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Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
(/trəˈfælɡər/ trə-FAL-gər) is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. Its name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, a British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
with France and Spain
Spain
that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar, Spain. The site of Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
had been a significant landmark since the 13th century and originally contained the King's Mews. After George IV moved the mews to Buckingham Palace, the area was redeveloped by John Nash, but progress was slow after his death, and the square did not open until 1844. The 169-foot (52 m) Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
at its centre is guarded by four lion statues. A number of commemorative statues and sculptures occupy the square, but the Fourth Plinth, left empty since 1840, has been host to contemporary art since 1999. The square has been used for community gatherings and political demonstrations, including Bloody Sunday, the first Aldermaston March, anti-war protests, and campaigns against climate change. A Christmas tree has been donated to the square by Norway since 1947 and is erected for twelve days before and after Christmas
Christmas
Day. The square is a centre of annual celebrations on New Year's Eve. It was well known for its feral pigeons until their removals in the early 21st century.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Clearance and development 2.2 Nelson's Column 2.3 Redevelopment

3 Statues and monuments

3.1 Plinths

3.1.1 Fourth plinth

3.2 Other sculptures

4 Fountains 5 Pigeons 6 Events

6.1 New Year 6.2 Christmas 6.3 Political demonstrations 6.4 Sport 6.5 Other uses

7 Other Trafalgar Squares 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Geography[edit] Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
is owned by the Queen in Right of the Crown[a] and managed by the Greater London
London
Authority, while Westminster
Westminster
City Council owns the roads around the square, including the pedestrianised area of the North Terrace.[2] The square contains a large central area with roadways on three sides and a terrace to the north, in front of the National Gallery. The roads around the square form part of the A4, a major road running west of the City of London.[3] The square was formerly surrounded by a one-way traffic system, but works completed in 2003 reduced the width of the roads and closed the northern side to traffic.[4] Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
is in the centre of the square flanked by fountains designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens
Edwin Lutyens
between 1937 and 1939[5] as replacements for two fountains of Peterhead granite (now in Canada) and guarded by four monumental bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer.[6] At the top of the column is a statue of Horatio Nelson who commanded the British Navy at the Battle of Trafalgar. Surrounding the square are the National Gallery
National Gallery
on the north side and St Martin-in-the-Fields
St Martin-in-the-Fields
Church to the east.[6] To the south west is The Mall leading towards Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace
via Admiralty Arch, while Whitehall
Whitehall
is to the south and the Strand to the east. Charing Cross Road passes between the National Gallery
National Gallery
and the church.[3] London
London
Underground's Charing Cross
Charing Cross
station on the Northern and Bakerloo lines has an exit in the square. The lines had separate stations, of which the Bakerloo line
Bakerloo line
one was called Trafalgar Square until they were linked and renamed in 1979 as part of the construction of the Jubilee line,[7] which was rerouted to Westminster
Westminster
in 1999.[8] Other nearby tube stations are Embankment connecting the District, Circle, Northern and Bakerloo lines, and Leicester Square
Leicester Square
on the Northern and Piccadilly
Piccadilly
lines.[9] London
London
bus routes 3, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 23, 24, 29, 53, 87, 88, 91, 139, 159, 176, 453 pass through Trafalgar Square.[10]

Trafalgar Square, 1908

A 360-degree view of Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
in 2009

History[edit]

A painting by James Pollard
James Pollard
showing the square before the erection of Nelson's Column

Building work on the south side of the square in the late 1950s revealed deposits from the last interglacial. Among the findings were the remains of cave lion, rhinoceros, straight-tusked elephant and hippopotamus.[11][12][13] The site of Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
has been a significant location since the 13th century. During Edward I's reign, the area was the site of the King's Mews, running north from the original Charing Cross, where the Strand from the City met Whitehall
Whitehall
coming north from Westminster.[14] From the reign of Richard II to that of Henry VII, the mews was at the western end of the Strand. The name "Royal Mews" comes from the practice of keeping hawks here for moulting; "mew" is an old word for this. After a fire in 1534, the mews were rebuilt as stables, and remained here until George IV moved them to Buckingham Palace.[15] Clearance and development[edit] After 1732, the King's Mews
King's Mews
were divided into the Great Mews and the smaller Green Mews to the north by the Crown Stables, a large block, built to the designs of William Kent. Its site is occupied by the National Gallery.[16] In 1826 the Commissioners of H.M. Woods, Forests and Land Revenues instructed John Nash to draw up plans for clearing a large area south of Kent's stable block, and as far east as St Martin's Lane. His plans left open the whole area of what became Trafalgar Square, except for a block in the centre, which he reserved for a new building for the Royal Academy.[17] The plans included the demolition and redevelopment of buildings between St Martin's Lane and the Strand and the construction of a road (now called Duncannon Street) across the churchyard of St Martin-in-the-Fields.[18] The Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Act was passed in 1826 and clearance started soon after.[17] Nash died soon after construction started, impeding its progress. The square was to be named for William IV commemorating his ascent to the throne in 1830.[19] Around 1835, it was decided that the square would be named after the Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar
as suggested by architect George Ledwell Taylor, commemorating Nelson's victory over the French and Spanish in 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars.[14][20]

Ten frames of Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
shot by Wordsworth Donisthorpe in 1890

After the clearance, development progressed slowly. The National Gallery was built on the north side between 1832 and 1838 to a design by William Wilkins,[17] and in 1837 the Treasury approved Wilkins' plan for the laying out of the square, but it was not put into effect.[21] In April 1840, following Wilkins' death, new plans by Charles Barry
Charles Barry
were accepted, and construction started within weeks.[17][22] For Barry, as for Wilkins, a major consideration was increasing the visual impact of the National Gallery, which had been widely criticised for its lack of grandeur. He dealt with the complex sloping site by excavating the main area to the level of the footway between Cockspur Street
Cockspur Street
and the Strand,[23] and constructing a 15-foot (4.6 m) high balustraded terrace with a roadway on the north side, and steps at each end leading to the main level.[22] Wilkins had proposed a similar solution with a central flight of steps.[21] Plinths were provided for sculpture and pedestals for lighting. All the stonework was of Aberdeen granite.[22] In 1841 it was decided that two fountains should be included in the layout.[24] The estimated budget, excluding paving and sculptures, was £11,000.[22] The earth removed was used to level Green Park.[23] The square was originally surfaced with tarmacadam, which was replaced with stone in the 1920s.[25] Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
was opened to the public on 1 May 1844.[26] Nelson's Column[edit]

The lions at Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
were not finished until nearly 30 years after the square opened.

Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
was planned independently of Barry's work. In 1838 a Nelson Memorial Committee had approached the government proposing that a monument to the victor of Trafalgar, funded by public subscription, should be erected in the square. A competition was held and won by the architect William Railton, who proposed a 218 feet 3 inches (66.52 m) Corinthinan column topped by a statue of Nelson and guarded by four sculpted lions. The design was approved, but received widespread objections from the public. Construction went ahead beginning in 1840 but with the height reduced to 145 feet 3 inches (44.27 m).[27] The column was completed and the statue raised in November 1843.[28] The last of the bronze reliefs on the column's pedestals was not completed until May 1854, and the four lions, although part of the original design, were only added in 1867.[29] Each lion weighs seven tons.[30] A hoarding remained around the base of Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
for some years and some of its upper scaffolding remained in place.[31] Landseer, the sculptor, had asked for a lion that had died at the London
London
Zoo to be brought to his studio. He took so long to complete sketches that its corpse began to decompose and some parts had to be improvised. The statues have paws that resemble cats more than lions.[32] Barry was unhappy about Nelson's Column
Nelson's Column
being placed in the square. In July 1840, when its foundations had been laid, he told a parliamentary select committee that "it would in my opinion be desirable that the area should be wholly free from all insulated objects of art".[22] In 1940 the Nazi SS developed secret plans to transfer Nelson's Column to Berlin[b] after an expected German invasion, as related by Norman Longmate in If Britain Had Fallen (1972).[33] The square has been Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens since 1996.[34] Redevelopment[edit] A major 18-month redevelopment of the square led by W.S. Atkins with Foster and Partners
Foster and Partners
as sub-consultants was completed in 2003. The work involved closing the eastbound road along the north side and diverting traffic around the other three sides of the square, demolishing the central section of the northern retaining wall and inserting a wide set of steps to the pedestrianised terrace in front of the National Gallery. The construction includes two lifts for disabled access, public toilets and a café. Access between the square and the gallery had been by two crossings at the northeast and northwest corners.[35][36] Statues and monuments[edit] Plinths[edit]

The statue of Sir Henry Havelock
Henry Havelock
by William Behnes

Barry's scheme provided two plinths for sculptures on the north side of the square.[37] A bronze equestrian statue of George IV by Sir Francis Chantrey, originally intended to be placed on top of the Marble Arch,[17] was installed on the eastern plinth in 1844, while the other remained empty until the late-20th century.[37] There are two other statues on plinths, both installed during the 19th century: General Sir Charles James Napier
Charles James Napier
by George Cannon Adams
George Cannon Adams
in the south-west corner in 1855, and Major-General Sir Henry Havelock
Henry Havelock
by William Behnes
William Behnes
in the south-east in 1861.[17] In 2000, the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, suggested replacing the statues with figures more familiar to the general public.[38] Fourth plinth[edit] Main article: Fourth plinth, Trafalgar Square In the 21st century, the empty plinth in the north-west corner of the square, the "Fourth Plinth", has been used to show specially commissioned artworks. The scheme was initiated by the Royal Society of Arts and continued by the Fourth Plinth
Fourth Plinth
Commission, appointed by the Mayor of London.[39] A new sculpture, The Gift Horse designed by Hans Haacke
Hans Haacke
was installed on the fourth plinth on 5 March 2015. It is a model of a horse's skeleton with a live display of the London
London
Stock Exchange.[40] Other sculptures[edit] There are three busts of admirals against the north wall of the square. Those of Lord Jellicoe by Sir Charles Wheeler and Lord Beatty, by William MacMillan were installed in 1948 in conjunction with the square's fountains, which also commemorate them.[41][42] The third, of the Second World War First Sea Lord
First Sea Lord
Admiral Cunningham by Franta Belsky was unveiled alongside them on 2 April 1967.[43] On the south side on the site of the original Charing Cross, is a bronze equestrian statue of Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur. It was cast in 1633, and placed in its present position in 1678.[44] The two statues on the lawn in front of the National Gallery
National Gallery
are the statue of James II by Grinling Gibbons
Grinling Gibbons
to the west of the portico, and of one George Washington, a replica of a work by Jean-Antoine Houdon, to the east[36] that was a gift from the Commonwealth of Virginia installed in 1921.[45] Two statues erected in the 19th century have since been removed. One of Edward Jenner, pioneer of the smallpox vaccine, was set up in the south-west corner of the square in 1858, next to that of Napier. Sculpted by William Calder Marshall, it showed Jenner sitting in a chair in a relaxed pose, and was inaugurated at a ceremony presided over by Prince Albert. It was moved to Kensington Gardens
Kensington Gardens
in 1862.[46][47] The other, of General Charles George Gordon
Charles George Gordon
by Hamo Thornycroft, was erected on an 18-foot high pedestal between the fountains in 1888. It was removed in 1943 and re-sited on the Victoria Embankment ten years later.[48] Fountains[edit]

Fountain
Fountain
at Trafalgar Square, 2014

In 1841, following suggestions from the local paving board, Barry agreed that two fountains should be installed to counteract the effects of reflected heat and glare from the asphalt surface. The First Commissioner of Woods and Forests welcomed the plan because the fountains reduced the open space available for public gatherings and reduced the risk of riotous assembly.[49] The fountains were fed from two wells, one in front of the National Gallery
National Gallery
and one behind it connected by a tunnel. Water was pumped to the fountains by a steam engine housed in a building behind the gallery.[17] In the late-1930s it was decided to replace the pump and the centrepieces of the fountains. The new centrepieces, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, were memorials to Lord Jellicoe and Lord Beatty, although busts of the admirals, initially intended to be placed in the fountain surrounds were placed against the northern retaining wall when the project was completed after the Second World War.[50] The fountains cost almost £50,000. The old ones were presented to the Canadian government and are now located in Ottawa's Confederation Park and Regina's Wascana Centre.[51][52] A programme of restoration was completed by May 2009. The pump system was replaced with one capable of sending an 80-foot (24 m) jet of water into the air.[53] A LED lighting system that can project different combinations of colours on to the fountains was installed to reduce the cost of lighting maintenance and to coincide with the 2012 Summer Olympics.[51] Pigeons[edit] See also: Save the Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
Pigeons

People sitting on lions and feeding pigeons in the square

The square was once famous for feral pigeons and feeding them was a popular activity. Pigeons began flocking to the square before construction was completed and feed sellers became well known in the Victorian era.[54] The desirability of the birds' presence was contentious: their droppings disfigured the stonework and the flock, estimated at its peak to be 35,000, was considered a health hazard.[55][56] A stall seller, Bernie Rayner, infamously sold bird seed to tourists at inflated prices.[57] In February 2001, the sale of bird seed in the square was stopped[55] and other measures were introduced to discourage the pigeons including the use of birds of prey.[58] Supporters continued to feed the birds but in 2003 the mayor, Ken Livingstone, enacted bylaws to ban feeding them in the square.[59] In September 2007 Westminster
Westminster
City Council passed further bylaws banning feeding birds on the pedestrianised North Terrace and other pavements in the area.[60] Nelson's column was repaired from years of damage from pigeon droppings at a cost of £140,000.[57] Events[edit] New Year[edit] For many years, revellers celebrating the New Year
New Year
have gathered in the square despite a lack of celebrations being arranged. The lack of official events was partly because the authorities were concerned that encouraging more partygoers would cause overcrowding. Since 2003, a firework display centred on the London
London
Eye and South Bank
South Bank
of the Thames has been provided as an alternative. Since 2014, New Year celebrations have been organised by the Greater London Authority
Greater London Authority
in conjunction with the charity Unicef, who began ticketing the event to control crowd numbers.[61] Christmas[edit] See also: Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
Christmas
Christmas
tree

The Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
Christmas tree
Christmas tree
in 2008

A Christmas
Christmas
ceremony has been held in the square every year since 1947.[62] A Norway spruce
Norway spruce
(or sometimes a fir) is presented by Norway's capital city, Oslo
Oslo
as London's Christmas
Christmas
tree, a token of gratitude for Britain's support during World War II.[62] (Besides war-time support, Norway's Prince Olav and the country's government lived in exile in London
London
throughout the war.[62]) The Christmas tree
Christmas tree
is decorated with lights that are switched on at a seasonal ceremony.[63] It is usually held twelve days before Christmas Day. The festivity is open to the public and attracts a large number of people.[64] The switch-on is usually followed by several nights of Christmas
Christmas
carol singing and other performances and events.[65] On the twelfth night of Christmas, the tree is taken down for recycling. Westminster
Westminster
City Council threatened to abandon the event to save £5,000 in 1980 but the decision was reversed.[62] The tree is selected by the Head Forester from Oslo's municipal forest and shipped, across the North Sea
North Sea
to the Port of Felixstowe, then by road to Trafalgar Square. The first tree was 48 feet (15 m) tall, but more recently has been around 75 feet (23 m). In 1987, protesters chained themselves to the tree.[62] In 1990, a man sawed into the tree with a chainsaw a few hours before a New Year's Eve party was scheduled to take place. He was arrested and the tree was repaired by tree surgeons who removed gouged sections from the trunk while the tree was suspended from a crane.[66] Political demonstrations[edit]

A demonstration in Trafalgar Square

The square has become a social and political focus for visitors and Londoners, developing over its history from "an esplanade peopled with figures of national heroes, into the country's foremost place politique", as historian Rodney Mace has written. Since its construction, it has been a venue for political demonstrations.[36] The great Chartist rally in 1848, a campaign for social reform by the working class began in the square.[36] A ban on political rallies remained in effect until the 1880s, when the emerging Labour movement, particularly the Social Democratic Federation, began holding protests. On 8 February 1886 (also known as "Black Monday"), protesters rallied against unemployment leading to a riot in Pall Mall. A larger riot ("Bloody Sunday") occurred in the square on 13 November 1887.[67] The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament's first Aldermaston March, protesting against the Atomic Weapons Establishment
Atomic Weapons Establishment
(AWE), began in the square in 1958.[36] One of the first significant demonstrations of the modern era was held in the square on 19 September 1961 by the Committee of 100, which included the philosopher Bertrand Russell. The protesters rallied for peace and against war and nuclear weapons. In March 1968, a crowd of 10,000 demonstrated against US involvement in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
before marching to the American Embassy in Grosvenor Square.[68]

Protesting against harassment of photographers under anti-terrorism law, 23 January 2010

Throughout the 1980s, a continuous anti-apartheid protest was held outside South Africa House. In 1990, the Poll Tax Riots
Poll Tax Riots
began by a demonstration attended by 200,000 people and ultimately caused rioting in the surrounding area.[36] More recently, there have been anti-war demonstrations opposing the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War.[69] A large vigil was held shortly after the terrorist bombings in London
London
on Thursday, 7 July 2005.[70] In December 2009, participants from the Camp for Climate Action occupied the square for the two weeks during which the UN Conference on Climate Change took place in Copenhagen.[71] It was billed as a UK base for direct action on climate change and saw various actions and protests stem from the occupation.[72][73][74] In March 2011, the square was occupied by a crowd protesting against the UK Budget and proposed budget cuts. During the night the situation turned violent as the escalation by riot police and protesters damaged portions of the square.[75] In November 2015 a vigil against the terrorist attacks in Paris was held. Crowds sang the French national anthem, La Marseillaise, and held banners in support of the city and country.[76] Every year on the anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar
(21 October), the Sea Cadet Corps holds a parade in honour of Admiral Lord Nelson and the British victory over the combined fleets of Spain
Spain
and France at Trafalgar.[77] The Royal British Legion
Royal British Legion
holds a Silence in the Square event on Armistice Day, 11 November, in remembrance of those who died in war. The event includes music and poetry readings, culminating in a bugler playing the Last Post
Last Post
and a two-minute silence at 11 am.[78] Sport[edit] In the 21st century, Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
has been the location for several sporting events and victory parades. In June 2002, 12,000 people gathered to watch the England
England
national football team's World Cup quarter-final against Brazil on giant video screens which had been erected for the occasion.[79] The square was used by the England national rugby union team on 9 December 2003 to celebrate their victory in the 2003 Rugby World Cup,[80] and on 13 September 2005 for the England
England
national cricket team's victory in the Ashes series.[81] On 6 July 2005 Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
hosted the announcement of London's bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics.[82] A countdown clock was erected in March 2011, although engineering and weather-related faults caused it to stop a day later.[83] In 2007, it hosted the opening ceremonies of the Tour de France[84] and was part of the course for subsequent races.[85] Other uses[edit]

Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
temporarily grassed over in May 2007

The Sea Cadets
Sea Cadets
hold an annual celebration of the Battle of Trafalgar victory along the square. The parade runs from Horse Guard's Parade, along Whitehall
Whitehall
to Nelson's Column.[86] As an archetypal London
London
location, Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
featured in film and television productions during the Swinging London
London
era of the late 1960s, including The Avengers,[87] Casino Royale,[88] Doctor Who,[89] and The Ipcress File.[90] It was used for filming several sketches and a cartoon backdrop in the BBC
BBC
comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus.[91] In May 2007, the square was grassed over with 2,000 square metres of turf for two days in a campaign by London
London
authorities to promote "green spaces" in the city.[92] In July 2011, due to building works in Leicester Square, the world premiere of the final film in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2, was held in Trafalgar Square, with a 0.75-mile (1.21 km) red carpet linking the squares. Fans camped in Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
for up to three days before the premiere, despite torrential rain. It was the first premiere ever to be held there.[93] Other Trafalgar Squares[edit] A Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
in Stepney
Stepney
is recorded in Lockie's Topography of London, published in 1810.[94] Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
in Scarborough, North Yorkshire gives its name to the Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
End at the town's North Marine Road cricket ground.[95] National Heroes Square in Bridgetown, Barbados, was named Trafalgar Square in 1813, before its better-known British namesake. It was renamed in 1999 to commemorate national heroes of Barbados.[96] There is a life scale replica of the square in Bahria Town, Lahore, Pakistan where it is a tourist attraction and centre for local residents.[97] See also[edit]

Canada House Parliament Square South Africa House

References[edit] Notes

^ "Queen in Right of the Crown" is legal fiction denoting the land is privately owned by the Queen and it is legally possible, though unlikely, to be sold to another individual. The Crown Jewels
Crown Jewels
are under similar ownership.[1] ^ Hitler had specifically requested that all of Rembrandt's paintings in the National Gallery
National Gallery
be seized as part of the move, as he particularly admired the artist's work.[33]

Citations

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News. 21 December 1997. Retrieved 21 December 2015.  ^ " Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
tree lighting ceremony". Met Office. Retrieved 25 February 2013.  ^ " Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
sparkles blue as Christmas tree
Christmas tree
lights go on". London
London
Evening Standard. Retrieved 28 February 2013.  ^ " Christmas
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in Trafalgar Square". Greater London
London
Council. Retrieved 21 December 2015.  ^ Associated Press (31 December 1990). "Man Takes Chain Saw to Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
Tree, but Tannenbaum Stands". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 22 December 2015.  ^ Crick 1994, p. 47. ^ "On This Day – 17 March – 1968: Anti-Vietnam demo turns violent". bbc.co.uk. BBC
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London
falls silent for bomb dead, BBC
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in Battle of Trafalgar
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fans mourn defeat, BBC
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Sources

Barker, Michael (2005). Sir Edwin Lutyens. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7478-0582-3.  Crick, Martin (1994). The History of the Social-Democratic Federation. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-1-85331-091-1.  Larsen, Darl (2008). Monty Python's Flying Circus: An Utterly Complete, Thoroughly Unillustrated, Absolutely Unauthorized Guide to Possibly All the References. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-8108-6131-2.  Longmate, Norman (2012). If Britain Had Fallen: The Real Nazi Occupation Plans (reprinted / illustrated ed.). Frontline Books. ISBN 978-1-84832-647-7.  Mace, Rodney (1976). Trafalgar Square: Emblem of Empire. London: Lawrence and Wishart. ISBN 0-85315-368-X.  Second edition published as Mace, Rodney (2005). Trafalgar Square: Emblem of Empire (2nd ed.). London: Lawrence and Wishart. ISBN 1-905007-11-6.  Moore, Tim (2003). Do Not Pass Go. Vintage. ISBN 978-0-09-943386-6.  Weinreb, Ben; Hibbert, Christopher; Keay, Julia; Keay, John (2008). The London
London
Encyclopedia. Pan MacMillan. ISBN 978-1-4050-4924-5. 

Further reading[edit]

"Fourth Plinth". blitzandblight.com. 12 February 2007. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2016.  Hackman, Gill (2014). Stone to Build London: Portland's Legacy. Monkton Farleigh: Folly Books. ISBN 978-0-9564405-9-4. OCLC 910854593.  Book includes details of the Portland stone buildings around Trafalgar Square, including St Martin in the Fields, the National Gallery
National Gallery
and Admiralty Arch. Hargreaves, Roger (2005). Trafalgar Square: Through the Camera. London: National Portrait Gallery Publications. ISBN 1-85514-345-3.  Holt, Gavin (1934). Trafalgar Square. London: Hodder & Stoughton. OCLC 220695363.  Hood, Jean (2005). Trafalgar Square: A Visual History of London's Landmark through Time. London: Batsford. ISBN 0-7134-8967-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
(category)

Official website of Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
on the Mayor of London's website Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
webcam from Camvista.com

v t e

Trafalgar Square, London

Buildings

Current

Clockwise from North: National Gallery St Martin-in-the-Fields South Africa House Drummonds Bank Admiralty Arch Uganda House

Embassy of Burundi High Commission of Uganda

Canadian Pacific building Admiralty (pub) Canada House

Former

Morley's Hotel Northumberland House Royal Mews

Statues

Plinths

SE: Henry Havelock SW: Charles Napier NE: George IV NW: Fourth plinth

Busts

Lord Beatty Lord Jellicoe Lord Cunningham

Other

Charles I

Charing Cross

Nelson's Column James II George Washington

Adjacent streets

Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Road Cockspur Street Northumberland Avenue Strand Whitehall

People

Architects

Charles Barry Norman Foster Edwin Lutyens John Nash

Fourth plinth sculptors

Elmgreen and Dragset Katharina Fritsch

Hahn/Cock

Antony Gormley

One & Other

Marc Quinn Thomas Schütte Yinka Shonibare Mark Wallinger Rachel Whiteread Bill Woodrow

Events

Poll Tax Riots

Miscellaneous

Christmas
Christmas
tree

Category Commons

v t e

London
London
landmarks

Buildings and structures

Bridges

Albert Bridge Blackfriars Bridge Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges Lambeth Bridge London
London
Bridge Millennium Footbridge Southwark Bridge Tower Bridge Vauxhall Bridge Waterloo Bridge Westminster
Westminster
Bridge

Entertainment venues

Cinemas

Empire, Leicester Square BFI IMAX Odeon, Leicester Square

Football stadia

Wembley Stadium
Wembley Stadium
(national stadium) Craven Cottage
Craven Cottage
(Fulham) The Den
The Den
(Millwall) Emirates Stadium
Emirates Stadium
(Arsenal) Loftus Road
Loftus Road
(Queens Park Rangers) London
London
Stadium (West Ham United) Selhurst Park
Selhurst Park
(Crystal Palace) Stamford Bridge (Chelsea) The Valley (Charlton Athletic) White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane
(Tottenham Hotspur)

Other major sports venues

All England
England
Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club The Championship Course
The Championship Course
(rowing) Crystal Palace National Sports Centre Lord's
Lord's
(cricket) Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park The Oval
The Oval
(cricket) Twickenham Stadium
Twickenham Stadium
(rugby)

Theatres

Adelphi Apollo Victoria Coliseum Criterion Dominion Lyceum Old Vic Palladium Royal National Theatre Royal Opera House Shakespeare's Globe Theatre Royal, Drury Lane Theatre Royal Haymarket Vaudeville

Other

Alexandra Palace Brixton Academy ExCeL Hammersmith Apollo O2 Arena Royal Albert Hall Royal Festival Hall Wembley Arena

Government

10 Downing Street Admiralty Arch Bank of England City Hall County Hall Guildhall Horse Guards Mansion House National Archives Old Bailey Palace of Westminster Royal Courts of Justice Scotland Yard SIS Building

Museums and galleries

British Museum Cutty Sark Golden Hinde HMS Belfast Imperial War Museum Madame Tussauds Museum of London National Gallery National Maritime Museum Natural History Museum Royal Academy of Arts Royal Observatory Science Museum Tate Britain Tate Modern Tower of London Victoria and Albert Museum

Places of worship

All Hallows-by-the-Tower BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Bevis Marks Synagogue Methodist Central Hall Regent's Park
Regent's Park
Mosque St Martin-in-the-Fields St Mary-le-Bow St Paul's Cathedral Southwark Cathedral Westminster
Westminster
Abbey Westminster
Westminster
Cathedral

Retailing

Shops

Fortnum & Mason Hamleys Harrods Liberty Peter Jones Selfridges

Shopping centres and markets

Borough Market Brent Cross Burlington Arcade Kensington Arcade Leadenhall Market The Mall Wood Green One New Change Petticoat Lane Market Royal Exchange Westfield London Westfield Stratford City

Royal buildings

Partly occupied by the Royal Family

Buckingham Palace Clarence House Kensington Palace St James's Palace

Unoccupied

Banqueting House Hampton Court Palace Kew Palace The Queen's Gallery Royal Mews, Buckingham Palace

Skyscrapers

Broadgate Tower 1 Canada Square 8 Canada Square 25 Canada Square 1 Churchill Place 20 Fenchurch Street Heron Tower Leadenhall Building The Shard St George Wharf Tower 30 St Mary Axe Tower 42

Structures

Albert Memorial ArcelorMittal Orbit Big Ben Cleopatra's Needle Crystal Palace transmitting station London
London
Eye London
London
Wall Marble Arch The Monument Nelson's Column Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain
Fountain
("Eros") Thames Barrier Wellington Arch

Transport

City Airport Heathrow Airport Charing Cross
Charing Cross
station Clapham Junction station Euston station King's Cross station Liverpool Street station London
London
Bridge station Paddington station St Pancras station Stratford station Victoria station Waterloo station Victoria Coach Station Emirates Air Line cable car

Other

Barbican Estate Battersea Power Station British Library BT Tower Kew Gardens Lambeth Palace Lloyd's building London
London
Zoo Oxo Tower St Bartholomew's Hospital Smithfield Market Somerset House

Parks

Royal Parks

Bushy Park Green Park Greenwich Park Hampton Court Park Hyde Park Kensington Gardens Regent's Park Richmond Park St. James's Park

Other

Battersea Park Burgess Park Clapham Common College Green Epping Forest Finsbury Park Gunnersbury Park Hampstead Heath Holland Park Mitcham Common Osterley Park Trent Park Victoria Park Wandsworth Common Wimbledon Common

Squares and public spaces

Covent Garden Horse Guards Parade Leicester Square Oxford Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly
Piccadilly
Circus Sloane Square Trafalgar Square

Streets

Aldwych Baker Street Bishopsgate Bond Street Carnaby Street Chancery Lane Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Road Cheapside Cornhill Denmark Street Fenchurch Street Fleet Street Haymarket Jermyn Street Kensington High Street King's Road Lombard Street The Mall Oxford Street Park Lane Piccadilly Portobello Road Regent Street Shaftesbury Avenue Sloane Street Strand Tottenham Court Road Victoria Em

.