Tirana (/tɪˈrɑːnə/ ( listen) — Albanian
pronunciation: [tiˈɾana]; Albanian: Tiranë; Gheg Albanian:
Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of the Republic of
Albania. The city is also the capital of the surrounding county of
Tirana, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is
501 kilometres (311 miles) north of Athens, 613 kilometres (381 miles)
southeast of Rome, 153 kilometres (95 miles) southwest of
131 kilometres (81 miles) south of Podgorica.
Tirana was founded as a city in 1614, but the region that today
corresponds to the city territory has been continuously inhabited
since the Bronze Age. As most of Albania, the area was populated by
several Illyrian tribes, but had no importance within Illyria. Indeed,
it was annexed by
Rome and became an integral part of the Roman Empire
following the Illyrian Wars. The heritage of that period is still
evident and represented by the Mosaics of Tirana. Further later in the
5th and 6th century, a Paleo
Christian basilica was built around this
Roman Empire divided into east and west, its successor the
Byzantine Empire took control and included the construction of the
Petrelë Castle, under the reign of Justinian I. Until the 20th
century, the city did not attain much significance, when the Congress
Lushnjë proclaimed it as the country's capital, after the
country's declaration of independence in 1912.
Tirana is located in the center of the country
surrounded by mountains and hills, with
Dajt on the east and a slight
valley opening on the northwest, overlooking the
Adriatic Sea in the
distance. Due to its location within the
Tirana plain and the close
proximity to the Adriatic Sea, the city is influenced by a
mediterranean seasonal climate. It is the 3rd wettest and 8th sunniest
city in Europe, with 2,544 hours of sun per year.
Being a primate city,
Tirana is considered the economic and cultural
hub of Albania, due to its significant location and importance in
finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts, international trade,
education, service, research and healthcare. All of the country's
largest companies, media and scientific institutions have their
headquarters in the city.
Tirana is also the seat of power of the
Government of Albania, the residences for work of the President and
Prime Minister of Albania.
1.1 Early history
5.2 International relations
7.2 Roads and railways
7.3 Public Transport, Cycling, and Ferries
9.1 Sports clubs
11 Notable people
13 See also
16 Further reading
17 External links
See also: Timeline of Tirana
Ancient mosaics from the 3rd century.
The discovery of the
Pellumbas Cave within the surrounding area of
Tirana shows that ancient human culture were present in
dates back the
Paleolithic period. Nonetheless the oldest
discovery within the urban area of
Tirana was a Roman house, which has
been later transformed into an aisleless church with a mosaic floor,
dating to the 3rd century, with other remains found near a medieval
temple at Shengjin Fountain in the eastern suburbs. A castle possibly
called Tirkan or Theranda, whose remnants are found along Murat
Toptani Street, was built by Byzantine Emperor
Justinian I and
restored by Ahmed Pasha Toptani in the 18th century. The area had
no special importance in Illyrian and classical times.
Castle of Petrelë, built in the 6th century by Justinian I.
In 1510, Marin Barleti, an Albanian Catholic priest and scholar, in
the biography of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg, Historia de
vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis (The story of life and
deeds of Skanderbeg, the prince of Epirotes), referred to this area as
a small village.
Records from the first land registrations under the Ottomans in
1431–32 show that
Tirana consisted of 60 inhabited areas, with
nearly 2,028 houses and 7,300 inhabitants.
mentioned since 1572 as Borgo di Tirana.
In 1614, Sulejman Bargjini, a local ruler, built the Old mosque, a
small commercial centre, and a hammam (Turkish bath). During this
period, the Et'hem Bey Mosque, built by Molla Bey of Petrela, was
constructed. It employed the best artisans in the country and was
completed in 1821 by Molla's son Etëhem, who was also Sulejman
Bargjini's grandnephew. In 1800, the first newcomers arrived in the
settlement, the so-called ortodoksit. They were
Vlachs from villages
Korçë and Pogradec, who settled around modern day Park on the
Artificial Lake. They started to be known as the llacifac and were
the first Christians to arrive after the creation of the town. After
Serb reprisals in the
Debar region,[when?] thousands of locals fled to
Tirana. In 1807,
Tirana became the center of the
Sub-Prefecture of Krujë-Tirana. After 1816, Tirana
languished under the control of the
Toptani family of Krujë.[citation
Tirana became a sub-prefecture of the newly created
Vilayet of Shkodër
Vilayet of Shkodër and Sanjak of Durrës.
The Bazaar at the turn of the 20th century.
In 1889, the
Albanian language started to be taught in Tirana's
schools, while the patriotic club Bashkimi was founded in 1908. On 28
November 1912, the national flag was raised in agreement with
President Ismail Qemali. During the Balkan Wars, the city was
temporarily occupied by the Serbian army and it took part in uprising
of the villages led by Haxhi Qamili. In 1917, the first city outline
was compiled by Austro-Hungarian architects. On 8
February 1920, the
Congress of Lushnjë
Congress of Lushnjë proclaimed
Tirana as the
temporary capital of Albania, which had gained independence in
1912. The city retained that status permanently on 31 December
1925. In 1923, the first regulatory city plan was compiled by Austrian
architects. The centre of
Tirana was the project of Florestano Di
Fausto and Armando Brasini, well known architects of the Benito
Mussolini period in Italy. Brasini laid the basis for the modern-day
arrangement of the ministerial buildings in the city centre. The plan
underwent revisions by Albanian architect Eshref Frashëri, Italian
architect Castellani and Austrian architects Weiss and
Kohler. Modern Albanian parliamentary building served
as a club of officers. It was there that, in September 1928, Zog of
Albania was crowned King Zog I, King of the Albanians.
as the venue for the signing, between Fascist
Italy and Albania, of
the Pact of Tirana.
The city in 1991.
Tirana was captured by Fascist forces appointing a puppet
government. In the meantime, Italian architect
Gherardo Bosio was
asked to elaborate on previous plans and introduce a new project in
the area of present-day
Mother Teresa Square. A failed
assassination attempt was made on Victor Emmanuel III of
Italy by a
local resistance activist during a visit in Tirana. In November 1941,
two emissaries of the
Communist Party of Yugoslavia
Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ), Miladin
Popović and Dušan Mugoša, managed to call a meeting of three
Albanian communist groups and founded the Communist
Party of Albania, of which
Enver Hoxha would shortly emerge as the
leader. The town soon became the center of the Albanian communists,
who mobilized locals against Italian fascists and later Nazi Germans,
while spreading ideological propaganda. On 17 November 1944, the town
was liberated after a fierce battle between the Communists and German
forces. The
Nazis eventually withdrew and the
communists seized power.
In 1988, the first outsiders were allowed to walk into the Skanderbeg
From 1944 to 1991, massive socialist-styled apartment complexes and
factories began to be built, while
Skanderbeg Square was redesigned
with a number of buildings being demolished. For instance, Tirana's
former Old Bazaar and the Orthodox Cathedral were razed to the ground
for the erection of the Soviet-styled Palace of Culture. The northern
portion of the main boulevard was renamed Stalin Boulevard and his
statue was erected in the city square. Because private car ownership
was banned, mass transportation consisted mainly of bicycles, trucks
and buses. After Hoxha's death, a pyramidal museum was constructed in
his memory by the government.
Prior to and after the proclamation of Albania's policy of
self-imposed isolationism, a number of high-profile figures paid
visits to the city, such as Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, Chinese
Zhou Enlai and East German Foreign Minister Oskar Fischer. In
Tirana served as the ceremonial venue of Enver Hoxha's
funeral. A few years later,
Mother Teresa became the
first religious figure to visit the country following
Albania's long declared anti-religious atheist stance. She paid
respect to her mother and sister resting at a local cemetery. Starting
at the campus and ending at
Skanderbeg Square with the toppling of
Enver Hoxha's statue, the city saw significant demonstrations by
University of Tirana
University of Tirana students, demanding political freedoms in the
See also: Fall of communism in Albania
The Mustafa Matohiti Street is known as Rruga e Salës among the
locals, named after former Prime Minister Sali Berisha.
Blloku district. After the fall of communism in Albania, a dramatic
growth of new developments has taken place, with many new exclusive
flats and apartments.
On the political aspect, the city witnessed a number of events.
Personalities visited the capital, such as former U.S. Secretary of
James Baker and Pope John Paul II. The former visit came amidst
the historical setting after the fall of communism, as hundreds of
thousands were chanting in
Skanderbeg Square Baker's famous saying of
"Freedom works!".
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II became the first
major religious leader to visit Tirana, though
Mother Teresa had
visited few years prior.
During the Balkans turmoil in the mid-1990s, the city experienced
dramatic events such as the unfolding of the 1997 unrest in Albania
and a failed coup d'état on 14 September 1998. In 1999, following the
Tirana Airport became a NATO airbase, serving its mission
in the former Yugoslavia.
Starting in 2000, former
Edi Rama (mayor from 2000 to
2011) under the
Ilir Meta government, undertook a campaign to demolish
illegal buildings around the city centre and along the Lana River
banks to bring the area to its pre-1990 state. In an attempt to widen
roads, Rama authorized the bulldozing of private properties so that
they could be paved over, thus widening streets. Most main roads
underwent reconstruction, such the Ring Road (Unaza), Kavaja Street
and the main boulevard. Rama led the initiative to paint the façades
of Tirana's buildings in bright colours (known as
Edi Rama colours –
very bright pink, yellow, green, violet) although much of their
interiors continued to degrade. Rama's critics claimed that he focused
too much attention on cosmetic changes without fixing any of the major
problems such as shortages of drinking water and electricity.
A richer calendar of events was introduced and a Municipal Police
Since 2005 the southeast region of Tirana, mainly Farke and Petrela
has had a burst becoming the preferred destination with many residence
complexes being built and having the current biggest mall in Albania,
Tirana East Gate
Tirana East Gate (TEG). In 2007,
U.S. President George W.
Bush marked the first time that such a high ranking American official
visited Tirana. A central
Tirana street was named in his honor.
In 2008, the Gërdec explosions were felt in the capital as windows
were shattered and citizens shaken. On 21 January 2011, Albanian
police clashed with opposition supporters in front of the Government
building as cars were set on fire, three persons killed and 150
In the 2015 municipality election, power was transferred from the
Democratic Party representative Lulzim Basha, to the Socialist Party
candidate Erion Veliaj. The country underwent a territorial
reform, which unified communes with municipalities leaving 61 of
them. Thirteen of Tirana's communes were integrated as
administrative units joining the existing eleven. Since then,
Tirana is undergoing major changes in law enforcement and new projects
as well as continuing the ones started by his predecessor. In their
first few council meeting 242 social houses got allocated to needing
families. Construction permits were suspended until the capital's
development plan is revised and synthesized. In addition the
municipality will audit all permits granted in the previous years.
Stefano Boeri was contracted to work on the General
Urban Plan of
Tirana (TR030), which makes a series of interventions to
the city's infrastructure. The plan was submitted for approval to the
Municipality Council in November 2016.
Tirana as seen from above and overlooking
Mount Dajt in the
Satellite imagery illustrating the
Tirana Metropolitan Area.
Tirana is situated on the western slopes of Dajti
Mountain in central Albania. Its average altitude is 110 meters
(360 ft) above sea level and its highest point measures 1,828
metres (5,997 feet) at Mali me Gropa. By road the city is 700
kilometres (430 miles) north of Athens, 290 km (180 mi) west
of Skopje, 250 km (160 mi) south-east of
160 km (99 mi) south of Podgorica.
The city is surrounded by
Dajti Mountain on the east, south and west,
standing at 1,613 metres (5,292 ft) elevation above sea level. In
winter, the mountain is often covered with snow and is a popular
retreat to the population of Tirana, which rarely sees snow falls. The
forests are composed of pine, oak and beech, while its interior relief
with canyons, waterfalls, caves, lakes and landforms. Due to its
natural heritage, it is considered the "Natural Balcony of Tirana".
The mountain can be reached through a narrow asphalted mountain road
onto an area known as Fusha e Dajtit. From this small area there is an
excellent view of
Tirana and its plain.
Tiranë river flows through the city, as does the
Lanë river. Tirana
is home to several artificial lakes, among which are included Tirana,
Farka, Tufina, and Kashar. The present municipality was formed at the
2015 local government reform by the merger of the former
municipalities Baldushk, Bërzhitë, Dajt, Farkë, Kashar, Krrabë,
Ndroq, Petrelë, Pezë, Shëngjergj, Tirana, Vaqarr,
Zall-Herr, that became municipal units. The seat of the municipality
is the city Tirana.
Under the Köppen climate classification,
Tirana has a humid
subtropical climate (Cfa), and receives just enough summer
precipitation to avoid Köppen's (Csa) Mediterranean climate
classification, since every summer month has more than 40 millimetres
(1.6 in) of rainfall, with hot and moderately dry/humid summers
and cool and wet winters. Some snow falls almost every winter, but it
usually melts quickly. With 2544 hours of sun,
Tirana is the 8th
most sunny city in Europe.
Tirana lies on the boundary between
Zone 7 and Zone 9 in terms of the hardiness zone.
Climate data for
Tirana (1961–1990, extremes 1940–present)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst[note 1]
Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)
Lake was built from local waters in 1955.
In September 2015,
Tirana organized its first vehicle-free day,
joining forces with numerous cities across the globe to fight against
the existing problem of urban air pollution. This initiative resulted
in a considerable drop in both air and noise pollution, encouraging
the Municipality to organize a vehicle-free day every month.[citation
The city suffers from problems related to overpopulation, such as
waste management, high levels of air pollution and significant noise
pollution. Over the last decades, air pollution has become a pressing
concern as the number of cars has increased. These are mostly 1990s
and early 2000s diesel cars, while it is widely believed that the
fuel used in
Albania contains larger amounts of sulfur and lead than
in the European Union. Another source of pollution are PM10 and PM2.5
inhaled particulate matter and NO2 gases resulting from rapid
growth in the construction of new buildings and expanding road
Untreated solid waste is present in the city and outskirts.
Additionally, there have been complaints of excessive noise pollution.
Despite the problems, the Grand Park at the Artificial
Lake has some
effect on absorbing CO2 emissions, while over 2.000 trees have been
planted around sidewalks. The work of four new parks has started in
the summer of 2015 located Kashar, Farkë, Vaqarr, and Dajt. These
parks are part of the new urban plan striving to increase the
concentration of green spaces in the capital. The government has
included designated green areas around
Tirana as part of the Tirana
Greenbelt where construction is not permitted or limited.
Further information: Buildings and structures in Tirana
Florestano Di Fausto
Florestano Di Fausto and Armando Brasini, well-known architects of the
Benito Mussolini period in Italy, designed the city plan for Tirana,
in Neo-Renaissance style with articulate angular solutions and giant
Tirana is home to different architectural styles that represent
influential periods in its history dating back to the antiquity. The
Tirana as the capital of the country was marked by two
totalitarian regimes, by the fascist regime of
Benito Mussolini during
World War II
World War II and the communist regime. Both have left their mark on
the city with their typically architecture.
In addition to the objects of the architecture of the totalitarian
regimes of the 20th century,
Tirana offers a couple of other such
objects of both periods. The Palace of Brigades (former Palace of the
Albania's King Zog I), the ministries buildings, the government
building and the municipality hall are designed by Florestano Di
Fausto and Armando Brasini, both well-known architects of the
Mussolini period in Italy. The
Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard
Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard was
built in 1930 and given the name King Zog I Boulevard.
Skanderbeg Square in the center.
In the communist period, the part from
Skanderbeg Square up to the
train station was named Stalin Boulevard. The Royal Palace or Palace
of Brigades previously served as the official residence of King Zog I.
It has been used by different Albanian governments for various
purposes. Because of the outbreak of World War II, and the 1939
Italian invasion of Albania, King Zog I fled
Albania and never had a
chance to see the Palace fully constructed. The
Italians finished it
and used it as the Army Headquarters. The Palace took its nickname
Palace of Brigades because it was taken from the
Italians by a people
In the 21th century,
Tirana turned into a proper modernist city, with
large blocks of flats, modern new buildings, new shopping centres and
many green spaces. In June 2016, the
Erion Veliaj and
the Italian architect
Stefano Boeri announced the start of the works
for the redaction of the Master Plan
Tirana 2030.
The entrance of the Grand Park of Tirana.
The city of
Tirana is a densely-built area but still offers several
public parks throughout its districts, graced with green gardens. With
an area of 230 hectare, the Grand Park is the largest park in the
city. It is one of most visited areas by local citizens. The park
includes many children's playgrounds, sport facilities and landmarks
such as the Saint Procopius Church, the Presidential Palace, the
Botanical Gardens, the
Tirana Zoo, the Amphitheatre, the Monument of
the Frashëri Brothers and many others.
Rinia Park was built during the Communist regime in Albania. It
Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard
Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard to the east, Gjergi Fishta
Bajram Curri Boulevard
Bajram Curri Boulevard to the south, Rruga Ibrahim
Rugova to the west and Rruga Myslym Shyri to the north. The Taivani
Center is the main landmark in the park and houses cafés,
restaurants, fountains, and a bowling lane in the basement. The Summer
Festival takes place every year in the park, to celebrate the end of
winter and the rebirth of nature and a rejuvenation of spirit amongst
the Albanians. As of the current
Tirana Erion Veliaj, the
Tirana will build more green spaces and will plant
The expansion of
Tirana from 1990 to 2005.
Source:  [a]
Tirana is the most populous city in
Albania and the 6th most populous
capital city in the Balkans. Nervertheless, the city is as well the
country's only metropolitan area. As defined by the Institute of
Albania in 2011, the urban area of the city included
526,017 people. The rural areas of
Tirana County, which are known as
the suburbs of Tirana, included 223,348 people. Altogether, the figure
for the county was 749,365 people. The number of women slightly
exceeds the number of men in the county, with 370,587 men and 378,778
Tirana is home to many ethnicities from all over Southern
Europe. Approximately 84.10% (630,203) of the population was of
Albanian descent, 0.35% (2,596) Greeks, 0.11% (856) Aromanians, 0.07%
(513) Macedonians and 0.03% (198) Italians, with 0.14% (1.042) not
declaring their ethnicity.
Tirana was mentioned for the first time between 1372 and 1418 in
Venetian documents. During that time, the city was known as a small
village, consisting 60 inhabited areas with nearly 7300 inhabitants.
Marin Barleti, an Albanian historian and priest from Shkodër,
distinguished Great and Small Tirana. In 1583, the town had 110
inhabited areas with 20,000 inhabitants. When Sulejman Pasha
established the city in 1614, the first constructions in the area were
a mosque, a bakery and a hamam. Two centuries later, the control of
the city was won by the noble
Toptani family of
Krujë and the city
had only 4000 inhabitants. It was noted that the two oldest
neighbourhoods were Mujos and Pazari, between the
and Elbasani Street, on either side of the Lana River. In 1820 the
Tirana was around 12,000 inhabitants. After the end of
communism in 1990, the city had about 250,000 inhabitants and since
then a large scale influx from other parts of the country has
increased the population to over 700,000.
The 18th century
Ethem Bey Mosque
Ethem Bey Mosque located in the city center. (left)
The Resurrection Cathedral of
Tirana is the third largest orthodox
cathedral in Europe.(right)
Islam is the predominant religion of Tirana. With 65% a majority of
those living in
Tirana are Muslims.
Christianity is the second largest
Tirana and is divided between the
Roman Catholic Church,
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church and other
Christian denominations. At least
11% of the city's population identify themselves some denomination of
Christians, while 3% identify themselves as Atheists. 4% identify
themselves as believers without denomination.
An interesting fact in the religious make-up of Tirana, is the 15%
(113,000 people) who preferred not to answer the survey question.
This hesitance to not answer may come from the communist period under
dictator Enver Hoxha, where he famously proclaimed that the only
religion for an Albanian is Albanianism. Afterwards he declared
Albania as an atheist state and attempted to remove all organized
religion from the country. The
Roman Catholic Church is
Tirana by the Archdiocese of Tiranë and Durrës, with
the St Paul's Cathedral as the current seat of the prelacy. The
Albanian Orthodox community is served by the Archbishop of
the Resurrection Cathedral.
The healthcare system in
Albania is mainly public. The private
healthcare sector in
Albania is still developing, and it covers
most of the pharmaceutical and dental services mainly being situated
in Tirana. The largest hospital in
Mother Teresa Hospital,
which is associated with
University of Tirana, Faculty of Medicine. A
number of private hospitals have been opened.
Kryeministria, the official workplace of the Prime Minister of
Albania. (right) The Ministry of Internal Affairs close to the Mother
Teresa Square. (left)
Tirana was proclaimed by the
Congress of Lushnjë
Congress of Lushnjë as the capital of
Albania, eight years following independence in 1912. The first
regulatory city plan was compiled in 1923 by Austro-Hungarian
architects. The city center of
Tirana was designed by Italian
architects including Florestano Di Fausto,
Gherardo Bosio and Armando
Tirana continued with its status as the political and
cultural centre of the country, being home to all the national
institutions that includes the government, the parliament, the
ministries, the judicial bodies and other major political
Being the capital of Albania,
Tirana is the seat of the government.
Both the President and Prime Minister of
Albania have their official
residences and offices in the city. The president has their official
residence in the Presidential Palace, while the office is the
Presidential Office. The workplace of the prime minister is the Prime
Minister's Office. Further, the ministries and departments of
Agriculture, Rural Development, State for Diaspora, Education, Sports,
Entrepreneurs, Tourism, Environment, Innovation, Public
Administration, Social Welfare, Local Governance, Culture and Urban
Development are based within the city territory.
The nation's highest courts are based in
Tirana such as the Supreme
Court, the Constitutional Court, the Court of Appeal and the
Tirana is also home to more than 45 embassies
and representative bodies as an international political actor.
Main article: Units of Tirana
Mayor and Neighborhoods of Tirana
Tirana along with the Cabinet of
executive power. The Assembly of
Tirana functions as the city
parliament and consists of 55 members, serving four-year terms. It
primarily deals with budget, global orientations and relations between
the city and the Government of Albania. It has 14 committees and its
current Chairman is Aldrin Dalipi from the Socialist Party. Each of
the members have a specific portfolio such as economy, finance,
juridical, education, health care, and several professional services,
agencies and institutes. The Municipality of
Tirana is divided into 24
administrative units, with an own appointed mayor and council.
In 2000, the centre of
Tirana from the central campus of
Tirana in the
Mother Teresa Square up to the
Skanderbeg Square, was
declared the place of Cultural Assembly, and given state protection.
The historical core of the capital lies around pedestrian only Murat
Toptani Street, while the most prominent city district is Blloku. This
neighborhood is the most popular part under the youth of Tirana. It is
located in the southern side of
Tirana and borders Kombinat and the
center of the city. Until recently the city lacked a proper address
system. In 2010, the municipality undertook the installing of street
name signs and entrance numbers while every apartment entrance was
Further information: List of twin towns and sister cities in Albania
As Tirana, many of them are the most influential and largest or
primate cities of their country and political, economical, cultural
capital of their country.
Tirana logistic park
Toptani Center, designed by Dutch architect
Winy Maas located in the
Being a primate city,
Tirana is the economic heart of
Albania and home
to most major national and international companies operating in the
country. The economy is dominated by the
Service Sector with around
68.5%, the industrial sector by 26.1% and agriculture sector with
5.4%. The city began to develop at the beginning of the 16th
century, when a bazaar was established, and its craftsmen manufactured
silk and cotton fabrics, leather, ceramics and iron, silver, and gold
Historically, after the second World War and the communist regime, the
city and its surrounding areas expanded rapidly and became the most
heavily industrialised region of Albania. Important economic sectors
Tirana include transportation, information and communication
technologies, media, advertising and design, environmental services,
construction, e-commerce, banking, legal services, retail, hotel
business, and medical engineering.
According to the World Bank,
Tirana has made significant steps of
starting a business in 2016, ranking 10th among 22 cities of
The airport is the 8th busiest airport in the Balkans that handles
over 2 million passengers per year.
Tirana International Airport
Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza
Tirana is served by
Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza
Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza named
after the Albanian
Roman Catholic nun and missionary Mother Teresa. It
is the only port of entry for air travelers to the country. The
airport is located in the village of
Rinas 6 nautical miles (11
kilometres; 6.9 miles) northwest of the city centre of Tirana.
Roads and railways
Main articles: Tirana-Elbasan, A1, and A3 Motorway
Tirana-Elbasan Highway is currently under construction and is part
of the planned A3 motorway of Albania.
The city serves as the meeting point for national roads SH1, SH2 and
SH3. Construction of the outer big ring highway started in
2011. National Road 1 (SH1) leads to the Albanian –
Montenegrin border at
Hani i Hotit
Hani i Hotit border crossing. From
Tirana at the
Kamza Overpass (Mbikalimi i Kamzës) northward, it passes through
Fushë-Kruja, Milot, Lezha, Shkodra, and Koplik. Between Thumane and
Milot, the SH1 has become part of the
connecting the capital
Tirana with Kosovo. SH1 forms part of the
Albanian North-South Corridor connecting
Hani i Hotit
Hani i Hotit border with
Kakavijë in the Albanian – Greek border thus forming part of the
The SH2 national road in linking
Tirana with the port city of Durrës.
The road was the first highway to be reconstructed in Albania
following the end of communism in 1991.
National Road 2 (SH2) is a dual carriageway in
Albania linking the
port city of
Durrës with Tirana. SH2 begins at the Port of
Durrës at the Dajlani Overpass, bypasses Shijak, intersects with SH52
in Vora, bypasses the road to
Tirana International Airport, and ends
at the Kamza Overpass in the outskirts of
Tirana where it meets
National Road 1 State Road heading to northern Albania.
The Albanian Motorway A3 it is planned to run along the central
Tirana to southern Albania, whose first part
Tirana–Elbasan Highway connecting
Tirana with the
Pan-European Transport Corridor VIII. The section from
Elbasan, will be an alternative to the old curvy road SH3 along Krraba
Pass. The new highway bypasses the heavy traffic via
Durrës-Rrogozhina. In addition, the new track about 15 kilometres
(9.3 miles) shorter than the path to the SH3, resulting in drastically
reduced distance with much higher speed between
Tirana and Elbasan.
Economically, after completion it will be an important link between
the Albanian capital and Greece.
In recent years, in anticipation of the construction of the new
Multi-Modal Terminal near the Kamza Overpass at the entrance of
Tirana, the Municipality of
Tirana has opened several temporary bus
terminals mainly along Dritan Hoxha St and Student City to regulate
the chaos of public transport between towns in Tirana. These terminals
serve Southern and Southern
Albania including Durrës, and
International bound coaches.
There are passenger services to
Durrës and Librazhd, via Elbasan. As
of September 2013, the
Tirana Railway Station
Tirana Railway Station north of the Skanderbeg
Square was dismantled and moved to Kashar, the latter renovated in May
2015. The existing line was replaced with a bus
service located alongside the coach terminal at the north end of Zogu
I Boulevard. The line extending from
Pogradec to the
south-east was discontinued in 2012. There are no international
passenger services, although there is a freight-only railway through
Shkodër to Montenegro. In the north-western district of Tirana,
Laprakë a new station will be built, which is planned as a
multi-functional terminal for railway, tram and bus. Until its
opening, the railway transport between
closed. The new railway line from
International Airport) to the port city of Durrës, is currently
planned to be built. The location of this railway, as the most
populated urban areas in Albania, makes it an important economic
development project. The opening will take place in 2019.
Public Transport, Cycling, and Ferries
See also: Ecovolis
Ecovolis Bicycle sharing scheme near the city center.
The city of
Tirana is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the
largest passenger port in the Adriatic Sea, 36 km (22 mi)
distant from the city. Passenger ferries from
Durrës sail to
Corfu (Greece), Ancona, Bari, Brindisi,
Trieste (Italy), Bar (Montenegro),
and other cities in the region. Local transport within
Tirana is by
bus or taxi. Official taxis have yellow plates with red text and
usually use taximeter. Coach and minibus (furgon) services also run to
the coast and northern and southern
Albania from Tirana. International
coach services connect to Greece, via
Korçë or Kakavije, to
Kosovo[note 2] via the new Durrës-Morine highway, and to the Republic
of Macedonia via Struga.
Public Transport in Tirana
Ecovolis bicycle sharing system was launched in 2011. Bicycles
are rented from initially four stations located at
Rinia Park and
along Deshmoret e Kombit Boulevard. A full day ride costs 100 leks.
Bike only lanes are located alongside existing sidewalks on Skanderbeg
Lana River and Kavaja Street, while combined bus and bike
lanes are located on other main streets to alleviate overall
Tirana municipality published a report according to which a
project on the construction of two tram lines was under evaluation.
The tram lines would have a total length of 16.7 kilometres (10.4
miles). The public transport in
Tirana is, for now, focused only in
the city centre, so that the people living in the suburbs have fewer
or no public transport connections. The municipality believes that
pedestrian areas in the city centre will also be created with the
construction of the tram lines. Under the plan, the two tram lines
will intersect in the
Skanderbeg Square. The current public transport
Tirana is made of ten bus lines served by 250 to 260 buses
every day. The development of the tram network will provide an easier
access to the city centre and beyond to necessary facilities, such as
leisure areas or jobs without using personal vehicles.
Main article: Culture of Tirana
The Cloud Pavilion outside the National Art Gallery was installed
by Japanese architect Sou Fujimoto.
Tirana is an important center for music, film, theatre, dance and
visual art. The city is host to the largest cultural institutions of
the country, such as the National Theatre and the National Theatre of
Opera and Ballet, the Natioan Archaeological Museum, the Art Gallery
of Albania, the Sciences Museum of
Albania and the National Historical
Museum. Among the local institutions are the National Library, that
keeps more than a million books, periodicals, maps, atlases,
microfilms and other library materials. The city has five
well-preserved traditional houses (museum-houses), 56 cultural
monuments, eight public libraries. Since 2011, a Tourist
Information Office was opened, located behind the National Historical
Museum, with useful information about
Tirana and Albania.
There are many foreign cultural institutions in the city, including
the German Goethe-Institut, Friedrich Ebert Foundation and the
British Council. Other cultural centers in
Tirana are, Canadian
Institute of Technology, Chinese Confucius Institute, Greek Hellenic
Foundation for Culture, Italian Istituto Italiano di Cultura
and the French Alliance Française. The Information Office of the
Europe was established in Tirana. The three main religions
in Albania, which contains Islam, Orthodox and Catholic Christianity,
have all their headquarters in Tirana. The Bektashi leadership moved
Albania and established their World Headquarters also in the city
One of the major annual events taking place in
Tirana each year is the
Tirana International Film Festival. It was the first international
cinema festival in the country and considered as the most important
cinematic event in the country.
The entrance of the Bunk'art Museum near the city centre.
The most prominent museum in
Tirana is the National Historical Museum,
which details the history of the country. It keeps some of the best
archeological finds in Albania, dating from the prehistoric era to the
modern times. In the entrance of the pavilions, there are photos of
global personalities, who met
Mother Teresa as Jacques Chirac, Bill
Clinton, Tony Blair, Ibrahim Kodra and many other personalities.
Undoubtedly, the personal objects used by her increase the curiosity
of thousands of visitors in the museum. Almost 1 million visitors were
counted in 2012.
Another large museums includes the National Archaeological Museum,
which is the national archaeological museum and the first museum
World War II
World War II in Albania. The National Art Gallery opened
to the public in 1954. However, the museum preserves over 5000
artworks. Other museums include the Natural Sciences Museum, which has
branches in zoology, botany and geology, the former
Enver Hoxha Museum
and the Bunk'art Museum. In 2017, the Museum of Secret Surveillance
(House of leaves) were renovated and re-opened. The historical
building from the communist period, aims now portray from the
omnipresence of the Albanian communist regime.
In recent years,
Tirana is becoming a popular hub for events.
Festivals are one of several things that people in
Tirana enjoy well.
It has a large number of festivals and events. The diversity of
festivals makes it possible for people of different tastes to find
themselves in a city this small. Festivals in the city provide
entertainment for the youth as well as for adults. The Summer Festival
takes place every year on 14 March, celebrating the Spring Day
(Albanian: Dita e Veres), the country's largest pagan festival. It is
widely celebrated in
Tirana and as well as in other cities in Albania
and the Arbëresh colonies in Italy.
Another major event, the
Tirana International Film Festival
Tirana International Film Festival takes
Tirana each year, which brings a large number of artists to
produce a wide range of interesting film works. Other festivals
Tirana Jazz Festival, the Guitar Sounds Festival, the
Albanian Wine Festival and more. In 2016, the first Telekom Electronic
Beats Festival were held in Tirana, bringing the latest trends from
the urban lifestyle to the Albanian youth. This is the effort of
Tirana to increase the number of tourist visits. However, the city is
become a popular destination for many young people around the region
during the vacation period.
Further information: Landmarks in Tirana
The five star Plaza Hotel on the 28 Nëntori street.
Albania is developing year by year since the fall of
communism and the capital city of
Tirana become a very popular tourist
destinations after the southern
Albanian Riviera and northern part of
Tirana has a majority of luxury hotels, modern
restaurants, bars, pubs and very big nightclubs. The largest hotels of
the city are the
Tirana International Hotel
Tirana International Hotel and The
situated in the heart of the city near the Scanderbeg Square. The
luxury Sheraton Hotel
Tirana is also located in city center of Tirana,
near central business district next to the National Arena. Other major
hotels present in central
Tirana include the Xheko Imperial Hotel,
Rogner Hotel, the Best Western Premier Ark Hotel and the Mondial
Tirana is a place that is known as a university center of
students from regional countries like Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro
and Greece.
According to the Polish Tour Operators Association,
Tirana has entered
into the 10th most visited cities by the Poles.
Most tourists to the city come from Greece, Italy, Kosovo[citation
needed] and Europe, with the number of visitors from elsewhere growing
every year, thanks to an increasing number of international airline
Mother Teresa International Airport as well as luxury
cruises that arrive into the Port of
Durrës that offers day trips to
A large number of the monuments located in Tirana, date back to the
Illyrian, Roman, Greek and Ottoman periods.
Monuments include the
Skanderbeg Square, Clock Tower of Tirana,
Petrelë Castle, Et'hem Bey
Mosque, Sacred Heart Church, Resurrection Cathedral, Tomb of Kapllan
Pasha, Mother Albania, Blloku,
Mount Dajti and Mosaic of Tirana.
Further information: Category:Media in Tirana
Tirana is a major location for the Albanian entertainment industry,
with many films, television series, books, newspapers and other media
set there. It is the largest centre for film and television production
in Albania. Almost all of the major media organizations in
based in Tirana. The television industry developed in
Tirana and is a
significant employer in the city's economy. Some broadcast networks,
RTSH, Top Channel, TV Klan,
IN TV (Albania)
IN TV (Albania) and Vizion Plus, are all
headquartered in Tirana. Radio stations operate in the capital, with
the most notable being Radio Tirana, commercial Top
Albania Radio and
Tirana is home to the publication of dailies including
Shqip, Zëri i Popullit, Shekulli, Gazeta Shqiptare and Koha Jonë.
Digitalb and Tring, the two biggest Albanian media, digital satellite
and terrestrial TV platform are also based in Tirana. Also editions of
national magazines such as Anabel, Elegance, Who and
international magazines such as Grazia, OK! and others have
their headquarters in the city. In 2016, there were 1.82 million
Internet users in the country in percentage 63% of the population of
Further information: Sports in Albania
Being the capital,
Tirana is the center of sport in Albania, where
activity is organized across amateur and professional levels. It is
home to many major sporting facilities. Starting from 2007, the Tirana
Municipality has built up to 80 sport gardens in most of Tirana's
neighborhoods. One of the latest projects is the reconstruction of the
existing Olympic Park, that will provide infrastructure for most
Tirana hosted in the past three major events, the FIBA EuroBasket
2011 World Mountain Running Championships
2011 World Mountain Running Championships and the 2013 European
There are two major stadiums, the former
Qemal Stafa Stadium
Qemal Stafa Stadium and the
Selman Stërmasi stadium. The former was demolished in 2016 to make
way for the new national stadium. The new stadium called the
National Arena (Arena Kombëtare) will be constructed on the same site
of the former
Qemal Stafa Stadium
Qemal Stafa Stadium and it is planned to open in 2018.
It will have an underground parking, a hotel, shops and bars and will
be used for entertainment events. Tirana's sports infrastructure is
developing fast because of the investments from the municipality and
Football is the most widely followed sport in
Tirana as well as in the
country, having numerous club teams including the KF Tirana, Partizani
Tirana, and Dinamo Tirana. It is popular at every level of society,
from children to wealthy professionals. In football, as of April 2012,
the Tirana-based teams have won a combined 57 championships out of 72
championships organized by the FSHF, i.e. 79% of them. Another popular
Albania is basketball, represented in particular by the teams
KB Tirana, BC Partizani, BC Dinamo, Ardhmëria and also the women's
Recently two rugby teams were created:
Tirana Rugby Club, founded
in 2013 and Ilirët Rugby Club founded in 2016.
Selman Stërmasi Stadium
Asllan Rusi Palace
Asllan Rusi Palace
Further information: Category:Education in Tirana
University of Tirana
University of Tirana is the largest and highest ranking university
in the country.
The building of the Faculty of Law of Tirana.
International School of
Tirana is part of the Quality Schools
After the fall of communism in Albania, a reorganization plan was
announced in 1990, that would extend the compulsory education program
from eight to ten years. The following year, major economic and
political crisis in Albania, and the ensuing breakdown of public
order, plunged the school system into chaos. Widespread vandalism and
extreme shortages of textbooks and supplies had a devastating effect
on school operations, prompting
Italy and other countries to provide
material assistance. Many teachers relocated from rural to urban
areas, leaving village schools understaffed and swelling the ranks of
the unemployed in the cities; about 2,000 teachers fled the
country. -The highly controlled environment that the
communist regime had forced upon the educational system over the
course of more than forty-six years was finally liberated set for
improvement. In the late 1990, many schools were rebuilt or
reconstructed, to improve learning conditions. Most of the
improvements have happened in the larger cities of the country
especially in Tirana.
In Tirana, there are 64 primary schools and 19 secondary schools.
The city is also host to many higher education institutions. This
brings many young students from other cities and countries, especially
from neighbouring countries, to Tirana. Many private Universities have
been opened during the recent years. The French computer science
Epitech is also located in the city.
In recent years, foreign students mainly from Southern
Italy are being
enrolled at Italian-affiliated universities in
Tirana in the hope of
better preparing themselves for entrance exams in Italy's
Universities in Tirana
University of Tirana
Public Classic School
University of Arts
Public Art school
University of Medicine
Public Medical school
Public Technical school
Public Agricultural School
School of Magistrates
Public Law school
Private Classical School
Tirana International School
Private Quality School
Marin Barleti University
Private Classical School
Private Theological School
Private Classical School
Private Gülen Theological School
Main article: List of people from Tirana
University of Tirana
University of Arts
Lake of Tirana
Ethem Bey Mosque
Sacred Heart Church
Former Residence of Enver Hoxha
Pazari i Ri
Pazari i Ri (New Bazaar)
Timeline of Tirana
Symbols of Tirana
^ Station ID for
Tirana is 13615 Use this station ID to locate the
Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic
Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo
unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia
continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two
governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the
Kosovo has received formal recognition as an
independent state from 113 out of 193
United Nations member states.
Erion Veliaj shpall fitoren në Tiranë". evropaelire.org.
Missing or empty title= (help)
^ "Sunniest Cities in Europe". currentresults.com. p. 1.
^ "European Cities With the Wettest, Rainiest Weather".
currentresults.com. p. 1.
^ "Natural and anthropogenic hazards in karst areas of Albania" (PDF).
nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net. p. 9.
^ "Community Based Tourism at Pellumbas Village, Albania" (PDF).
web.wpi.edu. p. 4.
University of London. Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology. The
Institute, 1994. pp. 110–111.
^ Heppner, Harald (1994). Hauptstädte in Südosteuropa: Geschichte,
Funktion, nationale Symbolkraft. Wien u.a. Böhlau. pp. 133, 135.
^ To know more about the history of Tirana, please consult
shekuj: Terona, Theranda, Tirkan, Tirannea, Tirana : monografi,
disa artikuj e materiale arkivore kushtuar historisë së Tiranës by
Skënder Jasa. (Victoria, 1997)
^ E. J. Van Donzel (1994), Islamic Desk Reference, E.J. Brill,
p. 451, ISBN 9780585305561, OCLC 45731063, "il borgo di
Tirana" is already mentioned as early as 1572
^ ""Tiranasit" e ardhur rishtaz" (in Albanian). Gazeta Shqiptare.
Retrieved 17 August 2008.
^ Pearson, Owen (2006).
Albania and King Zog: independence, republic
and monarchy 1908–1939. IB Taurus. p. 140.
ISBN 1-84511-013-7. It was decided that the Congress of Lushnje
was not to be dissolved until elections had been held and the new
government had taken power into its hands and begun to exercise its
functions in Tirana, in opposition to the Provisional Government in
Italian occupied Durrës
^ Kera, Gentiana. Aspects of the urban development of Tirana:
1820–1939 Archived 25 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine., Seventh
International Conference of Urban History. Athens, 2004.
^ Bleta, Indrit. Influences of political regime shifts on the urban
scene of a capital city, Case Study: Tirana. Turkey, 2010.
^ "Mustafa Matohiti Street – Rruga e Salës". spottedbylocals.com.
Retrieved 13 April 2017. Mustafa Matohiti Street is known as Rruga e
Salës among the locals. The street has unofficially gotten this name
because the ex-Prime Minister of Albania, Sali Berisha, lives
^ "A bright and colourful new style of urban design emerges in
Albania". Resource for Urban Design Information. Retrieved 16 August
^ Pusca, Anca (2008). "The aesthetics of change: Exploring
post-Communist spaces". Global Society. 22 (3): 369–386.
^ "Garden Villas, Farke".
^ "Longhill". longhillresidence.com. Retrieved 2015-09-02.
Europe – Bush greeted as hero in Albania".
^ "Protesters killed in
Tirana rally". Southeast European Times.
2011-01-21. Retrieved 2011-09-15.
Erion Veliaj takes office as
Mayor of Tirana". Retrieved
^ "Reforma Territoriale – Harta – 61 bashki".
reformaterritoriale.al. Retrieved 2015-08-31.
^ a b "Veliaj suspends construction permits". Retrieved
Tirana City Council approves the allocation of social housing for
242 families". Retrieved 2015-08-31.
^ "Dajti National Park A Recreational Area for Citizens of Tirana,
Albania" (PDF). boku.ac.at. p. 2.
^ "Law nr. 115/2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24
^ Kottek, Markus; Grieser, Jürgen; Beck, Christoph; Rudolf, Bruno;
Rube, Franz (June 2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate
classification updated" (PDF). Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 15 (3):
259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved
^ Telegraph Media Group. "Mapped: the sunniest (and dullest) cities in
Europe". The Daily Telegraph.
^ "IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS ON THE PLANT HARDINESS ZONES OF
TIRANA PREFECTURE". researchgate.net.
^ "Klimatafel von
Tirana (Flugh.) / Albanien" (PDF). Baseline climate
means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German).
Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
^ "Station 13615 Tirana". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine
Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
^ "Station Tirana" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 11 June
^ "State of the Environment in
Albania 1997-1998". Retrieved 18
Albania (7 November 2013). "Stoku i makinave të
përdorura – News, Lajme – Vizion Plus" – via YouTube.
^ Environmental Center for Administration & Technology Tirana.
Tirana Air Quality Report. Tirana: EU/LIFE Program; German
Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear
Safety. Archived 10 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Dako, Alba; Lika, Mirela and Hysen Mankolli. 2008. Monitoring
aspects of air quality in urban areas of
Durrës, Albania" (PDF). Natura Montenegrina. 7 (2): 549–557.
^ Cameron, Rob (3 December 2004). "Tirana: Where the streets have no
name". BBC News.
^ "Oranews.tv – Veliaj: Në
Farkë do ndërtohet terminali i
autobusave për juglindjen". Oranews. Retrieved 2015-08-31.
^ "HOME". planifikimi.gov.al.
^ "Baza Ligjore - APR Tirana". aprtirana.al.
^ "Municipality of Tirana, partner in a transnational project on
totalitarian architecture". atrium-see.eu.
Tirana inaugurates second workout area at Artificial Lake
Park". 23 February 2017.
^ "Second paid parking space inaugurated in Tirana".
^ "Albania: largest cities and towns and statistics of their
population". Archived from the original on 5 December 2012.
^ (in Albanian) Population statistics of the Municipality of Tirana
Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
^ (in Albanian) Population projections from INSTAT Archived 5 May 2017
at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Popullsia e Shqipërisë" (PDF). instat.gov.al. Archived from the
original (PDF) on 12 April 2016.
^ "Population – INSTAT". Archived from the original on 16 March
^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7
February 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
^ a b Swift, Nick. "The history of
Tirana a fusion of Islamic and
^ TRIMBORN, HARRY (12 April 1985). "Enver Hoxha, 76, Ruler of Albania
for 41 Years, Dies" – via Los Angeles Times.
Albania finds religion after decades of atheism".
Albania Health Insurance - Pacific Prime". pacificprime.com.
^ "Foreign Embassies and Consulates in Albania".
^ Dorina Pojani (2010-03-06). "
Tirana City Profile". Cities. 27:
483–495. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2010.02.002. Retrieved
^ "Bashkia – Lajmet e Ditarit". Tirana.gov.al. Retrieved
^ "Sister Cities of Ankara".
Tirana dhe Barcelona, binjakëzim për tregjet publike dhe
Shekulli (in Albanian). 19 November 2015. Retrieved 18
^ a b c d e f g h "International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of
Tirana. tirana.gov.al. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October
2011. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
^ "Academy of Economic Studies - Short History of Bucharest". 11 May
^ "Shqiptarja.com - Bashkia e Tiranës nënshkruan marrëveshje
binjakëzimi me Dohan".
^ "Twin cities:
Doha & Tirana".
^ "Direction Générale des Services Direction des Relations
Internationales et Européennes" (in French). Retrieved 18 February
^ a b c d e Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of
Tirana. http://www.tirana.gov.al. Retrieved 25 January 2008.
^ "Twinnings and Agreements (International Affairs)". 18 June
^ "MINA Breaking News -
Tirana sign Twin cities
Tirana dhe Shkupi firmosin marrëveshje binjakëzimi".
^ "50,7 % of Albanian Employees Work in Agriculture".
agroweb.org. 26 May 2017.
^ "The History, Form and Function of the Old Bazaar in Tirana".
^ "Subnational Economy Rankings - South East
Europe - Subnational
Doing Business -
World Bank Group". doingbusiness.org.
^ "EAD Basic – Error Page". Retrieved 7 June 2015.
^ "Albanianscreen.tv". Archived from the original on 2013-09-15.
^ Rabeta, Lorenc. "Trenat e rinj Tiranë-Durrës-
Rinas me 222
pasagjerë, 112 të ulur". dailynews.al. Retrieved 12 January
Top Channel (25 June 2016). "Hekurudha Tiranë-Rinas-Durrës,
Haxhinasto: Projekti përfundon në 2019".
Top Channel (in Albanian).
Retrieved 18 February 2018.
^ "Ecovolis". Ecovolis. Retrieved 2013-01-21.
Tirana plans to develop two tram lines - Railway PRO Communication
Platform". 26 June 2013.
^ ""The Cloud" - Art Pavilion at National Gallery Gardens" (PDF).
Retrieved 18 February 2018.
^ (in Albanian) Statistikat 2007 Archived 11 June 2011 at the Wayback
Machine. PDF Municipality of Tirana. Retrieved 20 July 2008
^ "Goethe-Zentrum". goethe.al.
^ "Home - Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Tirana". fes-tirana.org.
British Council - Albania". britishcouncil.al.
^ "Tiranas Centre of Hellenic Foundation of Culture - Anna Lindh
^ "Istituto Di Cultura - Tirana". iictirana.esteri.it.
^ "Aleanca Franceze - Frengjishtja, gjuha e europes".
^ "TIFF - TIRANA INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL".
^ "Sa kemi fituar nga turizmi kulturor?" (in Albanian). 18 May
^ "Telekom Electronic Beats introduced in Albania". telekom.com.al. 23
Tirana më e vizitueshmja nga turistët e huaj". ata.gov.al.
^ "Revista Anabel Online". anabel.al.
^ "Elegance". Elegance.
^ "Revista Who – Jo vetëm një pyetje, gjithmonë një pergjigje!".
^ "Log In or Sign Up to View". facebook.com. [non-primary source
^ "Me sportistët elitar, prezantohet Parku Olimpik i Tiranës".
arsimi.gov.al. Retrieved 2015-08-31.
^ Shembet "Qemal Stafa" (25 June 2016). "Shemben 4 tribuna, lamtumirë
stadiumi "Qemal Stafa" (FOTO)". Panorama (in Albanian).
Tirana Regbi Klub kthen sportin e munguar në kryeqytet".
^ "OSCE Presence in
Albania launches sports-based youth development
programme - OSCE". osce.org.
^ "Veliaj me mësues e edukatorë: Në 4 vite hapim 100 kopshte e 200
See also: Bibliography of the history of Tirana
Akkam, Alia (13 October 2017). "The Capital of
Albania Has Transformed
Into a Lively, Affordable Destination". Vogue.
Hillsdon, Mark (27 February 2017). "The European capital you'd never
thought to visit (but really should)". The Telegraph.
Crevar, Alex (28 August 2015). "Tirana, Breaking Free From Communist
Past, Is a City Transformed". The New York Times.
Blocal, Giulia (16 September 2014). "Tirana's colorful buildings".
Blocal Travel blog.
Williams, Sean (11 July 2014). "
Tirana fights to beat its addiction to
cars and get its residents cycling". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 July
McRae, Hamish (13 September 2008). "Albania: Charmed by Tirana". The
Abitz, Julie. Post-Socialist Development in Tirana. Roskilde: Roskilde
Agorastakis, Michalis; Sidiropoulos, Giorgos (2007). "Population
change due to geographic mobility in Albania, 1989–2001, and the
repercussions of internal migration for the enlargement of Tirana".
Population, Space and Place. 13 (6): 471–481.
Aliaj, Besnik; Keida Lulo and Genc Myftiu. Tirana: the Challenge of
Urban Development, Tirana: Cetis, 2003 ISBN 99927-880-0-3
Aliaj, Besnik. A Short History of Housing and Urban Development Models
Bertaud, Alain. Urban Development in Albania: the Success Story of the
Informal Sector, 2006.
Bleta, Indrit. Influences of Political Regime Shifts on the Urban
Scene of a Capital City, Case Study: Tirana. Turkey, 2010.
Capolino, Patrizia (2011). "Tirana: A Capital City Transformed by the
Italians". Planning Perspectives. 26 (4): 591–615.
Felstehausen, Herman. Urban Growth and Land Use Changes in Tirana,
Albania: With Cases Describing Urban Land Claims.
Galeteanu, Emira. Tirana: the Spectacle of the Urban Theatre. MA
Dissertation. Carleton University: Ottawa, 2006.
Guaralda, Mirko (2009). Urban Identity and Colour : the Case of
Tirana, Albania. Spectrum e-news, 2009(Dec), pp. 13–14.
Tirana në shekuj: Terona, Theranda, Tirkan, Tirannea,
Tirana: monografi, disa artikuj e materiale arkivore kushtuar
historisë së Tiranës,
Kera, Gentiana. Aspects of the Urban Development of Tirana:
1820–1939, Seventh International Conference of Urban History.
Nase, Ilir; Ocakci, Mehmet (2010). "Urban Pattern Dichotomy in Tirana:
Socio-spatial Impact of Liberalism". European Planning Studies. 18
(11): 1837–1861. doi:10.1080/09654313.2010.512169.
Pojani, Dorina (2011). Mobility, Equity and Sustainability Today in
Tirana, TeMA 4, no. 2, pp.99–109
Pojani, Dorina (2010). "Tirana". Cities. 27 (6): 483–495.
Pojani, Dorina (2011). "From Carfree to Carfull: the Environmental and
Health Impacts of Increasing Private Motorisation in Albania". Journal
of Environmental Planning and Management. 54 (3): 319–335.
Pojani, Dorina (2011). "Urban and Suburban Retail Development in
Albania's Capital After Socialism". Land Use Policy. 28 (4):
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tirana.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tirana.
Tirana (in Albanian)
Tirana Tourism Portal
"Tirana". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
Topics related to Tirana
Prime Minister's Office
Albanian National Bank
National Art Gallery
National Theatre of Opera and Ballet
National Martyrs Cemetery
Pyramid of Tirana
Et'hem Bey Mosque
Bejtyl Evel Mosque
Sulejman Pasha Mosque
Sheh Dyrri Teqe
St Paul's Cathedral
Sacred Heart Church
Saint Procopius Church
Tirana Olympic Park
Selman Stërmasi Stadium
Asllan Russi Palace
Kapllan Pasha Tomb
Sulejman Pasha Tomb
Pazari i Ri
Mother Teresa Square
Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard
Ali Demi Street
Bajram Curri Boulevard
Zogu I Boulevard
Zhan D'Ark Boulevard
Mustafa Lleshi Street
Pjetër Budi Street
University of Tirana
Academy of Music and Arts
Academy of Sciences
Centre of Albanological Studies
Academy of Physical and Sports
New York University
Marin Barleti University
Skanderbeg Military University
Tirana International Airport
Tirana Stock Exchange
Tirana Logistic Park
ABA Business Tower
Tirana East Gate
Toptani Shopping Center
Citypark Shopping Center
Tirana International Hotel
Mother Teresa Hospital
Capitals of European states and territories
Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is
disputed shown in italics.
Andorra la Vella, Andorra
Douglas, Isle of Man (UK)
London, United Kingdom
Saint Helier, Jersey (UK)
Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)
Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway)
Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland)
Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)
Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway)
Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)
Prague, Czech Republic
Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK)
North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5
San Marino, San Marino
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Vatican City, Vatican City
Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5
Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5
Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5
1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of
European Union and
Brussels and the European Union
3 Transcontinental country
4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political
connections with Europe
5 Partially recognised country
Capital cities of the Candidate Countries of the European Union
Republic of Macedonia:
Administrative Divisions of
County Seat: Tirana
Municipality of Kamëz
Municipality of Kavajë
Luz i Vogël
Municipality of Rrogozhinë
Municipality of Tirana
Municipality of Vorë
Municipal Seat: Tirana
Administrative Unit of Baldushk
Shpat i Sipërm
Administrative Unit of Bërzhitë
Ibë e Poshtme
Administrative Unit of Dajt
Priskë e Madhe
Administrative Unit of Farkë
Farkë e Madhe
Farkë e Vogël
Administrative Unit of Kashar
Katundi i Ri
Administrative Unit of Krrabë
Administrative Unit of Ndroq
Lagje e Re
Administrative Unit of Petrelë
Gurrë e Madhe
Gurrë e Vogël
Administrative Unit of Pezë
Pezë e Madhe
Pezë e Vogël
Administrative Unit of Shëngjergj
Administrative Unit of
Administrative Unit of Vaqarr
Administrative Unit of Zall-Bastar
Bastar i Mesëm
Mner i Sipërm
Shëngjin i Vogël
Administrative Unit of Zall-Herr
Priskë e Vogël
^ Each of the 11 divisions is an administrative unit
Municipalities of Albania
Albania are administrative divisions made up of
local administrative units and their inclusive villages.
Malësi e Madhe
Vau i Dejës
Principality of Arbanon
Kingdom of Albania
Despotate of Arta
House of Kastrioti
League of Lezhë
Kanun of Lekë Dukagjini
Islamization of Albania
Massacre of the Albanian Beys
Revolts of 1833–39
Uprising of Dervish Cara
Albanian National Awakening
League of Prizren
Congress of Manastir
Revolt of 1910
Provisional Government of Albania
Albania during the Balkan Wars
Republic of Central Albania
Albania during World War I
Albanian Republic of Korçë
Republic of Mirdita
Albanian Republic (1925–28)
Albanian Kingdom (1928–39)
Italian Fascist occupation
German Nazi occupation
Albanian resistance during World War II
Orthography Congress (1972)
1997 civil unrest
Head of state (list)
Head of government (list)
State Supreme Audit
Oil and gas
Photographs of Albania
Coat of arms