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Tokyo
Tokyo
(/ˈtoʊkioʊ/, Japanese: [toːkʲoː] ( listen)), officially Tokyo Metropolis,[6] is the capital city of Japan
Japan
and one of its 47 prefectures.[7] The Greater Tokyo Area
Greater Tokyo Area
is the most populous metropolitan area in the world.[8] It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan
Japan
and the Japanese government. Tokyo
Tokyo
is in the Kantō region
Kantō region
on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu
Honshu
and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands.[9] Formerly known as Edo, it has been the de facto seat of government since 1603 when Shōgun
Shōgun
Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. It officially became the capital after Emperor Meiji
Emperor Meiji
moved his seat to the city from the old capital of Kyoto
Kyoto
in 1868; at that time Edo
Edo
was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis
Metropolis
was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture (東京府, Tōkyō-fu) and the city of Tokyo
Tokyo
(東京市, Tōkyō-shi). Tokyo
Tokyo
is often referred to as a city, but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government
Tokyo Metropolitan Government
administers the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo
Tokyo
(each governed as an individual city), which cover the area that was the city of Tokyo
Tokyo
before it merged and became the metropolitan prefecture in 1943, the 30 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, and the two outlying island chains. The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of the prefecture exceeding 13 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area with upwards of 37.8 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy. In 2011, the city hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world, at that time.[10] Tokyo
Tokyo
ranked third (twice) in the International Financial Centres Development IndexEdit. The city is also home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo
Tokyo
MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK
NHK
and the Tokyo
Tokyo
Broadcasting System. Tokyo
Tokyo
ranked first in the Global Economic Power Index and third in the Global Cities Index. The city is considered an alpha+ world city – as listed by the GaWC's 2008 inventory[11] – and in 2014, Tokyo
Tokyo
was ranked first in the "Best overall experience" category of TripAdvisor's World City Survey (the city also ranked first in the following categories: "helpfulness of locals", "nightlife", "shopping", "local public transportation" and "cleanliness of streets").[12] In 2015, Tokyo
Tokyo
was ranked as the 11th most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm,[13] and also the world's 11th most expensive city, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.[14] In 2015, Tokyo
Tokyo
was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle.[15] The Michelin Guide
Michelin Guide
has awarded Tokyo
Tokyo
by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world.[16][17] Tokyo
Tokyo
was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index.[18] The 2016 edition of QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo
Tokyo
as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student.[19] Tokyo
Tokyo
hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, and the 1993 G-7 summit, and will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics
2020 Summer Olympics
and the 2020 Summer Paralympics.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Pre-1869 ( Edo
Edo
Period) 2.2 1869–1943 2.3 1943–present

3 Geography

3.1 Special
Special
wards 3.2 Tama Area (Western Tokyo)

3.2.1 Cities 3.2.2 Nishi-Tama District

3.3 Islands 3.4 National parks 3.5 Seismicity

3.5.1 Common seismicity 3.5.2 Infrequent powerful quakes

3.6 Climate

4 Cityscape 5 Environment 6 Demographics 7 Economy 8 Transportation 9 Education 10 Culture 11 Sports 12 In popular culture 13 International relations

13.1 Sister cities, sister states, and friendship agreements

14 See also 15 References 16 Bibliography 17 Further reading

17.1 Guides 17.2 Contemporary

18 External links

Etymology[edit] Tokyo
Tokyo
was originally known as Edo
Edo
(江戸), which means "estuary".[20] Its name was changed to Tokyo
Tokyo
(東京, Tōkyō, 東 tō "east", and 京 kyō "capital") when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji
Emperor Meiji
in 1868,[21] in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital (京) in the name of the capital city (like Kyoto-京都, Beijing-北京 and Nanjing-南京).[20] During the early Meiji period, the city was also called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph. Some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei";[22] however, this pronunciation is now obsolete.[23] The name Tokyo
Tokyo
was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku (ja) (Secret Plan of Commingling), written by Satō Nobuhiro.[citation needed] When Ōkubo Toshimichi
Ōkubo Toshimichi
proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi (織田完之),[vague] he got the idea from that book. History[edit] Main articles: History of Tokyo
History of Tokyo
and Timeline of Tokyo Pre-1869 ( Edo
Edo
Period)[edit]

A painting depicting the Commodore Matthew Perry
Commodore Matthew Perry
expedition and his first arrival in Japan
Japan
in 1853

Tokyo
Tokyo
was originally a small fishing village named Edo,[9] in what was formerly part of the old Musashi Province.[24] Edo
Edo
was first fortified by the Edo
Edo
clan, in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo
Edo
Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
made Edo
Edo
his base. When he became shōgun in 1603, the town became the center of his nationwide military government. During the subsequent Edo
Edo
period, Edo
Edo
grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century.[25] Edo
Edo
became the de facto capital of Japan,[26] even while the Emperor lived in Kyoto, the imperial capital. During this time, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, and in the presence of such peace, Edo
Edo
adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.[27] The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo
Edo
to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires, earthquakes, and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry
Matthew C. Perry
in 1853. Commodore Perry negotiated the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation.[28] Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations, especially in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments.[29] Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that these widespread rebellious demonstrations were causing to further consolidate power by overthrowing the last Tokugawa shōgun, Yoshinobu, in 1867.[30] After 265 years, the Pax Tokugawa came to an end.

Kidai Shōran (熈代勝覧), 1805. It illustrates scenes from the Edo period taking place along the Nihonbashi main street in Tokyo.

1869–1943[edit] Main articles: Tokyo City
Tokyo City
and Tokyo
Tokyo
Prefecture

Ginza
Ginza
area in 1933

In 1869, the 17-year-old Emperor Meiji
Emperor Meiji
moved to Edo, and in accordance the city was renamed Tokyo
Tokyo
(meaning Eastern Capital). The city was divided into Yamanote and Shitamachi. Tokyo
Tokyo
was already the nation's political and cultural center,[31] and the emperor's residence made it a de facto imperial capital as well, with the former Edo
Edo
Castle becoming the Imperial Palace. The city of Tokyo
Tokyo
was officially established on May 1, 1889. Central Tokyo, like Osaka, has been designed since about 1900 to be centered on major railway stations in a high-density fashion, so suburban railways were built relatively cheaply at street level and with their own right-of-way. This differs from many cities in the United States
United States
that are low-density and automobile-centric. Though expressways have been built in Tokyo, the basic design has not changed. Tokyo
Tokyo
went on to suffer two major catastrophes in the 20th century: the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, which left 140,000 dead or missing; and World War II.[32] 1943–present[edit]

Tokyo
Tokyo
burning in 1945

In 1943, the city of Tokyo
Tokyo
merged with the prefecture of Tokyo
Tokyo
to form the "Metropolitan Prefecture" of Tokyo. Since then, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government served as both the prefecture government for Tokyo, as well as administering the special wards of Tokyo, for what had previously been Tokyo
Tokyo
City. World War II
World War II
wrought widespread destruction of most of the city due to the persistent Allied air raids on Japan
Japan
and the use of incendiary bombs. The bombing of Tokyo
Tokyo
in 1944 and 1945 is estimated to have killed between 75,000 and 200,000 civilians and left more than half of the city destroyed.[33] The deadliest night of the war came on March 9–10, 1945, the night of the American "Operation Meetinghouse" raid;[34] as nearly 700,000 incendiary bombs rained on the eastern half of the city, mainly in heavily residential wards. Two-fifths of the city were completely burned, more than 276,000 buildings were demolished, 100,000 civilians were killed, and 110,000 more were injured.[35][36] Between 1940 and 1945, the population of Japan's capital city dwindled from 6,700,000 to less than 2,800,000, with the majority of those who lost their homes living in "ramshackle, makeshift huts".[37]

The Tokyo
Tokyo
Tower, built in 1958

2011 Tōhoku earthquake
2011 Tōhoku earthquake
did slight damage to the antenna of Tokyo Tower.

After the war, Tokyo
Tokyo
was completely rebuilt, and was showcased to the world during the 1964 Summer Olympics. The 1970s brought new high-rise developments such as Sunshine 60, a new and controversial[38] airport at Narita in 1978 (some distance outside city limits), and a population increase to about 11 million (in the metropolitan area). Tokyo's subway and commuter rail network became one of the busiest in the world[39] as more and more people moved to the area. In the 1980s, real estate prices skyrocketed during a real estate and debt bubble. The bubble burst in the early 1990s, and many companies, banks, and individuals were caught with mortgage backed debts while real estate was shrinking in value. A major recession followed, making the 1990s Japan's "Lost Decade",[40] from which it is now slowly recovering. Tokyo
Tokyo
still sees new urban developments on large lots of less profitable land. Recent projects include Ebisu Garden Place, Tennozu Isle, Shiodome, Roppongi Hills, Shinagawa
Shinagawa
(now also a Shinkansen station), and the Marunouchi
Marunouchi
side of Tokyo
Tokyo
Station. Buildings of significance are demolished for more up-to-date shopping facilities such as Omotesando Hills. Land reclamation projects in Tokyo
Tokyo
have also been going on for centuries. The most prominent is the Odaiba
Odaiba
area, now a major shopping and entertainment center. Various plans have been proposed[41] for transferring national government functions from Tokyo
Tokyo
to secondary capitals in other regions of Japan, in order to slow down rapid development in Tokyo
Tokyo
and revitalize economically lagging areas of the country. These plans have been controversial[42] within Japan
Japan
and have yet to be realized. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake
2011 Tōhoku earthquake
and tsunami that devastated much of the northeastern coast of Honshu
Honshu
was felt in Tokyo. However, due to Tokyo's earthquake-resistant infrastructure, damage in Tokyo
Tokyo
was very minor compared to areas directly hit by the tsunami,[43] although activity in the city was largely halted.[44] The subsequent nuclear crisis caused by the tsunami has also largely left Tokyo
Tokyo
unaffected, despite occasional spikes in radiation levels.[45][46] On September 7, 2013, the IOC
IOC
selected Tokyo
Tokyo
to host the 2020 Summer Olympics. Tokyo
Tokyo
will be the first Asian city to host the Olympic Games twice.[47] Geography[edit] Main articles: Tokyo Metropolitan Government
Tokyo Metropolitan Government
and List of mergers in Tokyo

Satellite photo of Tokyo's 23 Special
Special
wards taken by NASA's Landsat 7

Tokyo Metropolitan Government
Tokyo Metropolitan Government
Building

The mainland portion of Tokyo
Tokyo
lies northwest of Tokyo Bay
Tokyo Bay
and measures about 90 km (56 mi) east to west and 25 km (16 mi) north to south. The average elevation in Tokyo
Tokyo
is 40 m (131 ft).[48] Chiba Prefecture
Chiba Prefecture
borders it to the east, Yamanashi to the west, Kanagawa to the south, and Saitama to the north. Mainland Tokyo
Tokyo
is further subdivided into the special wards (occupying the eastern half) and the Tama area (多摩地域) stretching westwards. Also within the administrative boundaries of Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolis
Metropolis
are two island chains in the Pacific Ocean directly south: the Izu Islands, and the Ogasawara Islands, which stretch more than 1,000 km (620 mi) away from the mainland. Because of these islands and the mountainous regions to the west, Tokyo's overall population density figures far under-represent the real figures for the urban and suburban regions of Tokyo. Under Japanese law, Tokyo
Tokyo
is designated as a to (都), translated as metropolis.[49] Its administrative structure is similar to that of Japan's other prefectures. The 23 special wards (特別区 -ku), which until 1943 constituted the city of Tokyo, are now separate, self-governing municipalities, each having a mayor in the case of, a council, and the status of a city. In addition to these 23 special wards, Tokyo
Tokyo
also includes 26 more cities (市 -shi), five towns (町 -chō or machi), and eight villages (村 -son or -mura), each of which has a local government. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government, which administers the whole metropolis, is headed by a publicly elected governor and metropolitan assembly. Its headquarters are located in Shinjuku
Shinjuku
Ward.

Special
Special
wards[edit]

A map of Tokyo's 23 special wards

The special wards (特別区, tokubetsu-ku) of Tokyo
Tokyo
comprise the area formerly incorporated as Tokyo
Tokyo
City. On July 1, 1943, Tokyo City
Tokyo City
was merged with Tokyo Prefecture
Tokyo Prefecture
(東京府, Tōkyō-fu) forming the current "metropolitan prefecture". As a result, unlike other city wards in Japan, these wards are not conterminous with a larger incorporated city. While falling under the jurisdiction of Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolitan Government, each ward is also a borough with its own elected leader and council, like other cities of Japan. The special wards use the word "city" in their official English name (e.g. Chiyoda City). The wards differ from other cities in having a unique administrative relationship with the prefectural government. Certain municipal functions, such as waterworks, sewerage, and fire-fighting, are handled by the Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolitan Government. To pay for the added administrative costs, the prefecture collects municipal taxes, which would usually be levied by the city.[50] The special wards of Tokyo
Tokyo
are:

Adachi Arakawa Bunkyo Chiyoda

Chūō Edogawa Itabashi Katsushika

Kita Kōtō Meguro Minato

Nakano Nerima Ōta Setagaya

Shibuya Shinagawa Shinjuku Suginami

Sumida Taitō Toshima

The "three central wards" of Tokyo
Tokyo
– Chiyoda, Chūō and Minato – are the business core of the city, with a daytime population more than seven times higher than their nighttime population.[51] Chiyoda Ward is unique in that it is in the very heart of the former Tokyo
Tokyo
City, yet is one of the least populated wards. It is occupied by many major Japanese companies, and is also the seat of the national government, and the Japanese emperor. It is often called the "political center" of the country.[52] Akihabara, known for being an otaku cultural center and a shopping district for computer goods, is also located in Chiyoda. Tama Area (Western Tokyo)[edit]

A map of cities in western part of Tokyo. They border on the three westernmost special wards in the map above

To the west of the special wards, Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolis
Metropolis
consists of cities, towns and villages that enjoy the same legal status as those elsewhere in Japan. While serving as "bed towns" for those working in central Tokyo, some of them also have a local commercial and industrial base. Collectively, these are often known as the Tama area or Western Tokyo. Cities[edit] Twenty-six cities lie within the western part of Tokyo:

Akiruno Akishima Chōfu Fuchū Fussa

Hachiōji Hamura Higashikurume Higashimurayama Higashiyamato

Hino Inagi Kiyose Kodaira Koganei

Kokubunji Komae Kunitachi Machida Mitaka

Musashimurayama Musashino Nishitōkyō Ōme Tachikawa Tama

The Tokyo Metropolitan Government
Tokyo Metropolitan Government
has designated Hachiōji, Tachikawa, Machida, Ōme and Tama New Town as regional centers of the Tama area,[53] as part of its plans to disperse urban functions away from central Tokyo. Nishi-Tama District[edit]

Map of Nishi-Tama District in green

The far west of the Tama area is occupied by the district (gun) of Nishi-Tama. Much of this area is mountainous and unsuitable for urbanization. The highest mountain in Tokyo, Mount Kumotori, is 2,017 m (6,617 ft) high; other mountains in Tokyo
Tokyo
include Takasu (1,737 m (5,699 ft)), Odake (1,266 m (4,154 ft)), and Mitake (929 m (3,048 ft)). Lake Okutama, on the Tama River
Tama River
near Yamanashi Prefecture, is Tokyo's largest lake. The district is composed of three towns (Hinode, Mizuho and Okutama) and one village (Hinohara).

Tama

Hachioji

Musashino

Islands[edit]

Map of the Izu Islands
Izu Islands
in black labels

Map of the Ogasawara Islands
Ogasawara Islands
in black labels

Tokyo
Tokyo
has numerous outlying islands, which extend as far as 1,850 km (1,150 mi) from central Tokyo. Because of the islands' distance from the administrative headquarters of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in Shinjuku, local subprefectural branch offices administer them. The Izu Islands
Izu Islands
are a group of volcanic islands and form part of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park. The islands in order from closest to Tokyo
Tokyo
are Izu Ōshima, Toshima, Nii-jima, Shikine-jima, Kōzu-shima, Miyake-jima, Mikurajima, Hachijō-jima, and Aogashima. The Izu Islands are grouped into three subprefectures. Izu Ōshima
Izu Ōshima
and Hachijojima are towns. The remaining islands are six villages, with Niijima and Shikinejima forming one village. The Ogasawara Islands
Ogasawara Islands
include, from north to south, Chichi-jima, Nishinoshima, Haha-jima, Kita Iwo Jima, Iwo Jima, and Minami Iwo Jima. Ogasawara also administers two tiny outlying islands: Minami Torishima, the easternmost point in Japan
Japan
and at 1,850 km (1,150 mi) the most distant island from central Tokyo, and Okinotorishima, the southernmost point in Japan. Japan's claim on an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) surrounding Okinotorishima
Okinotorishima
is contested by China
China
and South Korea
South Korea
as they regard Okinotorishima
Okinotorishima
as uninhabitable rocks which have no EEZ. The Iwo chain and the outlying islands have no permanent population, but host Japanese Self-Defense Forces personnel. Local populations are only found on Chichi-jima
Chichi-jima
and Haha-jima. The islands form both Ogasawara Subprefecture
Ogasawara Subprefecture
and the village of Ogasawara, Tokyo.

Subprefecture Municipality Type

Hachijō Hachijō Town

Aogashima Village

Miyake Miyake Village

Mikurajima Village

Ōshima Ōshima Town

Toshima Village

Niijima Village

Kōzushima Village

Ogasawara Ogasawara Village

National parks[edit]

Ogasawara National Park, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Natural Heritage site

As of March 31, 2008, 36% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks (second only to Shiga Prefecture), namely the Chichibu Tama Kai, Fuji-Hakone-Izu, and Ogasawara National Parks (the last a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site); Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park; and Akikawa Kyūryō, Hamura Kusabana Kyūryō, Sayama, Takao Jinba, Takiyama, and Tama Kyūryō Prefectural Natural Parks.[54] A number of museums are located in Ueno Park: Tokyo
Tokyo
National Museum, National Museum of Nature and Science, Shitamachi Museum
Shitamachi Museum
and National Museum for Western Art, among others. There are also art works and statues at several places in the park. There is also a zoo in the park, and the park is a popular destination to view cherry blossoms.

Seismicity[edit]

A bilingual sign with instructions (in Japanese and English) in case of an earthquake (Shibuya)

Common seismicity[edit] Tokyo
Tokyo
is near the boundary of three plates, making it an extremely active region for smaller quakes and slippage which frequently affect the urban area with swaying as if in a boat; ironically, epicenters within mainland Tokyo
Tokyo
(excluding Tokyo's 2000 km long island jurisdiction) are quite rare. It's not uncommon in the metro area to have hundreds of these such minor quakes (magnitudes 4–6) that can be felt in single year, something local residents merely brush off but can be a source of anxiety to not only to foreign visitors but Japanese from elsewhere as well. They rarely cause much damage (sometimes a few injuries) as they are either too small or far away as quakes tend to dance around the region. Particularly active are offshore regions and to a lesser extent Chiba and Ibaraki.[55] Infrequent powerful quakes[edit] Tokyo
Tokyo
has been hit by powerful megathrust earthquakes in 1703, 1782, 1812, 1855, 1923, and much more indirectly (some liquefaction in landfill zones) in 2011;[56][57] the frequency of direct and large quakes is a relative rarity. The 1923 earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 8.3, killed 142,000 people, the last time the urban area was directly hit. The 2011 quake focus was hundreds of km away and resulted in no direct deaths in the metropolitan area. Climate[edit] The former city of Tokyo
Tokyo
and the majority of mainland Tokyo
Tokyo
lie in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification Cfa),[58] with warm humid summers and generally cool winters with cold spells. The region, like much of Japan, experiences a one-month seasonal lag, with the warmest month being August, which averages 26.4 °C (79.5 °F), and the coolest month being January, averaging 5.2 °C (41.4 °F). The record low temperature is −9.2 °C (15.4 °F) on January 13, 1876 while the record high is 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) on July 20, 2004.[59] Annual rainfall averages nearly 1,530 millimetres (60.2 in), with a wetter summer and a drier winter. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost annually.[60] Tokyo
Tokyo
also often sees typhoons every year, though few are strong. The wettest month since records began in 1876 was October 2004 with 780 millimetres (30 in) of rain,[61] including 270.5 millimetres (10.6 in) on the ninth of that month.[62]

Climate data for Kitanomaru Park,[63] Chiyoda ward, Tokyo (1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 22.6 (72.7) 24.9 (76.8) 25.3 (77.5) 29.2 (84.6) 32.2 (90) 36.2 (97.2) 39.5 (103.1) 39.1 (102.4) 38.1 (100.6) 32.6 (90.7) 27.3 (81.1) 24.8 (76.6) 39.5 (103.1)

Average high °C (°F) 9.6 (49.3) 10.4 (50.7) 13.6 (56.5) 19.0 (66.2) 22.9 (73.2) 25.5 (77.9) 29.2 (84.6) 30.8 (87.4) 26.9 (80.4) 21.5 (70.7) 16.3 (61.3) 11.9 (53.4) 19.8 (67.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 5.2 (41.4) 5.7 (42.3) 8.7 (47.7) 13.9 (57) 18.2 (64.8) 21.4 (70.5) 25.0 (77) 26.4 (79.5) 22.8 (73) 17.5 (63.5) 12.1 (53.8) 7.6 (45.7) 15.4 (59.7)

Average low °C (°F) 0.9 (33.6) 1.7 (35.1) 4.4 (39.9) 9.4 (48.9) 14.0 (57.2) 18.0 (64.4) 21.8 (71.2) 23.0 (73.4) 19.7 (67.5) 14.2 (57.6) 8.3 (46.9) 3.5 (38.3) 11.6 (52.9)

Record low °C (°F) −9.2 (15.4) −7.9 (17.8) −5.6 (21.9) −3.1 (26.4) 2.2 (36) 8.5 (47.3) 13.0 (55.4) 15.4 (59.7) 10.5 (50.9) −0.5 (31.1) −3.1 (26.4) −6.8 (19.8) −9.2 (15.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 52.3 (2.059) 56.1 (2.209) 117.5 (4.626) 124.5 (4.902) 137.8 (5.425) 167.7 (6.602) 153.5 (6.043) 168.2 (6.622) 209.9 (8.264) 197.8 (7.787) 92.5 (3.642) 51.0 (2.008) 1,528.8 (60.189)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 5 (2) 5 (2) 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 11 (4.3)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 5.3 6.2 11.0 11.0 11.4 12.7 11.8 9.0 12.2 10.8 7.6 4.9 114.0

Average snowy days 2.8 3.7 2.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 9.7

Average relative humidity (%) 52 53 56 62 69 75 77 73 75 68 65 56 65

Mean monthly sunshine hours 184.5 165.8 163.1 176.9 167.8 125.4 146.4 169.0 120.9 131.0 147.9 178.0 1,876.7

Source: Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency (records 1872–present)[64][65][59]

The western mountainous area of mainland Tokyo, Okutama
Okutama
also lies in the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification Cfa).

Climate data for Ogouchi, Okutama
Okutama
town, Tokyo
Tokyo
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.7 (44.1) 7.1 (44.8) 10.3 (50.5) 16.3 (61.3) 20.5 (68.9) 23.0 (73.4) 26.8 (80.2) 28.2 (82.8) 23.9 (75) 18.4 (65.1) 13.8 (56.8) 9.3 (48.7) 17.1 (62.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.3 (34.3) 1.8 (35.2) 5.0 (41) 10.6 (51.1) 15.1 (59.2) 18.5 (65.3) 22.0 (71.6) 23.2 (73.8) 19.5 (67.1) 13.8 (56.8) 8.5 (47.3) 3.8 (38.8) 11.9 (53.4)

Average low °C (°F) −2.7 (27.1) −2.3 (27.9) 0.6 (33.1) 5.6 (42.1) 10.5 (50.9) 14.8 (58.6) 18.7 (65.7) 19.7 (67.5) 16.3 (61.3) 10.3 (50.5) 4.6 (40.3) −0.1 (31.8) 8.1 (46.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.1 (1.736) 50.0 (1.969) 92.5 (3.642) 109.6 (4.315) 120.3 (4.736) 155.7 (6.13) 195.4 (7.693) 280.6 (11.047) 271.3 (10.681) 172.4 (6.787) 76.7 (3.02) 39.9 (1.571) 1,623.5 (63.917)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 147.1 127.7 132.2 161.8 154.9 109.8 127.6 148.3 99.1 94.5 122.1 145.6 1,570.7

Source: Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency[66]

Tokyo's offshore territories' climates vary significantly from the city. The climate of Chichi-jima
Chichi-jima
in Ogasawara village is on the boundary between the tropical savanna climate (Köppen classification Aw) and the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification Cfa). It is approximately 1,000 km south of the Greater Tokyo
Tokyo
Area resulting in different climatic conditions. Tokyo's easternmost territory, the island of Minamitorishima
Minamitorishima
in Ogasawara village, is in the tropical savanna climate zone (Köppen classification Aw). Tokyo's Izu and Ogasawara islands are affected by an average of 5.4 typhoons a year, compared to 3.1 in mainland Kantō.[67] Cityscape[edit] Architecture in Tokyo
Tokyo
has largely been shaped by Tokyo's history. Twice in recent history has the metropolis been left in ruins: first in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake
1923 Great Kantō earthquake
and later after extensive firebombing in World War II.[68] Because of this, Tokyo's urban landscape consists mainly of modern and contemporary architecture, and older buildings are scarce.[68] Tokyo
Tokyo
features many internationally famous forms of modern architecture including Tokyo
Tokyo
International Forum, Asahi Beer Hall, Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower, NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building and Rainbow Bridge. Tokyo
Tokyo
also features two distinctive towers: Tokyo
Tokyo
Tower, and the new Tokyo
Tokyo
Skytree, which is the tallest tower in both Japan
Japan
and the world, and the second tallest structure in the world after the Burj Khalifa in Dubai.[69] Tokyo
Tokyo
also contains numerous parks and gardens. There are four national parks in Tokyo
Tokyo
Prefecture, including the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, which includes all of the Izu Islands.

Panoramic view of Tokyo
Tokyo
from Tokyo
Tokyo
Skytree

Environment[edit] Tokyo
Tokyo
has enacted a measure to cut greenhouse gases. Governor Shintaro Ishihara created Japan's first emissions cap system, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emission by a total of 25% by 2020 from the 2000 level.[70] Tokyo
Tokyo
is an example of an urban heat island, and the phenomenon is especially serious in its special wards.[71][72] According to the Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolitan Government,[73] the annual mean temperature has increased by about 3 °C (5.4 °F) over the past 100 years. Tokyo
Tokyo
has been cited as a "convincing example of the relationship between urban growth and climate."[74] In 2006, Tokyo
Tokyo
enacted the "10 Year Project for Green Tokyo" to be realised by 2016. It set a goal of increasing roadside trees in Tokyo to 1 million (from 480,000), and adding 1,000 ha of green space 88 of which will be a new park named "Umi no Mori" (sea forest) which will be on a reclaimed island in Tokyo Bay
Tokyo Bay
which used to be a landfill.[75] From 2007 to 2010, 436 ha of the planned 1,000 ha of green space was created and 220,000 trees were planted bringing the total to 700,000. In 2014, road side trees in Tokyo
Tokyo
have increased to 950,000, and a further 300 ha of green space has been added.[76]

Demographics[edit] As of October 2012, the official intercensal estimate showed 13.506 million people in Tokyo
Tokyo
with 9.214 million living within Tokyo's 23 wards.[77] During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even more pronounced in the three central wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, and Minato, whose collective population as of the 2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 million during the day.[78] In 1889, the Ministry of Home Affairs recorded 1,375,937 people in Tokyo City
Tokyo City
and a total of 1,694,292 people in Tokyo-fu.[79] In the same year, a total of 779 foreign nationals were recorded as residing in Tokyo. The most common nationality was British (209 residents), followed by United States
United States
nationals (182) and nationals of the Qing dynasty (137).[80]

Tokyo
Tokyo
historical population since 1920

Registered foreign nationals[81]

Nationality Population (2012)

 China 161,169

 South Korea 99,880

 Philippines 27,929

 United States 15,901

   Nepal 8,669

 India 8,313

 Thailand 6,906

 United Kingdom 5,522

 Myanmar 4,781

 France 4,635

This chart is growth rate of municipalities of Tokyo, Japan. It is estimated by census carried out in 2005 and 2010. Increase   10.0% and over   7.5 – 9.9%   5.0 – 7.4%   2.5 – 4.9%   0.0 – 2.4% Decrease   0.0 – 2.4%   2.5 – 4.9%   5.0 – 7.4%   7.5 – 9.9%   10.0% and over

Population of Tokyo[78]

By area1

Tokyo Special
Special
wards Tama Area Islands

12.79 million 8.653 million 4.109 million 28,000

By age2

Juveniles (age 0–14) Working (age 15–64) Retired (age 65+)

1.461 million (11.8%) 8.546 million (69.3%) 2.332 million (18.9%)

By hours3

Day Night

14.978 million 12.416 million

By nationality

Foreign residents

364,6534 (2.9% of total)

1 Estimates as of October 1, 2007. 2 as of January 1, 2007.

3 as of 2005[update] National Census. 4 as of January 1, 2006.

Economy[edit]

Tokyo
Tokyo
Skytree, the tallest tower in the world

Tokyo
Tokyo
Stock Exchange

Ginza
Ginza
is a popular upscale shopping area of Tokyo
Tokyo
as one of the most luxurious[vague] shopping districts in the world.

Bank of Japan
Japan
headquarters in Chuo, Tokyo

Tokyo Tower
Tokyo Tower
at night

Shibuya
Shibuya
attracts many tourists.

Tokyo
Tokyo
has the largest metropolitan economy in the world. According to a study conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers, the Tokyo
Tokyo
urban area of 38 million people had a total GDP of $2 trillion in 2012 (at purchasing power parity), which topped that list. 51 of the companies listed on the Fortune Global 500 are based in Tokyo, almost twice that of the second-placed city (Paris).[82] Tokyo
Tokyo
is a major international finance center;[83] it houses the headquarters of several of the world's largest investment banks and insurance companies, and serves as a hub for Japan's transportation, publishing, electronics and broadcasting industries. During the centralised growth of Japan's economy following World War II, many large firms moved their headquarters from cities such as Osaka
Osaka
(the historical commercial capital) to Tokyo, in an attempt to take advantage of better access to the government. This trend has begun to slow due to ongoing population growth in Tokyo
Tokyo
and the high cost of living there. Tokyo
Tokyo
was rated by the Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
as the most expensive (highest cost-of-living) city in the world for 14 years in a row ending in 2006.[84] Tokyo
Tokyo
emerged as a leading international financial center (IFC) in the 1960s and has been described as one of the three "command centers" for the world economy, along with New York City
New York City
and London.[85] In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index, Tokyo
Tokyo
was ranked as having the fifth most competitive financial center in the world (alongside cities such as London, New York City, San Francisco, Chicago, Sydney, Boston, and Toronto
Toronto
in the top 10), and third most competitive in Asia (after Singapore
Singapore
and Hong Kong).[86] The Japanese financial market opened up slowly in 1984 and accelerated its internationalisation with the "Japanese Big Bang" in 1998.[87] Despite the emergence of Singapore and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
as competing financial centers, the Tokyo
Tokyo
IFC manages to keep a prominent position in Asia. The Tokyo Stock Exchange
Tokyo Stock Exchange
is Japan's largest stock exchange, and third largest in the world by market capitalization and fourth largest by share turnover. In 1990 at the end of the Japanese asset price bubble, it accounted for more than 60% of the world stock market value.[88] Tokyo
Tokyo
had 8,460 ha (20,900 acres) of agricultural land as of 2003,[89] according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, placing it last among the nation's prefectures. The farmland is concentrated in Western Tokyo. Perishables such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers can be conveniently shipped to the markets in the eastern part of the prefecture. Komatsuna
Komatsuna
and spinach are the most important vegetables; as of 2000, Tokyo
Tokyo
supplied 32.5% of the komatsuna sold at its central produce market. With 36% of its area covered by forest, Tokyo
Tokyo
has extensive growths of cryptomeria and Japanese cypress, especially in the mountainous western communities of Akiruno, Ōme, Okutama, Hachiōji, Hinode, and Hinohara. Decreases in the price of timber, increases in the cost of production, and advancing old age among the forestry population have resulted in a decline in Tokyo's output. In addition, pollen, especially from cryptomeria, is a major allergen for the nearby population centers. Tokyo Bay
Tokyo Bay
was once a major source of fish. Most of Tokyo's fish production comes from the outer islands, such as Izu Ōshima and Hachijō-jima. Skipjack tuna, nori, and aji are among the ocean products. Tourism in Tokyo
Tourism in Tokyo
is also a contributor to the economy. In 2006, 4.81 million foreigners and 420 million Japanese visits to Tokyo were made; the economic value of these visits totaled 9.4 trillion yen according to the Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolitan Government. Many tourists visit the various downtowns, stores, and entertainment districts throughout the neighbourhoods of the special wards of Tokyo; particularly for school children on class trips, a visit to Tokyo Tower is de rigueur. Cultural offerings include both omnipresent Japanese pop culture
Japanese pop culture
and associated districts such as Shibuya
Shibuya
and Harajuku, subcultural attractions such as Studio Ghibli
Studio Ghibli
anime center, as well as museums like the Tokyo
Tokyo
National Museum, which houses 37% of the country's artwork national treasures (87/233). The Tsukiji Fish Market
Tsukiji Fish Market
in Tokyo
Tokyo
is the biggest wholesale fish and seafood market in the world, and also one of the largest wholesale food markets of any kind. The Tsukiji market holds strong to the traditions of its predecessor, the Nihombashi fish market, and serves some 50,000 buyers and sellers every day. Retailers, whole-sellers, auctioneers, and public citizens alike frequent the market, creating a unique microcosm of organized chaos that still continues to fuel the city and its food supply after over four centuries.[90] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Greater Tokyo

Tokyo Station
Tokyo Station
is the main intercity rail terminal in Tokyo.

Haneda Airport

Tokyo Metro
Tokyo Metro
and Toei Subway are two main subway operators in Tokyo.

Hamazakibashi JCT in Shuto Expressway

Tokyo, as the center of the Greater Tokyo
Tokyo
Area, is Japan's largest domestic and international hub for rail, ground, and air transportation. Public transportation within Tokyo
Tokyo
is dominated by an extensive network of clean and efficient[91] trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses, monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role. There are up to 62 electric train lines and more than 900 train stations in Tokyo.[92] Within Ōta, one of the 23 special wards, Haneda Airport
Haneda Airport
offers domestic and international flights. Outside Tokyo, Narita International Airport, in Chiba Prefecture, is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan. Japan's flag carrier Japan
Japan
Airlines, as well as All Nippon Airways, Delta Air Lines, and United Airlines all have a hub at this airport. Various islands governed by Tokyo
Tokyo
have their own airports. Hachijō-jima
Hachijō-jima
(Hachijojima Airport), Miyakejima
Miyakejima
( Miyakejima
Miyakejima
Airport), and Izu Ōshima
Izu Ōshima
(Oshima Airport) have services to Tokyo
Tokyo
International and other airports. Rail is the primary mode of transportation in Tokyo, which has the most extensive urban railway network in the world and an equally extensive network of surface lines. JR East
JR East
operates Tokyo's largest railway network, including the Yamanote Line
Yamanote Line
loop that circles the center of downtown Tokyo. Two different organisations operate the subway network: the private Tokyo Metro
Tokyo Metro
and the governmental Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. The Metropolitan Government and private carriers operate bus routes and one tram route. Local, regional, and national services are available, with major terminals at the giant railroad stations, including Tokyo, Shinagawa, and Shinjuku. Expressways link the capital to other points in the Greater Tokyo area, the Kantō region, and the islands of Kyushu
Kyushu
and Shikoku. In order to build them quickly before the 1964 Summer Olympics, most were constructed above existing roads.[93] Other transportation includes taxis operating in the special wards and the cities and towns. Also long-distance ferries serve the islands of Tokyo
Tokyo
and carry passengers and cargo to domestic and foreign ports. Education[edit] Main article: Education in Tokyo

Yasuda Auditorium at the University of Tokyo
University of Tokyo
in Bunkyō

Okuma Auditorium
Okuma Auditorium
at Waseda University
Waseda University
in Shinjuku

Hibiya High School
Hibiya High School
in Chiyoda

Tokyo
Tokyo
has many universities, junior colleges, and vocational schools. Many of Japan's most prestigious universities are in Tokyo, including University of Tokyo, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo
Tokyo
Institute of Technology, Waseda University, Tokyo
Tokyo
University of Science, and Keio University.[94] Some of the biggest national universities in Tokyo are:

Hitotsubashi University National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies Ochanomizu University Tokyo
Tokyo
Gakugei University Tokyo
Tokyo
Institute of Technology Tokyo
Tokyo
Medical and Dental University Tokyo
Tokyo
University of Agriculture and Technology Tokyo
Tokyo
University of Foreign Studies Tokyo
Tokyo
University of Marine Science and Technology Tokyo
Tokyo
University of the Arts University of Electro-Communications University of Tokyo

There is only one non-national public university: Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolitan University. There are also a few universities well known for classes conducted in English and for the teaching of the Japanese language. They include:

Globis University Graduate School of Management International Christian University Sophia University Waseda University

Tokyo
Tokyo
is also the headquarters of the United Nations University. For an extensive list, see List of universities in Tokyo. Publicly run kindergartens, elementary schools (years 1 through 6), and Primary schools (7 through 9) are operated by local wards or municipal offices. Public Secondary schools in Tokyo
Tokyo
are run by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government
Tokyo Metropolitan Government
Board of Education and are called "Metropolitan High Schools". Tokyo
Tokyo
also has many private schools from kindergarten through high school:

Aoba- Japan
Japan
International School The British School in Tokyo Jingumae International Exchange School K. International School Tokyo Tokyo
Tokyo
International School Canadian International School Tokyo
Tokyo
West International School St. Mary's International School New International School

Culture[edit]

The National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation, also known as "Miraikan"

Takeshita Street
Takeshita Street
in Harajuku

Tokyo
Tokyo
has many museums. In Ueno Park, there is the Tokyo
Tokyo
National Museum, the country's largest museum and specializing in traditional Japanese art; the National Museum of Western Art
National Museum of Western Art
and Ueno Zoo. Other museums include the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Odaiba; the Edo-Tokyo Museum
Edo-Tokyo Museum
in Sumida, across the Sumida River from the center of Tokyo; the Nezu Museum
Nezu Museum
in Aoyama; and the National Diet Library, National Archives, and the National Museum of Modern Art, which are near the Imperial Palace. Tokyo
Tokyo
has many theatres for performing arts. These include national and private theatres for traditional forms of Japanese drama. Noteworthy are the National Noh Theatre
National Noh Theatre
for noh and the Kabuki-za
Kabuki-za
for kabuki.[95] Symphony orchestras and other musical organisations perform modern and traditional music. Tokyo
Tokyo
also hosts modern Japanese and international pop, and rock music at venues ranging in size from intimate clubs to internationally known arenas such as the Nippon Budokan.

The Sanja Festival in Asakusa

Many different festivals occur throughout Tokyo. Major events include the Sannō at Hie Shrine, the Sanja at Asakusa
Asakusa
Shrine, and the biennial Kanda Festivals. The last features a parade with elaborately decorated floats and thousands of people. Annually on the last Saturday of July, an enormous fireworks display over the Sumida River attracts over a million viewers. Once cherry blossoms bloom in spring, many residents gather in Ueno Park, Inokashira Park, and the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden for picnics under the blossoms. Harajuku, a neighbourhood in Shibuya, is known internationally for its youth style, fashion[96] and cosplay. Cuisine in Tokyo
Tokyo
is internationally acclaimed. In November 2007, Michelin released their first guide for fine dining in Tokyo, awarding 191 stars in total, or about twice as many as Tokyo's nearest competitor, Paris. As of 2017, 227 restaurants in Tokyo
Tokyo
have been awarded (92 in Paris). Twelve establishments were awarded the maximum of three stars ( Paris
Paris
has 10), 54 received two stars, and 161 earned one star.[97] Sports[edit] Main articles: Sports in Tokyo
Sports in Tokyo
and Football in Tokyo

Tokyo
Tokyo
Dome, the home stadium for the Yomiuri Giants

Ryōgoku Kokugikan
Ryōgoku Kokugikan
sumo wrestling arena

Tokyo, with a diverse array of sports, is home to two professional baseball clubs, the Yomiuri Giants
Yomiuri Giants
who play at the Tokyo Dome
Tokyo Dome
and Tokyo Yakult Swallows
Tokyo Yakult Swallows
at Meiji-Jingu Stadium. The Japan
Japan
Sumo Association is also headquartered in Tokyo
Tokyo
at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo arena where three official sumo tournaments are held annually (in January, May, and September). Football clubs in Tokyo
Tokyo
include F.C. Tokyo
Tokyo
and Tokyo Verdy
Tokyo Verdy
1969, both of which play at Ajinomoto Stadium
Ajinomoto Stadium
in Chōfu, and FC Machida Zelvia
FC Machida Zelvia
at Nozuta Stadium in Machida. Basketball clubs include the Hitachi SunRockers, Toyota Alvark Tokyo
Toyota Alvark Tokyo
and Tokyo Excellence. Tokyo
Tokyo
hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, thus becoming the first Asian city to host the Summer Games. The National Stadium, also known as the Olympic Stadium, was host to a number of international sporting events. In 2016, it was to be replaced by the New National Stadium. With a number of world-class sports venues, Tokyo
Tokyo
often hosts national and international sporting events such as basketball tournaments, women's volleyball tournaments, tennis tournaments, swim meets, marathons, rugby union and sevens rugby games, football, American football exhibition games, judo, and karate. Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolitan Gymnasium, in Sendagaya, Shibuya, is a large sports complex that includes swimming pools, training rooms, and a large indoor arena. According to Around the Rings, the gymnasium has played host to the October 2011 artistic gymnastics world championships, despite the International Gymnastics Federation's initial doubt in Tokyo's ability to host the championships following the March 11 tsunami.[98] Tokyo was selected to host the 2020 Summer Olympics
2020 Summer Olympics
and the 2020 Summer Paralympics on September 7, 2013. In popular culture[edit]

Akihabara
Akihabara
is the most popular area for fans of anime, manga and games.

Fuji TV
Fuji TV
headquarters

As the largest population center in Japan
Japan
and the site of the country's largest broadcasters and studios, Tokyo
Tokyo
is frequently the setting for many Japanese movies, television shows, animated series (anime), web comics, light novels, and comic books (manga). In the kaiju (monster movie) genre, landmarks of Tokyo
Tokyo
are routinely destroyed by giant monsters such as Godzilla
Godzilla
and Gamera. Some Hollywood directors have turned to Tokyo
Tokyo
as a backdrop for movies set in Japan. Postwar examples include Tokyo
Tokyo
Joe, My Geisha, Tokyo Story and the James Bond
James Bond
film You Only Live Twice; recent examples include Kill Bill, The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo
Tokyo
Drift, Lost in Translation, Babel, and Inception. Japanese author Haruki Murakami
Haruki Murakami
has based some of his novels in Tokyo (including Norwegian Wood), and David Mitchell's first two novels number9dream and Ghostwritten featured the city. Contemporary British painter Carl Randall
Carl Randall
spent 10 years living in Tokyo
Tokyo
as an artist, creating a body of work depicting the cities crowded streets and public spaces.[99][100][101][102][103] International relations[edit] Tokyo
Tokyo
is the founder member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and is a member of the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. Tokyo
Tokyo
was also a founding member of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group. Sister cities, sister states, and friendship agreements[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan As of 2016[update], Tokyo
Tokyo
has twinning or friendship agreements with the following twelve cities and states:[104]

New York City, United States
United States
(since February 1960) Beijing, China
China
(since March 1979) Paris, France
France
("Friendship and cooperation agreement", since July 1982)[105] New South Wales, Australia
Australia
(since May 1984) Seoul, South Korea
South Korea
(since September 1988) Jakarta, Indonesia
Indonesia
(since October 1989) São Paulo
São Paulo
State, Brazil
Brazil
(since June 1990) Cairo, Egypt
Egypt
(since October 1990) Moscow, Russia
Russia
(since July 1991) Berlin, Germany
Germany
(since May 1994) Rome, Italy
Italy
("Friendship and cooperation agreement", since July 1996) London, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(since October 2015)

See also[edit]

Tokyo
Tokyo
portal Japan
Japan
portal Geography portal

Largest cities in Asia List of cities proper by population List of cities with the most skyscrapers List of tallest structures in Tokyo List of development projects in Tokyo List of metropolitan areas in Asia List of most expensive cities for expatriate employees List of urban areas by population Megacity Tokyo
Tokyo
dialect World's largest cities Yamanote and Shitamachi

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and Implications for the Long-term Seismic Process" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved October 14, 2007.  ^ "A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved October 14, 2007.  ^ Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A.: Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1633–1644, 2007. ^ a b 観測史上1~10位の値( 年間を通じての値) (in Japanese). Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 16, 2014.  ^ " Tokyo
Tokyo
observes latest ever 1st snowfall". Archived from the original on March 19, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2017.  ^ 気象庁 Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency. "観測史上1~10位の値(年間を通じての値)". Data.jma.go.jp. Retrieved December 4, 2011.  ^ 気象庁 Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency. "観測史上1~10位の値(10月としての値)". Data.jma.go.jp. Retrieved December 4, 2011.  ^ The JMA Tokyo, Tokyo
Tokyo
(東京都 東京) station is at 35°41.4′N 139°45.6′E, JMA: 気象統計情報>過去の気象データ検索>都道府県の選択>地点の選択 ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値) (in Japanese). Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 16, 2014.  ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値) (in Japanese). Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 16, 2014.  ^ "気象庁 / 気象統計情報 / 過去の気象データ検索 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値)". Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency. Retrieved June 24, 2013.  ^ "気象統計情報 / 天気予報・台風 / 過去の台風資料 / 台風の統計資料 / 台風の平年値". Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency.  ^ a b Hidenobu Jinnai. Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology. University of California Press (1995), p1-3. ISBN 0-520-07135-2. ^ " Tokyo
Tokyo
– GoJapanGo". Tokyo
Tokyo
Attractions – Japanese Lifestyle. Mi Marketing Pty Ltd. Retrieved April 18, 2012.  ^ "World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)". Wbcsd.org. Archived from the original on January 4, 2009. Retrieved October 18, 2008.  ^ Barry, Roger Graham & Richard J. Chorley. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate. Routledge (2003), p. 344. ISBN 0-415-27170-3. ^ Toshiaki Ichinose, Kazuhiro Shimodozono, and Keisuke Hanaki. Impact of anthropogenic heat on urban climate in Tokyo. Atmospheric Environment 33 (1999): 3897–3909. ^ "Heat Island Control Measures". kankyo.metro.tokyo.jp. January 6, 2007. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2010.  ^ Barry, Roger Graham; Chorley, Richard J. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate. London: Methuen Publishing. p. 344. ISBN 0-416-07152-X.  ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 16, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2012.  ^ "2012 Action Program for Tokyo
Tokyo
Vision 2020 – Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolitan Government". Metro.tokyo.jp. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2012.  ^ "東京都の人口(推計)". 東京都. Retrieved January 17, 2015.  ^ a b "Population of Tokyo". Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2009.  ^ 東京府 編 (1890). 東京府統計書. 明治22年 [Tōkyō-Fu Statistics Book (1889)] (in Japanese). 1. 東京府. pp. 40–41.  ( National Diet Library
National Diet Library
Digital Archive) (digital page number 32) ^ 東京府 編 (1890). 東京府統計書. 明治22年 [Tōkyō-Fu Statistics Book (1889)] (in Japanese). 1. 東京府. pp. 66–67.  ( National Diet Library
National Diet Library
Digital Archive) (digital page number 46) ^ " Tokyo
Tokyo
Statistical Yearbook 2012, Population: 2–4 Foreign Residents by District and Nationality (Year-End Data 2008–2012)" (Excel 97). Bureau of General Affairs, Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolitan Government. Retrieved January 27, 2015.  ^ "Global 500 Our annual ranking of the world's largest corporationns". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved December 4, 2008.  ^ "Financial Centres, All shapes and sizes". The Economist. September 13, 2007. Retrieved October 14, 2007.  ^ "Top 3 Things to See & Do in Shibuya
Shibuya
– Tokyo's Busiest District". Apr 13, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2017.  ^ Sassen, Saskia (2001). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo
Tokyo
(2nd ed.). Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07063-6.  ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 21" (PDF). Long Finance. March 2017.  ^ Ito, Takatoshi; Melvin, Michael (July 1999). "Japan's Big Bang and the Transformation of Financial Markets". NBER Working Paper No. 7247. doi:10.3386/w7247.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ " Tokyo
Tokyo
stock exchange". Stock-market.in. Archived from the original on October 5, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2010.  ^ Horticulture Statistics Team, Production Statistics Division, Statistics and Information Department, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (July 15, 2003). "Statistics on Cultivated Land Area" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 24, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Hannerz, Ulf (2005). "The Fish Market at the Center of the World (Review)". The Journal of Japanese Studies. 31 (2): 428–31. doi:10.1353/jjs.2005.0044.  ^ "A Country Study: Japan". The Library of Congress. pp. Chapter 2, Neighbourhoods. Retrieved October 24, 2007.  ^ "Orientation - Tokyo
Tokyo
Travel Guide Planetyze". Planetyze. Retrieved July 18, 2017.  ^ "Revamping Tokyo's expressways could give capital a boost". Yomiuri Shimbun. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved October 8, 2012.  ^ "QS University Rankings: Asia 2016". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved June 13, 2016.  ^ Milner, Rebecca (2013). "Pocket Tokyo." 4th Edition. Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 978-1-74220-581-6 ^ Perry, Chris (April 25, 2007). "Rebels on the Bridge: Subversion, Style, and the New Subculture" (Flash). Self-published (Scribd). Retrieved December 4, 2007.  ^ " Tokyo
Tokyo
'top city for good eating'". BBC News. November 20, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2008.  ^ " Tokyo
Tokyo
Keeps Gymnastics Worlds, Bolsters Olympics Ambitions". Aroundtherings.com. May 23, 2011. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved December 23, 2012.  ^ BBC World Service: World Update. ' Carl Randall
Carl Randall
– Painting the faces in Japan's crowded cities'., BBC World Service, 2016  ^ BBC News. 'Painting the faces in Japan's crowded cities'., BBC News – Arts & Entertainment, 2016  ^ ' Tokyo
Tokyo
Portraits by Carl Randall'., The Daiwa Anglo Japanese Foundation, London, 2014  ^ 'The BP Portrait Awards 2013'., The National Portrait Gallery, London, 2012  ^ ' Japan
Japan
Portraits'., Carl Randall
Carl Randall
– artist website, 2016  ^ "Sister Cities (States) of Tokyo
Tokyo
Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolitan Government". Retrieved May 30, 2016.  ^ "Friendship and cooperation agreements". Paris: Marie de Paris. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2016. 

Bibliography[edit]

Fiévé, Nicolas and Paul Waley. (2003). Japanese Capitals in Historical Perspective: Place, Power and Memory in Kyoto, Edo
Edo
and Tokyo. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 9780700714094; OCLC 51527561 McClain, James, John M Merriman and Kaoru Ugawa. (1994). Edo
Edo
and Paris: Urban Life and the State in the Early Modern Era. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801429873; OCLC 30157716 Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128 Sorensen, Andre. (2002). The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo
Edo
to the Twenty First Century. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 9780415226516; OCLC 48517502

Further reading[edit] Guides[edit]

Bender, Andrew, and Timothy N. Hornyak. Tokyo
Tokyo
(City Travel Guide) (2010) Mansfield, Stephen. Dk Eyewitness Top 10 Travel Guide: Tokyo
Tokyo
(2013) Waley, Paul. Tokyo
Tokyo
Now and Then: An Explorer's Guide. (1984). 592 pp Yanagihara, Wendy. Lonely Planet Tokyo
Tokyo
Encounter (2012)

Contemporary[edit]

Allinson, Gary D. Suburban Tokyo: A Comparative Study in Politics and Social Change. (1979). 258 pp. Bestor, Theodore. Neighbourhood Tokyo
Tokyo
(1989). online edition Bestor, Theodore. Tsukiji: The Fish Market at the Centre of the World. (2004) online edition Fowler, Edward. San'ya Blues: Labouring Life in Contemporary Tokyo. (1996) ISBN 0-8014-8570-3. Friedman, Mildred, ed. Tokyo, Form and Spirit. (1986). 256 pp. Jinnai, Hidenobu. Tokyo: A Spatial Anthropology. (1995). 236 pp. Reynolds, Jonathan M. "Japan's Imperial Diet Building: Debate over Construction of a National Identity". Art Journal. 55#3 (1996) pp 38+. Sassen, Saskia. The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. (1991). 397 pp. Sorensen, A. Land Readjustment and Metropolitan Growth: An Examination of Suburban Land Development and Urban Sprawl in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2000) Waley, Paul. "Tokyo-as-world-city: Reassessing the Role of Capital and the State in Urban Restructuring". Urban Studies 2007 44(8): 1465–1490. ISSN 0042-0980 Fulltext: Ebsco

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Western (Tama area)

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Hachiōji

Cities

Akiruno Akishima Chōfu Fuchū Fussa Hamura Higashikurume Higashimurayama Higashiyamato Hino Inagi Kiyose Kodaira Koganei Kokubunji Komae Kunitachi Machida Mitaka Musashimurayama Musashino Nishitōkyō Ōme Tachikawa Tama

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Northern Southern Okinawa

47 Prefectures

Hokkaido

Hokkaido

Tōhoku

Aomori Iwate Miyagi Akita Yamagata Fukushima

Kantō

Ibaraki Tochigi Gunma Saitama Chiba Tokyo Kanagawa

Chūbu

Niigata Toyama Ishikawa Fukui Yamanashi Nagano Gifu Shizuoka Aichi

Kansai

Mie Shiga Kyoto Osaka Hyōgo Nara Wakayama

Chūgoku

Tottori Shimane Okayama Hiroshima Yamaguchi

Shikoku

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Kyushu

Fukuoka Saga Nagasaki Kumamoto Ōita Miyazaki Kagoshima Okinawa

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Tokyo
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Special
wards of Tokyo※ (Adachi Arakawa Bunkyo Chiyoda Chūō Edogawa Itabashi Katsushika Kita Koto Meguro Minato Nakano Nerima Ōta Setagaya Shibuya Shinagawa Shinjuku Suginami Sumida Toshima Taitō)

Designated cities

Chiba※ Fukuoka※ Hamamatsu Hiroshima※ Kawasaki Kitakyushu Kobe※ Kumamoto※ Kyoto※ Nagoya※ Niigata※ Okayama※ Osaka※ Sagamihara Saitama※ Sakai Sapporo※ Sendai※ Shizuoka※ Yokohama※

Core cities

Akita※ Amagasaki Aomori※ Asahikawa Fukuyama Funabashi Gifu※ Hachinohe Hachiōji Hakodate Higashiōsaka Himeji Hirakata Iwaki Kagoshima※ Kanazawa※ Kashiwa Kawagoe Kōchi※ Kōriyama Koshigaya Kurashiki Kure Kurume Maebashi※ Matsuyama※ Miyazaki※ Morioka※ Naha Nagano※ Nagasaki※ Nara※ Nishinomiya Ōita※ Okazaki Ōtsu※ Sasebo Shimonoseki Takamatsu※ Takasaki Takatsuki Toyama※ Toyohashi Toyonaka Toyota Utsunomiya※ Wakayama※ Yokosuka

Special
Special
cities

Akashi Atsugi Chigasaki Fuji Fukui※ Hiratsuka Ibaraki Ichinomiya Isesaki Jōetsu Kakogawa Kasugai Kasukabe Kawaguchi Kishiwada Kōfu※ Kumagaya Matsue※ Matsumoto Mito※ Nagaoka Neyagawa Numazu Odawara Ōta Saga※ Sōka Suita Takarazuka Tokorozawa Tottori※ Tsukuba Yamagata※ Yamato Yao Yokkaichi

Prefectural capitals

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Note: ※ also a prefectural capital

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Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

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Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
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Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

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Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

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Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
host cities

1896: Athens 1900: Paris 1904: St. Louis 1908: London 1912: Stockholm 1916: None[c1] 1920: Antwerp 1924: Paris 1928: Amsterdam 1932: Los Angeles 1936: Berlin 1940: None[c2] 1944: None[c2] 1948: London 1952: Helsinki 1956: Melbourne 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Mexico
Mexico
City 1972: Munich 1976: Montreal 1980: Moscow 1984: Los Angeles 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II

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Summer Paralympic Games
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1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Tel Aviv 1972: Heidelberg 1976: Toronto

1980: Arnhem 1984: New York City
New York City
/ Stoke Mandeville 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona
Barcelona
/ Madrid 1996: Atlanta

2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London

2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

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Host cities of the IAAF World Championships in Athletics

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Host cities of Asian Games

Summer

1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta/Palembang 2022: Hangzhou

Winter

1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo

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World's twenty most populous metropolitan areas

   

1 Tokyo-Yokohama 2 Shanghai 3 Jakarta 4 Delhi 5 Seoul-Incheon

  6 Karachi   7 Guangzhou   8 Beijing   9 Shenzhen   7 Mexico
Mexico
City

11 São Paulo 12 Lagos 13 Mumbai 14 Cairo 15 New York

16 Osaka 17 Moscow 18 Wuhan 19 Chengdu 20 Dhaka

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World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

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Mass transit in the Greater Tokyo
Tokyo
Area

JR East
JR East
lines passing through Central Tokyo

Yamanote Keihin-Tōhoku - Negishi Chūō-Sōbu Local Chuo Rapid Yokosuka - Sōbu Rapid Utsunomiya & Takasaki - Tokaido

Ueno-Tokyo

Saikyo Shonan-Shinjuku Joban Rapid Joban Local Keiyo

Tokyo Metro
Tokyo Metro
lines

Chiyoda Fukutoshin Ginza Hibiya Marunouchi Namboku Tōzai Yūrakuchō Hanzōmon

Toei subway lines

Asakusa Ōedo Mita Shinjuku

Yokohama
Yokohama
Municipal

Blue Green

JR East
JR East
lines in satellite cities or suburbs

Musashino Yokohama Nambu Tsurumi ■ Sagami ■ Hachiko - ■ Kawagoe ■ Ryōmō Tohoku Direction

■ Karasuyama ■ Nikkō

Chuo Direction

■ Chūō Main ■ Itsukaichi ■ Ōme

Sobu Direction

■ Sōbu Main ■ Sotobō ■ Uchibō ■ Kururi ■ Tōgane

Joban Direction

■ Mito ■ Narita

Tokaido Direction

■ Itō Gotemba ( JR Central)

Keikyu

Keikyu
Keikyu
Main

Airport Daishi Kurihama Zushi

Keio

Keio

Keio New Dōbutsuen Keibajō Sagamihara Takao

Inokashira

Keisei

Keisei Main

Chiba Chihara Higashi-Narita Kanamachi Oshiage

Narita Sky Access

Odakyu

Odawara Enoshima Tama

Seibu

Ikebukuro

Sayama Seibu Chichibu Seibu Yūrakuchō Toshima

Seibu Shinjuku

Haijima

Kokubunji

Seibu-en

Tamagawa Tamako

Sotetsu

Sotetsu Main

Izumino

Tobu

Skytree

Kameido Daishi

Isesaki

Sano Koizumi Kiryū

Nikkō

Kinugawa Utsunomiya

Urban Park Tōjō

Ogose

Tokyu

Den-en-toshi Ikegami Meguro Oimachi Tokyu Tamagawa Toyoko Kodomonokuni

Other commuter rail lines

Hokusō Kantō

Jōsō Ryūgasaki

Nagareyama Rinkai Saitama Rapid Shibayama Shin-Keisei Tōyō Rapid Tsukuba Express Minatomirai 21

Monorails and light transit

Monorails

Chiba Monorail Disney Resort Shōnan Monorail Tama Monorail Tokyo
Tokyo
Monorail

People movers

New Shuttle Kanazawa Seaside Nippori-Toneri Seibu Yamaguchi Yūkarigaoka Yurikamome

Trams

Enoden Setagaya Arakawa

Hinterland

Chichibu Main Line Fujikyuko Line

Cable cars and aerial tramways

Ōyama Cable Car Hodosan Ropeway (Takao Tozan Railway Mitake Tozan Cable Car ) (Nokogiriyama Ropeway Mount Tsukuba Cable Car Mount Tsukuba Ropeway) Akechidaira Ropeway Ikaho Ropeway

Bus

Shinjuku
Shinjuku
Expressway Bus Terminal Tokyo City
Tokyo City
Air Terminal (& Bus) Willer Express List of bus operating companies in Japan
Japan
(east)

Public ferries

Tokyo-Wan Ferry Tokyo
Tokyo
Cruise Ship Tokyo
Tokyo
Mizube Line Keihin Ferry Boat The Port Service
The Port Service
(Yokohama)

Major terminals

Rail

Akihabara Chiba Hachiōji Ikebukuro Kita-Senju Mito Odawara Ōmiya Ōtemachi Shibuya Shinagawa Shinjuku Tachikawa Tokyo Ueno Yokohama

Airports

Haneda Narita Chofu Ibaraki

Ports

Yokohama Tokyo

Heliports

Tokyo
Tokyo
Heliport Camp Zama

Miscellaneous

Shinkansen Smart cards

Pasmo Suica

Transportation in Greater Tokyo Rail transport in Japan List of named passenger trains of Japan List of through trains in Japan Tokyo subway
Tokyo subway
rolling stock List of Toei Subway stations List of Tokyo Metro
Tokyo Metro
stations

Construction projects

Sōtetsu JR Link Line

Japan
Japan
transit: Tokyo Osaka Nagoya Fukuoka Hakone Fuji Izu Hokkaido Sendai Niigata Toyama Nagano Okayama Hiroshima Shikoku Metro systems Shinkansen trams (list) aerial lifts (list)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 140713831 LCCN: n79034998 ISNI: 0000 0004 1757 6305 GND: 40783

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