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Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
(Turkish: Türk Hava Yolları) (BİST: THYAO) is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey. As of 2017[update], it operates scheduled services to 302 destinations in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas, making it the largest carrier in the world by number of destinations (excluding regional brands).[7] It serves more destinations non-stop from a single airport than any other airline in Europe.[8] Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
flies to 120 countries, more than any other airline.[9][10] With an operational fleet of 15 cargo aircraft, the airline's cargo division serves 73 destinations.[11] The airline's corporate headquarters are at the Turkish Airlines General Management Building on the grounds of Atatürk Airport
Atatürk Airport
in Yeşilköy, Bakırköy, Istanbul.[12] Istanbul Atatürk Airport
Istanbul Atatürk Airport
is the airline's main base, and there are secondary hubs at Istanbul
Istanbul
Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, Ankara
Ankara
Esenboğa International Airport, and Izmir Adnan Menderes
Adnan Menderes
International Airport. Turkish Airlines has been a member of the Star Alliance
Star Alliance
network since 1 April 2008.[13]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early years 1.2 Postwar period 1.3 1980s and 1990s 1.4 2000s and 2010s 1.5 Development after the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt

2 Corporate affairs

2.1 Key people 2.2 Business trends

3 Affinity programmes 4 Sponsorship and promotion agreements 5 Destinations

5.1 Codeshare agreements

6 Fleet

6.1 Livery

7 Awards 8 Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight Academy 9 Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Maintenance Center 10 Incidents and accidents 11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] Early years[edit] Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
was established on 20 May 1933 as State Airlines Administration (Turkish: Devlet Hava Yolları) as a department of the Ministry of National Defence.[14] The initial fleet consisted of two five-seat Curtiss Kingbirds, two four-seat Junkers F.13s and one ten-seat Tupolev ANT-9.[14] In 1935, the airline was turned over to the Ministry of Public Works and was subsequently renamed General Directorate of State Airlines. Three years later, in 1938, it became part of the Ministry of Transportation.[15] Postwar period[edit]

THY Fokker F27 Friendship
Fokker F27 Friendship
landing at Athens
Athens
Hellenikon Airport in 1973.

Several Douglas DC-3s and Douglas C-47s were phased in during 1945.[16] Being initially set up as a domestic carrier, the airline commenced international services with the inauguration of Ankara–Istanbul– Athens
Athens
flights in 1947; the DC-3s and the C-47s enabled the carrier to expand its network.[14] Nicosia, Beirut
Beirut
and Cairo
Cairo
were soon added to the airline's international flight destinations. However, domestic services remained the carrier's primary focus until the early 1960s.[17]

THY Douglas DC-10 in 1974 wearing the airline's initial colour scheme.

In 1956, the Turkish government reorganized the airline under the name Türk Hava Yollari A.O. (often abbreviated as THY).[14] It was capitalized at TL 60 million. The airline joined the International Air Transport Association (IATA) shortly thereafter. In 1957, British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) began supplying technical support after acquiring a 6.5 percent shareholding, which it held for about 20 years.[17] New aircraft including Vickers Viscounts, Fokker F27s and Douglas DC-3s were added to the fleet in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
began operating their first jet, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9, in 1967. This was followed by the addition of three Boeing
Boeing
707 jets in 1971. Other aircraft operated in the early 1970s included the McDonnell Douglas DC-10
McDonnell Douglas DC-10
and the Fokker F28 which were put into service in 1972 and 1973 respectively.[14][17] 1980s and 1990s[edit]

A Boeing 707
Boeing 707
operated by Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
at Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
in 1984.

The airline was plagued by several issues in the 1980s and 90s. It developed a reputation for poor customer service and delays. It also endured hijackings and suffered seven accidents between 1974 and 1983. The most notorious was the 1974 crash of Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight 981, when an aircraft design flaw lead to a faulty cargo door breaking off in flight near Ermenonville, France, resulting in the deaths of 346 people. A new government came to power in 1983 which recognized THY's importance as Turkey's gateway to the world, beginning the airline's makeover into a modern operation. It would go on to maintain one of the youngest fleets in the world. Security was intensified, causing one shipper to compare it to Israel's El Al, at least in terms of delays.[17] THY built a new, state-of-the-art technical center at Yeşilköy Airport in 1984. The airline was capable of both light and heavy maintenance on a number of different aircraft types. Technical staff then made up one-quarter of the airline's 6,000 employees, according to Air Transport World. In 1984, the company's capital was raised to TL 60 billion as it was classified as a state economic enterprise. Three years later, the capital was raised again, to TL 150 billion.

Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Boeing 737
Boeing 737
at Zürich Airport
Zürich Airport
in 1995.

By the mid-1980s, THY had a fleet of 30 aircraft. It was flying about three million passengers a year to 16 domestic destinations and three dozen international ones. The airline was Turkey's largest source of foreign currency. Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
began operating Airbus A310s in 1985, allowing the addition of flights to Singapore in 1986. A route to New York City via Brussels was added in 1988.[citation needed] The company posted losses in 1987 and 1988, largely due to high payments on its dozen new Airbus A310s, according to Air Transport World. The fleet also included 11 Boeing
Boeing
727s and nine Douglas DC-9s. THY ended the decade with 8,500 employees.[17] The company suffered in the global aviation crisis following the Persian Gulf War and would not break even again until 1994. However, business was again booming in the mid-1990s, with the greatest growth coming from North American destinations.[citation needed] THY launched a nonstop flight to New York City in July 1994. The company's capital continued to be raised, reaching TL 10 trillion in 1995. During that year, the airline also converted three of their Boeing
Boeing
727s to dedicated freighters. The DC-9s had been sold off. The company posted a $6 million profit on revenues of $1 billion for the year. While profitable, THY had to contend with Turkey's exorbitant inflation, making capital improvements difficult. The domestic market was deregulated in 1996, allowing new scheduled competition from charter airlines. At the same time, larger international carriers were providing stiff competition on routes to Western Europe. THY entered into marketing agreements with other international airlines to enhance their competitiveness. The company teamed with Japan Airlines
Japan Airlines
to offer service to Osaka and Tokyo in 1997 and 1998. Other jointly operated flights soon followed with Austrian Airlines, Swissair, and Croatia Airlines.[17] 2000s and 2010s[edit]

A Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Boeing 777-300ER
Boeing 777-300ER
with the FC Barcelona
FC Barcelona
colours in 2012; the airline was the official sponsor and carrier of the club between 2010 and 2013.[18]

A Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Boeing 737-800
Boeing 737-800
in 2010 FIBA World Championship livery at Istanbul
Istanbul
Atatürk Airport.

Istanbul
Istanbul
Atatürk Airport, November 2013

A Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Airbus A321-200
Airbus A321-200
in Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Euroleague livery. The airline has been the primary sponsor of the top European basketball league since 2010.

A new terminal opened for the airline in January 2000 at Istanbul's Istanbul
Istanbul
Atatürk Airport. Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
continued to extend their international reach, forging marketing agreements with Asiana Airlines, American Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, Czech Airlines
Czech Airlines
and Cathay Pacific
Cathay Pacific
in 2000. An Antalya-Frankfurt route was added in 2001 through a code-sharing agreement with Sun Express. However, THY withdrew from the Swissair-led Qualiflyer
Qualiflyer
alliance in order to help attract a strategic investor for their privatization.[17] Turkey
Turkey
underwent an economic crisis throughout most of 2001, leading to a reduction in traffic on domestic routes in particular. THY managed to survive after the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
on the United States without a government bailout or mass layoffs, although 300 middle management positions were eliminated, 400 part-timers were laid off and wages were cut 10 percent. Turkish Daily News credited the airline's survival to entrepreneurial management, which was quick to get rid of loss-making routes at home and abroad. In 2003, the war in Iraq prompted Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
to close some routes in the Persian Gulf, while flights to Asia
Asia
were suspended during the SARS epidemic. However, the airline soon recovered, increasing traffic on existing routes and adding service to Delhi after an 11-year lapse. Another fleet expansion program kicked off in 2004, helping THY maintain one of the youngest fleets in Europe. In July that year, the airline announced a massive $2.8 billion order of 36 jets from Airbus, plus an order for 15 Boeing
Boeing
737s. THY was not just ordering new planes. It was planning to spend $350 million on a new technical and training facility at Istanbul's underutilized Sabiha Gökçen International Airport. The airline had built up a significant technical services operation, maintaining not just their own aircraft but those of third parties. Turkish Technic employed 2,700 workers and was planning to hire another 2,000 by 2010. THY also had three flight simulators and offered flight training services. The airline faced the entry of new competitors into the liberalizing Turkish aviation market. However, tourism was booming, with 20 million people expected to visit the country in 2005 versus 12 million in 2003. THY divested its 50% holding in Cyprus Turkish Airlines (Kıbrıs Türk Hava Yolları) in 2005. Although the company was publicly traded at this time, the government owned 98% of its shares. The privatization program was revived in 2004 with a public offering of 20% of shares on the Istanbul
Istanbul
Stock Exchange. The Turkish government owned 75% of shares after the offering, which raised $170 million. Currently, the Republic of Turkey's Prime Ministry Privatization Administration owns a 49.12% interest in THY, while 50.88% of shares are publicly traded.[19] On 1 April 2008, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
joined the Star Alliance
Star Alliance
after an 18-month integration process beginning in December 2006, becoming the seventh European airline in the 20-member alliance.[20] In April 2010, TURKISH replaced TURKAIR as the new call sign for Turkish Airlines. In December 2011, the Turkish government unveiled plans to modernize the Aden Adde International Airport
Aden Adde International Airport
in Mogadishu, Somalia, which became one of the newest flight destinations of the carrier in 2012. The rehabilitation project is part of Turkey's broader engagement in the local post-conflict reconstruction process. Among the scheduled renovations are new airport systems and infrastructure, including a modern control tower to monitor the airspace.[21] In March 2012, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
became the first international carrier to resume flights to Somalia
Somalia
since the start of that country's civil war in the early 1990s. By the end of 2013, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
had increased their number of flight points to 241 destinations worldwide (199 international and 42 domestic).[22] Development after the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt[edit] In the wake of the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, the Federal Aviation Authority temporarily banned flights between Turkey
Turkey
and the United States. This posed a particular problem for Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
as a key component of the airline's strategy was to deliver one-stop journeys between the USA and hard-to-reach destinations in Africa, the Middle East, and India.[23] This ban was lifted on 18 July, and Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
resumed flights to the U.S. on 19 July.[24] In August 2016, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
announced a profit collapse to a loss of 198 million Euros for the second quarter of 2016 while expecting an overall loss of 10 million passengers for 2016.[25] The airline already announced significant reductions in operations for the upcoming 2016/2017 schedule period with frequency cuts to 45 European and 13 intercontinental routes.[26][27] Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
also announced an overall record loss of 1.9 billion Turkish Lira ($644.4 million) for the first half of 2016.[28] Corporate affairs[edit]

Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
corporate headquarters

Key people[edit] As of March 2018[update], chairmanship is held by İlker Aycı.[29] Bilal Ekşi
Bilal Ekşi
holds the Deputy Chairman and CEO positions.[30] Business trends[edit] The key trends for Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
for the past 13 years are shown below (as on 24 March 2016):[31][32][33]

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Turnover (m) 2,846 2,593 2,956 3,812 4,860 6,123 7,036 8,423 11,813 14,909 18,777 24,158 28,752

Net profit
Net profit
(m) 243 107 138 179 265 1,134 559 286 19 1,133 683 1,819 2,993

Number of passengers carried (m) 10.4 12.0 14.1 16.9 19.6 22.6 25.1 29.1 32.6 39.0 48.3 54.7 61.2

Passenger load factor (%) 67 70 72 69 73 74 71 74 73 77 79 79 78

Cargo carried (000s tonnes) 123 135 145 160 183 199 238 314 388 471 565 668 720

Number of aircraft (at year end) 65 73 83 103 102 127 134 153 179 200 233 261 299

Number of destinations (at year end) 103 102 107 134 138 142 156 171 189 217 243 264 284

Sources [34][35] [35][36] [35][37] [35][38] [39][40] [41][42] [43][44] [45][46] [47][48] [47][48]

[2] [49][50]

[51] [52][53][54]

Affinity programmes[edit] Miles&Smiles is the frequent-flyer programme of Turkish Airlines, inaugurated in 2000 after the airline left Qualiflyer.[55] Earned miles can be used on Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
flights, as well as on flights operated by the entire Star Alliance
Star Alliance
network. Miles & Smiles Classic Plus card holders are entitled to the same benefits of Star Alliance Silver card members. Elite and Elite Plus Miles & Smiles cards entitle the owner to the same benefits as Star Alliance
Star Alliance
Gold users.[56] Sponsorship and promotion agreements[edit]

Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
also sponsors Bundesliga
Bundesliga
club Borussia Dortmund.[57]

Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
plane, decorated with UEFA Euro 2016
UEFA Euro 2016
emblems.

Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
was chosen as the official carrier by several European football clubs such as FC Barcelona,[58] Borussia Dortmund,[59] Galatasaray,[60] Olympique de Marseille,[61] Aston Villa,[62] FK Sarajevo
FK Sarajevo
[63] Hannover 96,[64] and A.S. Roma.[65] In 2016, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
teamed up with a number of Turkish tourist agencies in the production of romantic comedy film Non-Transferable.[66] The airline has also made sponsorship and promotion deals with renowned athletes and actors, including [67] Lionel Messi,[68] Kobe Bryant,[68] Caroline Wozniacki,[69] Kevin Costner,[70] Wayne Rooney[70] and Didier Drogba.[71] The company is the primary sponsor of the Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Euroleague since 2010[72] and was among the sponsors of the 2010 FIBA World Championship.[73] On 22 October 2013, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
and Euroleague signed an agreement to prolong their existing sponsorship deal by five years until 2020.[74] Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
is the sponsor of the Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Open, a European Tour golf tournament started to be played annually in Turkey from 2013 on.[75] Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
became the kit sponsor of Galatasaray for the 2014–15 UEFA Champions League
2014–15 UEFA Champions League
and for FK Sarajevo. On 10 December 2015, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
and UEFA
UEFA
signed a sponsorship deal for the UEFA
UEFA
Euro 2016, becoming the first airline sponsor of UEFA
UEFA
European Championship tournaments.[76][77] On 29 January 2016, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
announced its partnership with Warner Bros
Warner Bros
to sponsor the film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice. In the movie, a pivotal scene unfolds aboard an A330 Turkish Airlines plane.[78] Destinations[edit]

Destinations of Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
in 2018, future destinations announced by Turkish Airlines

Main article: Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
destinations As of September 2017[update], Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
flies to 302 destinations in 120 countries.[79] Codeshare agreements[edit] Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
codeshares with the following airlines:[80]

Adria Airways Aegean Airlines Air Algérie Air Astana Air Canada Air China Air Europa Air India Air Malta Air Namibia[81] Air New Zealand All Nippon Airways Asiana Airlines Avianca Avianca
Avianca
Brazil Azerbaijan Airlines Copa Airlines[82] Croatia Airlines EgyptAir Ethiopian Airlines Etihad Airways EVA Air Garuda Indonesia Gulf Air[83] Hawaiian Airlines Iran Air JetBlue LOT Polish Airlines Luxair Middle East Airlines[30] Malindo Air[84] Oman Air Pakistan International Airlines Philippine Airlines Royal Air Maroc Royal Brunei Airlines Royal Jordanian RwandAir Scandinavian Airlines Singapore Airlines TAP Air Portugal Thai Airways Ukraine International Airlines United Airlines Utair Uzbekistan Airways[85]

Fleet[edit]

Boeing 737-800
Boeing 737-800
in Star Alliance
Star Alliance
livery at Václav Havel Airport Prague.

Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Boeing
Boeing
737-900ER

Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Boeing
Boeing
777-300ER

As of March 2018[update], the Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
fleet consists of the following aircraft:[86]

Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
fleet

Aircraft In service Orders Passengers Notes

C Y Total

Airbus A319-100 7 — 12 114 126

Airbus A320-200 24 — 12 141 153

Airbus A321-200 68 — 12 176 188

Airbus A321neo — 92[87] TBA Deliveries from 2018 to 2023[88]

Airbus A330-200 16 — 22 228 250

Airbus A330-300 37 — 28 261 289

Airbus A340-300 4 — 34 236 270

Airbus A350-900 — 25[89] TBA Deliveries from 2019 to 2024[90]

Boeing
Boeing
737-700 1 — — 124 124

Boeing
Boeing
737-800 106 — 12 153 165

Boeing
Boeing
737-900ER 15 — 16 135 151

Boeing 737
Boeing 737
MAX 8 — 65 16 135 151 Deliveries from 2018 to 2021[91][92][93]

Boeing 737
Boeing 737
MAX 9 — 10[91] TBA Deliveries from 2019 to 2020[2]

Boeing
Boeing
777-300ER 33 — 49 300 349

28 372 400

Boeing
Boeing
787-9 — 25[29][94] TBA Deliveries from 2019 to 2024[95]

Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
cargo fleet

Airbus A300-600F 1 —

Cargo

Airbus A330-200F 9 1[96]

Cargo

Boeing
Boeing
747-400F 3 —

Cargo

Boeing
Boeing
777F 2 3[97]

Cargo

Deliveries until December 2018.[98]

Total 325 221

In October 2016, due to a downturn in domestic air traffic, the airline announced it was delaying delivery of 39 Boeing
Boeing
and Airbus aircraft (exact details were not specified) from its outstanding commitments for 167 aircraft (92 Airbus A321neos, 65 Boeing 737
Boeing 737
MAX 8 and 10 Boeing 737
Boeing 737
MAX 9s). It is set to receive just 10 of 32 aircraft due in 2018, but all outstanding orders are expected to be fulfilled by 2023.[99] Livery[edit] The airline's "Eurowhite" livery is a white fuselage with blue lettering, a grey tulip on the fuselage running from the rear of the wing to the tail, and a red tail with the company logo in a white circle. In the past, the airplanes were painted white on the top with four red stripes going across the fuselage and the tail white with a red center that included the emblem; instead of a white emblem with a red circle for a background, the emblem was red with a white circle. The bellies of the planes had an aluminum finish, while the nose was black, and text on the plane read "THY Türk Hava Yolları-Turkish Airlines" on the left side; on the right the concept was the same with different text reading "Türk Hava Yolları- Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
THY". The "Eurowhite" livery (a white fuselage with blue lettering) and a grey tulip figure on the fuselage (running from the rear of the wing to the tail) have remained the same. Awards[edit] Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
won the Skytrax
Skytrax
awards for Europe's Best Airline, Southern Europe's Best Airline, and the World's Best Premium Economy Class Airline
Airline
Seat for three consecutive years in 2011, 2012 and 2013.[100][101] It retained its status as the top European airline in 2014, 2015 and 2016, thereby holding the title for six years in a row.[102][103][104][105] Additionally, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
was selected the Airline
Airline
of the Year by Air Transport News at the 2013 Air Transport News Awards Ceremony.[106] In November 2017, Turkish Airlines was recognized as "The World's 16th Best Airline
Airline
For Business Travel" by the CEOWORLD magazine.[107] Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight Academy[edit] Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight Academy was established by the 28th THY Board on 10 November 2004, and started training with 16 cadets on 1 May 2006. The Flight Academy is based at Istanbul Atatürk Airport
Istanbul Atatürk Airport
and uses the nearby Çorlu Airport
Çorlu Airport
for training activities.[108][109] The fleet of the flight academy consists of the following 14 aircraft:[citation needed]

10 Cessna 172S 2 Cessna Citation Mustang 2 Diamond DA-42NG

Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Maintenance Center[edit] Main article: Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Maintenance Center Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
runs a maintenance center at Istanbul
Istanbul
Atatürk Airport. The maintenance centre, called Turkish Technic, is responsible for the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) of Turkish Airlines and third party aircraft, including airframe, landing gear, APU and other subsystems.[110] Turkish Technic
Turkish Technic
opened an engine centre in partnership with Pratt & Whitney at Sabiha Gökçen International Airport
Sabiha Gökçen International Airport
(SAW) called TEC (Turkish Engine Center) in January 2010. The facility provides engine maintenance, repair and overhaul services to customers worldwide.[111] The latest project dubbed HABOM (Turkish: Havacılık Bakım Onarım ve Modifikasyon Merkezi, Aviation Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul Center) is set to become the main complex and is also located at SAW.[112] Incidents and accidents[edit] In its history, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
has suffered a total of 19 incidents and accidents of which 15 were fatal.

On 17 February 1959, a Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
Type 793, registration TC-SEV, operating a charter flight and carrying Turkish Prime Minister Adnan Menderes and a governmental delegation to London for signing the London-Zürich Agreements, crashed in dense fog on approach to London Gatwick Airport. Nine of the sixteen passengers and five of the eight crew lost their lives. Adnan Menderes, who was sitting in the back part of the aircraft, survived the accident.[113] On 23 September 1961, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight 835, a Fokker F27-100 registered as TC-TAY, crashed at Karanlıktepe in Ankara
Ankara
Province on approach to Esenboğa Airport, Ankara. All of the 4 crew and 24 of the 25 passengers on board were killed.[114] On 8 March 1962, a Fairchild F-27, registration TC-KOP, crashed into Taurus Mountains
Taurus Mountains
on approach to Adana Şakirpaşa Airport. All three crew and all eight passengers on board died.[115] On 3 February 1964, a Douglas C-47, registered as TC-ETI, on a domestic cargo flight, flew into terrain whilst on approach to Esenboğa Airport, Ankara. All three crew members on board were killed.[116] On 2 February 1969, a Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
Type 794, registered as TC-SET, crashed on approach to Esenboğa Airport. There were no casualties.[117] On 26 January 1974, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight 301, a Fokker F28-1000 registered as TC-JAO crashed shortly after takeoff from Izmir Cumaovası Airport due to atmospheric icing on the wings. The aircraft disintegrated and caught fire, killing 4 of the 5 crew and 62 of the 68 passengers on board.[118] On 3 March 1974, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight 981, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10 registered as TC-JAV, crashed into Ermenonville
Ermenonville
Forest, Fontaine-Chaalis, Oise, France
France
due to explosive decompression, killing all 335 passengers and 11 crew on board. The main cause was a design fault on the cargo doors of the McDonnell Douglas DC-10
McDonnell Douglas DC-10
which led to incomplete engagement of the door locking mechanism on the aircraft in question, and consequent opening of one door in flight. Until the Tenerife airport disaster
Tenerife airport disaster
(27 March 1977), it was the deadliest aviation disaster in the world.[119][120] On 30 January 1975, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight 345, a Fokker F28-1000 registration TC-JAP, crashed into the Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara
during final approach to Istanbul
Istanbul
Yeşilköy
Yeşilköy
Airport. All 4 crew and all 38 passengers on board the aircraft were killed.[121] On 19 September 1976, a Boeing 727-200
Boeing 727-200
registered as TC-JBH operating Turkish Airlines Flight 452
Turkish Airlines Flight 452
from Istanbul
Istanbul
Yeşilköy
Yeşilköy
Airport to Antalya Airport
Antalya Airport
struck high ground in Karatepe Mountains during an attempted landing in Isparta
Isparta
instead of Antalya by pilot error. All 154 people on board the aircraft perished in the accident.[122] On 23 December 1979, a Fokker F28-1000, registration TC-JAT, on a flight from Samsun-Çarşamba Airport
Samsun-Çarşamba Airport
to Esenboğa Airport, struck a hill in Kuyumcuköy village at Çubuk, Ankara, 32 km (20 mi) northeast of its destination airport in severe turbulence. Three of the four crew and 38 of the 41 passengers on board were killed.[123] On 16 January 1983, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight 158, a Boeing
Boeing
727-200 registered as TC-JBR, landed about 50 m (160 ft) short of the runway at Esenboğa Airport
Esenboğa Airport
in driving snow, broke up and caught fire. All of the 7 crew survived; however, of the 60 passengers on board, 47 were killed.[124] On 29 December 1994, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight 278, a Boeing
Boeing
737-400 registration TC-JES, crashed during its final approach to Van Ferit Melen Airport in driving snow. Five of the seven crew and 52 of the 69 passengers died.[125] On 7 April 1999, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight 5904, a Boeing
Boeing
737-400 registered as TC-JEP on a repositioning flight, crashed near Ceyhan, Adana shortly after taking off from Adana Şakirpaşa Airport. There were no passengers on board, but all six crew members perished in the accident.[126] On 8 January 2003, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight 634, an Avro RJ-100 registration TC-THG, crashed on approach to Diyarbakır Airport, Turkey. Of the 80 people on board, 75 were killed.[127] On 3 October 2006, Turkish Airlines Flight 1476
Turkish Airlines Flight 1476
en route from Tirana, Albania to İstanbul was hijacked by Turkish citizen Hakan Ekinci in Greek airspace. The hijacker surrendered after a forced landing in Brindisi, Italy.[128] On 25 February 2009, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight 1951, a Boeing
Boeing
737-800 registered as TC-JGE carrying 128 passengers and a crew of 7, crashed during final approach to Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Netherlands. It was determined that a faulty radar altimeter caused the aircraft to throttle the engines back to idle and that the crew subsequently failed to react properly which resulted in an unrecoverable stall and the subsequent crash. Of the 135 people on board, nine people, including the three pilots, were killed. Eighty-six more people were transported to local hospitals.[129][130][131][132] On 3 March 2015, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight 726 departed the runway on landing at Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu, Nepal. The Airbus A330-300
Airbus A330-300
operating the flight, TC-JOC, was severely damaged when its nose gear collapsed, causing damage to the fuselage and both wings. All 227 passengers and 11 crew members on board escaped uninjured.[133] On 25 April 2015, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight 1878, an Airbus A320-200 TC-JPE was severely damaged in a landing accident at Istanbul
Istanbul
Atatürk Airport. All on board were successfully evacuated without any injuries reported.[134] On 16 January 2017, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
Flight 6491, a Boeing
Boeing
747-412F operated for Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
under wet lease from ACT Airlines, crashed into a residential area upon attempting landing in Manas International Airport in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, killing all four crew members and at least 34 people on the ground.[135][136][137] In response, Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
released a statement on Twitter
Twitter
that neither plane nor crew were theirs, calling it an "ACT Airlines accident".[138] However, the flight was still operated under a Turkish Airlines flight number, making it a Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
flight under IATA rules.

See also[edit]

Turkey
Turkey
portal Istanbul
Istanbul
portal Companies portal Aviation portal

AnadoluJet SunExpress Cyprus Turkish Airlines North Cyprus Airlines

References[edit]

^ a b c " Ankara
Ankara
will become third Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
hub". Air Transport World. 21 August 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j "FInancial Statements 2013" (PDF). Turkish Airlines. Retrieved 7 March 2014.  ^ (PDF) http://investor.turkishairlines.com/documents/ThyInvestorRelations/download/fact-sheet-31-12-2017.pdf. Retrieved 25 March 2018.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ "Flight Network" (PDF). Retrieved 26 September 2017.  ^ a b c d e cite weburl=http://investor.turkishairlines.com/documents/ThyInvestorRelations/31.12.2017___USD_IFRS_RAPOR.pdf title= Turkish Airlines
Turkish Airlines
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Turkish Airlines
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Turkish Airlines
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Turkish Airlines
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External links[edit] Media related to Turkish Airlines
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