University of Bologna
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The University of Bologna ( it, Alma mater studiorum - Università di Bologna, UNIBO) is a
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
in
Bologna, Italy Bologna (, , ; egl, label=Bolognese dialect, Bolognese, Bulåggna ; lat, Bonōnia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy with about 390,000 inhabitants ...

Bologna, Italy
. Founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students (hence ''studiorum''), it is the oldest university in continuous operation in the world, and the first university in the sense of a higher-learning and degree-awarding institute, as the word ''universitas'' was coined at its foundation.Hunt Janin: "The university in medieval life, 1179–1499", McFarland, 2008, , p. 55f.de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde
''A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages''
Cambridge University Press, 1992, , pp. 47–55
It is one of the most prestigious Italian universities, commonly ranking in the first places of national, European and international rankings both as a whole and for individual subjects.Dieci volte prima: l’Università di Bologna ancora al top in Italia tra i mega atenei
Since its foundation, it has attracted numerous scholars, intellectuals and students from all over Italy and the world, establishing itself as one of the main international centers of learning. It was the first place of study to use the term ''universitas'' for the corporations of students and masters, which came to define the institution (especially its famous law school) located in Bologna. The university's emblem carries the motto '' Alma mater studiorum'' ("Nourishing mother of studies") and the date ''A.D. 1088'', and it has about 86,500 students in its 11 schools. It has campuses in
Cesena Cesena (; rgn, Cisêna) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the b ...

Cesena
,
Forlì Forlì ( , ; rgn, Furlè ; la, Forum Livii) is a ''comune'' (municipality) and city in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, and is the capital of the province of Forlì-Cesena. It is the central city of Romagna. The city is situated along the Via Emi ...
,
Ravenna Ravenna ( , , also ; rgn, Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna egl, Emigliàn (masculine) egl, Emiglièna (feminine) rgn, Rumagnòl (masculine) rgn, Rumagnòla (feminine) it, Emiliano (masculine) it, Em ...

Ravenna
and
Rimini Rimini ( , ; rgn, Rémin; la, Ariminum) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. It sprawls along the Adriatic Sea, on the coast between the rivers Marecchia (the ancient ''Ariminus' ...

Rimini
and a branch center abroad in
Buenos Aires, Argentina Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata, on South America, South America's southeastern coast ...

Buenos Aires, Argentina
. It also has a school of excellence named ''Collegio Superiore di Bologna''. An associate publisher of the University of Bologna is the
Bononia University Press Bononia University Press S.p.A. (BUP) is an associate publisher of the University of Bologna The University of Bologna ( it, Alma mater studiorum - Università di Bologna, UNIBO) is a research university A research university is a university ...
. The University of Bologna saw the first woman to earn a university degree and teach at a university,
Bettisia Gozzadini Bettisia Gozzadini (1209 – 2 November 1261) was a jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholarnot necessarily with a formal qualif ...
, and the first woman to earn both a doctorate in science and a salaried position as a university professor,
Laura Bassi Laura Maria Caterina Bassi Veratti (29 October 1711 – 20 February 1778) was an Italian physicist and academic. Recognized and depicted as "Minerva" (goddess of wisdom), she was the first woman to have a doctorate in science, and List of women w ...

Laura Bassi
.


History

The date of the University of Bologna's founding is uncertain, but believed by most accounts to have been 1088.
- Università di Bologna
The university was granted a charter (''
Authentica habita ''Authentica habita'',"Authentica Habita."
''
'') by
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanorum, german: Kaiser der Römer) during the Middle Ages, and also known as the German-Roman Emperor since the early modern period ( la, Imperator G ...
Frederick I Barbarossa Frederick Barbarossa (1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I (german: Friedrich I, it, Federico I), was the Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanorum ...
in 1158, but in the 19th century, a committee of historians led by
Giosuè Carducci Giosuè Alessandro Giuseppe Carducci ( ; 27 July 1835 – 16 February 1907) was an Italian poet, writer, literary critic and teacher. He was very noticeably influential, and was regarded as the official national poet File: ...

Giosuè Carducci
traced the founding of the University back to 1088, which would make it the oldest continuously-operating university in the world. However, the development of the institution at Bologna into a university was a gradual process. Paul Grendler writes that “it is not likely that enough instruction and organization existed to merit the term ''university'' before the 1150s, and it might not have happened before the 1180s.” The university arose around mutual aid societies (known as ''universitates scholarium'') of foreign students called "
nations A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most lan ...
" (as they were grouped by nationality) for protection against city laws which imposed
collective punishment Collective punishment is a form of retaliation whereby a suspected perpetrator's family members, friends, acquaintances, sect, class, political affiliation, neighbors or entire ethnic group is targeted. The punished group may often have no dire ...
on foreigners for the crimes and debts of their countrymen. These students then hired scholars from the city's pre-existing lay and ecclesiastical schools to teach them subjects such as liberal arts, notarial law, theology, and ''ars dictaminis'' (
scrivener A scrivener (or scribe) was a person who could read and write or who wrote letters to court and legal documents. Scriveners were people who made their living by writing or copying written material. This usually indicated secretarial and admini ...
y). The lectures were given in informal schools called ''scholae''. In time the various ''universitates scholarium'' decided to form a larger association, or ''Studium''—thus, the university. The ''Studium'' grew to have a strong position of
collective bargaining Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers. The int ...
with the city, since by then it derived significant revenue through visiting foreign students, who would depart if they were not well treated. The foreign students in Bologna received greater rights, and collective punishment was ended. There was also collective bargaining with the scholars who served as professors at the university. By the initiation or threat of a
student strike Campus protest or student protest is a form of student activism that takes the form of protest at university campuses. Such protests encompass a wide range of activities that indicate student A student is primarily a person enrolled in a s ...
, the students could enforce their demands as to the content of courses and the pay professors would receive. University professors were hired, fired, and had their pay determined by an elected council of two representatives from every student "nation" which governed the institution, with the most important decisions requiring a majority vote from all the students to ratify. The professors could also be fined if they failed to finish classes on time, or complete course material by the end of the semester. A student committee, the "Denouncers of Professors", kept tabs on them and reported any misbehavior. Professors themselves were not powerless, however, forming ''collegia doctorum'' (professors’ committees) in each faculty, and securing the rights to set examination fees and degree requirements. Eventually, the city ended this arrangement, paying professors from tax revenues and making it a chartered
public university#REDIRECT Public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private ...
. The university is historically notable for its teaching of
canon Canon or Canons may refer to: Places * Canon, Georgia Canon is a city in Franklin County, Georgia, Franklin and Hart County, Georgia, Hart counties in the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. The population was 804 at the 2010 census. His ...
and
civil law Civil law may refer to: * Civil law (common law) Civil law is a major branch of the law.Glanville Williams. ''Learning the Law''. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 2. In common law legal systems such as England and Wales and the law of the United ...
; indeed, it was set up in large part with the aim of studying the ''
Digest Digest may refer to: In biology: *Digestion of food *Restriction digest In literature or publication: *''The Digest'', formerly the English and Empire Digest *Digest size magazine format *Digest (Roman law), ''Digest'' (Roman law), also known as ...
,'' a central text in
Roman law Roman law is the law, legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor Ju ...
, which had been rediscovered in Italy in 1070, and the university was central in the development of medieval Roman law. Until modern times, the only degree granted at that university was the doctorate.
Bettisia Gozzadini Bettisia Gozzadini (1209 – 2 November 1261) was a jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholarnot necessarily with a formal qualif ...
earned a law degree in 1237, being one of the first women in history to obtain a university degree. She taught law from her own home for two years, and in 1239 she taught at the university, becoming the first woman in history to teach at a university. In 1477, when Pope
Sixtus IV Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 August 1471 to his death. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sisti ...

Sixtus IV
issued a
papal bull A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent File:1768 transfer of the University to Nancy.jpg, upLetters patent transferring a predecessor of the University of Lorraine to Nancy, France, Nancy in 1768 Letters patent ( la, litte ...
, authorizing the creation of
Uppsala University Uppsala University ( sv, Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern ...
in
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's for ...

Sweden
, the bull specified that the new university would have the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna - a highly desirable situation for the Swedish scholars. This included the right of Uppsala to establish the four traditional faculties of
theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity.
, law (
Canon Law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical jurisdiction, ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or churc ...
and
Roman law Roman law is the law, legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor Ju ...
), medicine, and philosophy, and to award the bachelor's, master's, licentiate, and doctoral degrees.
Laura Bassi Laura Maria Caterina Bassi Veratti (29 October 1711 – 20 February 1778) was an Italian physicist and academic. Recognized and depicted as "Minerva" (goddess of wisdom), she was the first woman to have a doctorate in science, and List of women w ...

Laura Bassi
was born into a prosperous family of Bologna and was privately educated from the age of five.Laura Bassi
at Encyclopedia.com
Bassi's education and intellect was noticed by Prospero Lorenzini Lambertini, who became the Archbishop of Bologna in 1731 (later
Pope Benedict XIV Pope Benedict XIV ( la, Benedictus XIV; 31 March 1675 – 3 May 1758), born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominat ...

Pope Benedict XIV
). Lambertini became the official patron of Bassi. He arranged for a public debate between Bassi and four professors from the University of Bologna on 17 April 1732. In 1732, Bassi, aged twenty, publicly defended her forty-nine theses on ''Philosophica Studia'' at the Sala degli Anziani of the
Palazzo Pubblico 240px, ''Pope Alexander III returns to Rome'' by Spinello Aretino. The Palazzo Pubblico (''town hall'') is a palace in Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the cap ...

Palazzo Pubblico
. The University of Bologna awarded her a doctorate degree on 12 May. She became the first woman to receive a doctorate in science, and the second woman in the world to earn a philosophy doctorate after
Elena Cornaro Piscopia Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia (, ) or Elena Lucrezia Corner (; 5 June 1646 – 26 July 1684), also known in English as Helen Cornaro, was a Venetian philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' come ...

Elena Cornaro Piscopia
in 1678, fifty-four years prior. She was by then popularly known as Bolognese
Minerva Minerva (; ett, Menrva) is the Roman goddess Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city o ...

Minerva
. On 29 October 1732, the Senate and the University of Bologna granted Bassi's candidature, and in December she was appointed professor of natural philosophy to teach physics. She became the first salaried woman lecturer in the world, thus beginning her academic career. She was also the first woman member of any scientific establishment, when she was elected to the
Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna The Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna (''Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna'') is an academic society in Bologna Bologna (, , ; egl, label= Bolognese, Bulåggna ; lat, Bonōnia) is the capital and largest city of ...
in 1732. Bassi became the most important populariser of Newtonian mechanics in Italy. In 1971, the Graecist Benedetto Marzullo in company with
Umberto Eco Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian medievalist, philosopher, semiotician, cultural critic, political and social commentator, and novelist. In English, he is best known for his popular 1980 novel '' The Name of ...
, Renato Barilli, Adelio Ferrero. instituted within the Faculty of Letters and Arts the DAMS (
acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many la ...
of ''discipline delle arti, della musica e dello spettacolo'', "Dicipline of
Arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...

Arts
,
Music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions of music include common elements such as pit ...

Music
s and
Performance A performance is an act of staging or presenting a play, concert, or other form of entertainment. It is also defined as the action or process of carrying out or accomplishing an action, task, or function. Management science In the work place, ...
"). It was the first degree course of this type to be opened in Italy. Between December 26, 1982, and November 29, 1983, there occurred the DAMS murders (in
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
: ''Delitti del DAMS''), dealing with four victims who were students or professors of the DAMS: Angelo Fabbri (a brilliant student of
Umberto Eco Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian medievalist, philosopher, semiotician, cultural critic, political and social commentator, and novelist. In English, he is best known for his popular 1980 novel '' The Name of ...
), Liviana Rossi, the dancer Francesca Alinovi (who was stabbed for 47 times), and Leonarda Polvani.


Organization

Higher education processes are being harmonised across the European Community. Nowadays the university offers 101 different "''
Laurea In Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands o ...
''" or "''Laurea breve''" first-level degrees (three years of courses), followed by 108 "''Laurea specialistica''" or "''Laurea magistrale''" second-level degrees (two years). However, other 11 courses have maintained preceding rules of "''Laurea specialistica a ciclo unico''" or "''Laurea magistrale a ciclo unico''", with only one cycle of study of five years, except for medicine and dentistry which requires six years of courses. After the "''Laurea''" one may attain 1st level Master (one-year diploma, similar to a Postgraduate diploma). After second-level degrees are attained, one may proceed to 2nd level Master, specialisation schools (residency), or doctorates of research (PhD). The 11 Schools (which replace the preexisting 23 faculties) are: * School of Agriculture and
Veterinary Medicine Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine Medicine is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge i ...
* School of Economics, Management and Statistics * School of Engineering and Architecture * School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Interpretation and Translation * School of Law * School of Arts, Humanities, and
Cultural Heritage Cultural heritage is the legacy of tangible and intangible heritage assetA heritage asset is an item that has value because of its contribution to a nation’s society, knowledge and/or culture. They are usually physical assets, but some countries ...
* School of Medicine and Surgery * School of Pharmacy, and Sport Sciences * School of
Political Sciences Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of ...
* School of Psychology and Education Sciences * School of Sciences The university is structured in 33 departments (there were 66 until 2012), organized by homogeneous research domains that integrate activities related to one or more faculty. A new department of Latin history was added in 2015. The 33 departments are: * Architecture - DA * Cultural Heritage - DBC * Chemistry " Giacomo Ciamician" - CHIM *
Industrial Chemistry The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be ...
"Toso Montanari" - CHIMIND * Arts - DARvipem * Pharmacy and Biotechnology - FaBiT *
Classical Philology Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 6th century AD centred ...
and
Italian Studies Italian Studies is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the study of the Italian language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and ...
- FICLIT * Philosophy and
Communication Studies Communication studies or communication science is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication and behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British English spelling differe ...
- FILCOM * Physics and Astronomy - DIFA * Computer Science and Engineering - DISI *
Civil Civil may refer to: *Civic virtue, or civility *Civil action, or lawsuit *Civil affairs *Civil and political rights *Civil disobedience *Civil engineering *Civil (journalism), a platform for independent journalism *Civilian, someone not a member ...
,
Chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some references add that chemical substance cannot be separated into its constituent elements by physical separation methods, i.e., wit ...
,
Environmental A biophysical environment is a life, biotic and Abiotic component, abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution. A biophysical environ ...
, and
Materials Engineering The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering, covers the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids. The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Age of E ...

Materials Engineering
- DICAM *
Electrical Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its positio ...

Electrical
,
Electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to control electron flow b ...
, and Information Engineering "Guglielmo Marconi" - DEI *
Industrial Engineering Industrial Engineering is an engineering profession that is concerned with the optimization of complex processes A process is a series or set of Action (philosophy), activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recur ...
- DIN * Interpreting and Translation - DIT * Modern Languages, Literatures, and Cultures - LILEC * Mathematics - MAT *
Experimental Medicine An experimental drug is a medicinal product (a drug or vaccine) that has not yet received approval from governmental regulatory agency, regulatory authorities for routine use in human medicine, human or veterinary medicine even though can cure a vir ...
, Diagnostic Medicine and Specialty Medicine - DIMES * Psychology - PSI * Agricultural Sciences - DipSA * Management - DiSA *
Biological Biology is the natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowl ...
,
Geological Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which th ...
, and Environmental Sciences - BiGeA * Biomedical Sciences, Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences - DIBINEM * Education Studies "Giovanni Maria Bertin" - EDU * Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural and Food Sciences - DISTAL * Economics - DSE * Legal Studies - DSG * Medical and Surgical Sciences - DIMEC * Veterinary Medical Sciences - DIMEVET * Department for Life Quality Studies - QUVI * Political and Social Sciences - SPS * Statistical Sciences "Paolo Fortunati" - STAT * Sociology and Business Law - SDE * History and Cultures - DiSCi


Affiliates and other institutions


Il Mulino

In the early 1950s, some students of the University of Bologna were among the founders of the review "il Mulino". On 25 April 1951 the first issue of the review was published in Bologna. In a short time, "il Mulino" became one of the most interesting reference points in Italy for the political and cultural debate, and established important editorial relationships in Italy and abroad. Editorial activities evolved along with the review. In 1954, the il Mulino publishing house (Società editrice il Mulino) was founded, which today represents one of the most relevant Italian publishers. In addition to this were initiated research projects (focusing mostly on the educational institutions and the political system in Italy), that eventually led, in 1964, to the establishment of the Istituto Carlo Cattaneo.


Collegio Superiore

The ''Collegio Superiore'' is an excellence institution inside the University of Bologna, aimed at promoting students' merit through dedicated learning programmes. The institution was founded in 1998 as ''Collegio d'Eccellenza''. Together with the Institute for Advanced Study it is part of the Institute for Higher Study. The Collegio Superiore offers an additional educational path to students enrolled in a degree programme at the University of Bologna, providing specialized courses as part of an interdisciplinary framework. All students of the Collegio Superiore are granted a full-ride scholarship and additional benefits such as the assistance of a personal tutor and free accommodation at the Residence for Higher Study. In order to remain members of the Collegio Superiore students are required to maintain high marks in both their degree programme and the additional courses. Beatrice Fraboni, professor of Physics of Matter, has been head of Collegio Superiore since 2019.


Notable people

File:Guglielmo Marconi.jpg, 200px,
''Guglielmo Marconi''


''Alumni''

*Cardinal Alberto Bolognetti; *Albrecht Dürer; *Pope Alexander VI; *Anna Borghi, Anna M. Borghi, Italian cognitive psychologist *Augusto Righi, pioneer in the study of electromagnetism; *Carlo Goldoni, Italian playwright *Carlo Rovelli, Italian Theoretical physics, theoretical physicist *Carlo Severini; *Saint Charles Borromeo, archbishop of Milan; *Dante Alighieri, Italian poet, writer and philosopher *Diego Della Valle, chairman of the Italian leather goods company ''Tod's'' *Enzo Ferrari, Italian racing driver, engineer and entrepreneur *Erasmus of Rotterdam; *Gabriele Paleotti; *Gasparo Tagliacozzi, pioneer of plastic and reconstructive surgery; *Giacomo Matteotti; *Giovanni Pascoli; *Pope Gregory XIII (Ugo Boncompagni); *Pope Gregory XV; *Guglielmo Marconi, Italian inventor and radio pioneer *Henry of Susa (Hostiensis); *Pope Innocent IX; *Irnerius, founder of the School of Glossators; *
Laura Bassi Laura Maria Caterina Bassi Veratti (29 October 1711 – 20 February 1778) was an Italian physicist and academic. Recognized and depicted as "Minerva" (goddess of wisdom), she was the first woman to have a doctorate in science, and List of women w ...

Laura Bassi
, the world's first woman to earn a university chair in a science studies, scientific field of studies; *Lazzaro Spallanzani, Italian priest, biologist and physiologist *Leon Battista Alberti; *Luigi Galvani; *Manuel Olivencia, lawyer and academic; *Marcello Malpighi; *Michelangelo Antonioni; *Nicolaus Copernicus, formulator of the heliocentric universal model; *Cardinal Paolo Burali d'Arezzo; *Paracelsus, founder of the discipline of toxicology; *Patrizio Bianchi, Italian Minister of Public Education, Minister of Public Education in the Draghi Cabinet *Petrarch; *Pico della Mirandola; *Pier Paolo Pasolini; *Pietro Mengoli; *Archbishop Thomas Becket; *Tommaso Perelli, Italian astronomer *Torquato Tasso; *Ulisse Aldrovandi; *
Umberto Eco Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian medievalist, philosopher, semiotician, cultural critic, political and social commentator, and novelist. In English, he is best known for his popular 1980 novel '' The Name of ...
, Italian semiotician, philosopher and writer


Faculty and staff

Notable former faculty include: *11th century ** Irnerius *12th century ** Bulgarus ** Gratian (jurist), Gratian ** Martinus Gosia ** Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem ** William of Tyre *13th century ** Benvenutus Scotivoli **
Bettisia Gozzadini Bettisia Gozzadini (1209 – 2 November 1261) was a jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholarnot necessarily with a formal qualif ...
** Guido Guinizelli ** Henry of Susa (''Hostiensis'') ** Paul and Ninety Companions, Paul, Dominican martyr ** Sylvester Gozzolini ** William of Saliceto *14th century ** Manuel Chrysoloras ** Giovanni de' Marignolli ** Francesco Petrarca (also known as ''Petrarch'') ** Coluccio Salutati *15th century ** Albrecht Dürer ** Leon Battista Alberti ** Nicolaus Copernicus ** Bolognese Swordsmanship, Lippo Bartolomeo Dardi ** Yuriy Drohobych (also known as ''Georgius de Drohobycz'') ** Giovanni Pico della Mirandola *16th century ** Ulisse Aldrovandi ** Giovanni Antonio Magini ** Camillo Baldi ** Girolamo Cardano ** Ignazio Danti ** Giovanni Della Casa ** Girolamo Maggi ** Virgilio Malvezzi ** Paracelsus *17th century ** Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Giovanni Cassini ** Niall Ó Glacáin ** Marcello Malpighi ** Pietro Mengoli *18th century **
Laura Bassi Laura Maria Caterina Bassi Veratti (29 October 1711 – 20 February 1778) was an Italian physicist and academic. Recognized and depicted as "Minerva" (goddess of wisdom), she was the first woman to have a doctorate in science, and List of women w ...

Laura Bassi
** Luigi Galvani ** Maria Gaetana Agnesi ** Carlo Goldoni *19th century ** Augusto Righi ** Giacomo Ciamician **
Giosuè Carducci Giosuè Alessandro Giuseppe Carducci ( ; 27 July 1835 – 16 February 1907) was an Italian poet, writer, literary critic and teacher. He was very noticeably influential, and was regarded as the official national poet File: ...

Giosuè Carducci
** Giovanni Pascoli ** Pellegrino Rossi ** Francesco Selmi *20th century **
Umberto Eco Umberto Eco (5 January 1932 – 19 February 2016) was an Italian medievalist, philosopher, semiotician, cultural critic, political and social commentator, and novelist. In English, he is best known for his popular 1980 novel '' The Name of ...
** Beppo Levi ** Guglielmo Marconi ** Pier Paolo Pasolini ** Romano Prodi *21st century ** Hamida Barmaki ** Özalp Babaoğlu ** Gabriella Campadelli-Fiume ** Pier Cesare Bori ** Augusto Barbera ** Gualtiero Calboli ** Ivano Dionigi ** Luciano Floridi


Rankings and reputation

The 2022 QS World University Rankings ranked the University of Bologna 166th in the world and 71st (first in Italy) with reference to academic reputation. In another measurement by the same company, it was positioned among the world's top 100 universities for graduate employability (84th). In the 2021 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, it claimed the 167th place globally. In the THE Impact Rankings of the same year, measuring the universities' commitment to sustainable development in compliance with the Sustainable Development Goals, UN 2030 Agenda, Bologna took 1st place in Europe and 6th in the world. Nationally, in 2020 Bologna topped Italy's main ranking of large public universities (> 40,000 students) for the eleventh year in a row, produced by the Italian CENSIS, Center for Social Investment Studies.


Points of interest

* Orto Botanico dell'Università di Bologna *


See also

*Bologna *Bologna declaration *Bologna process *Coimbra Group (a network of leading European universities) *Collegio Superiore di Bologna (school of excellence of the University of Bologna) *List of Italian universities *List of medieval universities *Medieval university *Palazzo Poggi *Utrecht Network


Notes


References


External links


University of Bologna Website
** (also has a Chinese version) *
Scholars and Literati at the University of Bologna (1088–1800)
i
Repertorium Eruditorum Totius Europae/RETE
{{DEFAULTSORT:University Of Bologna University of Bologna, Educational institutions established in the 11th century, Bologna, University of 1088 establishments in Europe Education in Bologna Buildings and structures in Bologna Medical schools in Italy 11th-century establishments in Italy