ship from Europe arrived in Colombo
Colombo
, British Ceylon (now Sri Lanka ) on 15 January 1897, and Vivekananda
Vivekananda
received a warm welcome. In Colombo
Colombo
he gave his first public speech in the East, India, the Holy Land. From there on, his journey to Calcutta was triumphant. Vivekananda
Vivekananda
travelled from Colombo
Colombo
to Pamban
Pamban
, Rameswaram
Rameswaram
, Ramnad
Ramnad
, Madurai
Madurai
, Kumbakonam
Kumbakonam
and Madras , delivering lectures. Common people and rajas gave him an enthusiastic reception. During his train travels, people often sat on the rails to force the train to stop so they could hear him. From Madras, he continued his journey to Calcutta and Almora
Almora
. While in the West, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
spoke about India's great spiritual heritage; in India, he repeatedly addressed social issues: uplifting the people, eliminating the caste system, promoting science and industrialisation, addressing widespread poverty and ending colonial rule. These lectures, published as Lectures from Colombo
Colombo
to Almora
Almora
, demonstrate his nationalistic fervour and spiritual ideology. (left) Vivekananda
Vivekananda
at Chennai 1897 (right) Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati (a branch of the Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Math founded on 19 March 1899) later published many of Vivekananda's work and now publishes Prabuddha Bharata .

On 1 May 1897 in Calcutta, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
founded the Ramakrishna Mission for social service. Its ideals are based on Karma Yoga, and its governing body consists of the trustees of the Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Math (which conducts religious work). Both Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission
Ramakrishna Mission
have their headquarters at Belur Math . Vivekananda
Vivekananda
founded two other monasteries: one in Mayavati in the Himalayas (near Almora), the Advaita Ashrama and another in Madras. Two journals were founded: Prabuddha Bharata in English and Udbhodan in Bengali. That year, famine -relief work was begun by Swami Akhandananda in the Murshidabad
Murshidabad
district.

Vivekananda
Vivekananda
earlier inspired Jamshedji Tata to set up a research and educational institution when they travelled together from Yokohama
Yokohama
to Chicago
Chicago
on Vivekananda's first visit to the West in 1893. Tata now asked him to head his Research Institute of Science ; Vivekananda declined the offer, citing a conflict with his "spiritual interests". He visited Punjab, attempting to mediate an ideological conflict between Arya Samaj (a reformist Hindu
Hindu
movement) and sanatan (orthodox Hindus). After brief visits to Lahore, Delhi and Khetri, Vivekananda returned to Calcutta in January 1898. He consolidated the work of the math and trained disciples for several months. Vivekananda
Vivekananda
composed " Khandana Bhava–Bandhana ", a prayer song dedicated to Ramakrishna, in 1898.

SECOND VISIT TO THE WEST AND FINAL YEARS (1899–1902)

See also: Swami Vivekananda in California
Swami Vivekananda in California
(left) Vivekananda
Vivekananda
at Belur Math on 19 June 1899 (right) Vivekananda
Vivekananda
(photo taken in Bushnell Studio, San Francisco, 1900)

Despite declining health, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
left for the West for a second time in June 1899 accompanied by Sister Nivedita
Sister Nivedita
and Swami Turiyananda. Following a brief stay in England, he went to the United States. During this visit, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
established Vedanta Societies in San Francisco and New York and founded a shanti ashrama (peace retreat) in California. He then went to Paris for the Congress of Religions in 1900. His lectures in Paris concerned the worship of the lingam and the authenticity of the Bhagavad Gita . Vivekananda
Vivekananda
then visited Brittany , Vienna, Istanbul
Istanbul
, Athens and Egypt
Egypt
. The French philosopher Jules Bois was his host for most of this period, until he returned to Calcutta on 9 December 1900.

After a brief visit to the Advaita Ashrama in Mayavati Vivekananda settled at Belur Math, where he continued co-ordinating the works of Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission, the math and the work in England and the US He had many visitors, including royalty and politicians. Although Vivekananda
Vivekananda
was unable to attend the Congress of Religions in 1901 in Japan due to deteriorating health, he made pilgrimages to Bodhgaya and Varanasi . Declining health (including asthma , diabetes and chronic insomnia ) restricted his activity.

DEATH

On 4 July 1902 (the day of his death) Vivekananda
Vivekananda
awoke early, went to the chapel at Belur Math and meditated for three hours. He taught Shukla-Yajur-Veda, Sanskrit grammar and the philosophy of yoga to pupils, later discussing with colleagues a planned Vedic college in the Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Math. At 7:00 p.m. Vivekananda
Vivekananda
went to his room, asking not to be disturbed; he died at 9:10 p.m. while meditating . According to his disciples, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
attained mahasamādhi ; the rupture of a blood vessel in his brain was reported as a possible cause of death. His disciples believed that the rupture was due to his brahmarandhra (an opening in the crown of his head) being pierced when he attained mahasamādhi. Vivekananda
Vivekananda
fulfilled his prophecy that he would not live forty years. He was cremated on a sandalwood funeral pyre on the bank of the Ganga in Belur, opposite where Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
was cremated sixteen years earlier.

TEACHINGS AND PHILOSOPHY

Main article: Teachings and philosophy of Swami Vivekananda

Part of a series on

HINDU PHILOSOPHY

ORTHODOX

* SAMKHYA * YOGA * NYAYA * VAISHESHIKA * MIMAMSA

VEDANTA

* Advaita * Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
* Dvaita Vedanta * Bhedabheda * Dvaitadvaita * Achintya Bheda Abheda * Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita

HETERODOX

* CHARVAKA * ĀJīVIKA * BUDDHISM * JAINISM

OTHER SCHOOLS

* Vaishnava * Smarta * Shakta

* Shaiva : Pratyabhijña * Pashupata * Siddhanta

* Tantra
Tantra

TEACHERS (Acharyas )

NYAYA

* Akṣapāda Gotama * Jayanta Bhatta * Raghunatha Siromani

MīMāṃSā

* Jaimini * Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
* Prabhākara

ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Gaudapada
Gaudapada
* Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
* Vācaspati Miśra
Vācaspati Miśra
* Vidyaranya * Sadananda * Madhusūdana Sarasvatī * Vijnanabhiksu
Vijnanabhiksu
* Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* Vivekananda
Vivekananda
* Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
* Siddharudha * Chinmayananda * Nisargadatta

VISHISHTADVAITA

* Nammalvar
Nammalvar
* Alvars * Yamunacharya * Ramanuja * Vedanta Desika * Pillai Lokacharya * Manavala Mamunigal

DVAITA

* Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
* Jayatirtha * Vyasatirtha * Sripadaraja * Vadirajatirtha * Vijayendra Tirtha * Raghavendra Swami

ACHINTYA BHEDA ABHEDA

* Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
* Jiva Goswami * Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati
* Prabhupada

* Tantra
Tantra
* Shakta

* Abhinavagupta
Abhinavagupta
* Nigamananda Paramahansa * Ramprasad Sen
Ramprasad Sen
* Bamakhepa
Bamakhepa
* Kamalakanta Bhattacharya * Anandamayi Ma
Anandamayi Ma

OTHERS

SAMKHYA

* Kapila

YOGA

* Patanjali
Patanjali

VAISHESHIKA

* Kanada , Prashastapada

DVAITADVAITA

* Nimbarka

SHUDDHADVAITA

* Vallabha Acharya
Acharya

MAJOR TEXTS

* Sruti * Smriti

------------------------- VEDAS

* Rigveda * Yajurveda
Yajurveda
* Samaveda * Atharvaveda
Atharvaveda

UPANISHADS

* Principal Upanishads
Upanishads
* Minor Upanishads
Upanishads

Other scriptures

* Bhagavat Gita * Agama (Hinduism)

------------------------- SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS

* Brahma Sutras * Samkhya Sutras * Mimamsa Sutras * Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
* Vaiśeṣika Sūtra * Yoga
Yoga
Sutras

* Pramana Sutras

* Puranas
Puranas
* Dharma Shastra * Artha Śastra * Kamasutra * Tirumurai * Shiva
Shiva
Samhita

* Hinduism
Hinduism
* Other Indian philosophies

* v * t * e

Part of a series on

ADVAITA

Schools CLASSICAL ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Bhāmatī
Bhāmatī
* Vivarana

SHAIVISM/TANTRA/NATH

* Kashmir Shaivism
Shaivism
* Pratyabhijna
Pratyabhijna
* Nath
Nath
* Inchegeri Sampradaya
Inchegeri Sampradaya

NEW MOVEMENTS

* Neo-Advaita
Neo-Advaita
* Nondualism
Nondualism

Concepts CLASSICAL ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Atman * Brahman * Avidya * Ajativada
Ajativada
* Mahāvākyas
Mahāvākyas
* Om * Tat Tvam Asi
Tat Tvam Asi
* Three Bodies * Aham * Cause and effect * Kosha

KASHMIR SHAIVISM

* Pratyabhijna
Pratyabhijna
* so\'ham

Practices

* Guru
Guru
* Meditation * Svādhyāya
Svādhyāya
* Sravana, manana, nididhyasana * Jnana yoga
Jnana yoga
* Rāja yoga
Rāja yoga
* "Unfoldment of the middle" * Self-enquiry
Self-enquiry

Moksha
Moksha

* Moksha
Moksha
* Anubhava
Anubhava
* Turiya * Sahaja
Sahaja

Texts ADVAITA VEDANTA Prasthanatrayi

* Principal Upanishads
Upanishads
* Brahma Sutras * Bhagavad Gita * Shankara * Upadesasahasri * Attributed to Shankara * Vivekachudamani * Atma bodha * Other * Avadhuta Gita * Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha * Yoga
Yoga
Yajnavalkya * Advaita Bodha Deepika
Advaita Bodha Deepika
* Dŗg-Dŗśya-Viveka
Dŗg-Dŗśya-Viveka
* Vedantasara of Sadananda

KASHMIR SHAIVISM

* Shiva
Shiva
Sutras of Vasugupta

NEO-VEDANTA

* Works by Vivekananda
Vivekananda

INCHEGERI SAMPRADAYA

* Dasbodh

Teachers CLASSICAL ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Gaudapada
Gaudapada
* Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
* Mandana Misra * Suresvara * Vācaspati Miśra
Vācaspati Miśra
* Padmapadacharya * Amalananda * Chandrashekarendra Saraswati
Saraswati
* Jagadguru of Sringeri Sharada Peetham

MODERN ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Vijnanabhiksu
Vijnanabhiksu
* Swami Sivananda
Swami Sivananda
* Swami Chinmayananda * Swami Dayananda * Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
* Nisargadatta Maharaj
Nisargadatta Maharaj

SHAIVISM/TANTRA/NATH

* Gorakshanath
Gorakshanath
* Matsyendranath

* Advaita teachers

NEO-ADVAITA

* Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* Swami Vivekananda * H. W. L. Poonja * Andrew Cohen * Gangaji
Gangaji
* Mooji

OTHER

* Osho * Eckhart Tolle * Robert Adams

Influences

* Mimamsa * Nyaya * Samkhya * Sramanic movement * Yoga
Yoga

HINDUISM

* Vedas * Upanishads
Upanishads
* Vedanta

BUDDHISM

* Precanonical Buddhism
Buddhism
* Madhyamika * Yogacara * Buddha-nature

Monasteries and Orders CLASSICAL ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Dashanami Sampradaya * Shri Gaudapadacharya Math * Sringeri Sharada Peetham
Sringeri Sharada Peetham
* Govardhana Pīṭhaṃ * Dvāraka Pīṭhaṃ * Jyotirmaṭha Pīṭhaṃ

MODERN ADVAITA VEDANTA

* Divine Life Society * Chinmaya Mission * Arsha Vidya Gurukulam

NEO-VEDANTA

* Ramakrishna Mission
Ramakrishna Mission

Scholarship Academic

* Paul Deussen * Daniel H. H. Ingalls * Richard De Smet * Paul Deussen * Eliot Deutsch * Sengaku Mayeda * Max Muller
Max Muller
* Hajime Nakamura * Patrick Olivelle * Anantanand Rambachan * Arvind Sharma

Non-academic

* David Godman

Categories

* Advaita * Advaita Vedanta * Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta * Advaita Shaivism
Shaivism
* Kashmir Shaivism
Shaivism
* Inchegeri Sampradaya
Inchegeri Sampradaya
* Nondualism
Nondualism
* Neo-Advaita
Neo-Advaita
teachers

* v * t * e

Vivekananda
Vivekananda
propagated that the essence of Hinduism
Hinduism
was best expressed in Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
's Advaita Vedanta philosophy. Nevertheless, following Ramakrishna, and in contrast to Advaita Vedanta, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
believed that the Absolute is both immanent and transcendent. According to Anil Sooklal, Vivekananda's neo-Advaita "reconciles Dvaita or dualism and Advaita or non-dualism". Vivekananda
Vivekananda
summarised the Vedanta as follows, giving it a modern and Universalistic interpretation:

Each soul is potentially divine. The goal is to manifest this Divinity within by controlling nature, external and internal. Do this either by work, or worship, or mental discipline, or philosophy—by one, or more, or all of these—and be free. This is the whole of religion. Doctrines, or dogmas, or rituals, or books, or temples, or forms, are but secondary details.

Nationalism
Nationalism
was a prominent theme in Vivekananda's thought. He believed that a country's future depends on its people, and his teachings focused on human development. He wanted "to set in motion a machinery which will bring noblest ideas to the doorstep of even the poorest and the meanest".

Vivekananda
Vivekananda
linked morality with control of the mind, seeing truth, purity and unselfishness as traits which strengthened it. He advised his followers to be holy, unselfish and to have śraddhā (faith). Vivekananda
Vivekananda
supported brahmacharya (celibacy), believing it the source of his physical and mental stamina and eloquence. He emphasised that success was an outcome of focused thought and action; in his lectures on Raja
Raja
Yoga
Yoga
he said, "Take up one idea. Make that one idea your life – think of it, dream of it, live on that idea. Let the brain, muscles, nerves, every part of your body, be full of that idea, and just leave every other idea alone. This is the way to success, that is the way great spiritual giants are produced".

INFLUENCE AND LEGACY

Main article: Influence and legacy of Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda

Vivekananda
Vivekananda
was one of the main representatives of Neo-Vedanta , a modern interpretation of selected aspects of Hinduism
Hinduism
in line with western esoteric traditions , especially Transcendentalism
Transcendentalism
, New Thought and Theosophy . His reinterpretation was, and is, very successful, creating a new understanding and appreciation of Hinduism within and outside India, and was the principal reason for the enthusiastic reception of yoga, transcendental meditation and other forms of Indian spiritual self-improvement in the West. Agehananda Bharati explained, "...modern Hindus derive their knowledge of Hinduism
Hinduism
from Vivekananda, directly or indirectly". Vivekananda espoused the idea that all sects within Hinduism
Hinduism
(and all religions) are different paths to the same goal. However, this view has been criticised as an oversimplification of Hinduism. (left) Vivekananda
Vivekananda
statue near the Gateway of India
India
, Mumbai (right) at Shri Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Vidyashala, Mysore, India
India

In the background of emerging nationalism in British-ruled India, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
crystallised the nationalistic ideal. In the words of social reformer Charles Freer Andrews , "The Swami's intrepid patriotism gave a new colour to the national movement throughout India. More than any other single individual of that period Vivekananda
Vivekananda
had made his contribution to the new awakening of India". Vivekananda
Vivekananda
drew attention to the extent of poverty in the country, and maintained that addressing such poverty was a prerequisite for national awakening. His nationalistic ideas influenced many Indian thinkers and leaders. Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
regarded Vivekananda
Vivekananda
as the one who awakened India
India
spiritually. Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
counted him among the few Hindu
Hindu
reformers "who have maintained this Hindu
Hindu
religion in a state of splendor by cutting down the dead wood of tradition". Vivekananda
Vivekananda
Circle, Mysore

The first governor-general of independent India, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari , said " Vivekananda
Vivekananda
saved Hinduism, saved India". According to Subhas Chandra Bose
Subhas Chandra Bose
, a proponent of armed struggle for Indian independence , Vivekananda
Vivekananda
was "the maker of modern India"; for Gandhi, Vivekananda's influence increased Gandhi's "love for his country a thousandfold". Vivekananda
Vivekananda
influenced India's independence movement; his writings inspired independence activists such as Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose
Subhas Chandra Bose
, Aurobindo Ghose , Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
and Bagha Jatin and intellectuals such as Aldous Huxley , Christopher Isherwood , Romain Rolland . Many years after Vivekananda's death Rabindranath Tagore told French Nobel laureate Romain Rolland, "If you want to know India, study Vivekananda. In him everything is positive and nothing negative". Rolland wrote, "His words are great music, phrases in the style of Beethoven, stirring rhythms like the march of Händel choruses. I cannot touch these sayings of his, scattered as they are through the pages of books, at thirty years' distance, without receiving a thrill through my body like an electric shock. And what shocks, what transports, must have been produced when in burning words they issued from the lips of the hero!"

Jamshedji Tata was inspired by Vivekananda
Vivekananda
to establish the Indian Institute of Science , one of India's best-known research universities. Abroad, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
communicated with orientalist Max Müller , and scientist Nikola Tesla was one of those influenced by his Vedic teachings. While National Youth Day in India
India
is observed on his birthday, 12 January, the day he delivered his masterful speech at the Parliament of Religions, 11 September 1893 is "World Brotherhood Day". In September 2010, India's Finance Ministry highlighted the relevance of Vivekananda's teachings and values to the modern economic environment. The then Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee , the President of India
India
before the current President Ram Nath
Nath
Kovind, approved in principle the Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda
Values Education Project at a cost of ₹1 billion (US$16 million), with objectives including involving youth with competitions, essays, discussions and study circles and publishing Vivekananda's works in a number of languages. In 2011, the West Bengal Police Training College was renamed the Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda
State Police Academy, West Bengal. The state technical university in Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
has been named the Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda
Technical University. In 2012, the Raipur airport was renamed Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda
Airport .

The 150th birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda
was celebrated in India
India
and abroad. The Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports in India officially observed 2013 as the occasion in a declaration. Year-long events and programs were organised by branches of the Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Math , the Ramakrishna Mission
Ramakrishna Mission
, the central and state governments in India, educational institutions and youth groups. Bengali film director Tutu (Utpal) Sinha made a film, The Light: Swami Vivekananda as a tribute for his 150th birth anniversary.

WORKS

Main article: Bibliography of Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda
(left) Lectures from Colombo to Almora front cover 1897 edition (right) Vedanta Philosophy An address before the Graduate Philosophical Society 1901 cover page

LECTURES

Although Vivekananda
Vivekananda
was a powerful orator and writer in English and Bengali, he was not a thorough scholar, and most of his published works were compiled from lectures given around the world which were "mainly delivered impromptu and with little preparation". His main work, Raja
Raja
Yoga
Yoga
, consists of talks he delivered in New York.

LITERARY WORKS

According to Banhatti, " singer, a painter, a wonderful master of language and a poet, Vivekananda
Vivekananda
was a complete artist", composing many songs and poems, including his favourite, " Kali the Mother ". Vivekananda
Vivekananda
blended humour with his teachings, and his language was lucid. His Bengali writings testify to his belief that words (spoken or written) should clarify ideas, rather than demonstrating the speaker (or writer's) knowledge.

Bartaman Bharat meaning "Present Day India" is an erudite Bengali language essay written by him, which was first published in the March 1899 issue of Udbodhan, the only Bengali language magazine of Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission. The essay was reprinted as a book in 1905 and later compiled into the fourth volume of The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda. In this essay his refrain to the readers was to honour and treat every Indian as a brother irrespective of whether he was born poor or in lower caste.

PUBLICATIONS

Published in his lifetime

* Sangeet Kalpataru (1887, with Vaishnav Charan Basak) * Karma Yoga
Yoga
(1896) * Raja
Raja
Yoga
Yoga
(1896 ) * Vedanta Philosophy: An address before the Graduate Philosophical Society (1896) * Lectures from Colombo to Almora (1897) * Bartaman Bharat (in Bengali) (March 1899), Udbodhan * My Master (1901), The Baker and Taylor Company, New York * Vedânta philosophy: lectures on Jnâna Yoga
Yoga
(1902) Vedânta Society, New York OCLC
OCLC
919769260

Published posthumously

Here a list of selected books by Vivekananda
Vivekananda
that were published after his death (1902)

* Addresses on Bhakti Yoga * Bhakti Yoga * The East and the West (1909) * Inspired Talks (1909) * Narada Bhakti Sutras – translation * Para Bhakti or Supreme Devotion * Practical Vedanta * Speeches and writings of Swami Vivekananda; a comprehensive collection * Complete Works: a collection of his writings, lectures and discourses in a set of nine volumes

SEE ALSO

* List of Hindu
Hindu
gurus and saints

NOTES

* ^ The exact date of the meeting is unknown. Vivekananda researcher Shailendra Nath
Nath
Dhar studied the Calcutta University Calendar of 1881—1882 and found in that year, examination started on 28 November and ended on 2 December * ^ A brother monk of Narendranath * ^ On learning that Vivekananda
Vivekananda
lacked credentials to speak at the Chicago
Chicago
Parliament, Wright said "To ask for your credentials is like asking the sun to state its right to shine in the heavens". * ^ McRae quotes " sectarian biography of Vivekananda," namely Sailendra Nath
Nath
Dhar A Comprehensive Biography of Swami Vivekananda, Part One, (Madras, India: Vivekananda
Vivekananda
Prakashan Kendra, 1975), p. 461, which "describes his speech on the opening day". * ^ Brother monks or brother disciples means other disciples of Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
who lived monastic lives. * ^ According to Michael Taft, Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
reconciled the dualism of form and formless, regarding the Supreme Being to be both Personal and Impersonal, active and inactive. Ramakrishna: "When I think of the Supreme Being as inactive - neither creating nor preserving nor destroying - I call Him Brahman or Purusha, the Impersonal God. When I think of Him as active - creating, preserving and destroying - I call Him Sakti or Maya or Prakriti, the Personal God. But the distinction between them does not mean a difference. The Personal and Impersonal are the same thing, like milk and its whiteness, the diamond and its lustre, the snake and its wriggling motion. It is impossible to conceive of the one without the other. The Divine Mother and Brahman are one." * ^ Sooklalmquoytes Chatterjee: "Sankara's Vedanta is known as Advaita or non-dualism , pure and simple. Hence it is sometimes referred to as Kevala-Advaita or unqualified monism. It may also be called abstract monism in so far as Brahman, the Ultimate Reality, is, according to it, devoid of all qualities and distinctions, nirguna and nirvisesa The Neo-Vedanta is also Advaitic inasmuch as it holds that Brahman, the Ultimate Reality, is one without a second, ekamevadvitiyam. But as distinguished from the traditional Advaita of Sankara, it is a synthetic Vedanta which reconciles Dvaita or dualism and Advaita or non-dualism and also other theories of reality. In this sense it may also be called concrete monism in so far as it holds that Brahman is both qualified, saguna, and qualityless, nirguna (Chatterjee, 1963 : 260)."

REFERENCES

* ^ "World fair 1893 circulated photo". vivekananda.net. Retrieved 11 April 2012. * ^ Bhajanānanda (2010), Four Basic Principles of Advaita Vedanta, p.3 * ^ A B C D Michelis 2005 . * ^ "Swami Vivekananda: A short biography". www.oneindia.com. Retrieved 2017-05-03. * ^ "Life History & Teachings of Swami Vivekanand". Retrieved 2017-05-03. * ^ "International Yoga
Yoga
Day: How Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda
helped popularise the ancient Indian regimen in the West". * ^ A B Georg 2002 , p. 600. * ^ Clarke 2006 , p. 209. * ^ Von Dense 1999 , p. 191. * ^ Dutt 2005 , p. 121. * ^ Virajananda 2006 , p. 21. * ^ Paul 2003 , p. 5. * ^ "Devdutt Pattanaik: Dayanand & Vivekanand". * ^ Badrinath 2006 , p. 2. * ^ Mukherji 2011 , p. 5. * ^ Banhatti 1995 , p. 1. * ^ Badrinath 2006 , p. 3. * ^ A B Bhuyan 2003 , p. 4. * ^ A B Banhatti 1995 , p. 2. * ^ A B C D Nikhilananda 1964 . * ^ A B Sen 2003 , p. 20. * ^ A B Bhuyan 2003 , p. 5. * ^ Banhatti 1995 . * ^ Banhatti 1995 , p. 4. * ^ Arrington & Chakrabarti 2001 , pp. 628–631. * ^ Sen 2003 , p. 21. * ^ A B Sen 2006 , pp. 12–14. * ^ Sen 2003 , pp. 104–105. * ^ A B Pangborn & Smith 1976 , p. 106. * ^ Dhar 1976 , p. 53. * ^ A B Malagi & Naik 2003 , pp. 36–37. * ^ Prabhananda 2003 , p. 233. * ^ Banhatti 1995 , pp. 7–9. * ^ A B Chattopadhyaya 1999 , p. 31. * ^ A B C Michelis 2005 , p. 99. * ^ Michelis 2005 , p. 100. * ^ A B C D Banhatti 1995 , p. 8. * ^ Badrinath 2006 , p. 20. * ^ Michelis 2005 , p. 31-35. * ^ Michelis 2005 , p. 19-90, 97-100. * ^ A B Chattopadhyaya 1999 , p. 29. * ^ A B Michelis 2005 , p. 46. * ^ Michelis 2005 , p. 46-47. * ^ Michelis 2005 , p. 47. * ^ Michelis 2005 , p. 81. * ^ A B Michelis 2005 , p. 49. * ^ Sen 2006 , pp. 12–13. * ^ Michelis 2005 , p. 50. * ^ Michelis 2005 , p. 101. * ^ A B C Chattopadhyaya 1999 , p. 43. * ^ Ghosh 2003 , p. 31. * ^ Badrinath 2006 , p. 18. * ^ Chattopadhyaya 1999 , p. 30. * ^ Badrinath 2006 , p. 21. * ^ Paranjape 2012 , p. 132. * ^ A B Prabhananda 2003 , p. 232. * ^ A B C Banhatti 1995 , pp. 10–13. * ^ A B Rolland 1929a , pp. 169–193. * ^ Arora 1968 , p. 4. * ^ Bhuyan 2003 , p. 8. * ^ Sil 1997 , p. 38. * ^ Sil 1997 , pp. 39–40. * ^ Kishore 2001 , pp. 23–25. * ^ Nikhilananda 1953 , pp. 25–26. * ^ Sil 1997 , p. 27. * ^ A B Isherwood 1976 , p. 20. * ^ Pangborn & Smith 1976 , p. 98. * ^ A B Rolland 1929b , pp. 201–214. * ^ Banhatti 1995 , p. 17. * ^ Sil 1997 , pp. 46–47. * ^ Banhatti 1995 , p. 18. * ^ A B C Nikhilananda 1953 , p. 40. * ^ Chetananda 1997 , p. 38. * ^ A B Chattopadhyaya 1999 , p. 33. * ^ Bhuyan 2003 , p. 10. * ^ Rolland 2008 , p. 7. * ^ Dhar 1976 , p. 243. * ^ A B Richards 1996 , pp. 77–78. * ^ Bhuyan 2003 , p. 12. * ^ A B Rolland 2008 , pp. 16–25. * ^ Banhatti 1995 , p. 24. * ^ Gosling 2007 , p. 18. * ^ A B C Bhuyan 2003 , p. 15. * ^ Paranjape 2005 , pp. 246–248. * ^ Badrinath 2006 , p. 158. * ^ Michelis 2005 , p. 110. * ^ A B C Marcus Braybrooke, Charles Bonney and the Idea for a World Parliament of Religions, The Interfaith Observer * ^ Boston Collaborative Encyclopedia of Western Theology, World Parliament of Religions (1893) * ^ Michelis 2005 , p. 111-112. * ^ A B C Michelis 2005 , p. 112. * ^ A B Minor 1986 , p. 133. * ^ A B Bhuyan 2003 , p. 16. * ^ Houghton 1893 , p. 22. * ^ Bhide 2008 , p. 9. * ^ A B Paul 2003 , p. 33. * ^ Banhatti 1995 , p. 27. * ^ A B Bhuyan 2003 , p. 17. * ^ Paul 2003 , p. 34. * ^ A B McRae 1991 , p. 17. * ^ McRae 1991 , p. 16. * ^ McRae 1991 , p. 34, note 20. * ^ A B McRae 1991 , pp. 18. * ^ A B C D Prabhananda 2003 , p. 234. * ^ Farquhar 1915 , p. 202. * ^ Sharma 1988 , p. 87. * ^ Adiswarananda 2006 , pp. 177–179. * ^ Bhuyan 2003 , p. 18. * ^ A B Thomas 2003 , pp. 74–77. * ^ Vivekananda
Vivekananda
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Vivekananda
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FURTHER READING

* Chauhan, Abnish Singh (2004), Swami Vivekananda: Select Speeches, Prakash Book
Book
Depot, ISBN 978-8179774663 * Chauhan, Abnish Singh (2006), Speeches of Swami Vivekananda
Vivekananda
and Subhash Chandra Bose: A Comparative Study, Prakash Book
Book
Depot, ISBN 9788179771495 * King, Richard (2002), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory,