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Tirana or Tiranë ( , , ; aln, Tirona) is the capital and largest city of
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediter ...
. It is located in the centre of the country, enclosed by mountains and hills with Mount Dajt elevating on the east and a slight valley on the northwest overlooking the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...
in the distance. Due to its location at the Plain of Tirana and the close proximity to the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the ...
, the city is particularly influenced by a
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands aroun ...
seasonal climate. It is among the wettest and sunniest cities in Europe, with 2,544 hours of sun per year. Tirana was founded as a city in 1614 by the Ottoman Albanian general Sylejman Pasha Bargjini and flourished by then. The area that today corresponds to the city's territory has been continuously inhabited since the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Bronze Age and the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic). ...
. It was inhabited by
Illyrians The Illyrians ( grc, Ἰλλυριοί, ''Illyrioi''; la, Illyrii) were a group of Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking tribes, who inhabited the western Balkan Peninsula in ancient times. They constituted one of the three main Paleo-B ...
, and was most likely the core of the Illyrian Kingdom of the Taulantii, which in Classical Antiquity was centred in the hinterland of Epidamnus. Following the Illyrian Wars it was annexed by
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...
and became an integral part of the
Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. The heritage of that period is still evident and represented by the Mosaics of Tirana. Later, in the 5th and 6th centuries, a Paleochristian, Early Christian basilica was built around this site. After the Roman Empire split into East and West in the 4th century, its successor the Byzantine Empire took control over most of Albania, and built the Petrelë Castle in the reign of Justinian I. The city was fairly unimportant until the 20th century, when the Congress of Lushnjë proclaimed it as Albania's capital, after the Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912. Classified as a Global city, gamma-world-city, Tirana is the most important economic, financial, political and trade centre in Albania due to its significant location in the centre of the country and its modern Air transport, air, maritime transport, maritime, Rail transport, rail and road transportation. It is the seat of power of the Government of Albania, with the official residences of the President of Albania, President and Prime Minister of Albania, and the Parliament of Albania. The city was announced as the European Youth Capital for 2022.


History


Early development

The discovery of the Pellumbas Cave near Tirana County, Tirana shows that Human evolution, ancient human culture was present in
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediter ...
as early as the Paleolithic era. The region that today corresponds to the city's territory has been continuously inhabited since the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Bronze Age and the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, and Chalcolithic). ...
. The area was inhabited by
Illyrians The Illyrians ( grc, Ἰλλυριοί, ''Illyrioi''; la, Illyrii) were a group of Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking tribes, who inhabited the western Balkan Peninsula in ancient times. They constituted one of the three main Paleo-B ...
, and was most likely the core of the Illyrian kingdom of the Taulantii, which in Classical antiquity was centered in the hinterland of Epidamnus. The oldest discovery within the urban area of Tirana was a Tirana Mosaic, Roman house, which was transformed into an aisleless church with a Tirana Mosaic, mosaic floor, dating to the 3rd century, with other remains found near a medieval temple at Shengjin Fountain in the eastern suburbs. A castle possibly called ''Tirkan'', Fortress of Justinian, whose remnants are found along Murat Toptani Street, was built by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I and restored by Ahmed Pasha Toptani in the 18th century. Tirana is mentioned in Republic of Venice, Venetian documents in 1418, one year after the Ottoman conquest of the area: ''"...the resident Pjeter, son of late Domenik from the village of Tirana..."''. Records of the first land registrations under the Ottoman Empire, Ottomans in 1431–32 show that Tirana consisted of 60 inhabited areas, with nearly 2,028 houses and 7,300 inhabitants. In 1510, Marin Barleti, an Albanian Catholic priest and scholar, in the biography of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg, ''Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis'' (''The story of life and deeds of Skanderbeg, the prince of Epirotes''), referred to this area as a small village, distinguishing between "Little Tirana" and "Great Tirana". It is later mentioned in 1572 as ''Borgo di Tirana''. According to Johann Georg von Hahn, Hahn, the settlement had already started to develop as a bazaar and included several watermills, even before 1614, when Sulejman Bargjini, a local ruler, built the Sylejman Pasha Mosque, Old Mosque, a small commercial centre, and a Turkish bath, hammam (Turkish bath). This is confirmed by oral sources, which state that there were two earlier mosques 300–400 m from the Old Mosque, towards today's Ali Demi Street. The Mosque of Reç and the Mosque of Mujo were positioned on the left side of the Lana river and were older than the Old Mosque. Later, the Et'hem Bey Mosque, built by Molla Bey of Petrela, was constructed. It employed the best artisans in the country and was completed in 1821 by Molla's son Etëhem Bey Mollaj, Etëhem, who was also Sulejman Bargjini's great-nephew. In 1800, the first newcomers arrived in the Human settlement, settlement, the so-called ''ortodoksit''. They were Vlachs from villages near Korçë and Pogradec, who settled around modern day Tirana Park on the Artificial Lake. They started to be known as the ''llacifac'' and were the first Christians to arrive after the creation of the town. In 1807, Tirana became the centre of the Subprefecture of Krujë-Tirana. After 1816, Tirana languished under the control of the ''Toptani'' family of Krujë. Later, Tirana became a sub-prefecture of the newly created Vilayet of Shkodër and the Sanjak of Durrës. In 1889, the Albanian language started to be taught in Tirana's schools, and the patriotic club Bashkimi was founded in 1908.


Modern development

On 28 November 1912, the national flag was raised in agreement with President of Albania, President Ismail Qemali. During the Balkan Wars, the city was temporarily occupied by the Serbian army and it took part in uprising of the villages led by Haxhi Qamili. In August 1916, the first city map was compiled by the specialists of the Austro-Hungarian army. Following the capture of the town of Debar by Kingdom of Serbia, Serbia, many of its Albanian inhabitants fled to Turkey, the rest went to Tirana. Of those that ended up in Istanbul, some of their number migrated to Albania, mainly to Tirana where the Dibran community formed an important segment of the city's population from 1920 onward and for some years thereafter. On 8 February 1920, the Congress of Lushnjë proclaimed Tirana as the temporary capital of Albania, which had gained independence in 1912. The city acquired that status permanently on 31 December 1925. In 1923, the first regulatory city plan was compiled by Austrian architects. The centre of Tirana was the project of Florestano Di Fausto and Armando Brasini, well-known architects of the Benito Mussolini, Mussolini period in Italy. Brasini laid the basis for the modern-day arrangement of the ministerial buildings in the city centre. The plan underwent revisions by Albanian architect Eshref Frashëri, Italian architect Castellani and Austrian architects Weiss and Kohler. The modern Albanian parliament building served as an officers' club. It was there that, in September 1928, Zog of Albania was crowned King Zog I, King of the Albanians. Tirana was the venue for the signing of the Pact of Tirana between Fascist Italy and Albania. During the rule of King Zog a lot of Muhaxhir (Albanians), Muhaxhirs emigrated towards Tirana, which lead to a growing population in the capital city in the early 20th century. In 1939, Tirana was captured by Fascist forces, who appointed a puppet government. In the meantime, Italian architect Gherardo Bosio was asked to elaborate on previous plans and introduce a new project in the area of present-day Mother Teresa Square (Tirana), Mother Teresa Square. A failed assassination attempt was made on Victor Emmanuel III of Italy by a local resistance activist during a visit to Tirana. In November 1941, two emissaries of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ), Miladin Popović and Dušan Mugoša, called a meeting of three Albanian communist groups and founded the Party of Labour of Albania, Communist Party of Albania, and Enver Hoxha soon emerged as its leader. The town soon became the centre of the Albanian communists, who mobilised locals against Italian fascists and later Nazi Germans, while spreading ideological propaganda. On 4 February 1944, the Gestapo, supported by the forces of Xhafer Deva, executed 86 anti-fascists in Tirana. On 17 November 1944, the Liberation of Tirana, town was liberated after a Albanian Resistance of World War II, fierce battle between the Communists and German forces. The Nazis eventually withdrew and the communists seized power. From 1944 to 1991, massive socialist-style apartment complexes and factories were built, while Skanderbeg Square was redesigned, with a number of buildings demolished. For instance, Tirana's former Old Bazaar and the Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox Cathedral were razed to the ground in order to build the Soviet-styled Palace of Culture. The northern portion of the main boulevard was renamed Joseph Stalin, Stalin Zogu I Boulevard, Boulevard and his statue was erected in the city square. Because private car ownership was banned, mass transportation consisted mainly of bicycles, trucks and buses. After Hoxha's death, a Pyramid of Tirana, pyramidal museum was constructed in his memory by the government. Before and after the proclamation of Albania's policy of self-imposed isolationism, a number of high-profile figures paid visits to the city, such as Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, People's Republic of China, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai and German Democratic Republic, East German Foreign Minister Oskar Fischer (politician), Oskar Fischer. In 1985, Enver Hoxha's funeral was held in Tirana. A few years later, Mother Teresa became the first religious figure to visit the country after the end of Albania's long anti-religious state atheism, atheist stance. She paid respects to her mother and sister resting at a local cemetery. Starting at the campus and ending at Skanderbeg Square with the toppling of Enver Hoxha's statue, the city saw Fall of communism in Albania, significant demonstrations by University of Tirana students demanding political freedoms in the early 1990s. On the political aspect, the city witnessed a number of events. Personalities visited the capital, such as former U.S. Secretary of State James Baker and Pope John Paul II. The former visit came amidst the historical setting after the fall of communism, as hundreds of thousands were chanting in Skanderbeg Square Baker's famous saying of "Freedom works!". Pope John Paul II became the first major religious leader to visit Tirana, though Mother Teresa had visited few years prior. During the Balkans turmoil in the mid-1990s, the city experienced dramatic events such as the unfolding of the 1997 unrest in Albania and a Fatos Nano#Second and third premierships, failed coup d'état on 14 September 1998. In 1999, following the Kosovo War, Tirana Airport became a NATO airbase, serving its mission in the former Yugoslavia.


Contemporary

During his term from 2000 to 2011, the former mayor of Tirana, Edi Rama, undertook a campaign to demolish illegal constructed buildings across Tirana as well as along the river banks of Lanë to bring the area to its pre-1990 state. In an attempt to widen roads, Rama authorized the bulldozing of private properties so that they could be paved over, thus widening streets. Most main roads underwent reconstruction, including the Unaza, Kavaja Street, Rruga e Kavajës and the main boulevard. Rama also led the initiative to paint the façades of Tirana's buildings in bright colours, although much of their interiors continued to degrade. Rama's critics claimed that he focused too much attention on cosmetic changes without fixing any of the major problems such as shortages of drinking water and electricity. In June 2007, George W. Bush traveled to Tirana on an official state visit becoming the first U.S. President to visit the former communist country. In 2008, the 2008 Gërdec explosions, Gërdec explosions were felt in the capital as windows were shattered and citizens shaken. In January 2011, the 2011 Albanian opposition demonstrations, Albanian opposition demonstrations were triggered in front of the governmental buildings in Tirana protesting against political corruption and state capture, particularly associated with the former prime minister Sali Berisha's government. In September 2014, Pope Francis made an official state visit to Tirana simultaneously becoming the second pontiff to visit Albania, after Pope John Paul II in 1992. Following the municipal elections of 2015, power was transferred from the Democratic Party of Albania, Democratic Party representative Lulzim Basha to the Socialist Party of Albania, Socialist Party candidate Erion Veliaj. Albania then underwent a territorial reform, in which defunct communes were merged with municipalities. Thirteen of Tirana's former communes were integrated as administrative units joining the existing eleven. Since then, Tirana is undergoing significant changes in infrastructure, law enforcement and new projects, as well as continuing the ones started by Veliaj's predecessor. In their first few council meetings, 242 social houses got allocated to families in need. Construction permits were suspended until the capital's development plan is revised and synthesized. Between December 2018 and February 2019, a 2018–2019 student protest in Albania, series of demonstrations erupted in the central areas of Tirana and other cities of the country in response to a controversial law on higher education, poor quality of teaching, high tuition rates and corruption. In September 2019, Tirana was ravaged by a 5.6 Moment magnitude scale, magnitude earthquake with an epicenter located near Durrës. Two months after, in November 2019, another strong 2019 Albania earthquake, earthquake with the magnitude of 6.4 hit the region again resulting comparatively few damages in Tirana. The same month, Tirana was announced as the European Youth Capital for 2022 with a planned program including events of cultural and social importance.


Geography

Tirana extends at the Plain of Tirana in the centre of
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediter ...
between the mount of Dajti in the east, the hills of Kërrabe, Sauk and Vaqarr in the south, and a valley to the north overlooking the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...
. The average altitude is about above sea level, with a maximum of at Maja Mincekut of Mali me Gropa in Shenmeri. The city is north of Athens, southeast of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...
, south of Podgorica in Montenegro, southwest of Skopje in North Macedonia and from Pristina in Kosovo. The city is surrounded by two important Protected areas of Albania, protected areas: the Dajti National Park and Mali me Gropa-Bizë-Martanesh Protected Landscape. In winter, the mountains are often covered with snow and are a popular retreat for the population of Tirana, which rarely receives snowfalls. In terms of biodiversity, the forests are mainly composed of pine, oak and beech, while its interior relief is dotted with canyons, waterfalls, caves, lakes and other landforms. Thanks to its natural heritage, it is considered the "Natural Balcony of Tirana". The mountain can be reached by a narrow asphalt mountain road onto an area known as Fusha e Dajtit. From this small area there is an excellent view of Tirana and its plain. Tiranë (river), Tiranë river flows through the city, as does the Lanë, Lanë river. Tirana is home to several artificial lakes, including Grand Park of Tirana, Tirana, Farka, Tufina, and Kashar. The present municipality was formed in the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities of Baldushk, Bërzhitë, Dajt, Farkë, Kashar, Krrabë, Ndroq, Petrelë, Pezë, Shëngjergj, Tirana, Vaqarr, Zall-Bastar and Zall-Herr, which became municipal units. The seat of the municipality is the city of Tirana.


Climate

Tirana is defined by the Köppen climate classification as ''Cfa'', nevertheless it enjoys a Humid subtropical climate and receives a commensurable amount of precipitation, during summer, to avoid the Mediterranean climate ''(Csa)'' classification, since every summer month receives more than of rainfall, with hot and moderately dry summers and cool and wet winters. The city lies on the boundary between Zone 7 and Zone 9 in terms of the hardiness zone. The average precipitation in Tirana is about per year. The city receives the majority of precipitation in winter months, which occurs from November to March, and less in summer months, from June to September. In terms of precipitation, both rain and snow, the city is ranked among the wettest cities in the Europe, European Continent. Temperatures vary throughout the year from an average of in January to in July. Spring (season), Springs and Summer (season), summers are very warm to hot often reaching over from May to September. During autumn and Winter (season), winter, from November to March, the average temperature drops and is not lower than . The city receives approximately 2500 hours of sun.


Urbanism

In September 2015, Tirana organized its first vehicle-free day, joining forces with numerous cities across the globe to fight against the existing problem of urban air pollution. This initiative resulted in a considerable drop in both air and noise pollution, encouraging the Municipality to organise a vehicle-free day every month. The city suffers from problems related to Human overpopulation, overpopulation, such as waste management, high levels of air pollution and significant noise pollution. Over the last decades, air pollution has become a pressing concern as the number of cars has increased. These are mostly 1990s and early 2000s Diesel engine, diesel cars, while it is widely believed that the fuel used in Albania contains larger amounts of sulfur and lead than in the European Union. Effective 1 January 2019, the government has imposed an import ban of used vehicles made prior to 2005 in an effort to curb pollution, encourage the buying of new cars from certified domestic dealerships, and to improve overall road safety. Another source of pollution are PM10 and PM2.5 Atmospheric particulate matter, inhaled particulate matter and Nitrogen dioxide, NO2 gases resulting from rapid growth in the construction of new buildings and expanding road infrastructure. Untreated solid waste is present in the city and outskirts. Additionally, there have been complaints of excessive noise pollution. Despite the problems, the Grand Park of Tirana, Grand Park at the Artificial Lake has some effect on absorbing CO2 emissions, while over 2.000 trees have been planted around sidewalks. Works for four new large parks have started in the summer of 2015 located in Kashar, Farka Lake, Farkë, Vaqarr, and Dajti Mountain, Dajt. These parks are part of the new urban plan striving to increase the concentration of green spaces in the capital. The government has included designated green areas around Tirana as part of the Tirana Greenbelt where construction is not permitted or limited.


Governance and politics


Administration

The Municipalities of Albania, municipality of Tirana is encompassed in the County of Tirana within the Central Albania, Central Region of Albania and consists of the rural administrative units of Baldushk, Bërzhitë, Dajt, Farkë, Kashar, Krrabë, Ndroq, Petrelë, Pezë, Shëngjergj, Vaqarr, Zall-Bastar, Zall-Herr and Tirana. The Administrative units of Tirana, administrative unit of Tirana is further partitioned into eleven urban administrative units, namely Tirana 1, Tirana 2, Tirana 3, Tirana 4, Tirana 5, Tirana 6, Tirana 7, Tirana 8, Tirana 9, Tirana 10 and Tirana 11. The Mayor of Tirana along with the Cabinet of Tirana exercises executive power. The Assembly of Tirana functions as the city parliament and consists of 55 members, serving four-year terms. It primarily deals with budget, global orientations and relations between the city and the Government of Albania. It has 14 committees and its Chairman is Aldrin Dalipi from the Socialist Party of Albania, Socialist Party. Each of the members have a specific portfolio such as economy, finance, juridical, education, health care, and several professional services, agencies and institutes. In 2000, the centre of Tirana from the central campus of University of Tirana in the Mother Teresa Square (Tirana), Mother Teresa Square up to the Skanderbeg Square, was declared the place of Cultural Assembly, and given state protection. The historical core of the capital lies around pedestrian only Murat Toptani Street, while the most prominent city district is Blloku. In 2010, the municipality undertook the installing of street name signs and entrance numbers while every apartment entrance was physically stamped.


National capital

Tirana is the capital city of the Republic of Albania thus playing an essential role in shaping the political and economic life of the country. It is the home to government functions and institutions for which the government of Albania is responsible, as for instance the executive (government), executive, judiciary, juridical and legislative branches of Albania. The President of Albania, President and Prime Minister of Albania officially reside and work in Tirana specifically at the Presidential Office Building, Tirana, Presidenca and Prime Minister's Office (Albania), Kryeministria, respectively, nevertheless the Parliament of Albania is headquartered at the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard. Tirana is also the home to the national Constitutional Court of Albania, Constitutional Court and Supreme Court of Albania, Supreme Court. Important national institutions housed in Tirana include the Appeals courts of Albania, Appeal Court and Administrative Courts in Albania, Administrative Court. The Bank of Albania is located at the Skanderbeg Square while other institutions such as the ministries of Ministry of Culture (Albania), Culture, Ministry of Defence (Albania), Defence, Ministry of Education, Sports and Youth (Albania), Education, Ministry of Finance and Economy (Albania), Finance, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs (Albania), Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Health and Social Protection, Health, Ministry of Infrastructure and Energy (Albania), Infrastructure, Ministry of Internal Affairs (Albania), Internal Affairs, Ministry of Justice (Albania), Justice and Ministry of Tourism and Environment (Albania), Tourism are spread over Tirana. The city is also the home to all the consulates and embassies in Albania, thereby making it an important centre for international diplomacy in the country.


Twin towns – sister cities

Tirana is Sister city, twinned with: * Ankara, Turkey * Athens, Greece * Beijing, China * Bursa, Turkey * Doha, Qatar * Florence, Italy * Kharkiv, Ukraine * Moscow, Russia * Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina * Skopje, North Macedonia * Sofia, Bulgaria


Economy

Tirana is the heart of the economy of Albania and the most industrialised and economically fastest growing region in Albania. Of the main Sector (economy), sectors, the tertiary sector is the most important for the economy of Tirana and employs more than 68% of work force of Tirana. 26% of the working population makes up the secondary sector followed by the primary sector with only 5%. The city began to develop at the beginning of the 16th century as it was part of the Ottoman Empire, when a bazaar was established, and its craftsmen manufactured silk and cotton fabrics, leather, ceramics and iron, silver and gold artefacts. In the 20th century, the city and its surrounding areas expanded rapidly and became the most heavily industrialised region of the country. The most significant contribution is made by the tertiary sector which has developed considerably since the fall of communism in Albania. Forming the financial centre of the country, the financial industry is a major component of the city's tertiary sector and remains in good conditions overall due to privatization and the commendable monetary policy. All of the most important financial institutions, such as the Bank of Albania and the Albanian Stock Exchange are centred in Tirana as well as most of the List of banks in Albania, banking companies such as the Banka Kombëtare Tregtare, Raiffeisen (Albania), Raiffeisen Bank, Credins Bank, Intesa Sanpaolo Bank (Albania), Intesa Sanpaolo Bank and Tirana Bank. The telecommunication industry represents another major and growing contributor to the sector. A rapid development occurred as well as after the end of fall of communism in Albania, communism and decades of isolationism mainly due to the new national policy of reform and opening up sped up the industry's development. Vodafone Albania, Vodafone, Telekom Albania and Eagle Mobile, Eagle are the leading telecommunication providers in Tirana, as in all the country. The tourism industry of the city has expanded in recent years to become a vital component of the economy. Tirana has been officially dubbed as 'The Place Beyond Belief' by local authorities. The increasing number of international arrivals at the Tirana International Airport and Port of Durrës from across Europe, Australia and Asia has rapidly grown the number of foreign visitors in the city. The largest hotels of the city are the Tirana International Hotel, TID Tower, Maritim Plaza Tirana both situated in the heart of the city near Skanderbeg Square, Scanderbeg Square, and the Hyatt-owned luxury Mak Hotel Tirana located next to the Arena Kombëtare, Air Albania Stadium, where Mariott Tirana Hotel is also planned to open. Other major hotels present in central Tirana include the Rogner Hotel, Hilton Garden Inn Tirana, Xheko Imperial Hotel, Best Western Premier Ark Hotel, and Mondial Hotel.


Infrastructure


Transport

Tirana is served by Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza, Nënë Tereza International Airport, which is simultaneously the premier air gateway to the country. The airport was officially named in honour of the Albanians in North Macedonia, Albanian Roman Catholic nun and missionary, Mother Teresa. It connects Tirana with many destinations in different countries across Europe, Africa and Asia. The airport carried more than 3.3 million passengers in 2019 and is also the principal Airline hub, hub for the country's flag carrier, Air Albania. The city's geographical location in the centre of Albania has long established the city as an integral terminus for the Roads in Albania, national road transportation, thus connecting the city to all parts of Albania and the neighbouring countries. The SH 1 (Albania), Rruga Shtetërore 1 (SH1) connects Tirana with Shkodër and Montenegro in the north, and constitutes an essential section of the proposed Adriatic–Ionian motorway. The SH 2 (Albania), Rruga Shtetërore 2 (SH2) continues in the west and provides direct connection to Durrës on the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...
. The Rruga Shtetërore 3 (SH3) is being transformed to the A3 (Albania), Autostrada 3 (A3) and follows the ancient Via Egnatia. It significantly constitutes a major section of the Pan-European Corridor VIII and links the city with Elbasan, Korçë and Greece in the south. Tirana is further connected, through the Milot interchange in the northwest, with Kosovo following as part of the A1 motorway (Albania), Autostrada 1 (A1). During the Communism in Albania, communist regime in Albania, a plan for the construction of a ring road around Tirana arose in 1989s with no implementation until the 2010s. It is of major importance, especially concerning the demographic growth of the metropolitan region of Tirana as well as the importance of the economy. Although, constructions for the nowadays completed southern section of the ring road started in 2011, however, the northern and eastern sections are still in the planning process. Rail lines of Hekurudha Shqiptare (HSH) connected Tirana with all of the major cities of Albania, including Durrës, Shkodër and Vlorë. In 2013, the Tirana Railway Station was closed and moved to Kashar by the government of Tirana in order to create space for the Bulevardi i Ri project. The new Tirana Station will be constructed in Laprakë, which is projected to be a multifunctional terminal for rail, tram and bus transportation. Furthermore, a new rail line from Tirana through Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza, Nënë Tereza International Airport to Durrës is planned to be constructed. In 2012, Tirana municipality published a report according to which a project on the construction of two tram lines was under evaluation. The tram lines would have a total length of . The public transport in Tirana is, for now, focused only in the city centre, so that the people living in the suburbs have fewer or no public transport connections. Under the plan, the two tram lines will intersect in the Skanderbeg Square. The public transport system in Tirana is ten bus lines served by 250 to 260 buses every day. During the administration of mayor Erion Veliaj, the government of Tirana has significantly increased the creation and expansion of a cycling infrastructure in the city in order to reduce traffic congestion as well as to improve the sustainable transportation. Ecovolis was launched in 2011 offering rental services for bicycles at different centrally located stations for a small fee. The international bicycle sharing system, Mobike, launched its operations on 8 June 2018 by deploying 4000 bicycles in the city.


Education

Tirana has the highest concentration of institutions of tertiary education in Albania, consisting of numerous Academy, academies, colleges and universities. Most prominent among these is the University of Tirana with campuses around the city and more than 28,000 students from all backgrounds. The Polytechnic University of Tirana is another distinguished institution and also the most renowned engineering and technical university in the country. The four other public institutions in Tirana are the University of Arts (Albania), University of Arts, Agricultural University of Tirana, University of Agriculture, University of Medicine, Tirana, University of Medicine and Sports University of Tirana, University of Sports. The educational system of Tirana has expanded substantially over the past years with the renovations of existing school facilities and the construction of new schools. For Primary education, primary and Secondary education, secondary education, a variety of schools are available, tagged with the public, private and international labels. Few of the major international schools are the Tirana International School, Albanian International School, British School, Montessori School, Memorial Schooland and World Academy. Also of noteworthy mention is the public primary and secondary Servete Maçi School, which received international recognition as it won an award at the 2020 International Architecture Awards.


Health

There are numerous public and private hospitals as well as smaller public and private health care facilities in the territory of Tirana. The University Medical Centre of Tirana "Mother Teresa", Mother Teresa University Hospital is one of the largest medical tertiary institutions of the country. Other medical institutions include the University Hospital "Shefqet Ndroqi", Shefqet Ndroqi University Hospital, Koço Gliozheni Hospital, Mbretëresha Gjeraldinë Hospital and the Tirana Military Hospital, Military Hospital.


Demography

The Institute of Statistics (Albania), Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) estimated the population of the municipality of Tirana at 418,495 in 2011. With a population density of 502 people per square kilometre, Tirana is the most densely populated municipality in the country. The encompassing metropolitan area, consisting of the Municipalities of Albania, regions of Durrës and Tirana, has a combined population of approximately 1 million amounting to nearly one third of the country's total population. Historically, Tirana has experienced a steady population increase in the past years, especially after the Fall of communism in Albania, fall of communism in the late twentieth century as well as the beginnings of the twenty-first century. The remarkable growth was, and still is, largely fueled by migrants from all over the country often in search of employment and improved living conditions. Between 1820 and 1955, the population of Tirana tenfolded while during the period from 1989 to 2011, the city's population grew annually by approximately 2.7%. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the city had a rate of growth less than 1% annually until the 1973s, then down to less than 8% per year until the middle 20th century figures. Tirana's population is composed by a mixture of different cultural and ethnic groups from Southern Europe. The most represented ethnicities are Albanians (84.10%), Greeks (0.35%), Aromanians (0.11%), Macedonians (ethnic group), Macedonians (0.07%) and Italians (0.03%). In Albania, a secular state with no state religion, the freedom of freedom of belief, belief, Freedom of conscience, conscience and Freedom of religion, religion is explicitly guaranteed in the constitution of Albania. Tirana is religiously diverse and has many places of worship catering to its religious population whom are adherents of Islam, Christianity and Judaism but also of Atheism and Agnosticism. They all maintain their Albanian headquarters spread across the territory of Tirana. Nevertheless, the Bektashi Order leadership established their world centre also in the city. In the 2011 census, 55.7% of the population of the municipality of Tirana was counted as Muslim, 3.4% as Bektashis and 11.8% as Christians, Christian including 5.4% as Roman Catholic and 6.4% as Eastern Orthodox. The remaining 29.1% of the population reported having no religion or did not provided an adequate answer. The census of 2011 did not included specific municipality level data for other religious groups. The Christianity in Albania, Roman Catholic Church is represented in Tirana by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tiranë-Durrës, Archdiocese of Tiranë and Durrës, with the St Paul's Cathedral (Tirana), St Paul's Cathedral as the seat of the prelacy. The Albanian Orthodox Church, Albanian Orthodox community is served by the Archbishop of Albania, Archbishop of Tirana in the Resurrection Cathedral, Tirana, Resurrection Cathedral.


Culture

Tirana offers a blend of traditional and modern lifestyle with a variety of arts, food, entertainment, music and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other capitals around Europe. Its population celebrates a wide range of religious and other festivals including Christmas, Islamic holidays, Eid, Hanukkah and Nowruz. Another festival is Summer Festival, Albania, Dita e Verës taking place every year on 14 March, during which the Albanians celebrate the end of Winter (season), winter and the arrival of Spring (season), spring. Among the local institutions are the National Library of Albania, National Library, that keeps more than a million books, periodicals, maps, atlases, microfilms and other library materials. The city has five well-preserved traditional houses (museum-houses), 56 cultural monuments, eight public library, libraries. There are many domestic and foreign cultural institutions in Tirana, amongst them the British Council, Canadian Institute of Technology as well as the German Goethe-Institut and Friedrich Ebert Foundation. Other cultural institutions include the Chinese Confucius Institute, Greek Hellenic Foundation for Culture, Italian Istituto Italiano di Cultura and the French Alliance Française.


Architecture

Tirana is home to a mixture of architectural styles reflecting the influential periods in its history. Its current appearance was considerably shaped by two totalitarian regimes, once by the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini during the Second World War and the regime of Enver Hoxha in the Aftermath of World War II, aftermath. The Presidential Palace, Tirana, Palace of Brigades, the ministries buildings, the government building and the municipality hall are designed by Florestano Di Fausto and Armando Brasini, both well-known architects of the Mussolini period in Italy. The Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard was built in 1930 and given the name Zog I of Albania, King Zog I Boulevard. In the 20th century, the part from Skanderbeg Square up to the train station was named Stalin Boulevard. The Royal Palace or Presidential Palace, Tirana, Palace of Brigades previously served as the official residence of King Zog I. It has been used by different Albanian governments for various purposes. Because of the outbreak of World War II, and the 1939 Italian invasion of Albania, Zog I of Albania, King Zog I fled Albania and never had a chance to see the Palace fully constructed. The Italians finished it and used it as the Army Headquarters. The Palace took its nickname Presidential Palace, Tirana, Palace of Brigades because it was taken from the Italians by a people's army brigade. In the 21st century, Tirana turned into a proper modernist city, with large blocks of flats, modern new buildings, new shopping centres and many green spaces. In June 2016, the Mayor of Tirana Erion Veliaj and the Italian architect Stefano Boeri announced the start of the works for the redaction of the Master Plan ''Tirana 2030''. Tirana is a densely-built area and still offers several public parks throughout its districts, graced with green gardens. The Grand Park of Tirana, Grand Park is the most important green space in Tirana. It is one of most visited areas by local citizens. The park includes many children's playgrounds, sport facilities and landmarks such as the Saint Procopius Church of Tirana, Saint Procopius Church, the Presidential Palace of Tirana, Presidential Palace, the Botanical Gardens of Tirana, Botanical Gardens, the Tirana Zoo, the Amphitheatre, the Monument of the Frashëri Brothers and many others. The Rinia Park was built during the Communist regime in
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediter ...
. It bordered by Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard to the east, Gjergi Fishta Boulevard and Bajram Curri Boulevard to the south, Rruga Ibrahim Rugova to the west and Rruga Myslym Shyri to the north. The Taivani Centre is the main landmark in the park and houses cafés, restaurants, fountains, and a bowling lane in the basement. The Summer Festival, Albania, Summer Festival takes place every year in the park, to celebrate the end of winter and the rebirth of nature and a rejuvenation of spirit amongst the Albanians. As of the Mayor of Tirana Erion Veliaj, the Municipality of Tirana will build more green spaces and will plant more trees.


Museums

As one of the cultural centres of the country, Tirana is the home to a number of museums dedicated to a wide array of arts. The National Museum of History (Albania), National Museum of History is located at the Skanderbeg Square and is the most representative of museums in the city. The mosaic above the entrance is one of the most dominant features of the museum as it tells the story of how the Albanian people have fought against invasion and occupation throughout history. Founded in 1948, the National Museum of Archaeology, Albania, National Museum of Archaeology at the Mother Teresa Square (Tirana), Mother Teresa Square displays a wide collection of research and discoveries belonging to the archaeological locations around the country. It exhibits span from prehistory through antiquity and the Middle Ages to the twentieth century, offering an overview of the country's historical diversity. The National Art Gallery of Albania, National Art Gallery is considered the most important gallery in Albania housing one of the greatest collections of paintings in the region. Located at the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard, it holds approximately 4.500 works of art including the most important collection of Albanian art of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The Bunkers in Albania, Bunk'art Museum consists of two underground bunkers in Tirana built under the orders and direction of Enver Hoxha during the Communism in Albania, communist regime in the country. Located at the Fadil Deliu Street and Abdi Toptani Street respectively, the bunkers have been transformed into a history museum and contemporary art gallery with exhibits from the Second World War and Cold War. The Museum of Secret Surveillance was founded in 2017 and is housed within a twentieth century mansion, the building known as the ''House of Leaves'', near the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard. It commemorates and honours the victims who fell to the communist terrorism and violence during the communist period in Albania. Other museums include the Natural Sciences Museum of Albania, Natural Sciences Museum, which has branches in zoology, botany and geology, the former Pyramid of Tirana, Enver Hoxha Museum and the Bunk'art Museum.


Cuisine

Along with Albanian cuisine, a variety of international cuisines are popular among the residents in Tirana. In 2016, Albania surpassed Spain by becoming the country with the most coffee houses per capita in the world with 654 coffee houses per 100,000 inhabitants. This is due to coffee houses closing down in Spain due to the economic crisis, and the fact that as many cafes open as they close in Albania. In addition, the fact that it was one of the easiest ways to make a living after the fall of communism in Albania, together with the country's Ottoman legacy further reinforce its strong dominance in Albania. Tirana's restaurant scene has evolved recently characterised by stylish interiors and delicious food grown locally. The Tirana region is known for the Fergesa traditional dish made with either peppers or liver, and is found at a number of traditional restaurants in the city and agri-tourism sites on the outskirts of Tirana.


Sports

Being the capital, Tirana is the centre of sport in Albania, where activity is organised across amateur and professional levels. It is home to many major sporting facilities. Starting from 2007, the Tirana Municipality has built up to 80 sport gardens in most of Tirana's neighborhoods. One of the latest projects is the reconstruction of the existing Tirana Olympic Park, Olympic Park, that will provide infrastructure for most intramural sports. Tirana hosted in the past three major events, the FIBA EuroBasket 2006 Division C, FIBA EuroBasket 2006, 2011 World Mountain Running Championships and the 2013 European Weightlifting Championships. There are two major stadiums, the former Qemal Stafa Stadium and the Selman Stërmasi stadium. The former was demolished in 2016 to make way for the new national stadium. The new stadium called the ''National Arena Stadium, Air Albania Stadium'' was constructed on the same site of the former Qemal Stafa Stadium and it is planned to open in late 2019. It will have an underground parking, Marriott Tirana Hotel, shops and bars and will be used for entertainment events. Tirana's sports infrastructure is developing fast because of the investments from the municipality and the Ministry of Tourism, Cultural Affairs, Youth and Sports (Albania), government. Football in Albania, Football is the most widely followed sport in Tirana as well as in the country, having numerous club teams including the KF Tirana, Partizani Tirana, and Dinamo Tirana. It is popular at every level of society, from children to wealthy professionals. In football, as of April 2012, the Tirana-based teams have won a combined List of Albanian football champions, 57 championships out of 72 championships organised by the FSHF, i.e. 79% of them. Another popular sport in Albania is basketball, represented in particular by the teams KB Tirana, BC Partizani Tirana, BC Partizani, BC Dinamo Tirana, BC Dinamo, Ardhmëria Basket, Ardhmëria and also the women's PBC Tirana (women), PBC Tirana. Recently two Rugby union in Albania, rugby teams were created: Tirana Rugby Club, founded in 2013 and Ilirët Rugby Club founded in 2016.


Media

As the capital, Tirana is the most significant location for the Albanian media industry whose content is distributed throughout Albania, Kosovo and other Albanian language, Albanian-speaking territories. Tirana is the home to most of the national and international television stations, including the national broadcaster, Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (RTSH), along with all its television and radio networks. The three largest Albanian commercial broadcasters, such as TV Klan, Televizioni Klan, Top Channel and Vizion Plus, also maintains their headquarters in the city. The European broadcaster, Euronews, operates a franchise in the city as well as the American broadcaster CNN International, CNN. Tirana is also a principal location for the largest Albanian newspapers, magazines and publications. The newspapers with the largest circulations in Albania are published in Tirana, including Gazeta Shqip, Gazeta Tema, Koha Jonë and Panorama. Gazeta Shqiptare, one of the oldest Albanian language, Albanian-language newspapers in Albania, operates and has its headquarters in the city. Tirana also has a well-established English language, English-language newspaper, notably the daily of Tirana Times.


Notable people


Key of Tirana

The ''Key of Tirana'' ( sq, Çelësi i Qytetit) is a symbolic recognition given by the Mayor of Tirana to an esteemed personality. It was given to: * Atifete Jahjaga, Kosovo-Albanian politician and activist * Bebe Rexha, Albanian-American singer and songwriter * Dua Lipa, Albanian-English singer and songwriter * Eleni Foureira, Albanian-Greek singer * Emeli Sandé, Scottish singer and songwriter * Ermal Meta, Albanian-Italian singer and songwriter * Giorgio Toschi, Italian commander * Giusy Ferreri, Italian singer and songwriter * Fatboy Slim, English musician * István Tarlós, Hungarian politician * Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović, Croatian politician * Nexhmije Pagarusha, Kosovo-Albanian icon and singer * Noel Malcolm, English journalist and historian * Riccardo Cocciante, Italian singer and songwriter * Rita Ora, Albanian-British singer and songwriter * Robin Krasniqi, Albanian-German boxer * Stevo Pendarovski, Macedonian politician


See also

* Timeline of Tirana * Symbols of Tirana * Landmarks in Tirana, Landmarks of Tirana


References


Further reading

* * * * * *


External links


tirana.gov.al
fficial Website * {{Authority control Tirana, Capitals in Europe Populated places established in 1614 Municipalities in Tirana County Gegëri Cities in Albania 1614 establishments in the Ottoman Empire