Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania. Bound
on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain
Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni
Mountains. The term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania
proper, but also the historical regions of
Crișana and Maramureș,
and occasionally the Romanian part of Banat.
The region of
Transylvania is known for the scenery of its Carpathian
landscape and its rich history. It also contains major cities such as
Sibiu and Târgu Mureș.
Western world commonly associates
Transylvania with vampires, due
to the influence of Bram Stoker's novel
Dracula and its many film
4 Geography and ethnography
5 Administrative divisions
7.1 Historical population
7.2 Current population
11 Tourist attractions
11.1 Festivals and events
11.1.1 Film festivals
11.1.2 Music festivals
12 Historical coat of arms of Transylvania
13 In popular culture
14 See also
16 Further reading
17 External links
Main article: Historical names of Transylvania
Historical names of Transylvania are:
Latin: Ultrasilvania, Transsilvania
Romanian: Ardeal, Transilvania
Ukrainian: Семигород, Залісся,
Serbian: Erdelj/Ердељ, Transilvanija/Трансилванија
Bulgarian: Седмоградско, Трансилвания
German: Siebenbürgen, Transsilvanien
Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjen
Polish: Siedmiogród, Transylwania
Turkish: Erdel, Transilvanya
Romani : Transilvaniya
In Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal
(pronounced [arˈde̯al]) or Transilvania
(pronounced [transilˈvani.a]); in Hungarian as Erdély
(pronounced [ɛrdeːj]); in German as Siebenbürgen (pronounced
[ˈziːbn̩ˌbʏʁɡn̩] ( listen)); and in Turkish as
Transilvanya (pronounced [tɾansilˈvanja]) but historically as
Erdel or Erdelistan; see also other denominations.
The earliest known reference to
Transylvania appears in a Medieval
Latin document in 1075 as ultra silvam, meaning "beyond the forest"
(ultra meaning "beyond" or "on the far side of" and the accusative
case of sylva (sylvam) "woods, forest"). Transylvania, with an
alternative Latin prepositional prefix, means "on the other side of
the woods." Hungarian historians claim that the
Medieval Latin form
Ultrasylvania, later Transylvania, was a direct translation from the
Hungarian form Erdő-elve. That also was used as an alternative
name in German überwald (13-14th centuries) and Ukrainian
The German name Siebenbürgen means "seven fortresses," after the
seven (ethnic German) Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region. This
is also the origin of the region's name in many other languages, such
as the Croatian Sedmogradska, the Bulgarian Седмиградско
(Sedmigradsko), Polish Siedmiogród and the Ukrainian
The Hungarian form Erdély was first mentioned in the 12th-century
Gesta Hungarorum as Erdeuleu (in modern script Erdeüleü) or
Erdő-elve. The word Erdő means forest in Hungarian, and the word
Elve denotes a region in connection with this, similarly to the
Hungarian name for
Muntenia (Havas-elve, or land lying ahead of the
snow-capped mountains). Erdel, Erdil, Erdelistan, the Turkish
equivalents, or the Romanian Ardeal were borrowed from this form as
The first known written occurrence of the Romanian name Ardeal
appeared in a document in 1432 as Ardeliu.
Main article: History of Transylvania
Ruins of Sarmizegetusa Regia
Roman city of Apulum
Transylvania has been dominated by several different peoples and
countries throughout its history. It was once the nucleus of the
Dacia (82 BC–106 AD). In 106 AD the Roman Empire
conquered the territory, systematically exploiting its resources.
After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a
succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the
Carpi, Visigoths, Huns, Gepids, Avars and Slavs. From 9th to 11th
Bulgarians ruled Transylvania. It is a
subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman
population survived in
Transylvania through the Dark Ages (becoming
the ancestors of modern Romanians) or the first Vlachs/Romanians
appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration
from the Balkan Peninsula. There is an ongoing scholarly debate
over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian
conquest (see Origin of the Romanians).
Greater Romania, in the interwar period
Romania's territorial losses in the summer of 1940, showing Northern
Transylvania being ceded to the Kingdom of Hungary. The region was
Romania after World War II.
Historical Romanian borders
The Magyars conquered much of
Central Europe at the end of the 9th
century. According to Gesta Hungarorum, the Vlach voivode
Transylvania before the Hungarians arrived. The Kingdom of Hungary
established partial control over
Transylvania in 1003, when king
Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named
Gyula. Some historians assert
Transylvania was settled
by Hungarians in several stages between the 10th and 13th
centuries, while others claim that it was already settled,
since the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated
to the first half of the 10th century.
Between 1003[dubious – discuss] and 1526,
Transylvania was a
voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by
the King of Hungary. After the
Battle of Mohács
Battle of Mohács in 1526,
Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of János Szapolyai. Later, in
1570, the kingdom transformed into the Principality of Transylvania,
which was ruled primarily by Calvinist Hungarian princes. During that
time, the ethnic composition of
Transylvania transformed from an
estimated near equal number of the ethnic groups to a Romanian
majority. Vasile Lupu estimates their number already more than
one-third of the population of
Transylvania in a letter to the sultan
around 1650. For most of this period, Transylvania, maintaining
its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.
A market scene in Transylvania, 1818
Habsburgs acquired the territory shortly after the Battle of
Vienna in 1683. In 1687, the rulers of
Transylvania recognized the
suzerainty of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I, and the region was
officially attached to the Habsburg Empire. The
Transylvania as one of the Lands of the Crown of Saint
Stephen, but the territory of principality was administratively
separated from Habsburg Hungary and subjected to
the direct rule of the emperor's governors. In 1699 the Turks
legally acknowledged their loss of
Transylvania in the Treaty of
Karlowitz; however, some anti-Habsburg elements within the
principality submitted to the emperor only in the 1711 Peace of
Szatmár, and Habsburg control over Principality of
Grand Principality of Transylvania
Grand Principality of Transylvania was reintroduced
54 years later in 1765.
The Hungarian revolution against the
Habsburgs started in 1848. The
revolution in the
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary grew into a war for the total
independence from the Habsburg dynasty. Julius Jacob von Haynau, the
leader of the Austrian army was appointed plenipotentiary to restore
order in Hungary after the conflict. He ordered the execution of The
13 Hungarian Martyrs of Arad and Prime Minister Batthyány was
executed the same day in Pest. After a series of serious Austrian
defeats in 1849, the empire came close to the brink of collapse. Thus,
the new young emperor Franz Joseph I had to call for Russian help in
the name of the Holy Alliance. Czar Nicholas I answered, and sent a
200,000 men strong army with 80,000 auxiliary forces. Finally, the
joint army of Russian and Austrian forces defeated the Hungarian
forces. After the restoration of Habsburg power, Hungary was placed
under martial law. Following the Hungarian Army's surrender at
Világos (now Șiria, Romania) in 1849, their revolutionary banners
were taken to Russia by the Tsarist troops, and were kept there both
under the Tsarist and Communist systems (in 1940 the Soviet Union
offered the banners to the Horthy government).
Ausgleich of 1867, the Principality of
Transylvania was once
again abolished. The territory was then turned into
Transleithania, an addition to the newly established
Austro-Hungarian Empire. Romanian intellectuals issued the Blaj
Pronouncement in protest.
Following defeat in World War I, Austria-Hungary disintegrated. The
ethnic Romanian majority in
Transylvania elected representatives, who
then proclaimed Union with
Romania on 1 December 1918. The
Proclamation of Union of
Alba Iulia was adopted by the Deputies of the
Romanians from Transylvania, and supported one month later by the vote
of the Deputies of the Saxons from Transylvania. The national holiday
of Romania, the
Great Union Day
Great Union Day (also called Unification Day)
occurring on December 1, celebrates this event. The holiday was
established after the Romanian Revolution, and marks the unification
not only of Transylvania, but also of the provinces of Banat,
Bukovina with the Romanian Kingdom. These other
provinces had all joined with the Kingdom of
Romania a few months
earlier. In 1920, the
Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon established new borders, much
of the proclaimed territories became part of Romania. Hungary
protested against the new borders, as over 1,600,000 Hungarian people
and representing 31.6% of the Transylvanian population  were
living on the Romanian side of the border, mainly in
Székely Land of
Eastern Transylvania, and along the newly created border. After World
War I, the multi-ethnic
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary was split apart by the
Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon to form several new nation-states, but Hungary
claimed that the new state borders did not follow the real ethnic
boundaries. The new Magyar nation-state of Hungary was about a third
the size of former Hungary, and millions of ethnic Magyars were to be
left outside the Hungarian borders.
In August 1940, Hungary gained about 40% of
Transylvania - including
Crișana - by the Second Vienna Award, with
the arbitration of Germany and Italy.
Second Vienna Award
Second Vienna Award was voided on 12 September 1944 by the Allied
Commission through the Armistice Agreement with
Romania (Article 19);
and the 1947 Treaty of Paris reaffirmed the borders between Romania
and Hungary, as originally defined in Treaty of Trianon, 27 years
earlier, thus confirming the return of
Northern Transylvania to
Romania. From 1947 to 1989, Transylvania, along with the rest of
Romania, was under a communist regime.
Stephen Catterson Smith: Peasants of Hodod, Transylvania, 1860s
German settlers known as Transylvanian Saxons
The National Assembly in
Alba Iulia (December 1, 1918), declaring the
Transylvania with Romania
Geography and ethnography
Turda Gorges seen from the west end, in Cluj county
Romanian Orthodox wooden church
Geographical map of Romania
The Transylvanian Plateau, 300 to 500 metres (980–1,640 feet)
high, is drained by the Mureș, Someș, Criș, and Olt rivers, as well
as other tributaries of the Danube. This core of historical
Transylvania roughly corresponds with nine counties of modern Romania.
The plateau is almost entirely surrounded by the Eastern, Southern and
Romanian Western branches of the Carpathian Mountains. The area
includes the Transylvanian Plain. Other areas to the west and north
are widely considered part of Transylvania. In common reference, the
Western border of
Transylvania has come to be identified with the
present Romanian-Hungarian border, settled in the 1920 Treaty of
Trianon, though geographically the two are not identical.
Mărginimea Sibiului (Szeben-hegyalja)
Transylvanian Plain (Câmpia Transilvaniei/Mezőség)
Țara Bârsei (Burzenland/Barcaság)
Țara Buzaielor (ro)
Țara Călatei (Kalotaszeg)
Țara Chioarului (ro) (Kővár)
Țara Făgărașului (Fogaras)
Țara Hațegului (Hátszeg)
Țara Hălmagiului (ro)
Țara Mocanilor (ro)
Țara Năsăudului (Nösnerland/Naszód vidéke)
Țara Silvaniei (ro)
Ținutul Pădurenilor (ro)
Ținutul Secuiesc (
Țara Almăjului (ro)
Țara Zarandului (ro)
Țara Oașului (Avasság)
Țara Lǎpușului (ro)
Light yellow – historical region of Transylvania
Dark yellow – historical regions of Banat,
Crișana and Maramureș
Grey – historical regions of Wallachia,
Moldavia and Dobruja
The area of the historical
Voivodeship is 55,146 km2
(21,292 sq mi).
The regions granted to
Romania in 1920 covered 23 counties including
nearly 102,200 km2 (39,460 sq mi)
(102,787–103,093 km2 in Hungarian sources and 102,200 km2
in contemporary Romanian documents). Nowadays, due to the several
administrative reorganisations, the territory covers 16 counties
(Romanian: judeţ), with an area of 99,837 km2
(38,547 sq mi), in central and northwest Romania.
The 16 counties are: Alba, Arad, Bihor, Bistriţa-Năsăud, Brașov,
Caraș-Severin, Cluj, Covasna, Harghita, Hunedoara, Maramureș,
Mureș, Sălaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, and Timiș.
Transylvania contains both largely urban counties, such as
Hunedoara counties, as well as largely rural ones, such as
Bistriţa-Năsăud and Sălaj counties.
The 17th century Canalul Morii in Cluj-Napoca
The most populous cities as of 2011 census (metropolitan areas, as
Cluj-Napoca - 324,576 (375,251 in metropolitan area)
Brașov - 253,200 (398,462)
Sibiu - 147,245 (208,894)
Târgu Mureș - 134,290 (181,162)
Alba Iulia - 63,536 (109,484)
Timișoara - 319,279 (357,735)
Reșița - 73,282
Oradea - 196,367 (239,329)
Arad - 159,074 (205,049)
Baia Mare - 123,738 (182,368)
Satu Mare - 102,411 (150,104)
Cluj-Napoca, commonly known as Cluj, is the second most populous city
in Romania, after the national capital Bucharest, and the seat of Cluj
County. From 1790 to 1848 and from 1861 to 1867, it was the official
capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania.
Brașov is an
important tourist destination, being the largest city in a mountain
resorts area, and a central location, suitable for exploring Romania,
with the distances to several tourist destinations (including the
Black Sea resorts, the monasteries in northern Moldavia, and the
wooden churches of Maramureș) being similar.
Sibiu is one of the most
important cultural centres of
Romania and was designated the European
Capital of Culture for the year 2007, along with the city of
Luxembourg, and it was formerly the centre of the Transylvanian
Saxon culture and between 1692 and 1791 and 1849–65 was the capital
of the Principality of Transylvania.
Alba Iulia is a city located on
Mureş River in Alba County, and since the High Middle Ages, the
city has been the seat of Transylvania's
Roman Catholic diocese.
Between 1541 and 1690 it was the capital of the Eastern Hungarian
Kingdom and the latter Principality of Transylvania.
Alba Iulia also
has historical importance because at the end of World War I,
representatives of the Romanian population of
Transylvania gathered in
Alba Iulia on 1 December 1918 to proclaim the union of Transylvania
with the Kingdom of Romania. In Transylvania, there are many medieval
smaller towns such as Sighișoara, Mediaș,
Sebeș and Bistrița.
History of Transylvania
History of Transylvania § Historical population,
Hungarian minority in Romania, Székely, Transylvanian Saxons, and
List of Transylvanians
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910.
Official censuses with information on Transylvania's population have
been conducted since the 18th century. On May 1, 1784 the Emperor
Joseph II called for the first official census of the Habsburg Empire,
including Transylvania. The data was published in 1787, and this
census showed only the overall population (1,440,986 inhabitants).
Fényes Elek, a 19th-century Hungarian statistician, estimated in 1842
that in the population of
Transylvania for the years 1830-1840 the
majority were 62.3%
Romanians and 23.3% Hungarians.
In the last quarter of the 19th century, the Hungarian population of
Transylvania increased from 24.9% in 1869 to 31.6%, as indicated in
the 1910 Hungarian census. At the same time, the percentage of
Romanian population decreased from 59.0% to 53.8% and the percentage
of German population decreased from 11.9% to 10.7%, for a total
population of 5,262,495.
Magyarization policies greatly contributed to
The percentage of Romanian majority has significantly increased since
the declaration of the union of
Romania after World
War I in 1918. The proportion of Hungarians in
Transylvania was in
steep decline as more of the region's inhabitants moved into urban
areas, where the pressure to assimilate and Romanianize was
greater. The expropriation of the estates of Magyar magnates, the
distribution of the lands to the Romanian peasants, and the policy of
Romanianization that followed the
Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon were
major causes of friction between Hungary and Romania. Other
factors include the emigration of non-Romanian peoples, assimilation
and internal migration within
Romania (estimates show that between
1945 and 1977, some 630,000 people moved from the Old Kingdom to
Transylvania, and 280,000 from
Transylvania to the Old Kingdom, most
notably to Bucharest).
According to the results of the 2011 Population Census, the total
Transylvania was 6,789,250 inhabitants and the ethnic
Romanians - 70.62%, Hungarians - 17.92%, Roma - 3.99%,
Ukrainians - 0.63%, Germans - 0.49%, other - 0.77%. Some 378,298
inhabitants (5.58%) have not declared their ethnicity. The presented
data are from http://www.recensamantromania.ro/rezultate-2, the Table
no. 7. The ethnic Hungarian population of
Transylvania form a majority
in the counties of Covasna (73.6%) and Harghita (84.8%). The
Hungarians are also numerous in the following counties: Mureș
Satu Mare (34.5%), Bihor (25.2%) and Sălaj (23.2%).
Farmers working in Transylvania
Transylvania is rich in mineral resources, notably lignite, iron,
lead, manganese, gold, copper, natural gas, salt, and sulfur.
There are large iron and steel, chemical, and textile industries.
Stock raising, agriculture, wine production and fruit growing are
Agriculture is widespread in the Transylvanian
Plateau, including growing cereals, vegetables, viticulture and
breeding cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry.
Timber is another valuable
IT, electronics and automotive industries are important in urban and
university centers like
Cluj-Napoca (Robert Bosch GmbH, Emerson
Flextronics and Continental
AG), Brașov, Sibiu,
Oradea and Arad. The cities of
Cluj Napoca and
Târgu Mureș are connected with a strong medical tradition, and
according to the same classifications top performance hospitals exist
Native brands include: Roman of
Brașov (trucks and buses), Azomureș
Târgu Mureș (fertilizers), Terapia of Cluj-Napoca
Banca Transilvania of
Cluj-Napoca (finance), Romgaz
Mediaș (natural gas), Jidvei of Alba county
beverages) and others.
The Jiu Valley, located in the south of
Hunedoara County, has been a
major mining area throughout the second half of the 19th century and
the 20th century, but many mines were closed down in the years
following the collapse of the communist regime, forcing the region to
diversify its economy.
George Coșbuc, Romanian poet, translator, teacher, and journalist,
best known for his verses describing, praising and eulogizing rural
The culture of
Transylvania is complex, due to its varied history. Its
culture has been historically linked to both
Central Europe and
Southeastern Europe; and it has significant Hungarian (see Hungarians
in Romania) and German (see Germans of Romania) influences.
With regard to architecture, the Transylvanian
Gothic style is
preserved to this day in monuments such as the
Black Church in Braşov
(14th and 15th centuries) and a number of other cathedrals, as well as
Bran Castle in
Braşov County (14th century), the
Hunyad Castle in
Hunedoara (15th century).
Notable writers such as Emil Cioran, Lucian Blaga, George Coșbuc,
Octavian Goga and
Liviu Rebreanu were born in Transylvania. The latter
wrote the novel Ion, which introduces the reader to a depiction of the
life of the peasants and intellectuals of
Transylvania at the turn of
the 20th century.
Transylvania has a very rich and unique religious history from the
other regions of Europe. Since the Protestant Reformation, different
Christian denominations coexist in this religious melting pot,
including Romanian Orthodox, other Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic,
Greek Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, and Unitarian branches. Other
faiths also are present, including
Jews and Muslims. Under the
Transylvania served as a place for "religious
undesirables". People who arrived in
Transylvania included those that
did not conform to the
Catholic Church and were sent here forcibly, as
well as many religious refugees.
Transylvania has a long history of
religious tolerance. This has been ensured by its religious pluralism.
Christianity is the largest religion in Transylvania.
also been (and still is) a center for Christian denominations other
than Eastern Orthodoxy, the form of
Christianity that most Romanians
follow. As such, there are significant numbers of inhabitants of
Transylvania that follow Roman Catholicism, Greek Catholicism and
Roman & Greek Catholicism
There are also small denominations like adventism, Jehovah's Witnesses
Atheists, agnostics and unaffiliated account for 0.27% of
There is a very small number of
Muslims (Islam) and
Data refers to extended
Transylvania (with Banat,
St. Michael's Church, Cluj-Napoca
Merry Cemetery of Săpânța
Biertan fortified church
Turda salt mine
Sighișoara, a medieval city
Bran Castle, also known as Dracula's Castle
The medieval cities of Alba Iulia,
Cluj-Napoca (European Youth Capital
European Capital Of Culture
European Capital Of Culture in 2007),
Târgu Mureș and
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site and alleged birthplace of Vlad
The city of
Brașov and the nearby Poiana
Brașov ski resort
The city of
Hunedoara with the 14th century Hunyadi Castle
The citadel and the
Art Nouveau city centre of Oradea
The Densus Church, the oldest church in
Romania that still holds
The Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains, including
Sarmizegetusa Regia (UNESCO World Heritage Site)
The Roman forts including Sarmizegetusa Ulpia Traiana, Porolissum,
Apulum, Potaissa and Drobeta
The Red Lake (Romania)
Turda Gorge natural reserve
Râșnov Citadel in Râșnov
Merry Cemetery of
Săpânța (the only of that kind in the world)
The Wooden Churches (UNESCO World Heritage Site)
The cities of
Baia Mare and Sighetu Marmației
The villages in the Iza, Mara, and Viseu valleys
The Saxon fortified churches (UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Romanian traditions and folk culture, ASTRA National Museum Complex,
Hungarian traditions and folk culture
The cafe culture, street theatre and cosmopolitan society of
Cluj-Napoca and Timișoara
The Apuseni Mountains:
The Bears Cave
Scarisoara Ice Cave, in Alba County, the third largest glacier cave in
The Rodna Mountains
Salt Mine: according to Business Insider—one of the
ten "coolest underground places in the world".
Festivals and events
Transilvania International Film Festival,
Cluj-Napoca - Romania's
biggest film festival
Gay Film Nights, Cluj-Napoca
Comedy Cluj, Cluj-Napoca
Humor Film Festival,
Golden Stag Festival, Brașov
Gărâna Jazz Festival, Gărâna
Peninsula / Félsziget Festival, Târgu-Mureș
Cluj-Napoca - Romania's biggest music festival
Toamna Muzicală Clujeană, Cluj-Napoca
Artmania Festival, Sibiu
Rockstadt Extreme Fest, Râșnov
Electric Castle Festival, Bontida, Cluj-Napoca
Sighișoara Medieval Festival, Sighișoara
Sibiu International Theatre Festival
Festivalul Medieval Cetăți Transilvane Sibiu
Historical coat of arms of Transylvania
Coat of arms
Coat of arms of Transylvania
The first heraldic representations of
Transylvania date from the 16th
century. One of the predominant early symbols of
Transylvania was the
coat of arms of
Sibiu city. In 1596
Levinus Hulsius created a coat of
arms for the imperial province of Transylvania, consisting of a shield
party per fess, with a rising eagle in the upper field and seven hills
with towers on top in the lower field. He published it in his work
"Chronologia", issued in
Nuremberg the same year. The seal from 1597
of Sigismund Báthory, prince of Transylvania, reproduced the new coat
of arms with some slight changes: in the upper field the eagle was
flanked by a sun and a moon and in the lower field the hills were
replaced by simple towers.
The seal of
Michael the Brave
Michael the Brave from 1600 depicts the territory of the
former Dacian kingdom: Wallachia,
Moldavia and Transylvania:
The black eagle (Wallachia)
The aurochs head (Moldavia)
The seven hills (Transylvania).
Over the hills there were two rampant lions affronts, supporting the
trunk of a tree, as a symbol of the reunited Dacian Kingdom.
The Diet of 1659 codified the representation of the privileged nations
in Transylvania's coat of arms. It depicted a black turul on a blue
background, representing the Hungarian nobility, a
Sun and the
Moon representing the Székelys, and seven red towers on a yellow
background representing the seven fortified cities of the
Transylvanian Saxons. The red dividing band was originally not part of
the coat of arms.
In popular culture
Lugosi as Dracula
Transylvania in popular culture
Following the publication of Emily Gerard's The Land Beyond the Forest
Bram Stoker wrote his gothic horror novel
Dracula in 1897,
Transylvania as a setting. With its success,
associated in the English-speaking world with vampires. Since then it
has been represented in fiction and literature as a land of mystery
and magic. For example, in Paulo Coelho's novel The Witch of
Portobello, the main character, Sherine Khalil, is described as a
Transylvanian orphan with a Romani mother, in an effort to add to the
character's exotic mystique. The so-called
Transylvanian trilogy of historical novels by Miklos Banffy, The
Writing on the Wall, is an extended treatment of the 19th- and early
20th-century social and political history of the country. Among the
first actors to portray
Dracula in film was Bela Lugosi, who was born
in Banat, in present-day Romania.
The Munsters were also said to be from Transylvania, referring to it
several times in the show both by name and as "The Old Country."
In the film The Rocky Horror Picture Show,
Tim Curry played a
character that comes from "Transsexual Transylvania."
The Sony Pictures Animation's animated Hotel
Transylvania series takes
place largely in
Transylvania and nearby places. It recasts
a comic scenario.
In some versions of the story the
Pied Piper of Hamelin
Pied Piper of Hamelin leads the
children of the village of Hamelin to Transylvania. The story may be
an attempt to explain the migration of the
Transylvanian Saxons from
German lands.
Prehistory of Transylvania
Transylvania Society of
Dracula Information". Afn.org. 1995-05-29.
^ "Travel Advisory; Lure of
Dracula In Transylvania". The New York
Romania Transylvania". Icromania.com. 2007-04-15. Retrieved
^ Engel, Pál (2001). Realm of St. Stephen: History of Medieval
Hungary, 895–1526 (International Library of Historical Studies),
page 24, London: I.B. Taurus. ISBN 1-86064-061-3
^ Pascu, Ștefan (1972). "Voievodatul Transilvaniei". I: 22.
^ István Lázár: Transylvania, a Short History, Simon Publications,
Safety Harbor, Florida, 1996 + It was the nucleus of the Kingdom of
Dacia (82 BC – 106 AD). In 106 AD the
Roman Empire conquered
the territory, systematically exploiting its resources. After the
Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of
various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi, Visigoths,
Huns, Gepids, Avars, and Slavs. − 
^ − Martyn C. Rady: Nobility, Land and Service in Medieval Hungary,
Antony Grove Ltd, Great Britain, 2000 − 
^ Gyula - it is possible that during the 10th century some of the
holders of the title of gyula also used Gyula as a personal name, but
the issue has been confused because the chronicler of one of the most
important primary sources (the Gesta Hungarorum) has been shown to
have used titles or even names of places as personal names in some
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This article incorporates text from a publication now in
the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Transylvania".
Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Patrick Leigh Fermor,
Between the Woods and the Water (New York Review
of Books Classics, 2005; ISBN 1-59017-166-7). Fermor travelled
Transylvania in the summer of 1934, and wrote about it in this
account first published more than 50 years later, in 1986.
Zoltán Farkas and Judit Sós,
András Bereznay, Erdély történetének atlasza (Historical Atlas of
Transylvania), with text and 102 map plates, the first ever historical
Transylvania (Méry Ratio, 2011; ISBN 978-80-89286-45-4)
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Transylvania.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Transylvania.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911
Encyclopædia Britannica article
Radio Transsylvania International
Transylvania - Why
Transylvania will not become another
Kosovo, Katherine Lovatt, in
Central Europe Review, Vol 1, No 14 27
The History Of
Transylvania And The
Transylvanian Saxons by Dr. Konrad
Gündisch, Oldenburg, Germany
Transylvania, its Products and its People, by Charles Boner, 1865
(in Hungarian) Transylvanian Family History Database
Historical regions in Romania
Dobruja (1913–16; 1919–40)
Bessarabia (1918–40; 1941–44)c
Hertza (1859–1940; 1941–44)
aDe jure since 1920
bDe jure since 1862
cCahul, Bolgrad and Ismail in
Romania (1918–); Northern
Bukovina in Romania
Northern Transylvania in Hungary (1940–44)
fOnly the eastern part
gOnly the southern part