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Tirana
Tirana
(/tɪˈrɑːnə/ ( listen) — Albanian pronunciation: [tiˈɾana]; Albanian: Tiranë; Gheg Albanian: Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of the Republic of Albania. The city is also the capital of the surrounding county of Tirana, one of 12 constituent counties of the country. By air, it is 501 kilometres (311 miles) north of Athens, 613 kilometres (381 miles) southeast of Rome, 153 kilometres (95 miles) southwest of Skopje
Skopje
and 131 kilometres (81 miles) south of Podgorica. Tirana
Tirana
was founded as a city in 1614, but the region that today corresponds to the city territory has been continuously inhabited since the Bronze Age. As most of Albania, the area was populated by several Illyrian tribes, but had no importance within Illyria. Indeed, it was annexed by Rome
Rome
and became an integral part of the Roman Empire following the Illyrian Wars. The heritage of that period is still evident and represented by the Mosaics of Tirana. Further later in the 5th and 6th century, a Paleo Christian
Christian
basilica was built around this site. When the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
divided into east and west, its successor the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
took control and included the construction of the Petrelë
Petrelë
Castle, under the reign of Justinian I. Until the 20th century, the city did not attain much significance, when the Congress of Lushnjë
Lushnjë
proclaimed it as the country's capital, after the country's declaration of independence in 1912. Geographically, Tirana
Tirana
is located in the center of the country surrounded by mountains and hills, with Dajt
Dajt
on the east and a slight valley opening on the northwest, overlooking the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
in the distance. Due to its location within the Tirana plain and the close proximity to the Adriatic Sea, the city is influenced by a mediterranean seasonal climate. It is the 3rd wettest and 8th sunniest city in Europe, with 2,544 hours of sun per year.[3][4] Being a primate city, Tirana
Tirana
is considered the economic and cultural hub of Albania, due to its significant location and importance in finance, commerce, media, entertainment, arts, international trade, education, service, research and healthcare. All of the country's largest companies, media and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city. Tirana
Tirana
is also the seat of power of the Government of Albania, the residences for work of the President and Prime Minister of Albania.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 Modern 1.3 Post-communism 1.4 Present-day

2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Environment

3 Cityscape 4 Demographics 5 Politics

5.1 Administration 5.2 International relations

6 Economy 7 Transport

7.1 Aviation 7.2 Roads and railways 7.3 Public Transport, Cycling, and Ferries

8 Culture

8.1 Museums 8.2 Festivals 8.3 Tourism 8.4 Media

9 Sports

9.1 Sports clubs

10 Education 11 Notable people 12 Gallery 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

History See also: Timeline of Tirana Early history

Ancient mosaics from the 3rd century.

The discovery of the Pellumbas Cave
Pellumbas Cave
within the surrounding area of Tirana
Tirana
shows that ancient human culture were present in Albania
Albania
that dates back the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
period.[5][6][7] Nonetheless the oldest discovery within the urban area of Tirana
Tirana
was a Roman house, which has been later transformed into an aisleless church with a mosaic floor, dating to the 3rd century, with other remains found near a medieval temple at Shengjin Fountain in the eastern suburbs. A castle possibly called Tirkan or Theranda, whose remnants are found along Murat Toptani Street, was built by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
and restored by Ahmed Pasha Toptani in the 18th century.[8] The area had no special importance in Illyrian and classical times.

Castle of Petrelë, built in the 6th century by Justinian I.

In 1510, Marin Barleti, an Albanian Catholic priest and scholar, in the biography of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg, Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis (The story of life and deeds of Skanderbeg, the prince of Epirotes), referred to this area as a small village.[9] Records from the first land registrations under the Ottomans in 1431–32 show that Tirana
Tirana
consisted of 60 inhabited areas, with nearly 2,028 houses and 7,300 inhabitants.[citation needed] Tirana
Tirana
is mentioned since 1572 as Borgo di Tirana.[10] In 1614, Sulejman Bargjini, a local ruler, built the Old mosque, a small commercial centre, and a hammam (Turkish bath). During this period, the Et'hem Bey Mosque, built by Molla Bey of Petrela, was constructed. It employed the best artisans in the country and was completed in 1821 by Molla's son Etëhem, who was also Sulejman Bargjini's grandnephew. In 1800, the first newcomers arrived in the settlement, the so-called ortodoksit. They were Vlachs
Vlachs
from villages near Korçë
Korçë
and Pogradec, who settled around modern day Park on the Artificial Lake.[11] They started to be known as the llacifac and were the first Christians to arrive after the creation of the town. After Serb reprisals in the Debar
Debar
region,[when?] thousands of locals fled to Tirana.[citation needed] In 1807, Tirana
Tirana
became the center of the Sub-Prefecture of Krujë-Tirana.[citation needed] After 1816, Tirana languished under the control of the Toptani family of Krujë.[citation needed] Later, Tirana
Tirana
became a sub-prefecture of the newly created Vilayet of Shkodër
Vilayet of Shkodër
and Sanjak of Durrës. Modern

The Bazaar at the turn of the 20th century.

In 1889, the Albanian language
Albanian language
started to be taught in Tirana's schools, while the patriotic club Bashkimi was founded in 1908. On 28 November 1912, the national flag was raised in agreement with President Ismail Qemali. During the Balkan Wars, the city was temporarily occupied by the Serbian army and it took part in uprising of the villages led by Haxhi Qamili. In 1917, the first city outline was compiled by Austro-Hungarian architects.[citation needed] On 8 February 1920, the Congress of Lushnjë
Congress of Lushnjë
proclaimed Tirana
Tirana
as the temporary capital of Albania, which had gained independence in 1912.[12] The city retained that status permanently on 31 December 1925. In 1923, the first regulatory city plan was compiled by Austrian architects.[13] The centre of Tirana
Tirana
was the project of Florestano Di Fausto and Armando Brasini, well known architects of the Benito Mussolini period in Italy. Brasini laid the basis for the modern-day arrangement of the ministerial buildings in the city centre. The plan underwent revisions by Albanian architect Eshref Frashëri, Italian architect Castellani and Austrian architects Weiss and Kohler.[citation needed] Modern Albanian parliamentary building served as a club of officers. It was there that, in September 1928, Zog of Albania
Albania
was crowned King Zog I, King of the Albanians. Tirana
Tirana
served as the venue for the signing, between Fascist Italy
Italy
and Albania, of the Pact of Tirana.

The city in 1991.

In 1939, Tirana
Tirana
was captured by Fascist forces appointing a puppet government. In the meantime, Italian architect Gherardo Bosio
Gherardo Bosio
was asked to elaborate on previous plans and introduce a new project in the area of present-day Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
Square.[14] A failed assassination attempt was made on Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
Italy
by a local resistance activist during a visit in Tirana. In November 1941, two emissaries of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia
Communist Party of Yugoslavia
(KPJ), Miladin Popović and Dušan Mugoša, managed to call a meeting of three Albanian communist groups[citation needed] and founded the Communist Party of Albania, of which Enver Hoxha
Enver Hoxha
would shortly emerge as the leader. The town soon became the center of the Albanian communists, who mobilized locals against Italian fascists and later Nazi Germans, while spreading ideological propaganda. On 17 November 1944, the town was liberated after a fierce battle between the Communists and German forces.[citation needed] The Nazis
Nazis
eventually withdrew and the communists seized power.

In 1988, the first outsiders were allowed to walk into the Skanderbeg Square.

From 1944 to 1991, massive socialist-styled apartment complexes and factories began to be built, while Skanderbeg Square
Skanderbeg Square
was redesigned with a number of buildings being demolished. For instance, Tirana's former Old Bazaar and the Orthodox Cathedral were razed to the ground for the erection of the Soviet-styled Palace of Culture. The northern portion of the main boulevard was renamed Stalin Boulevard and his statue was erected in the city square. Because private car ownership was banned, mass transportation consisted mainly of bicycles, trucks and buses. After Hoxha's death, a pyramidal museum was constructed in his memory by the government.[citation needed] Prior to and after the proclamation of Albania's policy of self-imposed isolationism, a number of high-profile figures paid visits to the city, such as Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
and East German Foreign Minister Oskar Fischer. In 1985, Tirana
Tirana
served as the ceremonial venue of Enver Hoxha's funeral.[citation needed] A few years later, Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
became the first religious figure[citation needed] to visit the country following Albania's long declared anti-religious atheist stance. She paid respect to her mother and sister resting at a local cemetery. Starting at the campus and ending at Skanderbeg Square
Skanderbeg Square
with the toppling of Enver Hoxha's statue, the city saw significant demonstrations by University of Tirana
University of Tirana
students, demanding political freedoms in the early 1990s.

Post-communism See also: Fall of communism in Albania

The Mustafa Matohiti Street is known as Rruga e Salës among the locals, named after former Prime Minister Sali Berisha.[15]

Blloku
Blloku
district. After the fall of communism in Albania, a dramatic growth of new developments has taken place, with many new exclusive flats and apartments.

On the political aspect, the city witnessed a number of events. Personalities visited the capital, such as former U.S. Secretary of State James Baker
James Baker
and Pope John Paul II. The former visit came amidst the historical setting after the fall of communism, as hundreds of thousands were chanting in Skanderbeg Square
Skanderbeg Square
Baker's famous saying of "Freedom works!".[citation needed] Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
became the first major religious leader to visit Tirana, though Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
had visited few years prior. During the Balkans turmoil in the mid-1990s, the city experienced dramatic events such as the unfolding of the 1997 unrest in Albania and a failed coup d'état on 14 September 1998. In 1999, following the Kosovo
Kosovo
War, Tirana
Tirana
Airport became a NATO airbase, serving its mission in the former Yugoslavia. Starting in 2000, former Tirana
Tirana
mayor Edi Rama
Edi Rama
(mayor from 2000 to 2011) under the Ilir Meta
Ilir Meta
government, undertook a campaign to demolish illegal buildings around the city centre and along the Lana River banks to bring the area to its pre-1990 state. In an attempt to widen roads, Rama authorized the bulldozing of private properties so that they could be paved over, thus widening streets. Most main roads underwent reconstruction, such the Ring Road (Unaza), Kavaja Street and the main boulevard. Rama led the initiative to paint the façades of Tirana's buildings in bright colours (known as Edi Rama
Edi Rama
colours – very bright pink, yellow, green, violet) although much of their interiors continued to degrade. Rama's critics claimed that he focused too much attention on cosmetic changes without fixing any of the major problems such as shortages of drinking water and electricity.[16][17] A richer calendar of events was introduced and a Municipal Police force established. Since 2005 the southeast region of Tirana, mainly Farke and Petrela has had a burst becoming the preferred destination with many residence complexes being built and having the current biggest mall in Albania, the Tirana East Gate
Tirana East Gate
(TEG).[18][19] In 2007, U.S. President
U.S. President
George W. Bush marked the first time that such a high ranking American official visited Tirana.[20] A central Tirana
Tirana
street was named in his honor. In 2008, the Gërdec explosions were felt in the capital as windows were shattered and citizens shaken. On 21 January 2011, Albanian police clashed with opposition supporters in front of the Government building as cars were set on fire, three persons killed and 150 wounded.[21] Present-day In the 2015 municipality election, power was transferred from the Democratic Party representative Lulzim Basha, to the Socialist Party candidate Erion Veliaj.[22] The country underwent a territorial reform, which unified communes with municipalities leaving 61 of them.[23] Thirteen of Tirana's communes were integrated as administrative units joining the existing eleven.[24] Since then, Tirana
Tirana
is undergoing major changes in law enforcement and new projects as well as continuing the ones started by his predecessor. In their first few council meeting 242 social houses got allocated to needing families.[25] Construction permits were suspended until the capital's development plan is revised and synthesized.[24] In addition the municipality will audit all permits granted in the previous years. The architect Stefano Boeri
Stefano Boeri
was contracted to work on the General Urban Plan of Tirana
Tirana
(TR030), which makes a series of interventions to the city's infrastructure. The plan was submitted for approval to the Municipality Council in November 2016.[26]

Geography

Tirana
Tirana
as seen from above and overlooking Mount Dajt
Mount Dajt
in the background.

A Satellite imagery
Satellite imagery
illustrating the Tirana
Tirana
Metropolitan Area.

Geographically, Tirana
Tirana
is situated on the western slopes of Dajti Mountain in central Albania. Its average altitude is 110 meters (360 ft) above sea level and its highest point measures 1,828 metres (5,997 feet) at Mali me Gropa. By road the city is 700 kilometres (430 miles) north of Athens, 290 km (180 mi) west of Skopje, 250 km (160 mi) south-east of Pristina
Pristina
and 160 km (99 mi) south of Podgorica. The city is surrounded by Dajti Mountain
Dajti Mountain
on the east, south and west, standing at 1,613 metres (5,292 ft) elevation above sea level. In winter, the mountain is often covered with snow and is a popular retreat to the population of Tirana, which rarely sees snow falls. The forests are composed of pine, oak and beech, while its interior relief with canyons, waterfalls, caves, lakes and landforms.[27] Due to its natural heritage, it is considered the "Natural Balcony of Tirana". The mountain can be reached through a narrow asphalted mountain road onto an area known as Fusha e Dajtit. From this small area there is an excellent view of Tirana
Tirana
and its plain. Tiranë river flows through the city, as does the Lanë
Lanë
river. Tirana is home to several artificial lakes, among which are included Tirana, Farka, Tufina, and Kashar. The present municipality was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Baldushk, Bërzhitë, Dajt, Farkë, Kashar, Krrabë, Ndroq, Petrelë, Pezë, Shëngjergj, Tirana, Vaqarr, Zall-Bastar
Zall-Bastar
and Zall-Herr, that became municipal units. The seat of the municipality is the city Tirana.[28]

Climate Under the Köppen climate classification, Tirana
Tirana
has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and receives just enough summer precipitation to avoid Köppen's (Csa) Mediterranean climate classification, since every summer month has more than 40 millimetres (1.6 in) of rainfall, with hot and moderately dry/humid summers and cool and wet winters. Some snow falls almost every winter, but it usually melts quickly.[29] With 2544 hours of sun, Tirana
Tirana
is the 8th most sunny city in Europe.[30] Tirana
Tirana
lies on the boundary between Zone 7 and Zone 9 in terms of the hardiness zone.[31]

Climate data for Tirana
Tirana
(1961–1990, extremes 1940–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 21.2 (70.2) 28.0 (82.4) 30.3 (86.5) 32.6 (90.7) 35.9 (96.6) 39.6 (103.3) 42.2 (108) 41.4 (106.5) 39.7 (103.5) 36.1 (97) 26.1 (79) 22.5 (72.5) 42.2 (108)

Average high °C (°F) 11.6 (52.9) 12.9 (55.2) 15.6 (60.1) 19.0 (66.2) 23.8 (74.8) 27.7 (81.9) 30.7 (87.3) 30.7 (87.3) 27.3 (81.1) 21.8 (71.2) 17.1 (62.8) 13.0 (55.4) 21.0 (69.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 6.7 (44.1) 7.8 (46) 10.0 (50) 13.4 (56.1) 18.0 (64.4) 21.6 (70.9) 24.0 (75.2) 23.8 (74.8) 20.7 (69.3) 16.0 (60.8) 11.7 (53.1) 8.1 (46.6) 15.2 (59.4)

Average low °C (°F) 1.8 (35.2) 2.6 (36.7) 4.5 (40.1) 7.9 (46.2) 12.1 (53.8) 15.6 (60.1) 17.2 (63) 16.9 (62.4) 14.1 (57.4) 10.1 (50.2) 6.3 (43.3) 3.2 (37.8) 9.4 (48.9)

Record low °C (°F) −9.9 (14.2) −9.4 (15.1) −6.0 (21.2) −1.0 (30.2) 3.4 (38.1) 6.2 (43.2) 4.2 (39.6) 10.6 (51.1) 5.5 (41.9) −0.4 (31.3) −4.3 (24.3) −6.6 (20.1) −9.9 (14.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 143 (5.63) 132 (5.2) 115 (4.53) 104 (4.09) 103 (4.06) 68 (2.68) 42 (1.65) 46 (1.81) 78 (3.07) 114 (4.49) 172 (6.77) 148 (5.83) 1,266 (49.84)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 13 13 14 13 12 7 5 4 6 9 16 16 128

Average relative humidity (%) 74 73 69 72 68 69 62 64 71 70 76 79 71

Mean monthly sunshine hours 124 125 165 191 263 298 354 327 264 218 127 88 2,544

Source #1: Deutscher Wetterdienst[32][33][note 1]

Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[34]

Environment

The Artificial Lake
Lake
was built from local waters in 1955.

In September 2015, Tirana
Tirana
organized its first vehicle-free day, joining forces with numerous cities across the globe to fight against the existing problem of urban air pollution. This initiative resulted in a considerable drop in both air and noise pollution, encouraging the Municipality to organize a vehicle-free day every month.[citation needed] The city suffers from problems related to overpopulation,[35] such as waste management, high levels of air pollution and significant noise pollution. Over the last decades, air pollution has become a pressing concern as the number of cars has increased. These are mostly 1990s and early 2000s diesel cars,[36] while it is widely believed that the fuel used in Albania
Albania
contains larger amounts of sulfur and lead than in the European Union. Another source of pollution are PM10 and PM2.5 inhaled particulate matter and NO2 gases[37][38] resulting from rapid growth in the construction of new buildings and expanding road infrastructure.[39] Untreated solid waste is present in the city and outskirts. Additionally, there have been complaints of excessive noise pollution. Despite the problems, the Grand Park at the Artificial Lake
Lake
has some effect on absorbing CO2 emissions, while over 2.000 trees have been planted around sidewalks. The work of four new parks has started in the summer of 2015 located Kashar, Farkë, Vaqarr, and Dajt. These parks are part of the new urban plan striving to increase the concentration of green spaces in the capital.[40] The government has included designated green areas around Tirana
Tirana
as part of the Tirana Greenbelt where construction is not permitted or limited.[41][42]

Cityscape Further information: Buildings and structures in Tirana

Florestano Di Fausto
Florestano Di Fausto
and Armando Brasini, well-known architects of the Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
period in Italy, designed the city plan for Tirana, in Neo-Renaissance style with articulate angular solutions and giant order fascias.

Tirana
Tirana
is home to different architectural styles that represent influential periods in its history dating back to the antiquity. The architecture of Tirana
Tirana
as the capital of the country was marked by two totalitarian regimes, by the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
during World War II
World War II
and the communist regime. Both have left their mark on the city with their typically architecture. In addition to the objects of the architecture of the totalitarian regimes of the 20th century, Tirana
Tirana
offers a couple of other such objects of both periods. The Palace of Brigades (former Palace of the Albania's King Zog I), the ministries buildings, the government building and the municipality hall are designed by Florestano Di Fausto and Armando Brasini, both well-known architects of the Mussolini period in Italy. The Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard
Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard
was built in 1930 and given the name King Zog I Boulevard.

The Skanderbeg Square
Skanderbeg Square
in the center.

In the communist period, the part from Skanderbeg Square
Skanderbeg Square
up to the train station was named Stalin Boulevard. The Royal Palace or Palace of Brigades previously served as the official residence of King Zog I. It has been used by different Albanian governments for various purposes. Because of the outbreak of World War II, and the 1939 Italian invasion of Albania, King Zog I fled Albania
Albania
and never had a chance to see the Palace fully constructed. The Italians
Italians
finished it and used it as the Army Headquarters. The Palace took its nickname Palace of Brigades because it was taken from the Italians
Italians
by a people army brigade.[43] In the 21th century, Tirana
Tirana
turned into a proper modernist city, with large blocks of flats, modern new buildings, new shopping centres and many green spaces. In June 2016, the Mayor of Tirana
Tirana
Erion Veliaj
Erion Veliaj
and the Italian architect Stefano Boeri
Stefano Boeri
announced the start of the works for the redaction of the Master Plan Tirana
Tirana
2030.[citation needed]

The entrance of the Grand Park of Tirana.

The city of Tirana
Tirana
is a densely-built area but still offers several public parks throughout its districts, graced with green gardens. With an area of 230 hectare, the Grand Park is the largest park in the city. It is one of most visited areas by local citizens.[44] The park includes many children's playgrounds, sport facilities and landmarks such as the Saint Procopius Church, the Presidential Palace, the Botanical Gardens, the Tirana
Tirana
Zoo, the Amphitheatre, the Monument of the Frashëri Brothers and many others. The Rinia Park
Rinia Park
was built during the Communist regime in Albania. It bordered by Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard
Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard
to the east, Gjergi Fishta Boulevard and Bajram Curri Boulevard
Bajram Curri Boulevard
to the south, Rruga Ibrahim Rugova to the west and Rruga Myslym Shyri to the north. The Taivani Center is the main landmark in the park and houses cafés, restaurants, fountains, and a bowling lane in the basement. The Summer Festival takes place every year in the park, to celebrate the end of winter and the rebirth of nature and a rejuvenation of spirit amongst the Albanians. As of the current Mayor of Tirana
Tirana
Erion Veliaj, the Municipality of Tirana
Tirana
will build more green spaces and will plant more trees.[45] Demographics

The expansion of Tirana
Tirana
from 1990 to 2005.

Historical population

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1703 4,000 —    

1820 12,000 +0.94%

1923 10,845 −0.10%

1937 35,000 +8.73%

1955 108,200 +6.47%

1985 200,000 +2.07%

2001 597,899 +7.08%

2011 749,365 +2.28%

2017 862,361 +2.37%

Source: [46][47][48][49] [a]

Tirana
Tirana
is the most populous city in Albania
Albania
and the 6th most populous capital city in the Balkans. Nervertheless, the city is as well the country's only metropolitan area.[50] As defined by the Institute of Statistics of Albania
Albania
in 2011, the urban area of the city included 526,017 people. The rural areas of Tirana
Tirana
County, which are known as the suburbs of Tirana, included 223,348 people. Altogether, the figure for the county was 749,365 people. The number of women slightly exceeds the number of men in the county, with 370,587 men and 378,778 women.[51] Tirana
Tirana
is home to many ethnicities from all over Southern Europe. Approximately 84.10% (630,203) of the population was of Albanian descent, 0.35% (2,596) Greeks, 0.11% (856) Aromanians, 0.07% (513) Macedonians and 0.03% (198) Italians, with 0.14% (1.042) not declaring their ethnicity. Tirana
Tirana
was mentioned for the first time between 1372 and 1418 in Venetian documents. During that time, the city was known as a small village, consisting 60 inhabited areas with nearly 7300 inhabitants. Marin Barleti, an Albanian historian and priest from Shkodër, distinguished Great and Small Tirana. In 1583, the town had 110 inhabited areas with 20,000 inhabitants.[52] When Sulejman Pasha established the city in 1614, the first constructions in the area were a mosque, a bakery and a hamam. Two centuries later, the control of the city was won by the noble Toptani family of Krujë
Krujë
and the city had only 4000 inhabitants. It was noted that the two oldest neighbourhoods were Mujos and Pazari, between the Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
Square and Elbasani Street, on either side of the Lana River. In 1820 the population Tirana
Tirana
was around 12,000 inhabitants.[52] After the end of communism in 1990, the city had about 250,000 inhabitants and since then a large scale influx from other parts of the country has increased the population to over 700,000.

The 18th century Ethem Bey Mosque
Ethem Bey Mosque
located in the city center. (left) The Resurrection Cathedral of Tirana
Tirana
is the third largest orthodox cathedral in Europe.(right)

Islam
Islam
is the predominant religion of Tirana. With 65% a majority of those living in Tirana
Tirana
are Muslims. Christianity
Christianity
is the second largest religion of Tirana
Tirana
and is divided between the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church, Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
and other Christian
Christian
denominations. At least 11% of the city's population identify themselves some denomination of Christians, while 3% identify themselves as Atheists. 4% identify themselves as believers without denomination. An interesting fact in the religious make-up of Tirana, is the 15% (113,000 people) who preferred not to answer the survey question.[51] This hesitance to not answer may come from the communist period under dictator Enver Hoxha, where he famously proclaimed that the only religion for an Albanian is Albanianism. Afterwards he declared Albania
Albania
as an atheist state and attempted to remove all organized religion from the country.[53][54] The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church is represented in Tirana
Tirana
by the Archdiocese of Tiranë and Durrës, with the St Paul's Cathedral as the current seat of the prelacy. The Albanian Orthodox community is served by the Archbishop of Tirana
Tirana
in the Resurrection Cathedral. The healthcare system in Albania
Albania
is mainly public. The private healthcare sector in Albania
Albania
is still developing,[55] and it covers most of the pharmaceutical and dental services mainly being situated in Tirana. The largest hospital in Tirana
Tirana
is Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
Hospital, which is associated with University
University
of Tirana, Faculty of Medicine. A number of private hospitals have been opened.

Politics

Kryeministria, the official workplace of the Prime Minister of Albania. (right) The Ministry of Internal Affairs close to the Mother Teresa Square. (left)

Tirana
Tirana
was proclaimed by the Congress of Lushnjë
Congress of Lushnjë
as the capital of Albania, eight years following independence in 1912. The first regulatory city plan was compiled in 1923 by Austro-Hungarian architects. The city center of Tirana
Tirana
was designed by Italian architects including Florestano Di Fausto, Gherardo Bosio
Gherardo Bosio
and Armando Brasini. Tirana
Tirana
continued with its status as the political and cultural centre of the country, being home to all the national institutions that includes the government, the parliament, the ministries, the judicial bodies and other major political institutions. Being the capital of Albania, Tirana
Tirana
is the seat of the government. Both the President and Prime Minister of Albania
Albania
have their official residences and offices in the city. The president has their official residence in the Presidential Palace, while the office is the Presidential Office. The workplace of the prime minister is the Prime Minister's Office. Further, the ministries and departments of Agriculture, Rural Development, State for Diaspora, Education, Sports, Entrepreneurs, Tourism, Environment, Innovation, Public Administration, Social Welfare, Local Governance, Culture and Urban Development are based within the city territory. The nation's highest courts are based in Tirana
Tirana
such as the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court, the Court of Appeal and the Administrative Court. Tirana
Tirana
is also home to more than 45 embassies and representative bodies as an international political actor.[56] Administration Main article: Units of Tirana Further information: Mayor and Neighborhoods of Tirana

11 10 9 8 7 6 4 3 1 2 5

The Mayor of Tirana
Tirana
along with the Cabinet of Tirana
Tirana
exercises executive power. The Assembly of Tirana
Tirana
functions as the city parliament and consists of 55 members, serving four-year terms. It primarily deals with budget, global orientations and relations between the city and the Government of Albania. It has 14 committees and its current Chairman is Aldrin Dalipi from the Socialist Party. Each of the members have a specific portfolio such as economy, finance, juridical, education, health care, and several professional services, agencies and institutes. The Municipality of Tirana
Tirana
is divided into 24 administrative units, with an own appointed mayor and council.[57] In 2000, the centre of Tirana
Tirana
from the central campus of University
University
of Tirana
Tirana
in the Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
Square up to the Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
Square, was declared the place of Cultural Assembly, and given state protection. The historical core of the capital lies around pedestrian only Murat Toptani Street, while the most prominent city district is Blloku. This neighborhood is the most popular part under the youth of Tirana. It is located in the southern side of Tirana
Tirana
and borders Kombinat and the center of the city. Until recently the city lacked a proper address system. In 2010, the municipality undertook the installing of street name signs and entrance numbers while every apartment entrance was physically stamped.[58]

International relations Further information: List of twin towns and sister cities in Albania As Tirana, many of them are the most influential and largest or primate cities of their country and political, economical, cultural capital of their country.

Ankara[59] Barcelona[60] Beijing
Beijing
[61]

Brussels Bucharest[62] Doha[63][64]

Florence[61] Marseille[65] Moscow[61][66]

Pristina[61] Rome[61][66] Thessaloniki[61][66]

Turin[67] Skopje[68][69] Sarajevo

Sofia Zagreb[61][66] Zaragoza[61][66]

Economy See also: Tirana
Tirana
logistic park

Toptani Center, designed by Dutch architect Winy Maas
Winy Maas
located in the city center.

Being a primate city, Tirana
Tirana
is the economic heart of Albania
Albania
and home to most major national and international companies operating in the country. The economy is dominated by the Service Sector
Service Sector
with around 68.5%, the industrial sector by 26.1% and agriculture sector with 5.4%.[70] The city began to develop at the beginning of the 16th century, when a bazaar was established, and its craftsmen manufactured silk and cotton fabrics, leather, ceramics and iron, silver, and gold artefacts.[71] Historically, after the second World War and the communist regime, the city and its surrounding areas expanded rapidly and became the most heavily industrialised region of Albania. Important economic sectors in Tirana
Tirana
include transportation, information and communication technologies, media, advertising and design, environmental services, construction, e-commerce, banking, legal services, retail, hotel business, and medical engineering. According to the World Bank, Tirana
Tirana
has made significant steps of starting a business in 2016, ranking 10th among 22 cities of Southeastern Europe.[72] Transport

The airport is the 8th busiest airport in the Balkans that handles over 2 million passengers per year.

Aviation Main article: Tirana International Airport
Tirana International Airport
Nënë Tereza Tirana
Tirana
is served by Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza
Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza
named after the Albanian Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
nun and missionary Mother Teresa. It is the only port of entry for air travelers to the country. The airport is located in the village of Rinas
Rinas
6 nautical miles (11 kilometres; 6.9 miles) northwest of the city centre of Tirana.[73] Roads and railways Main articles: Tirana-Elbasan, A1, and A3 Motorway

The Tirana-Elbasan Highway
Tirana-Elbasan Highway
is currently under construction and is part of the planned A3 motorway of Albania.

The city serves as the meeting point for national roads SH1, SH2 and SH3. Construction of the outer big ring highway started in 2011.[citation needed] National Road 1 (SH1) leads to the Albanian – Montenegrin border at Hani i Hotit
Hani i Hotit
border crossing. From Tirana
Tirana
at the Kamza Overpass (Mbikalimi i Kamzës) northward, it passes through Fushë-Kruja, Milot, Lezha, Shkodra, and Koplik. Between Thumane and Milot, the SH1 has become part of the Albania
Albania
Kosovo
Kosovo
Highway connecting the capital Tirana
Tirana
with Kosovo. SH1 forms part of the Albanian North-South Corridor connecting Hani i Hotit
Hani i Hotit
border with Kakavijë in the Albanian – Greek border thus forming part of the Adriatic-Ionian motorway.

The SH2 national road in linking Tirana
Tirana
with the port city of Durrës. The road was the first highway to be reconstructed in Albania following the end of communism in 1991.

National Road 2 (SH2) is a dual carriageway in Albania
Albania
linking the port city of Durrës
Durrës
with Tirana. SH2 begins at the Port of Durrës
Durrës
in Durrës
Durrës
at the Dajlani Overpass, bypasses Shijak, intersects with SH52 in Vora, bypasses the road to Tirana
Tirana
International Airport, and ends at the Kamza Overpass in the outskirts of Tirana
Tirana
where it meets National Road 1 State Road heading to northern Albania. The Albanian Motorway A3 it is planned to run along the central corridor of Albania
Albania
from Tirana
Tirana
to southern Albania, whose first part is the Tirana–Elbasan Highway
Tirana–Elbasan Highway
connecting Tirana
Tirana
with the Pan-European Transport Corridor VIII. The section from Tirana
Tirana
to Elbasan, will be an alternative to the old curvy road SH3 along Krraba Pass. The new highway bypasses the heavy traffic via Durrës-Rrogozhina. In addition, the new track about 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) shorter than the path to the SH3, resulting in drastically reduced distance with much higher speed between Tirana
Tirana
and Elbasan. Economically, after completion it will be an important link between the Albanian capital and Greece. In recent years, in anticipation of the construction of the new Multi-Modal Terminal near the Kamza Overpass at the entrance of Tirana, the Municipality of Tirana
Tirana
has opened several temporary bus terminals mainly along Dritan Hoxha St and Student City to regulate the chaos of public transport between towns in Tirana. These terminals serve Southern and Southern Albania
Albania
including Durrës, and Kosovo
Kosovo
and International bound coaches. There are passenger services to Durrës
Durrës
and Librazhd, via Elbasan. As of September 2013, the Tirana Railway Station
Tirana Railway Station
north of the Skanderbeg Square was dismantled and moved to Kashar, the latter renovated in May 2015.[citation needed] The existing line was replaced with a bus service located alongside the coach terminal at the north end of Zogu I Boulevard. The line extending from Librazhd
Librazhd
to Pogradec
Pogradec
to the south-east was discontinued in 2012. There are no international passenger services, although there is a freight-only railway through Shkodër
Shkodër
to Montenegro. In the north-western district of Tirana, Laprakë a new station will be built, which is planned as a multi-functional terminal for railway, tram and bus. Until its opening, the railway transport between Tirana
Tirana
and Kashar
Kashar
remains closed.[74] The new railway line from Tirana
Tirana
via Rinas
Rinas
(Tirana International Airport) to the port city of Durrës, is currently planned to be built. The location of this railway, as the most populated urban areas in Albania, makes it an important economic development project.[75] The opening will take place in 2019.[76] Public Transport, Cycling, and Ferries See also: Ecovolis

Ecovolis
Ecovolis
Bicycle sharing scheme near the city center.

The city of Tirana
Tirana
is served by the Port of Durrës, one of the largest passenger port in the Adriatic Sea, 36 km (22 mi) distant from the city. Passenger ferries from Durrës
Durrës
sail to Dubrovnik, Zadar
Zadar
(Croatia), Corfu
Corfu
(Greece), Ancona, Bari, Brindisi, Genoa, Otranto, Trieste
Trieste
(Italy), Bar (Montenegro), Koper
Koper
(Slovenia) and other cities in the region. Local transport within Tirana
Tirana
is by bus or taxi. Official taxis have yellow plates with red text and usually use taximeter. Coach and minibus (furgon) services also run to the coast and northern and southern Albania
Albania
from Tirana. International coach services connect to Greece, via Korçë
Korçë
or Kakavije, to Kosovo[note 2] via the new Durrës-Morine highway, and to the Republic of Macedonia via Struga.

Public Transport in Tirana

The Ecovolis
Ecovolis
bicycle sharing system was launched in 2011.[77] Bicycles are rented from initially four stations located at Rinia Park
Rinia Park
and along Deshmoret e Kombit Boulevard. A full day ride costs 100 leks. Bike only lanes are located alongside existing sidewalks on Skanderbeg Square, Lana River
Lana River
and Kavaja Street, while combined bus and bike lanes are located on other main streets to alleviate overall congestion. In 2012, Tirana
Tirana
municipality published a report according to which a project on the construction of two tram lines was under evaluation. The tram lines would have a total length of 16.7 kilometres (10.4 miles). The public transport in Tirana
Tirana
is, for now, focused only in the city centre, so that the people living in the suburbs have fewer or no public transport connections. The municipality believes that pedestrian areas in the city centre will also be created with the construction of the tram lines. Under the plan, the two tram lines will intersect in the Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
Square. The current public transport system in Tirana
Tirana
is made of ten bus lines served by 250 to 260 buses every day. The development of the tram network will provide an easier access to the city centre and beyond to necessary facilities, such as leisure areas or jobs without using personal vehicles.[78] Culture Main article: Culture of Tirana

The Cloud Pavilion[79] outside the National Art Gallery was installed by Japanese architect Sou Fujimoto.

Tirana
Tirana
is an important center for music, film, theatre, dance and visual art. The city is host to the largest cultural institutions of the country, such as the National Theatre and the National Theatre of Opera and Ballet, the Natioan Archaeological Museum, the Art Gallery of Albania, the Sciences Museum of Albania
Albania
and the National Historical Museum. Among the local institutions are the National Library, that keeps more than a million books, periodicals, maps, atlases, microfilms and other library materials. The city has five well-preserved traditional houses (museum-houses), 56 cultural monuments, eight public libraries.[80] Since 2011, a Tourist Information Office was opened, located behind the National Historical Museum, with useful information about Tirana
Tirana
and Albania. There are many foreign cultural institutions in the city, including the German Goethe-Institut,[81] Friedrich Ebert Foundation[82] and the British Council.[83] Other cultural centers in Tirana
Tirana
are, Canadian Institute of Technology, Chinese Confucius Institute, Greek Hellenic Foundation for Culture,[84] Italian Istituto Italiano di Cultura[85] and the French Alliance Française.[86] The Information Office of the Council of Europe
Europe
was established in Tirana. The three main religions in Albania, which contains Islam, Orthodox and Catholic Christianity, have all their headquarters in Tirana. The Bektashi leadership moved to Albania
Albania
and established their World Headquarters also in the city of Tirana. One of the major annual events taking place in Tirana
Tirana
each year is the Tirana
Tirana
International Film Festival.[87] It was the first international cinema festival in the country and considered as the most important cinematic event in the country. Museums

The entrance of the Bunk'art Museum near the city centre.

The most prominent museum in Tirana
Tirana
is the National Historical Museum, which details the history of the country. It keeps some of the best archeological finds in Albania, dating from the prehistoric era to the modern times. In the entrance of the pavilions, there are photos of global personalities, who met Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
as Jacques Chirac, Bill Clinton, Tony Blair, Ibrahim Kodra and many other personalities. Undoubtedly, the personal objects used by her increase the curiosity of thousands of visitors in the museum. Almost 1 million visitors were counted in 2012.[88] Another large museums includes the National Archaeological Museum, which is the national archaeological museum and the first museum created after World War II
World War II
in Albania. The National Art Gallery opened to the public in 1954. However, the museum preserves over 5000 artworks. Other museums include the Natural Sciences Museum, which has branches in zoology, botany and geology, the former Enver Hoxha
Enver Hoxha
Museum and the Bunk'art Museum. In 2017, the Museum of Secret Surveillance (House of leaves) were renovated and re-opened. The historical building from the communist period, aims now portray from the omnipresence of the Albanian communist regime. Festivals In recent years, Tirana
Tirana
is becoming a popular hub for events. Festivals are one of several things that people in Tirana
Tirana
enjoy well. It has a large number of festivals and events. The diversity of festivals makes it possible for people of different tastes to find themselves in a city this small. Festivals in the city provide entertainment for the youth as well as for adults. The Summer Festival takes place every year on 14 March, celebrating the Spring Day (Albanian: Dita e Veres), the country's largest pagan festival. It is widely celebrated in Tirana
Tirana
and as well as in other cities in Albania and the Arbëresh colonies in Italy. Another major event, the Tirana International Film Festival
Tirana International Film Festival
takes place in Tirana
Tirana
each year, which brings a large number of artists to produce a wide range of interesting film works. Other festivals include the Tirana
Tirana
Jazz Festival, the Guitar Sounds Festival, the Albanian Wine Festival and more. In 2016, the first Telekom Electronic Beats Festival were held in Tirana, bringing the latest trends from the urban lifestyle to the Albanian youth.[89] This is the effort of Tirana
Tirana
to increase the number of tourist visits. However, the city is become a popular destination for many young people around the region during the vacation period.[90] Tourism Further information: Landmarks in Tirana

The five star Plaza Hotel on the 28 Nëntori street.

Tourism in Albania
Albania
is developing year by year since the fall of communism and the capital city of Tirana
Tirana
become a very popular tourist destinations after the southern Albanian Riviera
Albanian Riviera
and northern part of the country. Tirana
Tirana
has a majority of luxury hotels, modern restaurants, bars, pubs and very big nightclubs. The largest hotels of the city are the Tirana International Hotel
Tirana International Hotel
and The Tirana
Tirana
Plaza situated in the heart of the city near the Scanderbeg Square. The luxury Sheraton Hotel Tirana
Tirana
is also located in city center of Tirana, near central business district next to the National Arena. Other major hotels present in central Tirana
Tirana
include the Xheko Imperial Hotel, Rogner Hotel, the Best Western Premier Ark Hotel and the Mondial Hotel. Tirana
Tirana
is a place that is known as a university center of students from regional countries like Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Greece.[citation needed] According to the Polish Tour Operators Association, Tirana
Tirana
has entered into the 10th most visited cities by the Poles.[91] Most tourists to the city come from Greece, Italy, Kosovo[citation needed] and Europe, with the number of visitors from elsewhere growing every year, thanks to an increasing number of international airline arrivals at Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
International Airport as well as luxury cruises that arrive into the Port of Durrës
Durrës
that offers day trips to the City. A large number of the monuments located in Tirana, date back to the Illyrian, Roman, Greek and Ottoman periods. Monuments
Monuments
include the Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
Square, Clock Tower of Tirana, Petrelë
Petrelë
Castle, Et'hem Bey Mosque, Sacred Heart Church, Resurrection Cathedral, Tomb of Kapllan Pasha, Mother Albania, Blloku, Mount Dajti
Mount Dajti
and Mosaic of Tirana.

Media Further information: Category:Media in Tirana Tirana
Tirana
is a major location for the Albanian entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, newspapers and other media set there. It is the largest centre for film and television production in Albania. Almost all of the major media organizations in Albania
Albania
are based in Tirana. The television industry developed in Tirana
Tirana
and is a significant employer in the city's economy. Some broadcast networks, RTSH, Top Channel, TV Klan, IN TV (Albania)
IN TV (Albania)
and Vizion Plus, are all headquartered in Tirana. Radio stations operate in the capital, with the most notable being Radio Tirana, commercial Top Albania
Albania
Radio and NRG Albania. Tirana
Tirana
is home to the publication of dailies including Shqip, Zëri i Popullit, Shekulli, Gazeta Shqiptare and Koha Jonë. Digitalb
Digitalb
and Tring, the two biggest Albanian media, digital satellite and terrestrial TV platform are also based in Tirana. Also editions of national magazines such as Anabel,[92] Elegance,[93] Who[94] and international magazines such as Grazia,[95] OK![96] and others have their headquarters in the city. In 2016, there were 1.82 million Internet users
Internet users
in the country in percentage 63% of the population of Albania.

Sports Further information: Sports in Albania Being the capital, Tirana
Tirana
is the center of sport in Albania, where activity is organized across amateur and professional levels. It is home to many major sporting facilities. Starting from 2007, the Tirana Municipality has built up to 80 sport gardens in most of Tirana's neighborhoods. One of the latest projects is the reconstruction of the existing Olympic Park, that will provide infrastructure for most intramural sports.[97] Tirana
Tirana
hosted in the past three major events, the FIBA EuroBasket 2006, 2011 World Mountain Running Championships
2011 World Mountain Running Championships
and the 2013 European Weightlifting Championships. There are two major stadiums, the former Qemal Stafa Stadium
Qemal Stafa Stadium
and the Selman Stërmasi stadium. The former was demolished in 2016 to make way for the new national stadium.[98] The new stadium called the National Arena (Arena Kombëtare) will be constructed on the same site of the former Qemal Stafa Stadium
Qemal Stafa Stadium
and it is planned to open in 2018. It will have an underground parking, a hotel, shops and bars and will be used for entertainment events. Tirana's sports infrastructure is developing fast because of the investments from the municipality and the government. Football is the most widely followed sport in Tirana
Tirana
as well as in the country, having numerous club teams including the KF Tirana, Partizani Tirana, and Dinamo Tirana. It is popular at every level of society, from children to wealthy professionals. In football, as of April 2012, the Tirana-based teams have won a combined 57 championships out of 72 championships organized by the FSHF, i.e. 79% of them. Another popular sport in Albania
Albania
is basketball, represented in particular by the teams KB Tirana, BC Partizani, BC Dinamo, Ardhmëria and also the women's PBC Tirana. Recently two rugby teams were created: Tirana
Tirana
Rugby Club,[99] founded in 2013 and Ilirët Rugby Club[100] founded in 2016. Sports clubs

Club Established Sport League Venue Capacity

Dinamo Tirana 1950 Football First Division Arena Kombëtare 22,500

Partizani Tirana 1946 Football Superliga Arena Kombëtare 22,500

KF Tirana 1920 Football Superliga Selman Stërmasi Stadium 9,500

BC Partizani 1946 Basketball A1 League Asllan Rusi Palace 3,000

PBC Tirana
Tirana
Women 1946 Basketball A1 League Asllan Rusi Palace 3,000

Education Further information: Category:Education in Tirana

The University of Tirana
University of Tirana
is the largest and highest ranking university in the country.

The building of the Faculty of Law of Tirana.

International School of Tirana
Tirana
is part of the Quality Schools International

After the fall of communism in Albania, a reorganization plan was announced in 1990, that would extend the compulsory education program from eight to ten years. The following year, major economic and political crisis in Albania, and the ensuing breakdown of public order, plunged the school system into chaos. Widespread vandalism and extreme shortages of textbooks and supplies had a devastating effect on school operations, prompting Italy
Italy
and other countries to provide material assistance. Many teachers relocated from rural to urban areas, leaving village schools understaffed and swelling the ranks of the unemployed in the cities; about 2,000 teachers fled the country.[citation needed] -The highly controlled environment that the communist regime had forced upon the educational system over the course of more than forty-six years was finally liberated set for improvement. In the late 1990, many schools were rebuilt or reconstructed, to improve learning conditions. Most of the improvements have happened in the larger cities of the country especially in Tirana.[citation needed] In Tirana, there are 64 primary schools and 19 secondary schools.[101] The city is also host to many higher education institutions. This brings many young students from other cities and countries, especially from neighbouring countries, to Tirana. Many private Universities have been opened during the recent years. The French computer science university Epitech
Epitech
is also located in the city. In recent years, foreign students mainly from Southern Italy
Italy
are being enrolled at Italian-affiliated universities in Tirana
Tirana
in the hope of better preparing themselves for entrance exams in Italy's universities.

Universities in Tirana

Name Established City Type Students Academic staff

University
University
of Tirana 1957 Tirana Public Classic School 35,000 900

University
University
of Arts 1966 Tirana Public Art school 1200 64

University
University
of Medicine 2013 Tirana Public Medical school 8460 417

Polytechnic University 1951 Tirana Public Technical school 10,000 280

Agricultural University 1951 Tirana Public Agricultural School 14,000 480

School of Magistrates 1997 Tirana Public Law school 27 15

European University 2006 Tirana Private Classical School 2952 167

Tirana
Tirana
International School 1991 Tirana Private Quality School 200 -

Marin Barleti
Marin Barleti
University 2005 Tirana Private Classical School - -

Catholic University 2004 Tirana Private Theological School 1500 600

Epoka University 2004 Tirana Private Classical School 1400 85

Bedër University 2011 Tirana Private Gülen Theological School 1000 50

Notable people Main article: List of people from Tirana Gallery

Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
Square

University
University
of Tirana

University
University
of Arts

Lana river

Lake
Lake
of Tirana

Ethem Bey Mosque

Mother Albania

Along the Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
Square

Clock Tower

Sacred Heart Church

Former Residence of Enver Hoxha

Pazari i Ri
Pazari i Ri
(New Bazaar)

See also

Timeline of Tirana Symbols of Tirana Tirana
Tirana
County

Notes

^ Station ID for Tirana
Tirana
is 13615 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration ^ Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels
Brussels
Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

References

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do ndërtohet terminali i autobusave për juglindjen". Oranews. Retrieved 2015-08-31.  ^ "HOME". planifikimi.gov.al.  ^ "Baza Ligjore - APR Tirana". aprtirana.al.  ^ "Municipality of Tirana, partner in a transnational project on totalitarian architecture". atrium-see.eu.  ^ " Mayor of Tirana
Tirana
inaugurates second workout area at Artificial Lake Park". 23 February 2017.  ^ "Second paid parking space inaugurated in Tirana".  ^ "Albania: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population". Archived from the original on 5 December 2012.  World Gazetteer.2009-12-01 ^ (in Albanian) Population statistics of the Municipality of Tirana Archived 11 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ (in Albanian) Population projections from INSTAT Archived 5 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Popullsia e Shqipërisë" (PDF). instat.gov.al. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 April 2016.  ^ "Population – INSTAT". Archived from the original on 16 March 2013.  ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2017.  ^ a b Swift, Nick. "The history of Tirana
Tirana
a fusion of Islamic and Christian
Christian
influences".  ^ TRIMBORN, HARRY (12 April 1985). "Enver Hoxha, 76, Ruler of Albania for 41 Years, Dies" – via Los Angeles Times.  ^ " Albania
Albania
finds religion after decades of atheism".  ^ " Albania
Albania
Health Insurance - Pacific Prime". pacificprime.com.  ^ "Foreign Embassies and Consulates in Albania". embassy.goabroad.com.  ^ Dorina Pojani (2010-03-06). " Tirana
Tirana
City Profile". Cities. 27: 483–495. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2010.02.002. Retrieved 2013-01-21.  ^ "Bashkia – Lajmet e Ditarit". Tirana.gov.al. Retrieved 2011-09-15.  ^ "Sister Cities of Ankara".  ^ " Tirana
Tirana
dhe Barcelona, binjakëzim për tregjet publike dhe urbanizimin". Shekulli
Shekulli
(in Albanian). 19 November 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2018.  ^ a b c d e f g h "International Relations" (PDF). Municipality of Tirana. tirana.gov.al. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 2009-06-23.  ^ "Academy of Economic Studies - Short History of Bucharest". 11 May 2008.  ^ "Shqiptarja.com - Bashkia e Tiranës nënshkruan marrëveshje binjakëzimi me Dohan".  ^ "Twin cities: Doha
Doha
& Tirana".  ^ "Direction Générale des Services Direction des Relations Internationales et Européennes" (in French). Retrieved 18 February 2018.  ^ a b c d e Twinning Cities: International Relations. Municipality of Tirana. http://www.tirana.gov.al. Retrieved 25 January 2008. ^ "Twinnings and Agreements (International Affairs)". 18 June 2013.  ^ "MINA Breaking News - Skopje
Skopje
and Tirana
Tirana
sign Twin cities memorandum". macedoniaonline.eu.  ^ " Tirana
Tirana
dhe Shkupi firmosin marrëveshje binjakëzimi". top-channel.tv.  ^ "50,7 % of Albanian Employees Work in Agriculture". agroweb.org. 26 May 2017.  ^ "The History, Form and Function of the Old Bazaar in Tirana". academia.edu.  ^ "Subnational Economy Rankings - South East Europe
Europe
- Subnational Doing Business - World Bank
World Bank
Group". doingbusiness.org.  ^ "EAD Basic – Error Page". Retrieved 7 June 2015.  ^ "Albanianscreen.tv". Archived from the original on 2013-09-15.  ^ Rabeta, Lorenc. "Trenat e rinj Tiranë-Durrës- Rinas
Rinas
me 222 pasagjerë, 112 të ulur". dailynews.al. Retrieved 12 January 2017.  ^ Top Channel
Top Channel
(25 June 2016). "Hekurudha Tiranë-Rinas-Durrës, Haxhinasto: Projekti përfundon në 2019". Top Channel
Top Channel
(in Albanian). Retrieved 18 February 2018.  ^ "Ecovolis". Ecovolis. Retrieved 2013-01-21.  ^ " Tirana
Tirana
plans to develop two tram lines - Railway PRO Communication Platform". 26 June 2013.  ^ ""The Cloud" - Art Pavilion at National Gallery Gardens" (PDF). Retrieved 18 February 2018.  ^ (in Albanian) Statistikat 2007 Archived 11 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. PDF Municipality of Tirana. Retrieved 20 July 2008 ^ "Goethe-Zentrum". goethe.al.  ^ "Home - Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Tirana". fes-tirana.org.  ^ " British Council
British Council
- Albania". britishcouncil.al.  ^ "Tiranas Centre of Hellenic Foundation of Culture - Anna Lindh Foundation". annalindhfoundation.org.  ^ "Istituto Di Cultura - Tirana". iictirana.esteri.it.  ^ "Aleanca Franceze - Frengjishtja, gjuha e europes". aftirana.org.  ^ "TIFF - TIRANA INTERNATIONAL FILM FESTIVAL". tiranafilmfest.com.  ^ "Sa kemi fituar nga turizmi kulturor?" (in Albanian). 18 May 2013.  ^ "Telekom Electronic Beats introduced in Albania". telekom.com.al. 23 July 2016.  ^ " Tirana
Tirana
më e vizitueshmja nga turistët e huaj". ata.gov.al.  ^ http://www.pzot.pl/tempOpen/default/files/000000005MA255R5E1B23K6JBDGH4343_Booking_Report_T17_2016_44.pdf[dead link] ^ "Revista Anabel Online". anabel.al.  ^ "Elegance". Elegance.  ^ "Revista Who – Jo vetëm një pyetje, gjithmonë një pergjigje!". revistawho.com.  ^ http://www.graziainternational.com/edition/albania/ ^ "Log In or Sign Up to View". facebook.com. [non-primary source needed] ^ "Me sportistët elitar, prezantohet Parku Olimpik i Tiranës". arsimi.gov.al. Retrieved 2015-08-31.  ^ Shembet "Qemal Stafa" (25 June 2016). "Shemben 4 tribuna, lamtumirë stadiumi "Qemal Stafa" (FOTO)". Panorama (in Albanian).  ^ " Tirana
Tirana
Regbi Klub kthen sportin e munguar në kryeqytet". sportekspres.com.  ^ "OSCE Presence in Albania
Albania
launches sports-based youth development programme - OSCE". osce.org.  ^ "Veliaj me mësues e edukatorë: Në 4 vite hapim 100 kopshte e 200 shkolla". Shqiptarja.com. 

Further reading See also: Bibliography of the history of Tirana

Akkam, Alia (13 October 2017). "The Capital of Albania
Albania
Has Transformed Into a Lively, Affordable Destination". Vogue.  Hillsdon, Mark (27 February 2017). "The European capital you'd never thought to visit (but really should)". The Telegraph.  Crevar, Alex (28 August 2015). "Tirana, Breaking Free From Communist Past, Is a City Transformed". The New York Times.  Blocal, Giulia (16 September 2014). "Tirana's colorful buildings". Blocal Travel blog.  Williams, Sean (11 July 2014). " Tirana
Tirana
fights to beat its addiction to cars and get its residents cycling". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 July 2014.  McRae, Hamish (13 September 2008). "Albania: Charmed by Tirana". The Independent.  Abitz, Julie. Post-Socialist Development in Tirana. Roskilde: Roskilde Universitetscenter, 2006. Agorastakis, Michalis; Sidiropoulos, Giorgos (2007). "Population change due to geographic mobility in Albania, 1989–2001, and the repercussions of internal migration for the enlargement of Tirana". Population, Space and Place. 13 (6): 471–481. doi:10.1002/psp.463.  Aliaj, Besnik; Keida Lulo and Genc Myftiu. Tirana: the Challenge of Urban Development, Tirana: Cetis, 2003 ISBN 99927-880-0-3 Aliaj, Besnik. A Short History of Housing and Urban Development Models during 1945–1990, Tirana
Tirana
2003. Bertaud, Alain. Urban Development in Albania: the Success Story of the Informal Sector, 2006. Bleta, Indrit. Influences of Political Regime Shifts on the Urban Scene of a Capital City, Case Study: Tirana. Turkey, 2010. Capolino, Patrizia (2011). "Tirana: A Capital City Transformed by the Italians". Planning Perspectives. 26 (4): 591–615. doi:10.1080/02665433.2011.601610.  Felstehausen, Herman. Urban Growth and Land Use Changes in Tirana, Albania: With Cases Describing Urban Land Claims. University
University
of Wisconsin-Madison, 1999 Galeteanu, Emira. Tirana: the Spectacle of the Urban Theatre. MA Dissertation. Carleton University: Ottawa, 2006. Guaralda, Mirko (2009). Urban Identity and Colour : the Case of Tirana, Albania. Spectrum e-news, 2009(Dec), pp. 13–14. Jasa, Skënder. Tirana
Tirana
në shekuj: Terona, Theranda, Tirkan, Tirannea, Tirana: monografi, disa artikuj e materiale arkivore kushtuar historisë së Tiranës, Tirana
Tirana
1997. Kera, Gentiana. Aspects of the Urban Development of Tirana: 1820–1939, Seventh International Conference of Urban History. Athens, 2004. Nase, Ilir; Ocakci, Mehmet (2010). "Urban Pattern Dichotomy in Tirana: Socio-spatial Impact of Liberalism". European Planning Studies. 18 (11): 1837–1861. doi:10.1080/09654313.2010.512169.  Pojani, Dorina (2011). Mobility, Equity and Sustainability Today in Tirana, TeMA 4, no. 2, pp.99–109 Pojani, Dorina (2010). "Tirana". Cities. 27 (6): 483–495. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2010.02.002.  Pojani, Dorina (2011). "From Carfree to Carfull: the Environmental and Health Impacts of Increasing Private Motorisation in Albania". Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 54 (3): 319–335. doi:10.1080/09640568.2010.506076.  Pojani, Dorina (2011). "Urban and Suburban Retail Development in Albania's Capital After Socialism". Land Use Policy. 28 (4): 836–845. doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2011.02.001. 

External links

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tirana.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tirana.

Municipality of Tirana
Tirana
(in Albanian) Visit Tirana
Tirana
Tourism Portal  "Tirana". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

Topics related to Tirana

v t e

Tirana

Landmarks

Government

Albanian Parliament Presidential Palace Presidential Office Prime Minister's Office Albanian National Bank Supreme Court Constitutional Court

Museums

Historical Museum Sciences Museum Archaeological Museum National Art Gallery National Theatre of Opera and Ballet National Theatre National Archives National Library National Martyrs Cemetery Pyramid of Tirana

Religion

Et'hem Bey Mosque Great Mosque Bejtyl Evel Mosque Tanners' Mosque Kokonozi Mosque Sulejman Pasha Mosque Sheh Dyrri Teqe St Paul's Cathedral Sacred Heart Church Resurrection Cathedral Saint Procopius Church

Sport

National Arena Tirana
Tirana
Olympic Park Selman Stërmasi Stadium Asllan Russi Palace KF Tirana Partizani Tirana Dinamo Tirana

Parks

Grand Park Rinia Park Farka Botanical Garden Tirana
Tirana
Zoo Mount Dajti

Monuments

Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
Monument Clock Tower Dorëzi Fortress Mother Albania Justinian Castle Persqopi Castle Petrelë
Petrelë
Castle Tanners' Bridge Tirana
Tirana
Mosaic Unknown Soldier Kapllan Pasha Tomb Sulejman Pasha Tomb Bride's Tomb Pazari i Ri

Squares

Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
Square Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
Square Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard Ali Demi Street Bajram Curri Boulevard Elbasan
Elbasan
Street Kavajë
Kavajë
Street Dibër Street Durrës
Durrës
Street Zogu I Boulevard Zhan D'Ark Boulevard Mustafa Lleshi Street Pjetër Budi Street

Universities

University
University
of Tirana Polytechnic University Academy of Music and Arts Academy of Sciences Centre of Albanological Studies European University Luarasi University Academy of Physical and Sports Agricultural University New York University Kristal University Marin Barleti
Marin Barleti
University Skanderbeg
Skanderbeg
Military University

Infrastructure

Transport

Tirana
Tirana
International Airport Rail Station Bus lines Tirana– Elbasan
Elbasan
Highway

Economy

Tirana
Tirana
Stock Exchange Tirana
Tirana
Bank Tirana
Tirana
Logistic Park

Buildings

TID Tower ABA Business Tower Tirana
Tirana
East Gate Toptani Shopping Center Citypark Shopping Center Plaza Hotel Rogner Hotel Tirana
Tirana
International Hotel Dajti Hotel Taivani

Health

Mother Teresa
Mother Teresa
Hospital Military Hospital Universal Hospital

Media

Digitalb Top Channel IN TV Klan TV Tirana
Tirana
TV RTSH

Districts

Tirana
Tirana
1 Tirana
Tirana
2 Tirana
Tirana
3 Tirana
Tirana
4 Tirana
Tirana
5 Tirana
Tirana
6 Tirana
Tirana
7 Tirana
Tirana
8 Tirana
Tirana
9 Tirana
Tirana
10 Tirana
Tirana
11

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

v t e

Capital cities of the Candidate Countries of the European Union

Turkey: Ankara

Serbia: Belgrade

Montenegro: Podgorica

Republic of Macedonia: Skopje

Albania: Tirana

v t e

Administrative Divisions of Tirana
Tirana
County

County Seat: Tirana

Municipality of Kamëz

Kamëz Paskuqan

Municipality of Kavajë

Golem Helmas Kavajë Luz i Vogël Synej

Municipality of Rrogozhinë

Gosë Kryevidh Lekaj Rrogozhinë Sinaballaj

Municipality of Tirana

Baldushk Bërzhitë Dajt Farkë Kashar Krrabë Ndroq Petrelë Pezë Shëngjergj Tirana Vaqarr Zall-Bastar Zall-Herr

Municipality of Vorë

Bërxullë Prezë Vorë

v t e

Subdivisions of Tirana
Tirana
Municipality

Municipal Seat: Tirana

Administrative Unit of Baldushk

Baldushk Balshaban Fushas Isufmuçaj Kakunj Koçaj Mumajes Mustafakoçaj Parret Shënkoll Shpatë Shpat i Sipërm Vesqi Vrap

Administrative Unit of Bërzhitë

Bërzhitë Dobresh Fravesh Ibë Ibë
Ibë
e Poshtme Kllojkë Kus Lugë-Shalqizë Mihajas-Cirmë Pashkashesh Pëllumbas Rozaverë

Administrative Unit of Dajt

Brrar Darshen Ferraj Lanabregas Linzë Murth Priskë e Madhe Qafmollë Selbë Shishtufinë Shkallë Surrel Tujan

Administrative Unit of Farkë

Farkë
Farkë
e Madhe Farkë
Farkë
e Vogël Lundër Mjull Bathore Sauk Selitë

Administrative Unit of Kashar

Kashar Katundi i Ri Kus Mazrek Mëzez Yrshek Yzberisht

Administrative Unit of Krrabë

Krrabë Mushqeta Skuterë

Administrative Unit of Ndroq

Calabërzez Grebllesh Kërçukje Lagje e Re Mënik Ndroq Pinet Sauqet Shesh Zbarqe Zhurje

Administrative Unit of Petrelë

Barbas Daias Durisht Fikas Gurrë e Madhe Gurrë e Vogël Hekal Kryezi Mangull Mullet Përcëllesh Petrelë Picall Qeha Shënkoll Shytaj Stërmas

Administrative Unit of Pezë

Dorëz Gjysylkanë Grecë Gror Maknor Pajanë Pezë
Pezë
e Madhe Pezë
Pezë
e Vogël Pezë
Pezë
Helmës Varosh

Administrative Unit of Shëngjergj

Bizë Burimas Derje Domje Façesh Fage Parpujë Shëngjergj Shëngjin Urë Vakumone Verri

Administrative Unit of Tirana
Tirana
(1–11)[1]

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11

Administrative Unit of Vaqarr

Allgjatë Arbanë Bulticë Damjan-Fortuzaj Gropaj Lalm Prush Sharrë Vaqarr Vishaj

Administrative Unit of Zall-Bastar

Bastar i Mesëm Bastar-Murriz Besh Bulçesh Dajt Mner i Sipërm Selitë Mali Shëngjin i Vogël Vilëz Zall-Bastar Zall-Dajt Zall-Mner

Administrative Unit of Zall-Herr

Çerkezë-Morinë Dritas Herraj Kallmet Pinar Priskë e Vogël Qinam Radhesh Zall-Herr

^ Each of the 11 divisions is an administrative unit

v t e

Municipalities of Albania

Municipalities in Albania
Albania
are administrative divisions made up of local administrative units and their inclusive villages.

(61)

Belsh Berat Bulqizë Cërrik Delvinë Devoll Dibër Divjakë Dropull Durrës Elbasan Fier Finiq Fushë-Arrëz Gjirokastër Gramsh Has Himarë Kamëz Kavajë Këlcyrë Klos Kolonjë Konispol Korçë Krujë Kuçovë Kukës Kurbin Lezhë Libohovë Librazhd Lushnjë Malësi e Madhe Maliq Mallakastër Mat Memaliaj Mirditë Patos Peqin Përmet Pogradec Poliçan Prrenjas Pukë Pustec Roskovec Rrogozhinë Sarandë Selenicë Shijak Shkodër Skrapar Tepelenë Tiranë Tropojë Ura Vajgurore Vau i Dejës Vlorë Vorë

v t e

Albania articles

History

Illyrians

Ardiaei Albanoi Amantini Enchele Taulantii

Middle Ages (1190–1385)

Principality of Arbanon Kingdom of Albania Despotate of Arta House of Kastrioti

Ottoman period (1385–1912)

Skanderbeg's rebellion League of Lezhë Kanun of Lekë Dukagjini Islamization of Albania Albanian Pashaliks Massacre of the Albanian Beys Revolts of 1833–39 Uprising of Dervish Cara Albanian National Awakening League of Prizren Congress of Manastir Revolt of 1910

Independence (1912–present)

Provisional Government of Albania Albania
Albania
during the Balkan Wars Republic of Central Albania Principality of Albania
Albania
(1914–25) Albania
Albania
during World War I Autonomous Albanian Republic
Albanian Republic
of Korçë Italian protectorate Vlora War Republic of Mirdita Albanian Republic
Albanian Republic
(1925–28) Albanian Kingdom (1928–39) Italian Fascist occupation German Nazi occupation Albanian resistance during World War II Communist Albania
Albania
(1946–91) Orthography Congress (1972) Post-Communist Albania 1997 civil unrest NATO membership EU Accession

See also

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Geography

Landscape

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Tirana
Tirana
portal Albania
Albania
portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 167355723 LCCN: n82213241 GND: 4270905-2 SUDOC: 067106854 BNF:

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