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TRANSYLVANIA is a historical region located in what is today the central part of Romania
Romania
. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders , the Carpathian mountain range , historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains . The term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania
Transylvania
proper, but also the historical regions of Crișana , Maramureș , and the Romanian part of Banat .

The region of Transylvania
Transylvania
is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history. It also contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca , Brașov
Brașov
, Sibiu and Târgu Mureș .

In the English-speaking world it has been commonly associated with vampires , due to the influence of Bram Stoker 's novel _ Dracula _ and its many film adaptations.

CONTENTS

* 1 Names * 2 Etymology * 3 History * 4 Geography and ethnography * 5 Administrative divisions * 6 Cities

* 7 Population

* 7.1 Historical population * 7.2 Current population

* 8 Economy * 9 Culture * 10 Religion

* 11 Tourist attractions

* 11.1 Festivals and events

* 11.1.1 Film festivals * 11.1.2 Music festivals * 11.1.3 Others

* 12 Historical coat of arms of Transylvania
Transylvania
* 13 In popular culture * 14 See also * 15 References * 16 Further reading * 17 External links

NAMES

Main article: Historical names of Transylvania

Historical names of Transylvania are:

* Latin : _Ultrasilvania_, _Transsilvania_ * Romanian : _Ardeal_, _Transilvania_ * Hungarian : _Erdély_ * Slovak : _Sedmohradsko_ * German : _Siebenbürgen_, _Transsilvanien_ * Transylvanian Saxon : _Siweberjen_ * Polish : _Siedmiogród_, _Transylwania_ * Turkish : _Erdel_, _Transilvanya_

ETYMOLOGY

In Romanian , the region is known as _Ardeal_ (pronounced ) or _Transilvania_ (pronounced ); in Hungarian as _Erdély_ (pronounced ); in German as Siebenbürgen (pronounced (_ listen )); and in Turkish as Transilvanya_ (pronounced ) but historically as _Erdel_ or _Erdelistan_; see also other denominations .

* Transylvania
Transylvania
was first referred to in a Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
document in 1075 as _ultra silvam_, meaning "beyond the forest" (_ultra_ meaning "beyond" or "on the far side of" and the accusative case of _sylva_ (sylvam) "woods, forest"). Transylvania, with an alternative Latin prepositional prefix, means "on the other side of the woods". Hungarian historians claim that the Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
form _Ultrasylvania_, later _Transylvania_, was a direct translation from the Hungarian form _Erdő-elve_. That also was used as an alternative name in German _überwald_ (13-14th centuries) and Ukrainian Залісся (_Zalissia_). * The German name _Siebenbürgen_ means "seven fortresses", after the seven (ethnic German ) Transylvanian Saxons ' cities in the region. This is also the origin of the region's name in many other languages, such as the Bulgarian Седмиградско (_Sedmigradsko_), Polish _Siedmiogród_ and the Ukrainian Семигород (_Semyhorod_). * The Hungarian form _Erdély_ was first mentioned in the 12th-century _ Gesta Hungarorum
Gesta Hungarorum
_ as _Erdeuleu_ (in modern script _Erdőelü_) or _Erdő-elve_. The word _Erdő_ means forest in Hungarian, and the word _Elve_ denotes a region in connection with this, similarly to the Hungarian name for Muntenia (_Havas-elve_, or land lying ahead of the snow-capped mountains). _Erdel_, _Erdil_, _Erdelistan_, the Turkish equivalents, or the Romanian _Ardeal_ were borrowed from this form as well. * The first known written occurrence of the Romanian name _Ardeal_ appeared in a document in 1432 as _Ardeliu_.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Transylvania Ruins of Sarmizegetusa Regia Roman city of Apulum

Transylvania
Transylvania
has been dominated by several different peoples and countries throughout its history. It was once the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia
Dacia
(82 BC–106 AD). In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory , systematically exploiting its resources. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi , Visigoths , Huns
Huns
, Gepids , Avars and Slavs
Slavs
. From 9th to 11th century Bulgarians ruled Transylvania. It is a subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania
Transylvania
through the Dark Ages (becoming the ancestors of modern Romanians ) or the first Vlachs
Vlachs
/ Romanians appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration from the Balkan Peninsula . There is an ongoing scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest (see Origin of the Romanians ).

The Magyars conquered much of Central Europe
Central Europe
at the end of the 9th century. According to Gesta Hungarorum
Gesta Hungarorum
, Transylvania
Transylvania
was ruled by the Vlach voivode Gelou before the Hungarians arrived. The Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
established a partial control over Transylvania
Transylvania
in 1003, when king Stephen I , according to legend, defeated the prince named _Gyula _. Some historians assert Transylvania
Transylvania
was settled by Hungarians in several stages between the 10th and 13th centuries, while others claim that it was already settled, since the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century.

Between 1003 and 1526, Transylvania
Transylvania
was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary . After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Transylvania
Transylvania
became part of the Kingdom of János Szapolyai . Later, in 1570 the kingdom was transformed into the Principality of Transylvania
Transylvania
- which was ruled primarily by Calvinist Hungarian princes. These times the ethnic composition of Transylvania
Transylvania
transformed from an estimated near equal number of the ethnic groups to a Romanian majority - Vasile Lupu estimates their number already more than one-third of the population of Transylvania in a letter addressed to the sultan around 1650. For most of this period, Transylvania, maintaining its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. A market scene in Transylvania, 1818

The Habsburgs acquired the territory shortly after the Battle of Vienna in 1683. In 1687, the rulers of Transylvania
Transylvania
recognized the suzerainty of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I , and the region was officially attached to the Habsburg Empire. The Habsburgs acknowledged Principality of Transylvania
Transylvania
as one of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen , but the territory of principality was administratively separated from Habsburg Hungary
Hungary
and subjected to the direct rule of the emperor's governors. In 1699 the Turks legally acknowledged their loss of Transylvania
Transylvania
in the Treaty of Karlowitz ; however, some anti-Habsburg elements within the principality submitted to the emperor only in the 1711 Peace of Szatmár , and Habsburg control over Principality of Transylvania
Transylvania
was consolidated. 54 years later (1765), the Grand Principality of Transylvania was reintroduced.

After the Ausgleich
Ausgleich
of 1867, the Principality of Transylvania
Transylvania
was once again abolished. The territory was then turned into Transleithania
Transleithania
, an addition to the newly established Austro-Hungarian Empire . Romanian intellectuals issued the Blaj Pronouncement in protest.

Following defeat in World War I, Austria- Hungary
Hungary
disintegrated. The ethnic Romanian majority in Transylvania
Transylvania
elected representatives, who then proclaimed Union with Romania
Romania
on December 1, 1918. The _Proclamation of Union_ of Alba Iulia was adopted by the Deputies of the Romanians from Transylvania, and supported one month later by the vote of the Deputies of the Saxons from Transylvania. In 1920, the Treaty of Trianon as a result of the war, established a new border between Romania
Romania
and Hungary, leaving the whole of Transylvania
Transylvania
within the Romanian state. Hungary
Hungary
protested against the new borders, as over 1,600,000 Hungarian people and representing 31.6% of the Transylvanian population were living on the Romanian side of the border, mainly in Székely Land of Eastern Transylvania, and along the newly created border. In August 1940, Hungary
Hungary
gained about 40% of Transylvania
Transylvania
by the Second Vienna Award
Second Vienna Award
, with the arbitration of Germany and Italy. The Second Vienna Award
Second Vienna Award
was voided on 12 September 1944 by the Allied Commission through the Armistice Agreement with Romania
Romania
(Article 19); and the 1947 Treaty of Paris reaffirmed the borders between Romania and Hungary, as originally defined in Treaty of Trianon , 27 years earlier, thus confirming the return of Northern Transylvania to Romania. From 1947 to 1989, Transylvania, as the rest of Romania, was under a communist regime .

_

Stephen Catterson Smith : Peasants of Hodod , Transylvania_, 1860s

German settlers known as Transylvanian Saxons

The National Assembly in Alba Iulia (December 1, 1918) which called for the region's union with Romania
Romania

GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

Turda Gorges seen from the west end, in Cluj county
Cluj county
Geogel, Romanian Orthodox wooden church Geographical map of Romania
Romania

The Transylvanian Plateau , 300 to 500 metres (980–1,640 feet) high, is drained by the Mureș , Someș , Criș , and Olt rivers, as well as other tributaries of the Danube
Danube
. This core of historical Transylvania
Transylvania
roughly corresponds with nine counties of modern Romania. The plateau is almost entirely surrounded by the Eastern , Southern and Romanian Western branches of the Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains
. The area includes the Transylvanian Plain .

Other areas to the west and north, which also became part of Romania in 1920, are since that time widely considered part of Transylvania.

* Transylvania
Transylvania
proper:

* Amlaș * Țara Bârsei (Burzenland/Barcaság) * Chioar * Făgăraș (Fogaras) * Hațeg * Avchilan * Kalotaszeg (Țara Călatei) * Mărginimea Sibiului * The Transylvanian Plain (Câmpia Transilvaniei/Mezőség) * Székely Land * Țara Moților * Țara Năsăudului (Nösnerland/Naszód vidéke) * Ținutul Pădurenilor (ro)

* Banat

* Crișana

* Țara Zarandului

* Maramureș

* Țara Lǎpușului * Țara Oașului

In common reference, the Western border of Transylvania
Transylvania
has come to be identified with the present Romanian-Hungarian border, settled in the Treaty of Trianon, although geographically the two are not identical.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Bihor Arad Timiș Caraș-Severin Hunedoara Satu Mare
Satu Mare
Sălaj Alba Sibiu Braşov Covasna Harghita Mureș Cluj Bistriţa-Năsăud Maramureș

Light yellow – historical region of Transylvania Dark yellow – historical regions of Banat , Crișana and Maramureș

Grey – historical regions of Wallachia , Moldavia and Dobruja

The area of the historical Voivodeship is 55,146 km2 (21,292 sq mi).

The regions granted to Romania
Romania
in 1920 covered 23 counties including nearly 102,200 km2 (39,460 sq mi) (102,787–103,093 km2 in Hungarian sources and 102,200 km2 in contemporary Romanian documents). Nowadays, due to the several administrative reorganisations, the territory covers 16 counties (Romanian : _judeţ _), with an area of 99,837 km2 (38,547 sq mi), in central and northwest Romania.

The 16 counties are: Alba , Arad , Bihor , Bistriţa-Năsăud , Brașov
Brașov
, Caraș-Severin , Cluj , Covasna , Harghita , Hunedoara , Maramureș , Mureș , Sălaj , Satu Mare
Satu Mare
, Sibiu , and Timiș .

Transylvania
Transylvania
contains both largely urban counties, such as Brașov and Hunedoara counties, as well as largely rural ones, such as Bistriţa-Năsăud and Sălaj counties.

CITIES

The 17th century Canalul Morii in Cluj-Napoca Sibiu

The most populous cities (as of 2011 census ):

* Transylvania
Transylvania
proper:

* Cluj-Napoca (324,576) * Brașov
Brașov
(253,200) * Sibiu (147,245) * Târgu Mureș (134,290) * Alba Iulia (63,536)

* Banat:

* Timișoara (319,279) * Reșița (73,282)

* Crișana:

* Oradea
Oradea
(196,367) * Arad (159,074)

* Maramureș:

* Baia Mare (123,738) * Satu Mare
Satu Mare
(102,411)

Cluj-Napoca , commonly known as Cluj, is the second most populous city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest
Bucharest
, and the seat of Cluj County
Cluj County
. From 1790 to 1848 and from 1861 to 1867, it was the official capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania . Brașov is an important tourist destination, being the largest city in a mountain resorts area, and a central location, suitable for exploring Romania, with the distances to several tourist destinations (including the Black Sea
Black Sea
resorts, the monasteries in northern Moldavia , and the wooden churches of Maramureș ) being similar. Sibiu is one of the most important cultural centres of Romania
Romania
and was designated the European Capital of Culture for the year 2007, along with the city of Luxembourg , and it was formerly the centre of the Transylvanian Saxon culture and between 1692 and 1791 and 1849–65 was the capital of the Principality of Transylvania
Transylvania
. Alba Iulia is a city located on the Mureş River in Alba County, and since the High Middle Ages , the city has been the seat of Transylvania's Roman Catholic diocese . Between 1541 and 1690 it was the capital of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom and the latter Principality of Transylvania
Transylvania
. Alba Iulia also has historical importance because at the end of World War I, representatives of the Romanian population of Transylvania
Transylvania
gathered in Alba Iulia on 1 December 1918 to proclaim the union of Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania
Romania
. In Transylvania, there are many medieval smaller towns such as Sighișoara , Mediaș , Sebeș and Bistrița .

POPULATION

HISTORICAL POPULATION

See also: History of Transylvania § Historical population , Hungarian minority in Romania
Romania
, Székely , Transylvanian Saxons , and List of Transylvanians Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary , 1910.

Official censuses with information on Transylvania's population have been conducted since the 18th century. On May 1, 1784 the Emperor Joseph II called for the first official census of the Habsburg Empire , including Transylvania. The data was published in 1787, and this census showed only the overall population (1,440,986 inhabitants). Fényes Elek, a 19th-century Hungarian statistician, estimated in 1842 that in the population of Transylvania
Transylvania
for the years 1830-1840 the majority were 62.3% Romanians and 23.3% Hungarians .

In the last quarter of the 19th century, the Hungarian population of Transylvania
Transylvania
increased from 24.9% in 1869 to 31.6%, as indicated in the 1910 Hungarian census. At the same time, the percentage of Romanian population decreased from 59.0% to 53.8% and the percentage of German population decreased from 11.9% to 10.7%, for a total population of 5,262,495. Magyarization policies greatly contributed to this shift.

The percentage of Romanian majority has significantly increased since the declaration of the union of Transylvania
Transylvania
with Romania
Romania
after World War I in 1918. The proportion of Hungarians in Transylvania
Transylvania
was in steep decline as more of the region's inhabitants moved into urban areas, where the pressure to assimilate and Romanianize was greater. The expropriation of the estates of Magyar magnates , the distribution of the lands to the Romanian peasants, and the policy of cultural Romanianization that followed the Treaty of Trianon were major causes of friction between Hungary
Hungary
and Romania. Other factors include the emigration of non-Romanian peoples, assimilation and internal migration within Romania
Romania
(estimates show that between 1945 and 1977, some 630,000 people moved from the Old Kingdom to Transylvania, and 280,000 from Transylvania
Transylvania
to the Old Kingdom, most notably to Bucharest
Bucharest
).

CURRENT POPULATION

According to the results of the 2011 Population Census, the total population of Transylvania
Transylvania
was 6.789.250 inhabitants and the ethnic groups were: Romanians - 70.62%, Hungarians - 17.92%, Roma - 3.99%, Ukrainians - 0.63%, Germans - 0.49%, other - 0.77%. Some 378,298 inhabitants (5.58%) have not declared their ethnicity. The presented data are from http://www.recensamantromania.ro/rezultate-2, the Table no. 7. The ethnic Hungarian population of Transylvania
Transylvania
form a majority in the counties of Covasna (73.6%) and Harghita (84.8%). The Hungarians are also numerous in the following counties: Mureș (37.8%), Satu Mare
Satu Mare
(34.5%), Bihor (25.2%) and Sălaj (23.2%).

ECONOMY

Farmers working in Transylvania
Transylvania

Transylvania
Transylvania
is rich in mineral resources, notably lignite , iron , lead , manganese , gold , copper , natural gas , salt , and sulfur .

There are large iron and steel , chemical, and textile industries. Stock raising, agriculture , wine production and fruit growing are important occupations. Agriculture
Agriculture
is widespread in the Transylvanian Plateau , including growing cereals, vegetables, viticulture and breeding cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry. Timber
Timber
is another valuable resource.

IT , electronics and automotive industries are important in urban and university centers like Cluj-Napoca ( Robert Bosch GmbH , Emerson Electric ), Timișoara ( Alcatel-Lucent , Flextronics and Continental AG ), Brașov
Brașov
, Sibiu , Oradea
Oradea
and Arad . The cities of Cluj Napoca and Târgu Mureș are connected with a strong medical tradition, and according to the same classifications top performance hospitals exist there.

Native brands include: Roman of Brașov
Brașov
(trucks and buses), Azomureș of Târgu Mureș (fertilizers), Terapia of Cluj-Napoca (pharmaceuticals), Banca Transilvania of Cluj-Napoca (finance), Romgaz and Transgaz of Mediaș (natural gas), Jidvei of Alba county (alcoholic beverages), Timișoreana of Timișoara (alcoholic beverages) and others.

The Jiu Valley , located in the south of Hunedoara County , has been a major mining area throughout the second half of the 19th century and the 20th century, but many mines were closed down in the years following the collapse of the communist regime, forcing the region to diversify its economy.

CULTURE

George Coșbuc , Romanian poet, translator, teacher, and journalist, best known for his verses describing, praising and eulogizing rural life

The culture of Transylvania
Transylvania
is complex, due to its varied history. Its culture has been historically linked to both Central Europe
Central Europe
and Southeastern Europe ; and it has significant Hungarian (see Hungarians in Romania
Romania
) and German (see Germans of Romania
Romania
) influences.

With regard to architecture, the Transylvanian Gothic style is preserved to this day in monuments such as the Black Church in Braşov (14th and 15th centuries) and a number of other cathedrals , as well as the Bran Castle in Braşov County (14th century), the Hunyad Castle in Hunedoara (15th century).

Notable writers such as Emil Cioran
Emil Cioran
, Lucian Blaga , George Coșbuc , Octavian Goga and Liviu Rebreanu were born in Transylvania. The latter wrote the novel _Ion_, which introduces the reader to a depiction of the life of the peasants and intellectuals of Transylvania
Transylvania
at the turn of the 20th century.

RELIGION

CHRISTIANITY is the biggest religion in Transylvania. Transylvania has also been (and still is) a center for religions other than Eastern Orthodoxy - the religion that most Romanians follow. As such, there are significant numbers of inhabitants of Transylvania
Transylvania
that follow Roman Catholicism , Greek Catholicism and Protestantism .

DENOMINATION 1930 PERCENT NUMBER 2011 PERCENT NUMBER

Eastern Orthodoxy

34,85% 1.933.534

61,80% 4.463.058

Roman ">

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS

St. Michael\'s Church, Cluj-Napoca Merry Cemetery of Săpânța Biertan fortified church Bran Castle Salina Turda Salt
Salt
Mine

* Bran Castle , also known as Dracula's Castle * The medieval cities of Alba Iulia , Cluj-Napoca (European Youth Capital 2015), Sibiu ( European Capital Of Culture in 2007), Târgu Mureș and Sighișoara (UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
and alleged birthplace of Vlad Dracula ) * The city of Brașov
Brașov
and the nearby Poiana Brașov
Brașov
ski resort * The city of Hunedoara with the 14th century Hunyadi Castle * The citadel and the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
city centre of Oradea
Oradea
* The Densus Church , the oldest church in Romania
Romania
in which services are still officiated * The Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains , including Sarmizegetusa Regia
Sarmizegetusa Regia
(UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
) * The Roman forts including Sarmizegetusa Ulpia Traiana , Porolissum , Apulum , Potaissa and Drobeta * The Red Lake (Romania) * The Turda Gorge natural reserve * The Râșnov Citadel in Râșnov

* The Maramureș region

* The Merry Cemetery of Săpânța (the only of that kind in the world) * The Wooden Churches (UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
) * The cities of Baia Mare and Sighetu Marmației * The villages in the Iza , Mara , and Viseu valleys

* The Saxon fortified churches (UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
) * Romanian traditions and folk culture, ASTRA National Museum Complex , Sibiu * Hungarian traditions and folk culture * The cafe culture , street theatre and cosmopolitan society of Sibiu , Cluj-Napoca and Timișoara

* The Apuseni Mountains:

* Țara Moților * The Bears Cave * Scarisoara Ice Cave , in Alba County , the third largest glacier cave in the world

* The Rodna Mountains * The Salina Turda Salt
Salt
Mine: according to Business Insider—one of the ten "coolest underground places in the world".

FESTIVALS AND EVENTS

Film Festivals

* Transilvania International Film Festival , Cluj-Napoca - Romania's biggest film festival * Gay Film Nights , Cluj-Napoca * Comedy Cluj , Cluj-Napoca * Humor Film Festival, Timișoara

Music Festivals

* Golden Stag Festival , Brașov
Brașov
* Gărâna Jazz Festival , Gărâna * Peninsula / Félsziget Festival , Târgu-Mureș * Untold Festival
Untold Festival
, Cluj-Napoca - Romania's biggest music festival * Toamna Muzicală Clujeană , Cluj-Napoca * Artmania Festival , Sibiu * Electric Castle Festival , Bontida, Cluj-Napoca

Others

* Sighișoara Medieval Festival , Sighișoara * Sibiu International Theatre Festival * Festivalul Medieval Cetăți Transilvane Sibiu

HISTORICAL COAT OF ARMS OF TRANSYLVANIA

Main article: Coat of arms of Transylvania
Coat of arms of Transylvania

The first heraldic representations of Transylvania
Transylvania
date from the 16th century. One of the predominant early symbols of Transylvania
Transylvania
was the coat of arms of Sibiu city. In 1596 Levinus Hulsius created a coat of arms for the imperial province of Transylvania, consisting of a shield party per fess , with a rising eagle in the upper field and seven hills with towers on top in the lower field. He published it in his work "Chronologia", issued in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
the same year. The seal from 1597 of Sigismund Báthory , prince of Transylvania, reproduced the new coat of arms with some slight changes: in the upper field the eagle was flanked by a sun and a moon and in the lower field the hills were replaced by simple towers.

The seal of Michael the Brave from 1600 depicts the territory of the former Dacian kingdom : Wallachia , Moldavia and Transylvania:

* The black eagle ( Wallachia ) * The aurochs head ( Moldavia ) * The seven hills (Transylvania). * Over the hills there were two rampant lions affronts, supporting the trunk of a tree, as a symbol of the reunited Dacian Kingdom .

The Diet of 1659 codified the representation of the privileged nations in Transylvania's coat of arms . It depicted a black turul on a blue background, representing the Hungarian nobility, a Sun
Sun
and the Moon representing the Székelys , and seven red towers on a yellow background representing the seven fortified cities of the Transylvanian Saxons . The red dividing band was originally not part of the coat of arms.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

Lugosi as Dracula Main article: Transylvania
Transylvania
in popular culture

Following the publication of Emily Gerard 's _The Land Beyond the Forest_ (1888), Bram Stoker wrote his gothic horror novel _ Dracula _ in 1897, using Transylvania
Transylvania
as a setting. With its success, Transylvania
Transylvania
became associated in the English-speaking world with vampires . Since then it has been represented in fiction and literature as a land of mystery and magic. For example, in Paulo Coelho 's novel _ The Witch of Portobello _, the main character, Sherine Khalil, is described as a Transylvanian orphan with a Romani mother, in an effort to add to the character's exotic mystique. The so-called Transylvanian trilogy of historical novels by Miklos Banffy , _The Writing on the Wall_, is an extended treatment of the 19th- and early 20th-century social and political history of the country. Among the first actors to portray Dracula in film was Bela Lugosi
Bela Lugosi
, who was born in Banat, in present-day Romania.

The Munsters
The Munsters
were also said to be from Transylvania, referring to it several times in the show both by name and as "The Old Country".

In the film _ The Rocky Horror Picture Show _, Tim Curry played a character that comes from "Transsexual Transylvania."

The Sony Pictures Animation 's animated Hotel Transylvania
Transylvania
series takes place largely in Transylvania
Transylvania
and nearby places. It recasts Dracula in a comic scenario.

In some versions of the story the Pied Piper of Hamelin leads the children of the village of Hamelin to Transylvania. The story may be an attempt to explain the migration of the Transylvanian Saxons from German lands.

SEE ALSO

* Prehistory of Transylvania * Siebenbürgenlied

REFERENCES

* ^ " Transylvania
Transylvania
Society of Dracula Information". Afn.org. 1995-05-29. Retrieved 2012-07-30. * ^ "Travel Advisory; Lure of Dracula In Transylvania". _The New York Times_. 1993-08-22. * ^ " Romania
Romania
Transylvania". Icromania.com. 2007-04-15. Retrieved 2012-07-30. * ^ Engel, Pál (2001). _Realm of St. Stephen: History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526 (International Library of Historical Studies)_, page 24, London: I.B. Taurus. ISBN 1-86064-061-3 * ^ Pascu, Ștefan (1972). "Voievodatul Transilvaniei". I: 22. * ^ István Lázár: _Transylvania, a Short History, Simon Publications_, Safety Harbor, Florida, 1996 + It was the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia
Dacia
(82 BC–106 AD). In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory , systematically exploiting its resources. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi , Visigoths , Huns
Huns
, Gepids , Avars and Slavs
Slavs
. − * ^ − Martyn C. Rady: _Nobility, Land and Service in Medieval Hungary_, Antony Grove Ltd, Great Britain, 2000 − * ^ Gyula - it is possible that during the 10th century some of the holders of the title of _gyula _ also used Gyula as a personal name, but the issue has been confused because the chronicler of one of the most important primary sources (the _Gesta Hungarorum_) has been shown to have used titles or even names of places as personal names in some cases. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Transylvania". _ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-01. * ^ Engel, Pal; Andrew Ayton (2005). _The Realm of St Stephen_. London: Tauris. p. 27. ISBN 1-85043-977-X . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Transylvania", Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008 http://encarta.msn.com © 1997–2008 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. * ^ K. HOREDT, Contribuţii la istoria Transilvaniei în secolele IV-XIII,Editura Academiei RSR, 1958 p. 113. * ^ I.M.Țiplic (2000). Considerații cu privire la liniile întarite de tipul prisacilor din transilvania, Acta terrae Septemcastrensis, I, pag. 147-164 * ^ http://mek.oszk.hu/03400/03407/html/56.html * ^ Madgearu, Alexandru (2001). _Românii în opera Notarului Anonim_. Cluj-Napoca: Centrul de Studii Transilvane, Fundația Culturală Română. ISBN 973-577-249-3 . * ^ Antonius Wrancius: Expeditionis Solymani in Moldaviam et Transsylvaniam libri duo. De situ Transsylvaniae, Moldaviae et Transalpinae liber tertius. * ^ Sándor Szilágyi: Erdély és az északkeleti háború. Levelek és okiratok Bp. 1890 I. 246-247, 255-256 - Sándor Szilágyi: Transylvania
Transylvania
and the northeastern war. Letters and documents Bp. 1890 p. 246-247, 255-256 * ^ "_International Boundary Study_ - No. 47 – April 15, 1965 - Hungary
Hungary
Romania
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* ^ Varga, E. Árpád, _Hungarians in Transylvania
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K. Horedt (1958) Contribuţii la istoria Transilvaniei în secolele IV-XIII, Editura Academiei RSR, 1958 p. 113

FURTHER READING

* _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
_ (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. * Patrick Leigh Fermor , _ Between the Woods and the Water _ (New York Review of Books Classics, 2005; ISBN 1-59017-166-7 ). Fermor travelled across Transylvania
Transylvania
in the summer of 1934, and wrote about it in this account first published more than 50 years later, in 1986. * Zoltán Farkas and Judit Sós, Transylvania
Transylvania
Guidebook * András Bereznay , _Erdély történetének atlasza_ (Historical Atlas of Transylvania), with text and 102 map plates, the first ever historical atlas of Transylvania
Transylvania
(Méry Ratio, 2011; ISBN 978-80-89286-45-4 )

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for TRANSYLVANIA _.

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to TRANSYLVANIA _.

* RTI Radio - Radio Transsylvania International * _Tolerant Transylvania
Transylvania
- Why Transylvania
Transylvania
will not become another Kosovo_, Katherine Lovatt, in Central

.