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The Vale of Glamorgan, often referred to as The Vale, (Welsh: Bro Morgannwg [ˈbroː mɔrˈɡanʊɡ]) is a county borough in Wales, bordering Bridgend, Cardiff, and Rhondda Cynon Taf. With an economy based largely on agriculture and chemicals, it is the southernmost unitary authority in Wales. Attractions include Barry Island
Barry Island
Pleasure Park (known through the BBC
BBC
sitcom, Gavin & Stacey), the Barry Tourist Railway, Porthkerry Park, St Donat's Castle, Cosmeston Lakes Country Park and Cosmeston Medieval Village. It is also the location of Atlantic College, one of the United World Colleges. The largest town is Barry. Other towns include Penarth, Llantwit Major and Cowbridge. There are many villages in the county borough.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Economy 4 Government

4.1 Communities 4.2 Villages and hamlets

5 Landmarks 6 Sport 7 Transport

7.1 Road 7.2 Rail 7.3 Bus 7.4 Air

8 International links 9 See also 10 References

10.1 Sources

11 External links

History[edit] In medieval times, the village of Cosmeston, near what is today Penarth
Penarth
in the south east of the county, grew up around a fortified manor house constructed sometime around the 12th century by the De Costentin family.[1] The De Costentins, who originated on the Cotentin peninsular in northern France,[2] were among the first Norman invaders of Wales
Wales
in the early 12th century following William the Conqueror's invasion of neighbouring England in 1066. The village would have consisted of a number of small stone round houses, or crofts, with thatched roofs.[3] Clemenstone, to the west, was the seat of several high sheriffs of Glamorganshire, including John Curre who was known have occupied the estate in 1712. William Curre, known to have lived in Clemenstone
Clemenstone
in 1766, was also an occupant of Itton Court
Itton Court
in Monmouthshire.[4] In the early 19th century, Lady Sale née Wynch, wife of Sir Robert Sale, spent much of her early life on the Clemenstone
Clemenstone
Estate.[5] In 1974, the area became part of South Glamorgan, under the Local Government Act 1972. It created several problems in local governance, between the South Glamorgan County Council, Cardiff
Cardiff
City Council and the Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
Borough Council owing to their conflicting interests. It was a turbulent time for governance in the city of Cardiff, as for the first time in its history it had to share authority with the county council, which was larger and better resourced.[6] In April 1996, the Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
became a county borough (unitary authority) of Wales, after forming part of South Glamorgan county.[7] Geography[edit]

Southerndown
Southerndown
beach

Looking across the Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
on Brynhill Golf Course, outskirts of Barry

Located immediately to the west of Cardiff
Cardiff
between the M4 motorway
M4 motorway
and the Severn Estuary, the Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
covers 33,097 hectares (130 square miles) and has 53 km (33 mi) of coastline. The largest centre of population is Barry (51,502 inhabitants). Other towns include Cowbridge
Cowbridge
(6,180), Dinas Powys
Dinas Powys
(7,799), Llantwit Major (10,621) and Penarth
Penarth
(22,083).[8] Much of the population inhabits villages, hamlets and individual farms. The area is low-lying, with a maximum height of 137.3 metres (450 ft) above sea level at Tair Onen to the east of Cowbridge.[9] The borough borders Cardiff
Cardiff
to the north east, Rhondda Cynon Taf
Rhondda Cynon Taf
to the north, Bridgend
Bridgend
to the north west and the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
to the south. The yellow-grey cliffs on the Glamorgan Heritage Coast
Glamorgan Heritage Coast
(which stretches between Gileston
Gileston
and Ogmore-by-Sea) are unique on the Celtic Sea coastline (i.e. Cornwall, Wales, Ireland
Ireland
and Brittany) as they are formed of a combination of liassic limestone, shale and carboniferous sandstone/limestone. They were formed 200 million years ago when the whole area lay underneath a warm, shallow, equatorial sea at the start of the Jurassic Era. Thus today the cliffs contain traces of Jurassic sea creatures, such as ammonites. The stratification of overlapping shale, sandstone and limestone was caused by a geological upheaval known as the Variscan orogeny, which pushed the cliffs out of the sea, contorting them as they did so. This stratification can also be found on other parts of the Celtic seaboard, such as Bude
Bude
in Cornwall, across the Bristol Channel. The calcium carbonate (limestone) in the soil allows crops to be grown which would be difficult elsewhere in Wales
Wales
or the West Country: most of the West Country
West Country
has poor quality and mainly acidic Devonian
Devonian
soils). The liassic limestone and carboniferous sandstone are also used in the Vale as building materials; in previous centuries it was taken by sloops across the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
to North Cornish ports such as Bude, Boscastle
Boscastle
and Port Isaac
Port Isaac
to fertilise Cornwall's poor slate soils; the hard Devonian slate was brought back from Cornwall
Cornwall
as a roofing material for houses in the Vale. As the Glamorgan Heritage Coast
Glamorgan Heritage Coast
faces westwards out to the Atlantic, it bears the brunt of onshore (westerly and south-westerly) winds: ideal for surfing, but a nuisance for ships sailing up the Bristol Channel to Cardiff. As in North Cornwall
Cornwall
and South-West Ireland, the fierce Atlantic gales created ideal conditions for deliberate shipwrecking, which until 100 years ago was very common along the coast[citation needed] (although shipwrecking was common across all the Celtic Sea). Nash Point, Southerndown
Southerndown
and Ogmore-by-Sea
Ogmore-by-Sea
have some of the highest shipwreck victims on the coast of Wales; as recently as 1962 an oil tanker, the BP Driver, crashed into Nash Point
Nash Point
during a violent westerly storm, was torn to shreds by the reefs and eventually sank, although the crew were saved by various Bristol Channel lifeboats and helicopters. Economy[edit] The Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
was determined to be the wealthiest area in Wales
Wales
in a 2003 survey conducted by Barclays Bank that measured disposable income.[10] Chemical industries are located to the east of the port of Barry[11] while further inland the main activity is agriculture, especially beef and dairy cattle, with marketing facilities at Cowbridge.[12] Government[edit] The Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
parliamentary and assembly constituencies (which do not include Penarth
Penarth
and Sully which are in the constituency of Cardiff
Cardiff
South and Penarth) sway between Labour control and Conservative Party control in both the National Assembly for Wales
Wales
and Westminster. There is substantial Labour support in the east of the constituency and in the town of Barry, and substantial Conservative support in the agricultural area in the west. Since May 2012, the Labour Party leads a coalition in the County Borough council with the Llantwit First independent group. Communities[edit]

Barry Colwinston Cowbridge
Cowbridge
with Llanblethian Dinas Powys Ewenny Llanmaes Llancarfan Llandough Llandow Llanfair Llangan Llantwit Major Michaelston Penarth Pendoylan Penllyn Peterston super Ely Rhoose St Athan St Bride's Major St Donats St Georges super Ely St Nicholas and Bonvilston Sully Welsh St Donats Wenvoe Wick

Villages and hamlets[edit]

Aberthaw Aberthin Broughton Bonvilston Boverton Clawdd Coch Clemenstone Colwinston Corntown Culverhouse Cross Dinas Powys Downs Drope Dyffryn Eglwys Brewis Ewenny Flemingston Fonmon Font-y-Gary Frampton Gileston Goldsland Graig Penllyn Great Hamston Gwern-y-Steeple Kenson Lavernock Lidmore Llampha Llanmaes Llanbethery Llancadle Llancarfan Llandough
Llandough
(near Cowbridge) Llandough
Llandough
(near Penarth) Llandow Llangan Llanmihangel Llansannor Llantrithyd Llantwithyn Llysworney Maendy Marcross Michaelston-le-Pit Middlecross Moulton Newton Northcliff Nurston Ogmore Ogmore-by-Sea Pancross Pendoylan Penmark Pentre Meyrick Peterston-super-Ely Pen-y-Lan Picketston Prisk Rhoose Sigingstone St. Andrews Major St Brides Major Southerndown St Athan St Donat's St Georges-super Ely St Hilary St Mary Church St Mary Hill St. Nicholas St Lythans Sully Sutton The Herberts Tre-Aubrey Tredodridge Treguff Trerhyngyll Twyn-yr-Odyn Walterston Wenvoe Wick Wrinstone Ystradowen

Landmarks[edit] See Listed buildings in the Vale of Glamorgan, List of Scheduled Monuments in Vale of Glamorgan. Sport[edit]

Jenner Park Stadium

The principal football club in the Vale is Barry Town United F.C., which play their home games at Jenner Park Stadium
Jenner Park Stadium
in Barry. The club was founded in 1912 and enjoyed success in the 1990s, when they won the Welsh Premier League
Welsh Premier League
and the Welsh Cup. The club experienced declining fortunes in the following decade and were relegated to Welsh Football League Division Two, but were promoted to Division One after winning the league in the 2014-15 season. In 2014 it was announced that Jenner Park stadium would undergo a £350,000 plus development with the laying of a synthetic pitch.[13] There are several other smaller football clubs in the county such as Llantwit Major
Llantwit Major
F.C., established in 1962,[14] which competes in the Welsh Football League Division Three,[15] and Penarth
Penarth
Town AFC.[16] Rugby has a strong presence in the county, though none of its clubs compete in the higher leagues. As of the 2015-6 season, Penarth
Penarth
RFC competes in the WRU Division Three South East, Llantwit Major
Llantwit Major
RFC in WRU Division Four South East, and Old Penarthians RFC and Cowbridge RFC in the WRU Division Five South East. Several of the clubs are feeders for Cardiff
Cardiff
Blues.[17] There are cricket grounds in Cowbridge and Sully and several golf clubs, including the Glamorganshire, Southerndown
Southerndown
and Wenvoe
Wenvoe
Castle clubs. Transport[edit]

Bmibaby
Bmibaby
launched operations from Cardiff
Cardiff
Airport in 2002 then closed in 2011

Road[edit] The county is served by the M4 Motorway
M4 Motorway
junctions 33 ( Cardiff
Cardiff
West) and 34 (Llantrisant). The A48 trunk road traverses the Vale of Glamorgan, linking it to Cardiff
Cardiff
and Bridgend. Rail[edit] The Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
Line, which is part of the Cardiff
Cardiff
and Valleys network, runs trains between Bridgend, Barry Island
Barry Island
and Penarth
Penarth
and Aberdare railway station, Merthyr Tydfil
Merthyr Tydfil
and Cardiff
Cardiff
Central Station. Services are operated by Arriva Trains Wales. Bus[edit] New Adventure Travel
New Adventure Travel
runs buses through the Vale to places such as Llantwit Major
Llantwit Major
and Barry with service 303 from Bridgend
Bridgend
to Barry. Service 304 is a continuation of route 303 and serves Dinas Powys
Dinas Powys
and Cogan; it terminates in Cardiff. NAT also runs a rail-bus service which links Rhoose
Rhoose
to Cardiff
Cardiff
Airport. Cardiff
Cardiff
Bus runs various services from Llantwit Major
Llantwit Major
and Barry to Cardiff, such as route X91 from Llantwit Major
Llantwit Major
and route 95 from Barry. First Cymru
First Cymru
operates the X2 from Porthcawl to Cardiff
Cardiff
via Bridgend
Bridgend
and Cowbridge. Due to financial pressures some rural bus operators have withdrawn services, such as the village bus network with buses from Cowbridge
Cowbridge
to Llantwit Major, Barry and Bridgend
Bridgend
via rural villages like Colwinston
Colwinston
and Fonmon. TrawsCymru
TrawsCymru
have an express bus service T9 from Cardiff
Cardiff
Airport to Cardiff. Air[edit] Cardiff
Cardiff
International Airport, the only international airport in Wales, is located in Rhoose
Rhoose
in the south of the county borough. International links[edit] The Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
is twinned with:

Rheinfelden, Germany Mouscron/Moeskroen, Belgium Fécamp, France

and has friendship agreements with:

Jurbarkas, Lithuania Neumarkt/Egna, Italy Putnok, Hungary

See also[edit]

List of places in Vale of Glamorgan for all villages and towns. List of schools in the Vale of Glamorgan Bibliography of the Vale of Glamorgan
Bibliography of the Vale of Glamorgan
-lists of books and reference material for further reading

References[edit]

^ Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales 2000, p. 475. ^ Barrow 1980. ^ Annual Report. The Group. 1988. p. 24.  ^ Burke 1847, p. 295. ^ Spectator 1842, p. 1184. ^ Hooper & Punter 2006, p. 32. ^ "The Local Government Reorganisation (Wales) (Staff) Order 1996". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 April 2016.  ^ " Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
Facts and Figures". Vale Of Glamorgan Council. Retrieved 6 April 2016.  ^ "Tair Onnen [Tair Onen (Pantylladron)]". Hill Bagging. Retrieved 6 April 2016.  ^ "Vale tops Wales
Wales
rich list". BBC. 14 May 2003. Retrieved 3 April 2016.  ^ "Dow Corning Barry Site". Dow Corning. Retrieved 6 April 2016.  ^ "Vale of Glamorgan". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 April 2016.  ^ "Barry Town's Jenner Park stadium in line for new £350,000 pitch". Walesonline.co.uk. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2016.  ^ "Llantwit Majora brief history" (PDF). Welshleague.org.uk. Retrieved 3 April 2016.  ^ "SSE SWALEC Division 3 Central East A fixtures 2015/16 season". Walesonline.co.uk. 24 July 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2016.  ^ " Penarth
Penarth
Town AFC". Penarthtownfc.co.uk. Retrieved 3 April 2016.  ^ "Wales' regional rugby map". BBC. 8 July 2004. Retrieved 3 April 2016. 

Sources[edit]

Barrow, G. W. S. (14 August 1980). The Anglo-Norman era in Scottish history. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822473-0.  Burke, John (1847). Burke's genealogical and heraldic history of the landed gentry. H. Colburn. Retrieved 28 June 2011.  Hooper, Alan; Punter, John (2006). Capital Cardiff
Cardiff
1975-2020: Regeneration, Competitiveness and the Urban Environment. University of Wales
Wales
Press. ISBN 978-0-7083-2063-1.  Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales (2000). An Inventory of the Ancient Monuments in Glamorgan: Volume III - Part 1b: Medieval Secular Monuments the Later Castles from 1217 to the present. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales. ISBN 978-1-871184-22-8.  Spectator, The (1842). The Spectator. 

External links[edit]

Official site

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
County Borough.

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Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
County Borough

Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
Council

Barry

See: Template:Barry, Vale of Glamorgan

Other towns

Cowbridge Llantwit Major Penarth

Communities

Barry Colwinston Cowbridge
Cowbridge
with Llanblethian Dinas Powys Ewenny Llanmaes Llancarfan Llandough Llandow Llanfair Llangan Llantwit Major Michaelston-le-Pit
Michaelston-le-Pit
and Leckwith Penarth Pendoylan Penllyn Peterston-super-Ely Rhoose St Athan St Bride's Major St Donats St Georges super Ely St Nicholas and Bonvilston Sully and Lavernock Welsh St Donats Wenvoe Wick

Villages

Aberthaw Aberthin Broughton Bonvilston Boverton Boys Village Clawdd Coch Clemenstone Colwinston Corntown Culverhouse Cross Dinas Powys Downs Drope Dyffryn Eglwys Brewis Ewenny Flemingston Fonmon Font-y-Gary Frampton Gileston Goldsland Graig Penllyn Great Hamston Gwern-y-Steeple Kenson Lavernock Lidmore Llampha Llanmaes Llanbethery Llanblethian Llancadle Llancarfan Llandough
Llandough
(near Cowbridge) Llandough
Llandough
(near Penarth) Llandow Llangan Llanmihangel Llansannor Llantrithyd Llantwithyn Llysworney Maendy Marcross Michaelston-le-Pit Middlecross Moulton Newton Northcliff Nurston Ogmore Ogmore-by-Sea Pancross Pendoylan Penmark Pentre Meyrick Peterston-super-Ely Pen-y-Lan Picketston Prisk Rhoose Sigingstone St. Andrews Major St Brides Major Southerndown St Athan St Donat's St Georges-super Ely St Hilary St Mary Church St Mary Hill St. Nicholas St Lythans Sully Sutton The Herberts Tre-Aubrey Tredodridge Treguff Trerhyngyll Twyn-yr-Odyn Walterston Wenvoe Wick Wrinstone Ystradowen

Landmarks and listed buildings

The Bendricks The Bulwarks, Porthkerry The Captain's Wife Cosmeston Medieval Village Cosmeston Lakes Country Park Dimlands Dunraven Castle Egerton Grey Country House Hotel Porthkerry Park St Lythans
St Lythans
Burial Chamber Tinkinswood Welsh Hawking Centre Wenvoe
Wenvoe
Castle

Grade I

Church of St John the Baptist Church of the Holy Cross, Cowbridge Coedarhydyglyn Ewenny
Ewenny
Priory Fonmon
Fonmon
Castle Hensol Castle Ogmore Castle Old Beaupre Castle St Donat's Castle St Illtyd's Church, Llantwit Major

Grade II*

Barry Castle The Blue Anchor Inn Cowbridge
Cowbridge
Grammar School Cowbridge
Cowbridge
Town Hall Dyffryn Gardens Gileston
Gileston
Manor Llandough
Llandough
Castle St Quintins Castle

Geography

Breaksea Point East Aberthaw
Aberthaw
Coast Collugh Beach Sully Island Tresilian Bay Afon Alun Afon Col-huw Cadoxton River Ewenny
Ewenny
River Nant y Stepsau River Kenson River Thaw River Waycock

Economy

Barry Memorial Hall Barry Island
Barry Island
Pleasure Park Barry Council Office and Library Barry Dock Offices Aberthaw
Aberthaw
Power Station Aberthaw
Aberthaw
Cement Works Llandow
Llandow
Industrial Estate Wenvoe
Wenvoe
Quarry Wenvoe
Wenvoe
transmitting station

Transport

Cardiff
Cardiff
Airport A48 road A4050 road A4226 road B4265 road Barry Tourist Railway

Stations Barry Barry Docks Barry Island Cadaxton Cogan Dinas Powys Dingle Road Eastbrook Llantwit Major Penarth Rhoose
Rhoose
Cardiff

Sport

Barry Town F.C. Glamorganshire Golf Club Southerndown
Southerndown
Golf Club Wenvoe
Wenvoe
Castle Golf Club

Topics

Schools SSSIs Grade I listed buildings Grade II* listed buildings Scheduled Monuments Lord Lieutenants High Sheriffs Country houses Museums Books

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Local government districts of Wales
Wales
1974–1996

Clwyd

Alyn and Deeside Colwyn Delyn Glyndŵr Rhuddlan Wrexham Maelor

Dyfed

Carmarthen Ceredigion Dinefwr Llanelli Preseli Pembrokeshire South Pembrokeshire

Gwent

Blaenau Gwent Islwyn Monmouth Newport Torfaen

Gwynedd

Aberconwy Arfon Dwyfor Meirionnydd Ynys Môn - Isle of Anglesey

Mid Glamorgan

Cynon Valley Merthyr Tydfil Ogwr Rhondda Rhymney Valley Taff-Ely

Powys

Brecknock Montgomeryshire Radnorshire

South Glamorgan

Cardiff Vale of Glamorgan

West Glamorgan

Lliw Valley Neath Port Talbot Swansea

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Principal areas of Wales

Blaenau Gwent Bridgend Caerphilly Cardiff Carmarthenshire Ceredigion Conwy Denbighshire Flintshire Gwynedd Merthyr Tydfil Monmouthshire Neath Port Talbot Newport Pembrokeshire Powys Rhondda Cynon Taf Swansea Torfaen Vale of Glamorgan Wrexham Ynys Môn

Coordinates: 51°25′N 3°25′W / 51.417°N 3.417°W / 51

.