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Transylvania
Transylvania
is a historical region in today's central Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania
Transylvania
extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains. The term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical regions of Crișana
Crișana
and Maramureș, and occasionally the Romanian part of Banat. The region of Transylvania
Transylvania
is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history. It also contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Sibiu
Sibiu
and Târgu Mureș. The Western world
Western world
commonly associates Transylvania
Transylvania
with vampires, due to the influence of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula
Dracula
and its many film adaptations.[1][2][3]

Contents

1 Names 2 Etymology 3 History 4 Geography and ethnography 5 Administrative divisions 6 Cities 7 Population

7.1 Historical population 7.2 Current population

8 Economy 9 Culture 10 Religion 11 Tourist attractions

11.1 Festivals and events

11.1.1 Film festivals 11.1.2 Music festivals 11.1.3 Others

12 Historical coat of arms of Transylvania 13 In popular culture 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

Names[edit] Main article: Historical names of Transylvania Historical names of Transylvania are:

Latin: Ultrasilvania, Transsilvania Romanian: Ardeal, Transilvania Hungarian: Erdély Ukrainian: Семигород, Залісся, Трансільванія Serbian: Erdelj/Ердељ, Transilvanija/Трансилванија Bulgarian: Седмоградско, Трансилвания Slovak: Sedmohradsko German: Siebenbürgen, Transsilvanien Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjen Polish: Siedmiogród, Transylwania Turkish: Erdel, Transilvanya Romani : Transilvaniya

Etymology[edit] In Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal (pronounced [arˈde̯al]) or Transilvania (pronounced [transilˈvani.a]); in Hungarian as Erdély (pronounced [ɛrdeːj]); in German as Siebenbürgen (pronounced [ˈziːbn̩ˌbʏʁɡn̩] ( listen)); and in Turkish as Transilvanya (pronounced [tɾansilˈvanja]) but historically as Erdel or Erdelistan; see also other denominations.

The earliest known reference to Transylvania
Transylvania
appears in a Medieval Latin document in 1075 as ultra silvam, meaning "beyond the forest" (ultra meaning "beyond" or "on the far side of" and the accusative case of sylva (sylvam) "woods, forest"). Transylvania, with an alternative Latin prepositional prefix, means "on the other side of the woods." Hungarian historians claim that the Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
form Ultrasylvania, later Transylvania, was a direct translation from the Hungarian form Erdő-elve.[4] That also was used as an alternative name in German überwald (13-14th centuries) and Ukrainian Залісся (Zalissia). The German name Siebenbürgen means "seven fortresses," after the seven (ethnic German) Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region. This is also the origin of the region's name in many other languages, such as the Croatian Sedmogradska, the Bulgarian Седмиградско (Sedmigradsko), Polish Siedmiogród and the Ukrainian Семигород (Semyhorod). The Hungarian form Erdély was first mentioned in the 12th-century Gesta Hungarorum
Gesta Hungarorum
as Erdeuleu (in modern script Erdeüleü) or Erdő-elve. The word Erdő means forest in Hungarian, and the word Elve denotes a region in connection with this, similarly to the Hungarian name for Muntenia
Muntenia
(Havas-elve, or land lying ahead of the snow-capped mountains). Erdel, Erdil, Erdelistan, the Turkish equivalents, or the Romanian Ardeal were borrowed from this form as well. The first known written occurrence of the Romanian name Ardeal appeared in a document in 1432 as Ardeliu.[5]

History[edit] Main article: History of Transylvania

Ruins of Sarmizegetusa Regia

Roman city of Apulum

Transylvania
Transylvania
has been dominated by several different peoples and countries throughout its history. It was once the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia
Dacia
(82 BC–106 AD). In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory, systematically exploiting its resources. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi, Visigoths, Huns, Gepids, Avars and Slavs. From 9th to 11th century Bulgarians
Bulgarians
ruled Transylvania.[citation needed] It is a subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania
Transylvania
through the Dark Ages (becoming the ancestors of modern Romanians) or the first Vlachs/Romanians appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration from the Balkan Peninsula.[6][7] There is an ongoing scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest (see Origin of the Romanians).

Greater Romania, in the interwar period

Romania's territorial losses in the summer of 1940, showing Northern Transylvania
Transylvania
being ceded to the Kingdom of Hungary. The region was returned to Romania
Romania
after World War II.

Historical Romanian borders

The Magyars conquered much of Central Europe
Central Europe
at the end of the 9th century. According to Gesta Hungarorum, the Vlach voivode Gelou
Gelou
ruled Transylvania
Transylvania
before the Hungarians arrived. The Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania
Transylvania
in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula.[8][9][10][11] Some historians assert Transylvania
Transylvania
was settled by Hungarians in several stages between the 10th and 13th centuries,[12][13] while others claim that it was already settled,[14] since the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century.[15] Between 1003[dubious – discuss] and 1526, Transylvania
Transylvania
was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary.[16][17] After the Battle of Mohács
Battle of Mohács
in 1526, Transylvania
Transylvania
became part of the Kingdom of János Szapolyai. Later, in 1570, the kingdom transformed into the Principality of Transylvania, which was ruled primarily by Calvinist Hungarian princes. During that time, the ethnic composition of Transylvania
Transylvania
transformed from an estimated near equal number[18] of the ethnic groups to a Romanian majority. Vasile Lupu estimates their number already more than one-third of the population of Transylvania
Transylvania
in a letter to the sultan around 1650.[19] For most of this period, Transylvania, maintaining its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.

A market scene in Transylvania, 1818

The Habsburgs
Habsburgs
acquired the territory shortly after the Battle of Vienna in 1683. In 1687, the rulers of Transylvania
Transylvania
recognized the suzerainty of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I, and the region was officially attached to the Habsburg Empire. The Habsburgs
Habsburgs
acknowledged Principality of Transylvania
Transylvania
as one of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen,[20] but the territory of principality was administratively separated[21][22] from Habsburg Hungary[23][24][25] and subjected to the direct rule of the emperor's governors.[26] In 1699 the Turks legally acknowledged their loss of Transylvania
Transylvania
in the Treaty of Karlowitz; however, some anti-Habsburg elements within the principality submitted to the emperor only in the 1711 Peace of Szatmár, and Habsburg control over Principality of Transylvania
Transylvania
was consolidated. The Grand Principality of Transylvania
Grand Principality of Transylvania
was reintroduced 54 years later in 1765. The Hungarian revolution against the Habsburgs
Habsburgs
started in 1848. The revolution in the Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
grew into a war for the total independence from the Habsburg dynasty. Julius Jacob von Haynau, the leader of the Austrian army was appointed plenipotentiary to restore order in Hungary after the conflict. He ordered the execution of The 13 Hungarian Martyrs of Arad and Prime Minister Batthyány was executed the same day in Pest. After a series of serious Austrian defeats in 1849, the empire came close to the brink of collapse. Thus, the new young emperor Franz Joseph I had to call for Russian help in the name of the Holy Alliance. Czar Nicholas I answered, and sent a 200,000 men strong army with 80,000 auxiliary forces. Finally, the joint army of Russian and Austrian forces defeated the Hungarian forces. After the restoration of Habsburg power, Hungary was placed under martial law. Following the Hungarian Army's surrender at Világos (now Șiria, Romania) in 1849, their revolutionary banners were taken to Russia by the Tsarist troops, and were kept there both under the Tsarist and Communist systems (in 1940 the Soviet Union offered the banners to the Horthy government). After the Ausgleich
Ausgleich
of 1867, the Principality of Transylvania
Transylvania
was once again abolished. The territory was then turned into Transleithania,[9][11] an addition to the newly established Austro-Hungarian Empire. Romanian intellectuals issued the Blaj Pronouncement in protest.[27] Following defeat in World War I, Austria-Hungary disintegrated. The ethnic Romanian majority in Transylvania
Transylvania
elected representatives, who then proclaimed Union with Romania
Romania
on 1 December 1918. The Proclamation of Union of Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia
was adopted by the Deputies of the Romanians
Romanians
from Transylvania, and supported one month later by the vote of the Deputies of the Saxons from Transylvania. The national holiday of Romania, the Great Union Day
Great Union Day
(also called Unification Day[28]) occurring on December 1, celebrates this event. The holiday was established after the Romanian Revolution, and marks the unification not only of Transylvania, but also of the provinces of Banat, Bessarabia
Bessarabia
and Bukovina
Bukovina
with the Romanian Kingdom. These other provinces had all joined with the Kingdom of Romania
Romania
a few months earlier. In 1920, the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
established new borders, much of the proclaimed territories became part of Romania. Hungary protested against the new borders, as over 1,600,000 Hungarian people and representing 31.6% of the Transylvanian population [29] were living on the Romanian side of the border, mainly in Székely Land
Székely Land
of Eastern Transylvania, and along the newly created border. After World War I, the multi-ethnic Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary
was split apart by the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
to form several new nation-states, but Hungary claimed that the new state borders did not follow the real ethnic boundaries. The new Magyar nation-state of Hungary was about a third the size of former Hungary, and millions of ethnic Magyars were to be left outside the Hungarian borders. In August 1940, Hungary gained about 40% of Transylvania
Transylvania
- including parts of Maramureș
Maramureș
and Crișana
Crișana
- by the Second Vienna Award, with the arbitration of Germany and Italy. The Second Vienna Award
Second Vienna Award
was voided on 12 September 1944 by the Allied Commission through the Armistice Agreement with Romania
Romania
(Article 19); and the 1947 Treaty of Paris reaffirmed the borders between Romania and Hungary, as originally defined in Treaty of Trianon, 27 years earlier, thus confirming the return of Northern Transylvania
Northern Transylvania
to Romania.[9] From 1947 to 1989, Transylvania, along with the rest of Romania, was under a communist regime.

Stephen Catterson Smith: Peasants of Hodod, Transylvania, 1860s 

German settlers known as Transylvanian Saxons 

The National Assembly in Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia
(December 1, 1918), declaring the Union of Transylvania
Transylvania
with Romania 

Geography and ethnography[edit]

Turda Gorges
Turda Gorges
seen from the west end, in Cluj county

Geogel, Romanian Orthodox
Romanian Orthodox
wooden church

Geographical map of Romania

The Transylvanian Plateau, 300 to 500 metres (980–1,640 feet) high, is drained by the Mureș, Someș, Criș, and Olt rivers, as well as other tributaries of the Danube. This core of historical Transylvania
Transylvania
roughly corresponds with nine counties of modern Romania. The plateau is almost entirely surrounded by the Eastern, Southern and Romanian Western branches of the Carpathian Mountains. The area includes the Transylvanian Plain. Other areas to the west and north are widely considered part of Transylvania. In common reference, the Western border of Transylvania
Transylvania
has come to be identified with the present Romanian-Hungarian border, settled in the 1920 Treaty of Trianon, though geographically the two are not identical. Ethnographic areas:

Transylvania
Transylvania
proper:

Mărginimea Sibiului
Mărginimea Sibiului
(Szeben-hegyalja) Transylvanian Plain
Transylvanian Plain
(Câmpia Transilvaniei/Mezőség) Țara Bârsei
Țara Bârsei
(Burzenland/Barcaság) Țara Buzaielor (ro) Țara Călatei
Țara Călatei
(Kalotaszeg) Țara Chioarului (ro) (Kővár) Țara Făgărașului
Țara Făgărașului
(Fogaras) Țara Hațegului (Hátszeg) Țara Hălmagiului (ro) Țara Mocanilor (ro) Țara Moților Țara Năsăudului
Țara Năsăudului
(Nösnerland/Naszód vidéke) Țara Silvaniei (ro) Ținutul Pădurenilor (ro) Ținutul Secuiesc
Ținutul Secuiesc
( Székely
Székely
Land)

Banat

Țara Almăjului (ro)

Crișana

Țara Zarandului (ro)

Maramureș

Țara Oașului
Țara Oașului
(Avasság) Țara Lǎpușului (ro)

Administrative divisions[edit]

Bihor Arad Timiș Caraș-Severin Hunedoara Satu Mare Sălaj Alba Sibiu Braşov Covasna Harghita Mureș Cluj Bistriţa-Năsăud Maramureș Light yellow – historical region of Transylvania Dark yellow – historical regions of Banat, Crișana
Crișana
and Maramureș Grey – historical regions of Wallachia, Moldavia
Moldavia
and Dobruja

The area of the historical Voivodeship
Voivodeship
is 55,146 km2 (21,292 sq mi).[30][31] The regions granted to Romania
Romania
in 1920 covered 23 counties including nearly 102,200 km2 (39,460 sq mi) (102,787–103,093 km2 in Hungarian sources and 102,200 km2 in contemporary Romanian documents). Nowadays, due to the several administrative reorganisations, the territory covers 16 counties (Romanian: judeţ), with an area of 99,837 km2 (38,547 sq mi), in central and northwest Romania. The 16 counties are: Alba, Arad, Bihor, Bistriţa-Năsăud, Brașov, Caraș-Severin, Cluj, Covasna, Harghita, Hunedoara, Maramureș, Mureș, Sălaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, and Timiș. Transylvania
Transylvania
contains both largely urban counties, such as Brașov
Brașov
and Hunedoara
Hunedoara
counties, as well as largely rural ones, such as Bistriţa-Năsăud and Sălaj counties.[32]

Cities[edit]

The 17th century Canalul Morii in Cluj-Napoca

Sibiu

The most populous cities as of 2011 census[33] (metropolitan areas, as of 2014[34]):

Transylvania
Transylvania
proper:

Cluj-Napoca
Cluj-Napoca
- 324,576 (375,251 in metropolitan area) Brașov
Brașov
- 253,200 (398,462) Sibiu
Sibiu
- 147,245 (208,894) Târgu Mureș
Târgu Mureș
- 134,290 (181,162) Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia
- 63,536 (109,484)

Banat:

Timișoara
Timișoara
- 319,279 (357,735) Reșița
Reșița
- 73,282

Crișana:

Oradea
Oradea
- 196,367 (239,329) Arad - 159,074 (205,049)

Maramureș:

Baia Mare
Baia Mare
- 123,738 (182,368) Satu Mare
Satu Mare
- 102,411 (150,104)

Cluj-Napoca, commonly known as Cluj, is the second most populous city in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Cluj County. From 1790 to 1848 and from 1861 to 1867, it was the official capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania. Brașov
Brașov
is an important tourist destination, being the largest city in a mountain resorts area, and a central location, suitable for exploring Romania, with the distances to several tourist destinations (including the Black Sea
Black Sea
resorts, the monasteries in northern Moldavia, and the wooden churches of Maramureș) being similar. Sibiu
Sibiu
is one of the most important cultural centres of Romania
Romania
and was designated the European Capital of Culture for the year 2007, along with the city of Luxembourg,[35] and it was formerly the centre of the Transylvanian Saxon culture and between 1692 and 1791 and 1849–65 was the capital of the Principality of Transylvania. Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia
is a city located on the Mureş River
Mureş River
in Alba County, and since the High Middle Ages, the city has been the seat of Transylvania's Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
diocese. Between 1541 and 1690 it was the capital of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom and the latter Principality of Transylvania. Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia
also has historical importance because at the end of World War I, representatives of the Romanian population of Transylvania
Transylvania
gathered in Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia
on 1 December 1918 to proclaim the union of Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania. In Transylvania, there are many medieval smaller towns such as Sighișoara, Mediaș, Sebeș
Sebeș
and Bistrița. Population[edit] Historical population[edit] See also: History of Transylvania
History of Transylvania
§ Historical population, Hungarian minority in Romania, Székely, Transylvanian Saxons, and List of Transylvanians

Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910.

Official censuses with information on Transylvania's population have been conducted since the 18th century. On May 1, 1784 the Emperor Joseph II called for the first official census of the Habsburg Empire, including Transylvania. The data was published in 1787, and this census showed only the overall population (1,440,986 inhabitants).[36] Fényes Elek, a 19th-century Hungarian statistician, estimated in 1842 that in the population of Transylvania
Transylvania
for the years 1830-1840 the majority were 62.3% Romanians
Romanians
and 23.3% Hungarians.[37] In the last quarter of the 19th century, the Hungarian population of Transylvania
Transylvania
increased from 24.9% in 1869 to 31.6%, as indicated in the 1910 Hungarian census. At the same time, the percentage of Romanian population decreased from 59.0% to 53.8% and the percentage of German population decreased from 11.9% to 10.7%, for a total population of 5,262,495. Magyarization
Magyarization
policies greatly contributed to this shift.[38] The percentage of Romanian majority has significantly increased since the declaration of the union of Transylvania
Transylvania
with Romania
Romania
after World War I in 1918. The proportion of Hungarians in Transylvania
Transylvania
was in steep decline as more of the region's inhabitants moved into urban areas, where the pressure to assimilate and Romanianize was greater.[39] The expropriation of the estates of Magyar magnates, the distribution of the lands to the Romanian peasants, and the policy of cultural Romanianization
Romanianization
that followed the Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
were major causes of friction between Hungary and Romania.[40] Other factors include the emigration of non-Romanian peoples, assimilation and internal migration within Romania
Romania
(estimates show that between 1945 and 1977, some 630,000 people moved from the Old Kingdom to Transylvania, and 280,000 from Transylvania
Transylvania
to the Old Kingdom, most notably to Bucharest).[41] Current population[edit] According to the results of the 2011 Population Census, the total population of Transylvania
Transylvania
was 6,789,250 inhabitants and the ethnic groups were: Romanians
Romanians
- 70.62%, Hungarians - 17.92%, Roma - 3.99%, Ukrainians - 0.63%, Germans - 0.49%, other - 0.77%. Some 378,298 inhabitants (5.58%) have not declared their ethnicity. The presented data are from http://www.recensamantromania.ro/rezultate-2, the Table no. 7. The ethnic Hungarian population of Transylvania
Transylvania
form a majority in the counties of Covasna (73.6%) and Harghita (84.8%). The Hungarians are also numerous in the following counties: Mureș (37.8%), Satu Mare
Satu Mare
(34.5%), Bihor (25.2%) and Sălaj (23.2%). Economy[edit]

Farmers working in Transylvania

Transylvania
Transylvania
is rich in mineral resources, notably lignite, iron, lead, manganese, gold, copper, natural gas, salt, and sulfur. There are large iron and steel, chemical, and textile industries. Stock raising, agriculture, wine production and fruit growing are important occupations. Agriculture
Agriculture
is widespread in the Transylvanian Plateau, including growing cereals, vegetables, viticulture and breeding cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry. Timber
Timber
is another valuable resource. IT, electronics and automotive industries are important in urban and university centers like Cluj-Napoca
Cluj-Napoca
(Robert Bosch GmbH, Emerson Electric), Timișoara
Timișoara
(Alcatel-Lucent, Flextronics
Flextronics
and Continental AG), Brașov, Sibiu, Oradea
Oradea
and Arad. The cities of Cluj Napoca
Cluj Napoca
and Târgu Mureș
Târgu Mureș
are connected with a strong medical tradition, and according to the same classifications top performance hospitals exist there.[42] Native brands include: Roman of Brașov
Brașov
(trucks and buses), Azomureș of Târgu Mureș
Târgu Mureș
(fertilizers), Terapia of Cluj-Napoca (pharmaceuticals), Banca Transilvania
Banca Transilvania
of Cluj-Napoca
Cluj-Napoca
(finance), Romgaz and Transgaz of Mediaș
Mediaș
(natural gas), Jidvei of Alba county (alcoholic beverages), Timișoreana of Timișoara
Timișoara
(alcoholic beverages) and others. The Jiu Valley, located in the south of Hunedoara
Hunedoara
County, has been a major mining area throughout the second half of the 19th century and the 20th century, but many mines were closed down in the years following the collapse of the communist regime, forcing the region to diversify its economy. Culture[edit]

George Coșbuc, Romanian poet, translator, teacher, and journalist, best known for his verses describing, praising and eulogizing rural life

The culture of Transylvania
Transylvania
is complex, due to its varied history. Its culture has been historically linked to both Central Europe
Central Europe
and Southeastern Europe; and it has significant Hungarian (see Hungarians in Romania) and German (see Germans of Romania) influences.[43] With regard to architecture, the Transylvanian Gothic style
Gothic style
is preserved to this day in monuments such as the Black Church
Black Church
in Braşov (14th and 15th centuries) and a number of other cathedrals, as well as the Bran Castle
Bran Castle
in Braşov
Braşov
County (14th century), the Hunyad Castle
Hunyad Castle
in Hunedoara
Hunedoara
(15th century). Notable writers such as Emil Cioran, Lucian Blaga, George Coșbuc, Octavian Goga
Octavian Goga
and Liviu Rebreanu
Liviu Rebreanu
were born in Transylvania. The latter wrote the novel Ion, which introduces the reader to a depiction of the life of the peasants and intellectuals of Transylvania
Transylvania
at the turn of the 20th century. Religion[edit] Transylvania
Transylvania
has a very rich and unique religious history from the other regions of Europe. Since the Protestant Reformation, different Christian denominations coexist in this religious melting pot, including Romanian Orthodox, other Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, and Unitarian branches. Other faiths also are present, including Jews
Jews
and Muslims. Under the Habsburgs, Transylvania
Transylvania
served as a place for "religious undesirables". People who arrived in Transylvania
Transylvania
included those that did not conform to the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and were sent here forcibly, as well as many religious refugees. Transylvania
Transylvania
has a long history of religious tolerance. This has been ensured by its religious pluralism. Christianity
Christianity
is the largest religion in Transylvania. Transylvania
Transylvania
has also been (and still is) a center for Christian denominations other than Eastern Orthodoxy, the form of Christianity
Christianity
that most Romanians follow. As such, there are significant numbers of inhabitants of Transylvania
Transylvania
that follow Roman Catholicism, Greek Catholicism and Protestantism.[44]

Denomination 1930 Percent Number 2011 Percent Number

Eastern Orthodoxy

34,85% 1.933.534

61,80% 4.463.058

Roman & Greek Catholicism 42,01% 2.330.439 10,74% 775.810

Mainline Protestant 18,72% 1.038.464 9,34% 675.107

Evangelical Protestant 0,66% 37.061 4,70% 339.472

There are also small denominations like adventism, Jehovah's Witnesses and more. Other religions

Atheists, agnostics and unaffiliated account for 0.27% of Transylvania's population. There is a very small number of Muslims
Muslims
(Islam) and Jews
Jews
(Judaism).

Data refers to extended Transylvania
Transylvania
(with Banat, Crișana
Crișana
and Maramureș).

Tourist attractions[edit]

St. Michael's Church, Cluj-Napoca

Merry Cemetery
Merry Cemetery
of Săpânța

Biertan fortified church

Bran Castle

Turda salt mine

Sighișoara, a medieval city

Bran Castle, also known as Dracula's Castle The medieval cities of Alba Iulia, Cluj-Napoca
Cluj-Napoca
(European Youth Capital 2015), Sibiu
Sibiu
( European Capital Of Culture
European Capital Of Culture
in 2007), Târgu Mureș
Târgu Mureș
and Sighișoara
Sighișoara
(UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
and alleged birthplace of Vlad Dracula) The city of Brașov
Brașov
and the nearby Poiana Brașov
Brașov
ski resort The city of Hunedoara
Hunedoara
with the 14th century Hunyadi Castle The citadel and the Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
city centre of Oradea The Densus Church, the oldest church in Romania
Romania
that still holds services[45] The Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains, including Sarmizegetusa Regia
Sarmizegetusa Regia
(UNESCO World Heritage Site) The Roman forts including Sarmizegetusa Ulpia Traiana, Porolissum, Apulum, Potaissa and Drobeta The Red Lake (Romania) The Turda Gorge
Turda Gorge
natural reserve The Râșnov Citadel
Râșnov Citadel
in Râșnov The Maramureș
Maramureș
region

The Merry Cemetery
Merry Cemetery
of Săpânța
Săpânța
(the only of that kind in the world) The Wooden Churches (UNESCO World Heritage Site) The cities of Baia Mare
Baia Mare
and Sighetu Marmației The villages in the Iza, Mara, and Viseu valleys

The Saxon fortified churches (UNESCO World Heritage Site) Romanian traditions and folk culture, ASTRA National Museum Complex, Sibiu Hungarian traditions and folk culture The cafe culture,[46] street theatre and cosmopolitan society of Sibiu, Cluj-Napoca
Cluj-Napoca
and Timișoara The Apuseni Mountains:

Țara Moților The Bears Cave[47] Scarisoara Ice Cave, in Alba County, the third largest glacier cave in the world[47]

The Rodna Mountains The Salina Turda
Salina Turda
Salt
Salt
Mine: according to Business Insider—one of the ten "coolest underground places in the world".

Festivals and events[edit] Film festivals[edit]

Transilvania International Film Festival, Cluj-Napoca
Cluj-Napoca
- Romania's biggest film festival Gay Film Nights, Cluj-Napoca Comedy Cluj, Cluj-Napoca Humor Film Festival, Timișoara
Timișoara
[48][49]

Music festivals[edit]

Golden Stag Festival, Brașov Gărâna
Gărâna
Jazz Festival, Gărâna Peninsula / Félsziget Festival, Târgu-Mureș Untold Festival, Cluj-Napoca
Cluj-Napoca
- Romania's biggest music festival Toamna Muzicală Clujeană, Cluj-Napoca Artmania Festival, Sibiu Rockstadt Extreme Fest, Râșnov Electric Castle Festival, Bontida, Cluj-Napoca

Others[edit]

Sighișoara
Sighișoara
Medieval Festival, Sighișoara Sibiu
Sibiu
International Theatre Festival Festivalul Medieval Cetăți Transilvane Sibiu

Historical coat of arms of Transylvania[edit] Main article: Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Transylvania The first heraldic representations of Transylvania
Transylvania
date from the 16th century. One of the predominant early symbols of Transylvania
Transylvania
was the coat of arms of Sibiu
Sibiu
city. In 1596 Levinus Hulsius
Levinus Hulsius
created a coat of arms for the imperial province of Transylvania, consisting of a shield party per fess, with a rising eagle in the upper field and seven hills with towers on top in the lower field. He published it in his work "Chronologia", issued in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
the same year. The seal from 1597 of Sigismund Báthory, prince of Transylvania, reproduced the new coat of arms with some slight changes: in the upper field the eagle was flanked by a sun and a moon and in the lower field the hills were replaced by simple towers.[50] The seal of Michael the Brave
Michael the Brave
from 1600 depicts the territory of the former Dacian kingdom: Wallachia, Moldavia
Moldavia
and Transylvania:[51]

The black eagle (Wallachia) The aurochs head (Moldavia) The seven hills (Transylvania). Over the hills there were two rampant lions affronts, supporting the trunk of a tree, as a symbol of the reunited Dacian Kingdom.[51]

The Diet of 1659 codified the representation of the privileged nations in Transylvania's coat of arms. It depicted a black turul on a blue background, representing the Hungarian nobility,[52] a Sun
Sun
and the Moon representing the Székelys, and seven red towers on a yellow background representing the seven fortified cities of the Transylvanian Saxons. The red dividing band was originally not part of the coat of arms. In popular culture[edit]

Lugosi as Dracula

Main article: Transylvania
Transylvania
in popular culture Following the publication of Emily Gerard's The Land Beyond the Forest (1888), Bram Stoker
Bram Stoker
wrote his gothic horror novel Dracula
Dracula
in 1897, using Transylvania
Transylvania
as a setting. With its success, Transylvania
Transylvania
became associated in the English-speaking world with vampires. Since then it has been represented in fiction and literature as a land of mystery and magic. For example, in Paulo Coelho's novel The Witch of Portobello, the main character, Sherine Khalil, is described as a Transylvanian orphan with a Romani mother, in an effort to add to the character's exotic mystique.[citation needed] The so-called Transylvanian trilogy of historical novels by Miklos Banffy, The Writing on the Wall, is an extended treatment of the 19th- and early 20th-century social and political history of the country. Among the first actors to portray Dracula
Dracula
in film was Bela Lugosi, who was born in Banat, in present-day Romania. The Munsters
The Munsters
were also said to be from Transylvania, referring to it several times in the show both by name and as "The Old Country." In the film The Rocky Horror Picture Show, Tim Curry
Tim Curry
played a character that comes from "Transsexual Transylvania." The Sony Pictures Animation's animated Hotel Transylvania
Transylvania
series takes place largely in Transylvania
Transylvania
and nearby places. It recasts Dracula
Dracula
in a comic scenario. In some versions of the story the Pied Piper of Hamelin
Pied Piper of Hamelin
leads the children of the village of Hamelin to Transylvania. The story may be an attempt to explain the migration of the Transylvanian Saxons
Transylvanian Saxons
from German lands.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Prehistory of Transylvania Siebenbürgenlied

References[edit]

^ " Transylvania
Transylvania
Society of Dracula
Dracula
Information". Afn.org. 1995-05-29. Retrieved 2012-07-30.  ^ "Travel Advisory; Lure of Dracula
Dracula
In Transylvania". The New York Times. 1993-08-22.  ^ " Romania
Romania
Transylvania". Icromania.com. 2007-04-15. Retrieved 2012-07-30.  ^ Engel, Pál (2001). Realm of St. Stephen: History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526 (International Library of Historical Studies), page 24, London: I.B. Taurus. ISBN 1-86064-061-3 ^ Pascu, Ștefan (1972). "Voievodatul Transilvaniei". I: 22.  ^ István Lázár: Transylvania, a Short History, Simon Publications, Safety Harbor, Florida, 1996 + It was the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia
Dacia
(82 BC – 106 AD). In 106 AD the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
conquered the territory, systematically exploiting its resources. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi, Visigoths, Huns, Gepids, Avars, and Slavs. − [1] ^ − Martyn C. Rady: Nobility, Land and Service in Medieval Hungary, Antony Grove Ltd, Great Britain, 2000 − [2] ^ Gyula - it is possible that during the 10th century some of the holders of the title of gyula also used Gyula as a personal name, but the issue has been confused because the chronicler of one of the most important primary sources (the Gesta Hungarorum) has been shown to have used titles or even names of places as personal names in some cases. ^ a b c "Transylvania". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-01.  ^ Engel, Pal; Andrew Ayton (2005). The Realm of St Stephen. London: Tauris. p. 27. ISBN 1-85043-977-X.  ^ a b "Transylvania", Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. ^ K. Horedt, Contribuţii la istoria Transilvaniei în secolele IV-XIII, Editura Academiei RSR, 1958 p. 113. ^ I.M.Țiplic (2000). Considerații cu privire la liniile întarite de tipul prisacilor din transilvania, Acta terrae Septemcastrensis, I, pag. 147-164 ^ http://mek.oszk.hu/03400/03407/html/56.html ^ Madgearu, Alexandru (2001). Românii în opera Notarului Anonim. Cluj-Napoca: Centrul de Studii Transilvane, Fundația Culturală Română. ISBN 973-577-249-3.  ^ "Stephen I". Encyclopedia of World Biography. 14: 427–428. 2004 – via Gale Virtual Reference Library.  ^ "Hungary". Merriam-Webster's geographical dictionary (3rd edition ed.). CREDO. 2007. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ Antonius Wrancius: Expeditionis Solymani in Moldaviam et Transsylvaniam libri duo. De situ Transsylvaniae, Moldaviae et Transalpinae liber tertius. ^ Sándor Szilágyi: Erdély és az északkeleti háború. Levelek és okiratok Bp. 1890 I. 246-247, 255-256 - Sándor Szilágyi: Transylvania
Transylvania
and the northeastern war. Letters and documents Bp. 1890 p. 246-247, 255-256 ^ "International Boundary Study - No. 47 – April 15, 1965 - Hungary – Romania
Romania
(Rumania) Boundary" (PDF). US Bureau of Intelligence and Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2009.  ^ "Diploma Leopoldinum (Transylvanian history)". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-07-30.  ^ " Transylvania
Transylvania
(region, Romania)". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-07-30.  ^ Peter F. Sugar. Southeastern Europe
Southeastern Europe
Under Ottoman Rule, 1354–1804 (History of East Central Europe), University of Washington Press, July 1983, page 163, https://books.google.com/books?id=LOln4TGdDHYC&pg=PA163&dq=independent+principality+that+was+not+reunited+with+Hungary&lr= ^ John F. Cadzow, Andrew Ludanyi, Louis J. Elteto, Transylvania: The Roots of Ethnic Conflict, Kent State University Press, 1983, page 79, https://books.google.com/books?id=fX5pAAAAMAAJ&q=diploma+leopoldinum+transylvania&dq=diploma+leopoldinum+transylvania&lr=&pgis=1 ^ Paul Lendvai, Ann Major. "The Hungarians: A Thousand Years of Victory in Defeat" C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2003, page 146; https://books.google.com/books?id=9yCmAQGTW28C&pg=PA146&dq=diploma+leopoldinum+transylvania&lr= ^ "Definition of Grand Principality of Transylvania
Grand Principality of Transylvania
in the Free Online Encyclopedia". Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 2012-07-30.  ^ The Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy and Romanian Political Autonomy Archived 2007-04-24 at the Wayback Machine. in Paşcu, Ştefan. A History of Transylvania. Dorset Press, New York, 1990. ^ CIA World Factbook, Romania
Romania
- Government ^ Történelmi világatlasz [World Atlas of History] (in Hungarian). Cartographia. 1998. ISBN 963-352-519-5.  ^ Transilvania at romaniatraveltourism.com ^ Transylvania
Transylvania
at 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica ^ http://www.recensamantromania.ro/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/REZULTATE-DEFINITIVE-RPL_2011.pdf ^ "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. July 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.  ^ "Population on 1 January by age groups and sex – functional urban areas". Eurostat. Retrieved 16 August 2017.  ^ Sibiu
Sibiu
Cultural Capital Website ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-02-02. Retrieved 2017-07-10.  ^ Elek Fényes, Magyarország statistikája, Vol. 1, Trattner-Károlyi, Pest. VII, 1842 ^ Seton-Watson, Robert William (1933). "The Problem of Treaty Revision and the Hungarian Frontiers". International Affairs. 12 (4): 481–503. doi:10.2307/2603603. JSTOR 2603603.  ^ Varga, E. Árpád, Hungarians in Transylvania
Transylvania
between 1870 and 1995, Translation by Tamás Sályi, Budapest, March 1999, pp. 30-34 ^ "Transylvania". Columbia Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2008-09-05. Retrieved 2008-11-18.  ^ Varga, E. Árpád, Hungarians in Transylvania
Transylvania
between 1870 and 1995, Translation by Tamás Sályi, Budapest, March 1999, p. 31 ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-01-21.  ^ "Cultura". 2007-12-31. Archived from the original on December 31, 2007. Retrieved 2016-05-08. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ Earl A. Pope, "Protestantism in Romania", in Sabrina Petra Ramet (ed.), Protestantism and Politics in Eastern Europe and Russia: The Communist and Postcommunist Eras, Duke University Press, Durham, 1992, p.158-160. ISBN 0-8223-1241-7 ^ "Travel to Romania
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 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Transylvania". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Further reading[edit]

Patrick Leigh Fermor, Between the Woods and the Water (New York Review of Books Classics, 2005; ISBN 1-59017-166-7). Fermor travelled across Transylvania
Transylvania
in the summer of 1934, and wrote about it in this account first published more than 50 years later, in 1986. Zoltán Farkas and Judit Sós, Transylvania
Transylvania
Guidebook András Bereznay, Erdély történetének atlasza (Historical Atlas of Transylvania), with text and 102 map plates, the first ever historical atlas of Transylvania
Transylvania
(Méry Ratio, 2011; ISBN 978-80-89286-45-4)

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Transylvania.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Transylvania.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Transylvania.

Radio Transsylvania International Tolerant Transylvania
Transylvania
- Why Transylvania
Transylvania
will not become another Kosovo, Katherine Lovatt, in Central Europe
Central Europe
Review, Vol 1, No 14 27 September 1999. The History Of Transylvania
Transylvania
And The Transylvanian Saxons
Transylvanian Saxons
by Dr. Konrad Gündisch, Oldenburg, Germany Transylvania, its Products and its People, by Charles Boner, 1865 (in Hungarian) Transylvanian Family History Database Authentic Transylvania

v t e

Historical regions in Romania

Banat
Banat
(1918–)a

Banatf

Dobruja
Dobruja
(1878–)

Northern Dobruja Southern Dobruja
Dobruja
(1913–16; 1919–40)

Moldavia
Moldavia
(1859–)b

Bessarabia
Bessarabia
(1918–40; 1941–44)c Bukovinad Hertza (1859–1940; 1941–44) Western Moldavia Bugeac

Transylvania
Transylvania
(1918–)ae

Crișanaf Maramureșg Transylvaniah

Wallachia
Wallachia
(1859–)b

Muntenia Oltenia

aDe jure since 1920 bDe jure since 1862 cCahul, Bolgrad and Ismail in Romania
Romania
(1859–78) dSouthern Bukovina
Bukovina
in Romania
Romania
(1918–); Northern Bukovina
Bukovina
in Romania (1918–40; 1941–44) e Northern Transylvania
Northern Transylvania
in Hungary (1940–44) fOnly the eastern part gOnly the southern part h Transylvania
Transylvania
proper

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 141322791 LCCN: sh85137105 GND: 4054835-1 BNF:

.