Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Закарпатська
область, translit. Zakarpats’ka oblast’; see other
languages) is an administrative oblast (province) located in
southwestern Ukraine, coterminous with the historical region of
Carpathian Ruthenia. Its administrative centre is the city of
Uzhhorod. Other major cities within the oblast include Mukachevo,
Berehove and Chop which is home to railroad transport
Zakarpattia Oblast was established on 22 January 1946, after
Czechoslovakia ceded the territory of Subcarpathian Ruthenia (Czech:
Podkarpatská Rus) to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, under a
Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union. Some scholars say
that during the Ukrainian independence referendum held in 1991,
Zakarpattia Oblast voters were given a separate option on whether or
not they favoured autonomy for the region. Although a large
majority favoured autonomy, it was not granted. However, this
referendum was about self-government status, not about autonomy (like
Situated in the
Carpathian Mountains of western Ukraine, Zakarpattia
Oblast is the only Ukrainian administrative division which borders
upon four countries: Poland, Slovakia,
Hungary and Romania. The
Carpathian Mountains play a major part in the oblast's economy, making
the region an important tourist and travel destination housing many
ski and spa resorts.
With its almost 13,000 square kilometres (5,000 sq mi), the
oblast is ranked 23rd by area and 15th by population as according to
the 2001 Ukrainian Census, the population of
Zakarpattia Oblast is
1,254,614. This total includes people of many different nationalities
of which Hungarians,
Rusyns constitute significant
minorities in some of the province's cities, while in others, they
form the majority of the population (as in the case of Berehove).
5 Administrative divisions
5.2 Urban settlements
5.2.1 Cities of regional significance
5.2.2 Other urban settlements
6.2 Age structure
6.3 Median age
8.1 Wooden churches
9 See also
11 External links
The oblast is also referred to as the Transcarpathian Oblast,
Transcarpathia, Zakarpattya, or historically as Subcarpathian Rus. In
other languages the oblast is named:
Rusyn: Подкарпатьска област, translit.
Podkarpat’ska oblast.
Czech: Podkarpatská Rus
Slovak: Zakarpatská oblasť
Polish: Obwód zakarpacki
Romanian: Maramureșul de Nord ([maraˈmureʃul de ˈnord]) or
Romanian: Regiunea Transcarpatia ([red͡ʒiˈune̯a
Russian: Закарпатская область, translit.
While the name Transcarpathia is a translation of the Ukrainian
version of the name, the Hungarian name translates as Subcarpathia,
Hungarian language logic "feet of the mountains", naming
a territory after its geographic location at the lower section of a
mountain range. (Following the same language pattern that applies to
the name of the sub-Alpian territory in Western Hungary, Alpokalja)
Generally, the Transcarpathia name and its versions reflect the East
Slavic language logic, while some Western languages follow the same
logic as the Hungarian:
English: Subcarpathia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathian Ruthenia,
Ukraine Subcarpathique, Russie subcarpathique
Other Western languages follow their own logic in creating a name for
German: Karpatenrussland, Karpatenland, Karpathenland,
Karpatho-Russland, Karpatenukraine, Karpato-Ukraine
The coat of arms of Zakarpattia was originally created in the end of
the 1910s in the then Czechoslovakia.
Zakarpattia Oblast has a total area of 12,800 km2
(4,942 sq mi) and is located on southwestern slopes and
foothills of the
Carpathian Mountains covering around 80% of area in
the region. The rest of the region is covered by the
Transcarpathian Lowland which is part of the Pannonian plain.
Zakarpattia is the only Ukrainian oblast to have boundaries with four
countries: Poland, Slovakia,
Hungary and Romania. On the West it
borders the Prešov and Košice Regions of
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg Counties of
Hungary, on the South—the Satu Mare and Maramureş Counties of
Romania, on the East and Northeast—
Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, and on
Lviv Oblast and the
Subcarpathian Voivodeship of Poland.
The forest-covered mountainous landscape within the oblast.
Zakarpattia Oblast mostly consists of mountains and small hills
covered with deciduous and coniferous forests, as well as alpine
meadows. Mountains cover about 80% of the oblast's area, and cross
from North-East to South-East. The Primeval Beech Forests of the
Carpathians, part of which are located within Zakarpattia Oblast, were
recognized as a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site in 2007.
The largest rivers that flow through the oblast include the Tysa,
Borzhava, and the Tereblia. A high altitude lake is located in Rakhiv
Raion, which is the highest in the region. It is called
Nesamovyte. The lake is located in the
Hoverla preserve on the
slopes of Turkul mountain. The lake's area is 3,000 square metres
(32,000 sq ft) and it is located 1,750 metres
(5,740 ft) above sea level.
The region's climate is moderate and continental with about
700–1,000 mm (28–39 in) of rainfall per year. The
average temperature in summer is +21 °С (70 °F) and
−4 °С (25 °F) in winter. With an elevation of 2,061
metres (6,762 ft) above sea level, Hoverla, part of the
Chornohora mountain range, is the highest point in the oblast. The
lowest point, 101 m (331 ft) above sea level, is located in
the village of Ruski Heyevtsi (Oroszgejőc in Hungarian) in the
Four of the oblast's historical-cultural sites were nominated for the
Seven Wonders of
Ukraine competition in 2007: Palanok Castle, Museum
upon the Chorna River, Mykhailiv Orthodox Church, and the Nevytsky
See also: Carpathian Ruthenia
The lands of Transcarpathia were part of the Kingdom of
896. As such, it formed part of Austria-
Hungary until the latter's
demise at the end of World War I. It approximately consists of four
Hungarian counties (comitatus): Bereg, Ung,
Ugocsa and Maramaros. This
region was briefly part of the short-lived West Ukrainian National
Republic in 1918. The region was annexed by
Romania by the end of that
year, mostly the eastern portion such as
Rakhiv and Khust. It was
later recaptured by
Hungarian Soviet Republic
Hungarian Soviet Republic in the summer of 1919.
Finally, under the name Subcarpathian Rus (Czech: Podkarpatská Rus),
after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 it was annexed to
Czechoslovakia with a supposedly equal level of autonomy as Slovakia
Silesia (Czech lands). Nevertheless,
such autonomy was granted as late as in 1938, after detrimental events
of the Munich Conference; until then this land was administered
Prague by the government-appointed provincial presidents
(zemští prezidenti) and/or elected governors (guvernéři).
The province has a unique footnote in history as the only region in
Czechoslovakia to have had an American governor: its first
governor was Gregory Zatkovich, an American citizen who had earlier
emigrated from the region and represented the Rusyn community in the
U.S. Zatkovich was appointed governor by Czechoslovakia's first
president, T. G. Masaryk in 1920, and served for about one year until
he resigned over differences regarding the region's autonomy.
Zakarpattia (Hutsul Republic) as part of the territory claimed by the
West Ukrainian People's Republic
West Ukrainian People's Republic (1918)
During the World War II German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the
southern part of the region was awarded to
Hungary under the First
Vienna Award in 1938. The remaining portion was constituted as an
autonomous region of the short-lived Second Czechoslovak Republic.
After the occupation of
Moravia on March 15, 1939 and the
Slovak declaration of an independent state, Carpathian Ruthenia
declared its independence as the Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine, but was
immediately occupied and later annexed by Hungary. Because it only
existed on March 15th 1939 the state is known as 'the one-day
Map of Carpatho-Ukraine, an entity that lasted only one day (March 15,
The major Jewish communities of the region had existed in Munkachevo,
Ungvar, and Khust. During the German occupation of
1944-December 1944] , almost the entire Jewish population was
deported; few survived the Holocaust.
In October 1944 the Sub-Carpathian
Ukraine was occupied by the Red
Army. On 26 November 1944 in
Mukacheve took place the First Congress
of People's Committees of Zakarpattia Ukraine, elections to which
took place in November 10-25, 1944. In June 29, 1945, Czechoslovak
Edvard Beneš signed a treaty ceding the area and the next
month it was united with the
Ukrainian SSR through the "Manifest for
unification with the Soviet Ukraine" that was accepted by the 1st
Congress of People's Committees of Sub-Carpathian
Ukraine without any
knowledge of common people. It was then annexed into the Ukrainian SSR
as Zakarpattia Oblast. After the break-up of the Soviet Union, it
became part of independent Ukraine.
After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991,
Ukraine held an
independence referendum in which the residents of Zakarpattia were
asked about the
Zakarpattia Oblast Council's proposal for
self-rule. About 78% of the oblast's population voted in favour of
autonomy; however, it was not granted. There were also propositions
of separating from
Ukraine to rejoin Czechoslovakia, but after
Czechoslovakia's dissolution into the
Czech Republic and the Slovak
Republic (1993), these ideas have been rendered largely moot.
On October 25, 2008, delegates to the Congress of Carpathian
Ruthenians declared the formation of the Republic of Carpathian
Ruthenia. The prosecutor’s office of Zakarpattia region has
filed a case against
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church priest Dmytro Sidor
and Yevhen Zhupan, an Our
Ukraine party deputy of the Zakarpattia
regional council and chairman of the People’s Council of Ruthenians,
on charges of encroaching on the territorial integrity and
inviolability of Ukraine.
Zakarpattia Oblast local election, 2010
Zakarpattia Oblast's local administration is controlled by the
Zakarpattia Oblast Council (rada).
The oblast's governor (since July 2015 Hennadiy Moskal) is
appointed by the President of Ukraine.
Main article: Administrative divisions of Zakarpattia Oblast
Raions and cities of Zakarpattia Oblast.
Historical regions in Zakarpattia Oblast:
Zakarpattia Oblast is administratively subdivided into 13 raions
(districts), as well as 5 cities (municipalities) which are directly
subordinate to the oblast government: Berehove, Chop, Khust,
Mukachevo, and the administrative centre of the oblast, Uzhhorod.
There are a total of 7 cities, 19 towns, and more than 579 villages.
Zakarpattia Oblast incorporates four unofficial geographic-historic
regions (counties): Ung, Bereg,
Ugocsa and Northern Maramuresh. There
is a project for a reform of the current administrative division of
The oblast (region) is divided into 13 raions and five cities of
regional importance including the administrative centre Uzhhorod.
Administrative centres of raions may be located within a city of
regional importance, while such city is not technically a part of the
raion. A city of regional significance may consists of an individual
populated place or be complex of several settlements (the city proper
and suburbs) which are governed by own radas (councils).
Further each raion divided into radas (councils). Cities and towns
(urban type settlements) all have own individual councils, while
villages and rural settlements may be formed into multiple settlements
councils or an individual village council. All cities are either of
regional importance or of district importance.
There are 13 raions (districts) in the oblast:
Raion (54,062) w/o
Raion (96,960) w/o
Raion (101.443) w/o
Rakhiv Raion (90,945)
Raion (74,399) w/o
Uzhhorod city and Chop city
Largest cities or towns in Zakarpattia Oblast
Cities of regional significance
Berehove (Beregszász) (24,274)
Chop (Csap) (8,436)
Other urban settlements
Vynohradiv (Nagyszőlős) (27,600)
Rakhiv (Rahó) (17,000)
Tiachiv (Técső) (9,256)
Velykyy Bychkiv (8,920)
Solotvyno (Slatina, Aknaszlatina) (8,774)
Velyki Luchky (8,540)
Hungarians in Ukraine
Ethnic map of
Zakarpattia Oblast in 2001.
Ukrainians (incl. Rusyns)
Ukrainians (incl. Rusyns) and Russians
Note: The Roma are not represented in the map.
Zakarpattia Oblast in 2001.
According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, the population of Zakarpattia
Oblast is 1,254,614. The current estimated population is
1,259,158 (2016 est.). With the comparison of the last official
Soviet Census of 1989 the total population grew by 0.7%.
Although Ukrainians, including ethnic Rusyns, are in the majority
(80.5%), other ethnic groups are relatively numerous in
Zakarpattia. The largest of these are
Hungarians (12.1%), Romanians
Russians (2.5%), Roma (1.1%),
Slovaks (0.5%) and Germans
(0.3%). The Ukrainian government does not recognize the Rusyn
people living in that country as a distinct nationality but rather as
an ethnic sub-group of Ukrainians. About 10,100 people (0.8%) identify
Rusyns according to the last census.[verification
Out of 1,010,100
Ukrainians in the region, 99.2% (~1,002,019)
identified their native language as Ukrainian, while about 0.5%
(~5,051) consider their native language to be Russian. Out of 151,500
Hungarians, 97.1% (~147,107) consider their native language to be
Hungarian, while about 2.6% (~3,939) consider their native language to
be Ukrainian. Out of 32,100 Romanians, 99.1% (31,811) identified their
native language to be Romanian, while 0.6% (~193) consider their
language Ukrainian. Out of 31,000 Russians, 91.6% (28,396) identified
their native language as Russian, while 8.1% (~2,511) consider their
language Ukrainian. Out of 14,000 Romani peoples only 20.7% (2,898)
identify their native language as Romani, while 62.9% (~8,806)
consider their language Ukrainian or Russian. Out of 5,600 Slovaks
43.9% (2,458) identify their native language as Slovak, while 42.1%
(~2,358) consider their language Ukrainian. Out of 3,500 Germans,
50.0% (1,750) acknowledge their native language, while 38.9% (~1,362)
consider their language Ukrainian. About 81% of the oblast population
Ukrainian language their native language, while 12.7% of
population gives consideration to the
Hungarian language and just over
5% considers either the Russian or Romanian languages.
Around two thirds are Eastern Orthodox and around 25% Catholic. The
largest denomination is the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan
Patriarchate, followed by the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow
Patriarchate and the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church. Smaller
religious groups include Roman Catholics and Protestants, which are
largely associated with minority groups; Roman Catholics and
Protestants tend to be Hungarian or local Ruthenian.
in 2001 (%)
in 1989 (%)
Ukrainians (incl. Rusyns)
Their languages and culture are respected by the provision of
education, clubs, etc. in their respective languages. Those who
recognize Ukrainian as their native language total 81.0% of the
population, Hungarian — 12.7%, Russian — 2.9%, Romanian —
2.6%, and Rusyn — 0.5% Residents in seven of Mukachivskyi
Raion's villages have the option to learn the
Hungarian language in a
school or home school environment.
Zakarpattia is home to approximately 14,000 ethnic Roma (Gypsies), the
highest proportion of Roma in any oblast in Ukraine. The first
Hungarian College in
Ukraine is in Berehovo, the II. Rákoczi Ferenc
Beside the major ethnic groups, Zakarpattia is home to several
Ukrainian ethnic sub-groups such as Boykos, Lemky, Hutsuls, and
Zakarpattia Oblast (2015)
Eastern Orthodoxy (68%)
Eastern Catholicism (19%)
Roman Catholicism (7%)
No religion (1%)
According to a 2015 survey, 68% of the population of Zakarpattia
Oblast adheres to Eastern Orthodoxy, while 19% are followers of the
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and 7% are Roman Catholics.
Protestants and unaffiliated generic Christians make up 1% and 3% of
the population respectively. Only one percent of the population does
not follow any religion.
The Orthodox community of Zakarpattia is divided as follows:
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate - 42%
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate - 33%
Non-denominational - 25%
0-14 years: 19.1% (male 123,009/female 116,213)
15-64 years: 69.8% (male 428,295/female 445,417)
65 years and over: 11.1% (male 48,826/female 89,800) (2013 official)
total: 35.1 years
male: 33.2 years
female: 37.1 years (2013 official)
A salt mine in the town of Solotvyno.
Situated in the Carpathian Mountains, Zakarpattia Oblast's economy
depends mostly on trans-border trade, vinery and forestry. The oblast
is also home to a special economic zone.
The oblast's main industry includes woodworking. Other industries
include food, light industry, and mechanical engineering. The
foodstuffs segment in the structure of ware production of national
consumption is 45%. The total number of large industrial organisations
is 319, compared to 733 small industrial organisations.
The most common crops grown within the region include cereals,
potatoes and other vegetables. In 1999, the total amount of grain
produced was 175,800 tons, of sunflower seeds — 1,300 tons, and
potatoes — 378,200 tons. The region also produced 76,100 tons of
meat, 363,400 tons of milk and 241,900,000 eggs. The total amount
of registered farms in the region was 1,400 in 1999.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June
Church in Kolodne.
Sredne Vodyane churches
Verkhnye Vodyane church
Nyzhnie Selyshche church
Oleksandrivka (uk) church
Carpathian Ruthenia, small historical region
Carpatho-Ukraine, a short-lived Ukrainian state on the territory
Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia
Museum of Folk Architecture and Life, museum displaying Zakarpattia
Eparchy of Mukačevo and Prešov
Kárpátalja football team
^ a b Today Zakarpattia became part of Ukraine. 68 year ago
(Сьогодні Закарпаття увійшло до
складу України. 68 років тому). 7dniv. 29 June
^ a b Poroshenko appoints volunteer Heorhiy Tuka head of Luhansk
Regional State Administration,
Ukraine Today (22 July 2015)
^ a b "Mukachivskyi Raion: Social data". Zakarpattia Oblast
Administration. Retrieved 2007-06-02.
^ a b c d Magocsi, Paul Robert (2007). Ukraine: An Illustrated
History. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
^ Kuzio, Taras. "The Rusyn Question in Ukraine: sorting out fact from
fiction". Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism. XXXII
^ "The name "Kárpátalja", as it appears on the cover of the journal
of the Transcarpathian section of the Hungarian Writers' Union" (PDF).
Christian Pischlöger: Kárpátalja vagy Kárpátontúl? College of
Nyíregyháza" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-03-02.
^ a b c d "Geography".
Zakarpattia Oblast Council (in Ukrainian).
^ a b c d e f "Zakarpattya Region". Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.
^ a b "Transcarpathia is my region". All Zakarpattya. Retrieved
^ "Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians".
UNESCO World Heritage
Centre. Retrieved 2007-07-04.
^ Nesamovyte Lake profile (in Russian)
^ Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto
Press. p. 448. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.
^ Subtelny, p. 458
^ a b "History of the region". All Zakarpattya. Retrieved
^ First Congress of People's Committees of Zakarpattia Ukraine
(ПЕРШИЙ З'ЇЗД НАРОДНИХ КОМІТЕТІВ
ЗАКАРПАТСЬКОЇ УКРАЇНИ). Ukrainian Soviet
^ Subtelny, p. 578
^ "Svoboda Party Calls On SBU To Launch Criminal Case Against
Delegates To Congress Of Carpathian Ruthenians For Declaring
Carpathian Ruthenia Republic". Retrieved 2008-11-06.
^ Is Yushchenko’s Top Aide Backing Ruthenian Separatist Movement?,
The Jamestown Foundation, 5 November 2008
File Case Against People Who Initiated Proclamation Of
Carpathian Ruthenian Republic On Separatism Charges". Retrieved
2008-11-06. (broken link)
^ Admin. div. reform (in Ukrainian)
^ a b "Regions of
Ukraine / Zakarpattia region". 2001 Ukrainian
Census. Retrieved 2007-06-01.
^ "Чисельність наявного населення
України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian).
State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
^ a b "General results of the census / National composition of
population / Zakarpattia region". 2001 Ukrainian Census. Retrieved
^ "General results of the census / National composition of population
/ Zakarpattia region". 2001 Ukrainian Census (in Ukrainian). Retrieved
^ a b c "Релігійні вподобання населення
України". infolight.org.ua. 26 May 2015. Retrieved 13 March
^ "Regions of
Ukraine / Results of the census". 2001 Ukrainian Census
(in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2007-06-03.
^ "History of the Region". World Gazetteer. Retrieved
^ Laws of Ukraine. Verkhovna
Rada law No. 2322-III: On the official
economic zone of "Zakarpattia". Adopted on 2004-03-31. (Ukrainian)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zakarpattia Oblast.
carpathia.gov.ua — Official website of Zakarpattia Oblast
Administration (in Ukrainian)/(in English)
Zakarpattia Council official site (in Ukrainian)
Zaholovok — Zakarpattia actual news(in Ukrainian)
Zakarpattia essays — All about Zakarpattia and Ukraine
Rada website —
Zakarpattia Oblast data
Photos and infrastructure objects of Zakarpattia on interactive map
(Ukrainian Navigational Portal)
News from Zakarpattia (in Ukrainian)
all.zakarpattya.net — All about Zakarpattia (in English)/(in
Zakarpattia Oblast informational portal (in
map.meta.ua — Digital map of
Zakarpattia Oblast (in Ukrainian)
Zakarpattia Oblast – photographs
Dictionary of transcarpathian words (in Ukrainian)
Places adjacent to Zakarpattia Oblast
Lviv Oblast /
Satu Mare County
Administrative divisions of Zakarpattia Oblast
Administrative center: Uzhhorod
Administrative divisions of Ukraine
Cities with special status
1Claimed and controlled by
Russia as the
Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea and the
Federal City of Sevastopol
Timeline of Czechoslovak statehood
Czechoslovak Socialist Republicf
Czech and Slovak Federative Republic
Bohemia and Moravia
Kingdom of Hungary
Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukrained
1944 / 1946 – 1991
a ČSR; boundaries and government established by the 1920
b Annexed by Nazi Germany.
c ČSR; included the autonomous regions of
Slovakia and Carpathian
d Annexed by
e ČSR; declared a "people's democracy" (without formal name change)
Ninth-of-May Constitution following the 1948 coup.
f ČSSR; from 1969, after the
Prague Spring, consisted of the Czech
Socialist Republic (ČSR) and
Slovak Socialist Republic
Slovak Socialist Republic (SSR).
Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR.
Oblast of Ukraine.