The Vickers-Armstrongs VALIANT was a British four-jet high-altitude bomber , once part of the Royal Air Force 's V bomber nuclear force in the 1950s and 1960s. It was developed by Vickers in response to Specification B.35/46 issued by the Air Ministry for a nuclear-armed jet-powered bomber. The Valiant was the first of the V bombers to become operational, and was followed by the Handley Page Victor and the Avro Vulcan ; it was noticeably less advanced than its counterparts. The Valiant has the distinction of being the only V bomber to have dropped live nuclear weapons.
As developed, the Valiant was intended for operations as a
high-altitude strategic bomber . During the late 1950s, in response to
rapid advances in surface-to-air missile (SAM) technology, the Valiant
fleet switched to flying a low-level mission profile to perform the
strike mission. Beyond the nuclear deterrence role, the Valiant was
also used by the RAF for other purposes, a number were converted to
perform various support roles such as aerial refuelling tankers and
aerial reconnaissance aircraft. Valiants were used for conventional
bombing missions over
By late 1964 it was found that all variants of the Valiant showed premature fatiguing and inter-crystalline corrosion in wing spar attachment castings, traced to the use of a poorly understood aluminium alloy, DTD683. Rather than proceeding with an expensive rebuilding program, the Valiant was formally retired in 1965. Its duties were continued by the other V-bombers which remained in service until the 1980s.
* 1 Development
* 1.1 Background and origins * 1.2 Prototypes * 1.3 Production
* 2 Design
* 3 Operational history
* 3.1 Nuclear deterrent * 3.2 Conventional warfare * 3.3 Tanker operations * 3.4 Countermeasures and reconnaissance roles * 3.5 Fatigue failures and retirement
* 4 Variants * 5 Operators * 6 Survivors * 7 Accidents and incidents * 8 Specifications (Valiant B.1) * 9 See also
* 10 References
* 10.1 Notes * 10.2 Citations * 10.3 Bibliography
* 11 External links
BACKGROUND AND ORIGINS
In November 1944, the Joint Technical Warfare Committee, along with a
separate committee chaired by Sir
Henry Tizard , examined the future
potential of "weapons of war" and the accompanying Tizard Report
published on 3 July 1945 made specific policy directions for the Royal
Air Force (RAF)
In January 1947, the British Air Ministry issued Specification B.35/46 for an advanced jet bomber intended to carry nuclear weapons and to fly near the speed of sound at altitudes of 50,000 ft (15,000 m). Three firms: A.V. Roe , Handley-Page and Vickers-Armstrongs submitted advanced designs intended to meet the stringent requirements. While Short Brothers submitted a design, by Geoffrey T. R. Hill , that was judged too ambitious, the Air Staff accepted another submission from the company for a separate requirement, B.14/46, as "insurance" in case the advanced B.35/46 effort ran into trouble. Aviation authors Bill Gunston and Peter Gilchrist described Specification B.14/46 as "calling for little more than a traditional jet aircraft fitted with jet engines" Short submitted a conservative design to meet B.14/46, which became the S.A.4 Sperrin . Two prototypes were completed, the first conducting its maiden flight in 1951, but the Sperrin was ultimately relegated to research and development purposes only.
Vickers had emerged from the Second World War as one of the world's
pre-eminent companies in the field of aeronautical manufacturing and
development. Furthermore, the company operated its own secretive Skunk
Works -like development organisation based at
Both Handley-Page and
Although developing and operating three overlapping large aircraft in response to a single Operational Requirement (OR) was wasteful and very costly, events such as the Berlin Blockade had led to officials placing a sense of urgency in the necessity to provide an effective deterrent to the Soviet Union from acts of aggression in Europe. In April 1948, the Air Staff issued a specification with the designation B.9/48 written around the Vickers design, which was given the company designation of _Type 660_; an Instruction to Proceed was received by Vickers on 16 April 1948. In February 1949, two prototypes of the aircraft were ordered. The first of these was to be fitted with four Rolls-Royce RA.3 Avon turbojet engines, while the second was to be fitted with four Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire engines as the _Type 667_.
First prototype performing a flight display at Farnborough Airshow , 1951
On 18 May 1951, the first prototype, serial number _WB210_ took to the air for its maiden flight , within the deadline that George Edwards had promised, and preceded the first Short Sperrin into the air by several months, being only 27 months since the contract had been issued. The pilot was Captain Joseph "Mutt" Summers , who had also been the original test pilot on the Supermarine Spitfire , and wanted to add another "first" to his record before he retired. His co-pilot on the first flight was Gabe "Jock" Bryce, who succeeded Summers as Vickers' chief test pilot upon his retirement shortly afterwards. The next month, the Vickers Type 660 was given the official name of "Valiant", recycling the name given to the Vickers Type 131 general-purpose biplane of 1931. The name Valiant had been selected by a survey of Vickers employees.
On 11 January 1952, the first Valiant prototype was lost during a noise estimation trial flight as the result of an in-flight fire on the starboard wing; all of the crew managed to escape the aircraft safely except for the co-pilot, who struck the tail after ejecting. After modifications to the fuel system, which had been thought to be the cause of the fire, the second prototype, serial number _WB215_, the Vickers Type 667, conducted its maiden flight on 11 April 1952. It was fitted with more powerful RA.7 Avon engines with 7,500 lbf (33 kN) thrust each, rather than the Sapphires that had been originally planned; it also featured more rounded air inlets , replacing the narrow slot-type intakes of the first prototype, in order to feed sufficient air to the more powerful engines. The short delay until the second prototype became available for testing, which was accelerated by three months, meant that loss of the initial prototype did not seriously compromise the schedule.
Of the three prototypes, two were representative of the Valiant B.1, while one was built as a further developed version, referred to the _Valiant B.2_. The B.2 variant was intended to serve as a Pathfinder aircraft, functioning to mark targets for the main bomber force and to reach its targets at low level and high speed. To cope with the rougher ride compared with high altitude operations, the B.2 had a strengthened airframe. In particular, the wing received design alterations to strengthen it, a key change being the removal of the large cut-outs in the wing structure into which the main wheels retracted, allowing the wing torsion box structure to be uninterrupted and giving more room for internal fuel storage; instead the main landing gear, which had four wheels instead of the two large wheels of the B.1, retracted backwards into large fairings set into the rear of the wings. The B.2 had a lengthened fuselage with a total length of 112 ft 9 in (34.37 m), in contrast to a length of 108 ft 3 in (32.99 m) for the Valiant B.1, with the extra length giving room for more avionics.
The prototype B.2, serial number _WJ954_ first flew on 4 September 1953. Finished in a gloss black night operations paint scheme, it became known as the "Black Bomber". Its performance at low level was superior to that of the B.1 (or any other V-bomber), being strong enough to fly at full power at sea level , with the aircraft being cleared to 580 mph (930 km/h) at low level (with speeds of up to 640 mph (1,030 km/h) being reached in testing). This was compared to the B.1's sea-level limit of 414 mph (666 km/h). The Air Ministry ordered 17 production B.2s, which were to be powered by Rolls-Royce Conway turbofans . However, although the Valiant B.2's low-level capabilities would later prove to be highly desirable, the B.2 program was abandoned as the RAF considered that the Pathfinder concept, born in a time of mass raids, was obsolete in the nuclear era. The B.2 prototype was used for tests for a few years, including testing use of rockets to boost takeoff, contributing to improvements for the Valiant B.1, before being scrapped in 1958.
Valiant B(PR)K.1 WZ393 of 90 Squadron in original all-metal finish displaying at Blackpool Squires Gate airport in 1957
In April 1951, an initial production order for 25 Valiant B.1 (Bomber Mark 1) aircraft was placed by the Ministry of Supply on behalf of the RAF. The timing of this order was key to establishing production quickly. Due to shortages of steel and other materials while setting up an assembly line at Brooklands, substantial portions of the production jigs for the Valiant were composed of concrete . The first five Valiants produced were completed to a pre-production standard, the first of which being _WP199_. On 21 December 1953, the first production aircraft conducted its first flight, this had occurred again within the schedule that Edwards had promised.
On 8 February 1955, this first production Valiant was delivered to the RAF. Britain's "V-bomber" force, as it had been nicknamed in October 1952, formally entered operational service on that day. The Victor and Vulcan would soon follow the Valiant into service, for a total of three types of nuclear-armed strategic bombers in RAF service. In September 1957, the final Valiant was delivered. According to Bill Gunston and Peter Gilchrist, all production aircraft had been delivered on time and below budget.
A total of 108 Valiants would be manufactured, including the sole B.2
prototype. In addition to their principal role as the RAF's delivery
platform for Britain's nuclear deterrent , the Valiant was capable of
performing, or was otherwise adapted to perform, in other capacities;
these included conventional bombing, aerial reconnaissance , aerial
refuelling tanker, and electronic countermeasures . Valiants of 90
and 214 squadrons were used for air refuelling through the addition of
a Hose Drum Unit (HDU) in the bomb bay, mounted on the same suspension
units that were also used for bombs. This meant that for refuelling,
the bomb-bay doors had to be opened so that the refuelling hose could
be streamed (unlike later tankers where the HDU was flush with the
under fuselage rather than inside a bomb bay). Several Valiants were
also used for testing and development purposes, such as its use as a
flying testbed during trials of the Blue
Unlike its Vulcan and Victor peers, the Valiant did not see the procurement of a refined and more capable B.2 model. Instead, the Valiant B.1 fleet was later switched to a low-level flight profile, after which fatigue due to increased turbulence was discovered and this ultimately led to the type's premature retirement. Vic Flintham observed that: "There is a fine irony to the situation, for Vickers had produced the Type 673 B Mk 2 version designed as a fast, low-level pathfinder... The Air Ministry was not interested..." The Valiant was Vickers' last purpose-built military aircraft. It was followed by the Vanguard , a passenger turboprop designed in 1959, and the Vickers VC10 , a jet passenger aircraft in 1962, also used as a military transport and tanker by the RAF.
Forward view of a preserved
The Valiant was a conservative design of the era, being equipped with a shoulder-mounted wing and four Rolls-Royce Avon RA.3 turbojet engines, each capable of providing up to 6,500 lbf (29 kN) of thrust, installed in pairs in fireproof bays embedded within each wing root. The design of the Valiant gave an overall impression of a plain and clean aircraft with simple aerodynamics. George Edwards described the Valiant appropriately and simply as an "unfunny" aircraft. The root chord thickness ratio was 12% and allowed the Avon engines to be within the wing rather than on pods as in the contemporary Boeing B-47 . This "buried engine" fit contributed to the aircraft's aerodynamic cleanness, and was viewed as the typical place to locate the engines. However, this arrangement also made engine access for maintenance and repair difficult and increased the risk that the failure of one engine would contribute to the failure of its pair due to flying debris such as turbine blades; it also increased the complexity of the design of the main spar which had to be routed around the engines.
The wing of the Valiant used a "compound sweep" configuration, devised by Vickers aerodynamicist Elfyn Richards. Richard found that the inboard section of the wing could be swept forward for positive results, a discovery which he later patented ; the Valiant's wing made use of a 37° angle of sweepback for the inner third of the wing, which reduced to an angle of about 21° at the tips. This was because the thickness/chord ratio could be reduced closer to the tips, balancing this against the sweep reduction in postponement of Mach effects such as buffeting and drag rise. The choice to have little sweepback around the aerodynamic surfaces meant that in-service speeds were limited to Mach 0.84 and a typical cruise of Mach 0.75 at heights up to 55,000 ft when light. A drogue parachute was deemed unnecessary due to the aircraft's easy operation from runways as short as 6,000 ft.
The wing was horizontal and mounted high on the aircraft's fuselage. It had limited fuel capacity, caused by necessary compromises made due to the placement of the engines and main landing gear within the wing's internal space. The leading edge of the wing was fixed while the trailing edge incorporated large outboard two-section ailerons , the inner section featuring trim tabs , alongside double-slotted flaps again split into inboard and outboard sections. Direct electrical drives were used to move the flaps and most other mechanically-powered input devices on the aircraft. The wing root and air intakes of a Valiant
Production aircraft were powered by an arrangement of four Avon 201 turbojet engines, each capable of generating 9,500 lbf (42 kN) of thrust. In addition to being the aircraft's primary source of propulsion, the engines also provided bleed air for the pressurization , ice protection , and air conditioning systems as well as the aircraft's assorted electrical generators . Napier Spraymat electric heaters were present within the engine inlets as a de-icing measure. The shape of the engine inlets were long rectangular slots in the first prototype, while the production Valiants featured oval or "spectacle" shaped inlets to permit greater airflow for the more powerful engines that were installed. The jet exhausts emerged from fairings above the trailing edge of the wings.
For additional takeoff performance in hot and high conditions, such as tropical climates, a jettisonable rocket booster engines pack was developed for the Valiant. Trials were performed with two underwing de Havilland Sprite boosters; however these were ultimately deemed unnecessary due to the availability of more powerful variants of the Avon engine, as well as fears of potential accidents if one booster rocket failed on takeoff, resulting in asymmetric thrust. A number of Valiants received water injection equipment, which had the effect of increasing takeoff thrust by about 1,000 lb (450 kg) per engine.
The crew of the Valiant was contained in a pressurized "egg" in the forward area of the aircraft and consisted of a pilot, co-pilot, two navigators, and an electronics operator; the manufacturing of this pressured section was subcontracted to Saunders-Roe . The pilot and co-pilot were located on an upper level in a side-by-side arrangement akin to the flight deck of an airliner, the remaining three crewmen sat at stations set lower in the cockpit to the rear. Only the pilot and copilot had ejection seats. The other three crewmen had to bail out of the crew door on the port side of the fuselage. A crew of five had been enabled by the discontinuation of use of defensive gun turrets and accompanying air gunners , a design philosophy proved by the successful De Havilland Mosquito bomber of World War II. The flightcrew was provided with Martin-Baker Mk.3 ejector seats , while the rear crewmen were expected to bail out of the oval main entrance door. It has been claimed that the survivability of the rear crewmen was substantially reduced due to the ineffectiveness of this method of escape. The crewmen's entry door on the side of the forward fuselage
The fuselage area behind the pressurised crew section and forward of the wing was used to house much of the Valiant's avionics , air conditioning , and the retractable main landing gear . The Valiant featured a tricycle landing gear arrangement, with twin-wheel nosegear and tandem -wheel main gear that retracted outwards recessed set into the wing. Each of the main gear were equipped with multipad anti-skid disc brakes , and were telescopically linked so that a single drive could pull them up into the wing recesses. Most of the aircraft's systems were electrically powered, including the flaps and undercarriage . The brakes and steering gear were hydraulically powered, the pumps themselves were electrically driven. The lower half of the aircraft's nose contained the scanner of a powerful H2S radar in a large glass fiber radome ; in addition, a visual bomb sight was set beneath the lower floor of the pressurised section. The avionics bay could be accessed via an entrance at the base of the rear fuselage leading to an internal catwalk above the aft of the bomb bay .
The electrics were powered by 112 volt direct current generators for functions requiring large amounts of electrical power, and a 28 V DC system provided a controlling voltage for other systems and the actuators that initiated the high-voltage system functions. Backup batteries were a bank of 24 V units and 96 V batteries. 115 V alternating current was provided to systems such as radio and radar that required it; the actuators for the flight surfaces, flaps, air brakes and undercarriage were also powered via this facility. It was decided during development that as much of the aircraft would be electrically-driven as was possible; this design choice was due to electrical cabling being lighter than its hydraulic counterparts, and the already-present high power electrical generators to meet requirements of energy-hungry equipment such as the radar.
The flight controls of the Valiant consisted of two channels of power control with full manual backup; flying in manual was allowed but limited, being intended to be used only in the event of complete electrical failure. The flight controls reportedly required considerable effort to manually operate. All three axis of the flight controls featured a dynamic artificial feel system, the pressure for which was provided via a ram-air inlet . A Smith Aerospace autopilot and instrument landing system (ILS) functionality was installed along with various navigational aids , such as the Marconi Company -built Green Satin doppler radar , Gee radio navigation , Automatic Direction Finder (ADF), VOR /Distance Measuring Equipment (DME), and radar altimeters . Provisions for additional equipment and sensors, such as side looking airborne radar , were also made. Landing gear and wing of a Valiant
The main centre fuselage of the Valiant was immensely strengthened around a massive backbone beam to appropriately support the weight and stresses of the two widely-set wing spars and five protected fuel cells located in the upper portions of this section, the sizable bomb bay was also present in the lower half of the centre fuselage. The aft fuselage used a semi-monocoque structure, being far lighter than the centre fuselage; the Boulton-Paul -produced electro-hydraulic power units for the ailerons, elevators , and rudder were contained within this space. The tail, which was attached onto the rear fuselage was of a simple design, being tapered rather than swept back, the horizontal tailplane was mounted well up the vertical fin to keep it clear of the engines' exhaust. The tailcone contained a tail warning radar .
The main structural components, spars and beams of the Valiant had been constructed from a zinc/magnesium/copper aluminium alloy designated as DTD683 in the UK, which later proved problematic. The Valiant had been designed with a 'Safe-Life ' strategy; this combination of 'Safe-Life' and DTD683 came to be viewed as a severe mistake. In 1956, a publication within the Journal of the Institute of Metals condemned the material DTD683 as being unstable and capable of catastrophic failure while stressing the airframe close to its design limits. The "Safe-Life" design strategy was dismissed by a Lockheed engineer in a talk given to the Royal Aeronautical Society in 1956, because it did not guarantee safety in a catastrophic failure.
The Valiant B.1 could carry a single 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) nuclear weapon or up to 21 1,000 lb (450 kg) conventional bombs in its bomb bay. The Valiant had been designed not only to accommodate the early fission -based nuclear weapons, but also the newer and larger thermonuclear hydrogen bombs . A "clean" Valiant (one without underwing tanks) could climb straight to 50,000 ft after takeoff unless it had heavy stores in the large bomb bay. In the aerial reconnaissance role, a camera crate would be installed in the bomb bay, along with a pair of cameras set into the fuselage and larger rear fuel tanks to extend the aircraft's endurance. Large external fuel tanks under each wing with a capacity of 1,650 Imp gal (7,500 L), could be used to extend range; an auxiliary fuel tank could also be installed in the forward area of the bomb bay; the external wing tanks were fitted as standard on Valiants that were operated as aerial refuelling tankers. For receiving fuel, a fixed refuelling probe was fitted onto the aircraft's nose, this was connected to the fuel tanks via a pipe running along the outside of the canopy to avoid penetrating the pressure cabin.
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The first squadron to be equipped with the Valiant was 138 Squadron , which formed at RAF Gaydon on 1 January 1955, with 232 Operational Conversion Unit forming at Gaydon on 21 February 1955 to convert crews onto the new bomber. Since the Valiant was part of an entirely new class of bombers for the RAF, the crews for the new type were selected from experienced aircrew, with first pilots requiring 1,750 flying hours as an aircraft captain, with at least one tour flying the Canberra, with second pilots needing 700 hours in command and the remaining three crewmembers had to be recommended for posting to the Valiant by their commanding officers. Valiants were originally assigned to the strategic nuclear bombing role, as were the Vulcan and Victor B.1s when they became operational. At its peak, the Valiant equipped nine RAF squadrons.
According to Gunston and Gilchrist, the Valiant had performed "extremely well" during bombing competition hosted by American Strategic Air Command (SAC). Edwards claimed that the five most senior United States Air Force generals had been impressed by the Valiant during a visit to Wisley Airfield and that there had been a lot of top-level American interest in the type, including in potentially operating it from aircraft carriers due to its take-off performance; Edwards alleged that the Valiant had influenced the design of the American Boeing B-52 Stratofortress bomber.
On 11 October 1956, a Valiant B.1 (WZ366) of No 49 Squadron was the
first RAF aircraft to drop a British operational atomic bomb when it
performed a test drop of a down-rated Blue Danube weapon on Maralinga
On 15 May 1957, a Valiant B(K).1 dropped the first British hydrogen bomb , the "Short Granite" (AKA "Green Granite Small"), over the Pacific as part of _ Operation Grapple _. No 49 Squadron was selected to perform the live weapon drop, and were equipped with specially-modified Valiants to conform with the scientific requirements of the tests and other precautionary measures to protect against heat and radiation. The test was largely a failure, as the measured yield was less than a third of the maximum expected and while achieving the desired thermonuclear explosion the device had failed to operate as intended. The first British hydrogen bomb that detonated as planned, "Grapple X Round A" (AKA "Round C1"), was dropped on 8 November 1957. The _Grapple_ series of tests continued into 1958, and in April 1958 the "Grapple Y" bomb exploded with ten times the yield of the original "Short Granite". Testing was finally terminated in November 1958, when the British government decided it would perform no more air-delivered nuclear tests.
Originally the bombing role was to have been carried out at from high altitude, but following the shooting down in 1960 of the Lockheed U-2 flown by Gary Powers by an early Soviet SA-2 Guideline missile, the SAM threat caused the V-force to train for low-level attack as means of avoiding radar detection when flying within hostile airspace. They were repainted in grey/green camouflage with normal markings, replacing their anti-flash white scheme. By 1963, four Valiant squadrons (49, 148, 207 and 214) had been assigned to SACEUR in the low-level tactical bombing role. By this point, there had been a noticeable decline in flying rates for the type.
Camouflaged Valiant at Filton ,
Peacetime practice involved the dropping of small practice bombs on instrumented bombing ranges, also a system of predicted bombing using radio tones to mark the position of bomb drop over non-range targets, the bomb error being calculated by a ground radar unit and passed either to the crew during flight or to a headquarters for analysis. Use of the Valiant's Navigational and Bombing System (NBS) and the high quality of assigned crews, which were typically veterans and often had been previously decorated for wartime service, a high level of bombing accuracy could be achieved, greater than that of aircraft during the Second World War. According to Gunston and Gilchrist, Valiant crews were able to place practice bombs from an altitude of 45,000 ft within a few meters of their assigned target.
The Valiant was the first of the V-bombers to see combat, during the
Anglo-French-Israeli Suez intervention in October and November 1956.
During _Operation Musketeer _, the British military operation in what
became popularly known as the
Suez Crisis , Valiants operating from
the airfield at Luqa on
Although the Egyptians did not oppose the attacks and there were no
Valiant combat losses incurred, the results of the raids were
reportedly disappointing. Although the Valiants dropped a total of 842
tons (856 tonnes) of bombs, only three of the seven airfields attacked
were seriously damaged. However, the Egyptian Air Force had been
effectively destroyed in a wider series of multinational attacks of
which the Valiant bombing missions had been a part. It was the last
time the V-bombers flew a live combat mission until
Valiant tankers were flown by No. 214 Squadron at RAF Marham , operational in 1958, and 90 Squadron at Honington, operational in 1959. Aircraft assigned to the tanker role were fitted with a Hose Drum Unit (HDU or "HooDoo") in the bomb bay. The HDU was mounted on bomb-mounting points and could be removed if necessary; this arrangement meant that the bomb bay doors had to be opened in order to give fuel to a receiver aircraft. A control panel at the radar navigator station in the cockpit was used to operate the HDU. All of the HDU equipment was designed to be easily removable so that the aircraft could be reverted to the bomber role.
With in-flight refuelling probes fitted to Valiants, Vulcans and
Victors and Valiant tankers available to give fuel and extend the
range of the aircraft being refuelled, the RAF Medium
In 1963 a squadron of Gloster Javelin fighters was refuelled by tankers from 214 squadron in stages from the UK to India (Exercise "Shiksha") to support the Indian Air Force in a dispute over their border with China. The 214 squadron tankers flew on to the airfield at Butterworth near Penang in Malaysia, then a station of the Royal Australian Air Force. Later, they re-deployed to India (Calcutta Dum Dum airport) in order to refuel the Javelins in stages back to the UK three weeks later.
Other aircraft refuelled by Valiants at this time included Victor and Vulcan bombers and English Electric Lightning fighters, also the de Havilland Sea Vixen fighter of the Royal Navy.
COUNTERMEASURES AND RECONNAISSANCE ROLES
Valiants of No. 18 Squadron RAF at RAF Finningley were modified to the "radio countermeasures" (RCM) role - RCM is now called "electronic countermeasures " (ECM). These aircraft were ultimately fitted with APT-16A and ALT-7 jamming transmitters, Airborne Cigar and Carpet jammers , APR-4 and APR-9 "sniffing" receivers, and chaff dispensers. At least seven Valiants were configured to the RCM role.
Valiants of No. 543 Squadron at RAF Wyton were modified to serve in the photographic reconnaissance role. In one notable operation in 1965, Valiants of No. 543 Squadron photographed around 400,000 square miles of Rhodesia across an 11-week period.
FATIGUE FAILURES AND RETIREMENT
In 1956, Vickers had performed a series of low level tests in WZ383 to assess the type for low level flight at high speed. Several modifications to the aircraft were made, including a metal radome, debris guards on the two inboard engines, after six flights the aileron and elevator artificial feel was reduced by 50%. Pilots reported problems with cabin heating and condensation that would need remedying. The aircraft was fitted with data recording equipment and this data was used by Vickers to estimate the remaining safe life of the type under these flying conditions. Initially a safe life of 75 hours was recommended, which became "the real figure might be less than 200 hours". The number of hours flown by each Valiant in a year was viewed as being an operational issue for the RAF. Vickers Valiant on display
Later the RAE ran a similar series of tests that more closely resembled actual operational conditions including low level and taxiing, the corresponding report published in 1958 produced data that could be used to get a better grasp on which flight conditions produced the most damage, and better enable a projection of the future life span for the type.
In May 1957 _Flight_ reported an "incident at Boscombe Down, when a Valiant cracked a rear spar member after a rocket-assisted takeoff in overload conditions" This aircraft was the second prototype WB 215, it was subsequently broken up for wing fatigue testing after it had flown 489 hours In July 1964, a cracked spar was found in one of the three Valiants (either WZ394 - Wynne, or WZ389 - Morgan) on Operation Pontifex. This was followed on 6 August by a failure of the starboard wing rear spar at 30,000 ft, in WP217, an OCU aircraft from Gaydon captained by Flight Lieutenant "Taffy" Foreman. The aircraft landed back at Gaydon but without flap deployment because damage to the starboard rear spar caused the flap rollers to come out of their guides so that the flap would not lower on that side. Later inspection of the aircraft also showed the fuselage skin below the starboard inner plane had buckled, popping the rivets; the engine door had cracked and the rivets had been pulled and the skin buckled on the top surface of the mainplane between the two engines. Both of these aircraft were PR variants.
Inspections of the entire fleet showed that the wing spars were suffering from fatigue at between 35% and 75% of the assessed safe fatigue life, probably due to low level turbulence. After this inspection, the aircraft were divided into three categories, Cat A aircraft continuing to fly, Cat B to fly to a repair base, and Cat C requiring repair before flying again. The tanker squadrons had the highest proportion of Cat A aircraft because their role had been mainly at high level. This also caused the methods of assessing fatigue lives to be reviewed. By the time the type was scrapped, only about 50 aircraft were still in service, the rest had been slowly accumulating at various RAF Maintenance Units designated as "Non effective Aircraft"
Initially there was no question of retiring the type, or even the majority of affected aircraft. Repairs were actively taking place at Valiant bases such as Marham using working parties from Vickers plus RAF technicians from the base. However, in January 1965, the Wilson government with Denis Healey as Secretary of State for Defence decided that the expense of the repairs could not be justified, given the short operational life left to the Valiant and the fleet was permanently grounded as of 26 January 1965. The QRA alert that had been in place for SACEUR was maintained until the final grounding and was then allowed to lapse. When asked to make a statement regarding the Valiant's scrapping in the House of Commons , Denis Healey stated that it "was not in any way connected with low-level flying" and that "last Government took the decision to continue operating the Valiant force for another four years after its planned fatigue life was complete".
Aviation author Barry Jones commented in his book that: "A question has to be asked. For two years before the demise of the Valiant, Handley Page at Radlett had 100 Hastings go through their shops. They were completely dismantled and rebuilt, having DTD683 components removed and replaced by new alloy sections. What was so special about the Hastings and why was the Valiant not treated similarly? Perhaps we will know one day -- but I doubt it." A _Flight_ report about the scrapping it states "Fatigue affected all Valiants ... not only those that had been used for some low flying".
On 9 December 1964, the last Valiant tanker sortie in XD812 of 214 Squadron was refuelling Lightning aircraft over the North Sea and was recalled to land back at Marham before the scheduled exercise was completed. On the same day, the last Valiant bomber sortie was carried out by XD818.
Including three prototypes, a total of 107 Valiants were built.
* VALIANT B.1: 39 pure bomber variants, including five pre-production TYPE 674s, which were powered by Avon RA.14 engines with the same 9,500 lbf (42 kN) thrust each as the earlier Avon 201 and 34 TYPE 706 full-production aircraft, powered by Avon RA.28 204 or 205 engines with 10,500 lbf (47 kN) thrust each, longer tailpipes, and water-methanol injection for takeoff boost power. * TYPE 710 VALIANT B(PR).1: eight bomber/photo-reconnaissance aircraft. Edwards and his team had considered use of the Valiant for photo-reconnaissance from the start, and this particular type of aircraft could accommodate a removable "crate" in the bomb-bay, carrying up to eight narrow-view/high resolution cameras and four survey cameras. * TYPE 733 VALIANT B(PR)K.1: 13 bomber/photo-reconnaissance/tanker aircraft * TYPE 758 VALIANT B(K).1: 44 bomber / tanker aircraft. Both tanker variants carried a removable tanker system in the bomb bay, featuring fuel tanks and a hose-and-drogue aerial refuelling system. A further 16 Valiant B(K).1s were ordered, but cancelled. * Vickers also considered an air transport version of the Valiant, with a low-mounted wing, wingspan increased to 140 ft (42.7 m) from 114 ft 4 in (34.8 m), fuselage lengthened to 146 ft (44.5 m), and uprated engines. Work on a prototype, designated the Type 1000, began in early 1953. The prototype was to lead to a military transport version, the Type 1002, and a civilian transport version, the Type 1004 or VC.7. The Type 1000 prototype was almost complete when it, too, was cancelled.
Valiant production ended in August 1957; the last six had been cancelled in 1956.
Silhouette of the Valiant B.1
* No. 7 Squadron - Reformed at Honington on 1 November 1956, moving to Wittering on 26 July 1960 and disbanding 30 September 1962. * No. 18 Squadron - Valiant equipped C Flight of 199 Squadron renumbered 18 Squadron at Finningley on 17 December 1958 and disbanded 31 March 1963. * No. 49 Squadron - Reformed Wittering 1 May 1956, moving to Marham 26 June 1961 and disbanding 1 May 1965. * No. 90 Squadron - Reformed at Honington on 1 January 1957 and disbanded on 1 March 1965 . * No. 138 Squadron - Reformed at Gaydon on 1 January 1955, moving to Wittering on 6 July 1955 and disbanding 1 April 1962. * No. 148 Squadron - Reformed Marham 1 July 1956 and disbanded 1 May 1965. * No. 199 Squadron - C Flight of 199 Squadron received Valiants on 29 May 1957 at Honington in the ECM training role, replacing Avro Lincolns , with the rest of the Squadron operating the Canberra. 199 Squadron was disbanded in December 1958, with C Flight becoming 18 Squadron. * No. 207 Squadron - Reformed at Marham on 1 April 1956, disbanding on 1 May 1965. * No. 214 Squadron - Reformed at Marham on 21 January 1956 and disbanded on 1 March 1965. * No. 543 Squadron - Reformed at Gaydon on 1 April 1955 in the strategic reconnaissance role and moved to Wyton on 18 November 1955. It received Victor Mk 1s to replace its grounded Valiants in 1965. * No. 232 Operational Conversion Unit RAF - Formed at Gaydon 21 February 1955 to train Valiant flight crews, with Victor training added in 1957. The Valiant equipped B flight disbanded in February 1965. * No. 1321 (Valiant/Blue Danube Trials) Flight
ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS
* 12 January 1952; the first Valiant prototype _WB210_ crashed near Hurn following a midair fire. * 29 July 1955; Valiant B1 _WP222_ of No. 138 Squadron crashed on takeoff at RAF Wittering following aileron malfunction, killing all four crew. * 11 May 1956; Valiant B1 _WP202_ of the Royal Aircraft Establishment lost control and crashed attempting to land at Southwick Recreation Ground, near Hove in Sussex. * 13 September 1957: Valiant B(PR)K1 _WZ398_ of No. 543 Squadron caught fire in a hangar at RAF Wyton , not repaired. * 11 September 1959: Valiant BK1 _XD869_ of No. 214 Squadron flew into the ground after a night takeoff from RAF Marham . * 12 August 1960: Valiant BK1 _XD864_ of No. 7 Squadron nosewheel failed to retract on takeoff from RAF Wyton , while sorting it out the aircraft stalled and crashed into the ground at RAF Spanhoe disused airfield. * 11 July 1961: Valiant B1 _WP205_ of the Aircraft and Armament Experimental Establishment overshot runway and hit control caravan at Boscombe Down. * 3 November 1961: Valiant B(PR)K1 _WZ399_ of No. 543 Squadron abandoned takeoff at Offut AFB , Nebraska, United States, caught fire after overshooting runway onto a railway line. * 14 March 1961 Valiant B. 1 _WP200_ at _RRFU_ Pershore, failed to complete takeoff, written off * 6 May 1964: Valiant B1 _WZ363_ of No. 148 Squadron (although a 148 Sqn aircraft, it was on loan to, and crewed by, members of 207 Sqn) dived into the ground at night at Market Rasen , Lincolnshire. * 23 May 1964: Valiant B(PR)K1 _WZ396_ of No. 543 Squadron landed on foam with landing gear problems at RAF Manston , not repaired.
SPECIFICATIONS (VALIANT B.1)
_Data from_ _Vickers Aircraft since 1908_, _Jet Bombers_
* CREW: five - two pilots, two navigators (one navigator plotter + one navigator bomber), air electronics officer * LENGTH: 108 ft 3 in (32.99 m) * WINGSPAN : 114 ft 4 in (34.85 m) * HEIGHT: 32 ft 2 in (9.80 m) * WING AREA: 2,362 ft2 (219 m2) * EMPTY WEIGHT : 75,881 lb (34,491 kg) * MAX. TAKEOFF WEIGHT : 140,000 lb (63,600 kg) * POWERPLANT : 4 × Rolls-Royce Avon RA28 Mk 204 turbojet , 10,000 lb (44.6 kN) each
* MAXIMUM SPEED : 567 mph (493 knots, 913 km/h) at 30,000 ft (9,150 m) * RANGE : 4,500 mi (3,910 nmi , 7,245 km) with underwing tanks * SERVICE CEILING : 54,000 ft (16,500 m) * RATE OF CLIMB : 4,000 ft/min (20 m/s)
* 1 × 10,000 lb (4500 kg) Blue Danube nuclear bomb _or_ * 21 × 1,000 lb (450 kg) bombs
External video Newsreel footage of Valiant following 1955 Speed Record
Footage and Description of the Valiant B2
Period footage of RAF Valiant operations
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
* ^ The rapid development of aircraft during World War II led to a demand for very high strength aluminium alloy, especially for use in highly loaded tension and compression members. One result was a zinc /magnesium based alloy given the identification DTD 683. It was ideal for such applications as wing spar caps providing, as was the case with wartime operations, the life of the aircraft was short. Use in early post-War transport aircraft showed that DTD 683 was very crack sensitive and hence prone to fatigue failure. In many cases it had to be replaced by steel components. DTD 683 is an example of a material developed to meet a particular need, but whose wider characteristics were not investigated until too late. D.Howe 1998 * ^ Traditionally, RAF bombers had been named after towns and cities, for example Lancaster, Halifax and Canberra , but the new aircraft technology seemed to suggest a break from tradition; the name also fitted in with an equally long held tradition of alliteration in aircraft names. * ^ Vickers had proposed the installation of a pair of 20 mm cannons in the tailcone, however this concept was never explored beyond the drawing board. * ^ Structural Changes Caused by Plastic Strain and by fatigue in Aluminium-Zinc-Magnesium-Copper Alloys Corresponding to DTD.683 (Broom and Mezza) * ^ The Valiants had not yet been fitted with their operational Navigational and Bombing System (NBS) and were dropping largely using Second World War techniques. * ^ XD818 was also the aircraft which had dropped nuclear weapons during Operation Grapple .
* ^ Lord de L\'Isle and Dudley (Sidney, William) (17 February
1953), "Supply of Aircraft", _House of Lords Debates_, Hansard, vol
180, cc463, retrieved 30 May 2016
* ^ Blackman and Wright 2015, p. 33.
* ^ “Pitfalls of the substitution of sophistication for Common
Sense” D Howe, Cranfield University. IMechE Vol 212 Part G, Sec 5.1
Metals, p. 307. May 1998
* ^ _A_ _B_ Turpin 2002, p. 71.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Flintham 2008, p. 131.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Rosemeyer 2009, p. 52.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Burnet and Morgan _Aeroplane Monthly_ August 1980, p.
* ^ "Aerocinema-The Lost V Bomber". _aerocinema.com_.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, p. 72.
* ^ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, pp. 72-73.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, p. 73.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Blackman and Wright 2015, p. 17.
* ^ Downey 1985, p. 5.
* ^ Rosemeyer 2009, pp. 52–53.
* ^ Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 438.
* ^ Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 439.
* ^ Turpin 2002, p. 72.
* ^ Blackman and Wright 2015, p. 10.
* ^ Jones 2007, pp. 31, 33.
* ^ _Flight_ 4 July 1958, p. 13.
* ^ Blackman and Wright 2015, pp. 11-16.
* ^ Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 440.
* ^ Turpin 2002, p. 74.
* ^ Jones 2007, p. 34.
* ^ Jones 2007, p. 26.
* ^ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, pp. 77-78.
* ^ Jones 2007, pp. 32, 36.
* ^ Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 445.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, p. 77.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, p. 78.
* ^ Jones 2007, pp. 36–37.
* ^ Brookes 2012, pp. 83–84.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Blackman and Wright 2015, p. 20.
* ^ Burnet and Morgan _Aeroplane Monthly_ August 1980, p. 400.
* ^ Jones 2007, p. 37.
* ^ Brookes 2012, p. 12.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Hubbard and Simmons 2008, p. 26.
* ^ Blackman and Wright 2015, pp. 19-20.
* ^ Blackman and Wright 2015, pp. 24-26.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Flintham 2008, p. 133.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993,
* ^ Andrews and Morgan 1988, p. 449.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Andrews and Morgan, p. 442.
* ^ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, pp. 73-74.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Barfield _Air International_ September 1992, p.
* ^ Burnet and Morgan _Aeroplane Monthly_ August 1980, p. 398.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, p. 74.
* ^ Andrews 1966, p. 16.
* ^ Blackman and Wright 2015, pp. 17-18.
* ^ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, pp. 75-76.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, p. 76.
* ^ Darling 2012, p. 41.
* ^ Blackman and Wright 2015, p. 28.
* ^ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, pp. 74-75.
* ^ Turpin 2002, pp. 79–80.
* ^ Darling 2012, p. 39.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _Flight_ 4 July 1958, p. 19.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Blackman and Wright 2015, p. 18.
* ^ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, pp. 76-77.
* ^ Turpin 2002, p. 78.
* ^ _Flight_ 4 July 1958, p. 18.
* ^ _Flight_ 14 December 1951, p. 756.
* ^ _Flight_ 17 July 1953, p. 91.
* ^ Brookes Valiant Units of the Cold War, pp. 83.
* ^ _The Journal of the Institute of Metals_ (JIM), Vol. 86, No.
* ^ _Flight_ 6 April 1956, p. 394.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Blackman and Wright 2015, p. 19.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, p. 79.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Darling 2012, p. 40.
* ^ Jones 2007, pp. 79–82.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Gunston and Gilchrist 1993, p. 80.
* ^ Mason 1994, p. 378.
* ^ Blackman and Wright 2015, pp. 33-36.
* ^ Hubbard and Simmons 2008, pp. 61, 68.
* ^ Hubbard and Simmons 2008, p. 157.
* ^ Hubbard and Simmons 2008, p. 167.
* ^ Bowman 2016, p. 158
* ^ Blackman and Wright 2015, p. 42.
* ^ Darling 2012, p. 42.
* ^ Bowman 2016, pp. 158, 161.
* ^ Tanner 2006, pp. 113-114.
* ^ Wing
* ^ Morgan p. 66-68
* ^ Valiant Units of the Cold War, Brookes p. 88.
* ^ "Fatigue Loadings in Flight-Loads in the Nose Undercarriage and
Wing of a Valiant." E.W. Wells, ARC C.P. No. 521.
* ^ Flight May 17, 1957 p. 651
* ^ Morgan p. 44 & p. 89.
* ^ Humphrey Wynne "The RAF Strategic Nuclear Deterrent Forces" p.
* ^ Brookes, Victor Units of the Cold War, p. 67.
* ^ Darling 2012, pp. 39-40.
* ^ Morgan, App 2, Individual Valiant Histories pp. 89-94.
* ^ Wynn 1996, p. 465.
* ^ Morgan App2, pp. 89-94.
* ^ "Valiants to be Scrapped." _Glasgow Herald_, 27 January 1965.
* ^ Wynn 1996, pp. 464–471, 500.
* ^ "ROYAL AIR FORCE (VALIANT AIRCRAFT)", _House of Commons
Debates_, vol 705, cc723-7, 1 February 1965
* ^ "V-Bombers” Barry Jones p. 117.
* ^ "End of the Valiants", _Flight International_, p. 184, 4
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ Brookes 2012, p.
* ^ Halley 1980, p. 203.
* ^ Halley 1980, p. 315.
* ^ Brookes 2012, pp. 34–35.
* ^ "60th Anniversary of Valiant’s First Flight." _Royal Air
Force Museum_, 17 May 2011.
* ^ "Powered Aircraft, Gliders & Aircraft Cockpit Sections."
_Brooklands Museum_, Retrieved: 19 August 2012.
* ^ "Exhibits - External ." _Highland Aviation Museum_, Retrieved:
19 August 2012.
* ^ "Our Aircraft." _Norfolk and Suffolk Aviation Museum_,
Retrieved: 19 August 2012.
* ^ "Sole British Jet Atom
* Andrews, C.F. _The
* t * e
Vickers and Vickers-Armstrongs aircraft
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* Type C
* Monoplane No.1 * Monoplane No.2 * Monoplane No.3 * Monoplane No.4 * Monoplane No.5 * Monoplane No.6 * Monoplane No.7 * Monoplane No.8
* Tractor Biplane * Tractor Scout
* HM Airship No. 1 * HM Airship No. 9r
* Merchantman * Vimy Commercial * Vulture * Viget * Vagabond * Vulcan * 170 Vanguard * Vellox * VC.1 Viking * VC.2 * VC.3 * Viscount * Vanguard * VC10
* Airships: _R80 _ * _ R100 _
* C.O.W. Gun Fighter * E.F.B.1 * E.F.B.2 * E.F.B.3 * E.F.B.4 * F.B.5 * F.B.6 * E.F.B.7 * E.F.B.8 * F.B.9 * F.B.11 * F.B.12 * F.B.14 * F.B.16 * F.B.19 * F.B.23 * F.B.24 * F.B.25 * F.B.26 (Vampire)
* F.B.27 * E.S.1 * E.S.2
* Wibault Scout
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* v * t * e
* BAE Sea Harrier * de Havilland Sea Hornet * de Havilland Sea Vampire * de Havilland Sea Venom * de Havilland Sea Vixen * Hawker Sea Fury * Hawker Sea Hawk * Supermarine Attacker * Supermarine Scimitar
STRIKE / GROUND ATTACK
Prototype and experimental
Armstrong Whitworth A.W.52
* Armstrong Whitworth Argosy * Auster AOP.9 * Beagle Basset * Blackburn Beverley * Handley Page Hastings * Hawker Siddeley Andover * Percival Pembroke * Scottish Aviation Pioneer * Scottish Aviation Twin Pioneer * Short Belfast * Vickers Valetta
* AgustaWestland Apache * AgustaWestland Merlin * Bristol Belvedere * Bristol Sycamore * Saro Skeeter * Westland Dragonfly * Westland Gazelle * Westland Lynx * Westland Scout * Westland Sea King * Westland Wasp * Westland Wessex * Westland Whirlwind
* v * t * e
Strategic nuclear weapon systems of the
V bomber force (1955–1969)
* _launch platforms_
* _bomb casings_
* Blue Danube * Yellow Sun * WE.177B
* Mk.1 atom bomb * Green Grass * Red Snow * WE.177B
Blue Streak (1960, cancelled)
* _launch platforms_
* Blue Streak
* _launch platforms_
* _Resolution_-class submarine
* Polaris A3T and A3TK
* _launch platforms_
* _Vanguard_-class submarine (1994–present) * _Dreadnought_-class submarine (replacement)
* Trident II D5
* manufactured at the Atomic Weapons Establishment
part of the