Tijuana (/tiːˈhwɑːnə/ tee-WHAH-nə; Spanish: [tiˈxwana]) is
the largest city in the Mexican state of
Baja California and on the
Baja California Peninsula, located at the center of the
San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan areas. As one of
the largest and fastest growing cities of Mexico,
Tijuana exerts a
strong influence on local economics, education, culture, art, and
politics. As the city has become a leading center in the country, so
has the surrounding metropolitan area, a major industrial and
paramount metropolis in northwestern Mexico. Currently one of the
fastest growing metropolitan areas in Mexico,
global city status. As of 2015[update], the city of
Tijuana had a
population of 1,641,570.
Tijuana is located on the Gold Coast of Baja California, and is the
municipal seat and the cultural and commercial center of Tijuana
Tijuana covers 70% of the municipality but contains over
80% of its population. A dominant manufacturing center of the North
American continent, the city maintains facilities of many
multinational conglomerate companies. In the early 21st century,
Tijuana became the medical-device manufacturing capital of North
Tijuana is also a growing cultural center and has been
recognized as an important new cultural mecca. The city is the most
visited border city in the globe; sharing a border of about 24 km
(15 mi) with its sister city San Diego. More than fifty million
people cross the border between these two cities every year. This
metropolitan crossing makes the
San Ysidro Port of Entry
San Ysidro Port of Entry the busiest
land-border crossing in the world. It is estimated that the two
border crossing stations between the cities proper of
San Diego and
Tijuana account for 300,000 daily border crossings alone.
Tijuana is the 45th largest city in the
Americas and is the
westernmost city in Mexico. According to the 2015 census, the Tijuana
metropolitan area was the fifth-largest in Mexico, with a population
of 1,840,710, but rankings vary, the city (locality) itself was 6th
largest and the municipality (administrative) 3rd largest nationally.
The international metropolitan region was estimated to be about
5,158,459 in 2016, making it the third largest metropolitan area in
the former Californias region, 19th largest metropolitan area in the
Americas, and the largest bi-national conurbation that is shared
between US and Mexico.
Tijuana is becoming more suburbanized like San
Tijuana traces its modern history to the arrival of Spanish explorers
in the 16th century who were mapping the coast of the Californias. As
the American conquest of northern
Mexico ended with the Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo, Tijuana's new international position on the border
gave rise to a new economic and political structure. The city was
founded on July 11, 1889 as urban development began. Often known by
its supposed initials, T.J., and nicknamed Gateway to Mexico, the city
has historically served as a tourist center dating back to the 1880s.
3.2 Boroughs and neighborhoods
6.2 Tourist economy and entertainment
8 Culture and contemporary life
8.1 Entertainment and performing arts
9.1.2 Waste Water
9.2.3 Intercity buses
9.2.4 Local buses
9.2.5 Local BRT system
9.2.6 Light rail
10 Twin towns – sister cities
11 See also
13 Further reading
The first historic mission documents — primarily baptism, marriage,
and death records — name the city with the names as 'La Tía Juana',
'Tiguana', 'Tiuana', 'Teguana', 'Tiwana', 'Tijuan', 'Ticuan', and the
present day name, 'Tijuana'. The commonly accepted theory among
historians is that the modern-day
Tijuana is derived from a word
belong to the
Kumeyaay language – the original aboriginal
inhabitants of the San Diego-
Tijuana derives from the
Kumeyaay word Tiwan, meaning by-the-sea. Common in regional folklore,
a myth exists purporting that the name is a conjunction of Tia Juana,
the Spanish-language version of Aunt Jane. Tia Juana would provide
food and a resting place to travelers on their journeys. The story has
become a popular myth with residents of the city and has particular
resonance among those who like to imagine the city as a place of
In Spanish, the name is pronounced /tiˈxwana/ – with three
syllables, and a velar fricative as represented by the sound written
as j. In English, the name is sometimes pronounced as having four
syllables: /tiːəˈwɑːnə/ ("Tia-wana"), a pronunciation that was
California English speakers in the past; more commonly,
it is pronounced truer to Spanish, with three /tiːˈwɑːnə/. In
California, and particularly in Southern California, it is often
referred to as T.J. Baja Californians have adopted this pronunciation
as Tiyei. In Spanish the demonym for someone from
Tijuanense, while in English the demonym is Tijuanan. A very common
slang term used for a person from
Tijuana is Tijuanero.
The nickname Tijuas is increasingly popular among residents and
visitors alike. Due to a recent increase in violence in the city, a
new term is developing. The phrase Yo Tijuaneo, ¿y tú? translates to
I Tijuanate, and you?. This term comes from a new popular local verb
Tijuanear meaning to Tijuana, describing the cosmopolitan aspects of
living in the city and frequently crossing the border.
See also: Timeline of Tijuana
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo.
Fray Junípero Serra.
The land was originally inhabited by the Kumeyaay, a tribe of
Yuman-speaking hunter-gatherers. Europeans arrived in 1542, when the
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo toured the coastline of the area,
which was later mapped in 1602 by Sebastián Vizcaíno. In 1769, Juan
Crespí documented more detailed information about the area that would
be called the Valley of Tijuana.
Junípero Serra founded the first
mission of Alta
California in nearby San Diego.
Further settlement took place near the end of the mission era when
José María de Echeandía, governor of the
Baja California and Alta
California, awarded a large land grant to
Santiago Argüello in 1829.
This large cattle ranch,
Rancho Tía Juana ("Aunt Jane Ranch"),
covered 100 km2 (40 sq mi). In 1848, as a result of the
Mexican–American War with the United States,
Mexico lost all of Alta
California. The majority of the 1,000 Hispanic families living in Alta
California stayed there, though some moved south to remain inside
Mexico. Because of this
Tijuana gained a different purpose on the
international border. The area had been populated by ranchers, but
Tijuana developed a new social economic structure. These were farming
and livestock grazing, plus as a transit area for prospectors.
Urban settlement began in 1889, when descendants of Santiago Argüello
and Augustín Olvera entered an agreement to begin developing the city
of Tijuana. The date of the agreement, July 11, 1889, is recognized as
the founding of the city.
Tijuana saw its future in tourism from
the beginning. From the late 19th century to the first few decades of
the 20th century, the city attracted large numbers of Californians
coming for trade and entertainment. The
California land boom of the
1880s led to the first big wave of tourists, who were called
"excursionists" and came looking for echoes of the famous novel
"Ramona" by Helen Hunt Jackson.
In 1911, during the Mexican Revolution, revolutionaries claiming
Ricardo Flores Magón
Ricardo Flores Magón took over the city for shortly over a
month. Federal troops then arrived. Assisted by the "defensores de
Tijuana", they routed the revolutionaries, who fled north and were
promptly arrested by the
United States Army.
California Exposition of 1915 brought many visitors to the
California city of San Diego.
Tijuana attracted these tourists
with a Feria Típica Mexicana – Typical Mexican Fair. This included
curio shops, regional food, thermal baths, horse racing and boxing.
The first professional race track opened in January 1916, just south
of the border gate. It was almost immediately destroyed by the great
"Hatfield rainmaker" flood of 1916. Rebuilt in the general area, it
ran horse races until the new Agua Caliente track opened in 1929,
several miles south and across the river on higher ground.
Legal drinking and gambling attracted U.S nationals in the 1920s
during Prohibition. The
Avenida Revolución area became the city's
tourist center, with casinos and the Hotel Caesar's, birthplace of the
In 1925, the city attempted to shed its negative image of hedonism and
lawlessness created by American mob empresarios by renaming itself
Zaragosa, but its name soon reverted to Tijuana.
In 1928, the
Agua Caliente Touristic Complex
Agua Caliente Touristic Complex was opened, including
hotel, spa, dog-track, private airport, golf course and gambling
casino. A year later, the new
Agua Caliente Racetrack joined the
complex. During the eight years it operated, the Agua Caliente hotel,
casino and spa achieved a near mythical status, with Hollywood stars
and gangsters flying in and playing.
Rita Hayworth was discovered
there. Musical nightclub productions were broadcast over the radio. A
singer known as "la Faraona" got shot in a love-triangle and gave
birth to the myth of a beautiful lady ghost. Remnants of the Agua
Caliente casino can be seen in the outdoor swimming pool and the
"minarete" (actually a former incinerator chimney) nearby the southern
end of Avenida Sanchez Taboada, on the grounds of what is now the
Lazaro Cardenas educational complex.
In 1935, President Cárdenas decreed an end to gambling and casinos in
Baja California, and the Agua Caliente complex faltered, then closed.
In 1939, it was reopened as a junior high school (now, Preparatoria
Lázaro Cárdenas). The buildings themselves were torn down in the
1970s and replaced by modern scholastic architecture.
With increased tourism and a large number of Mexican citizens
relocating to Tijuana, the city's population grew from 21,971 to
65,364 between 1940 and 1950.
Established maquiladoras in
Tijuana and the border towns with the U.S.
in the mid-1960s.
With the decline of nightlife and tourism in the 1950s, the city
restructured its tourist industry, by promoting a more family-oriented
Tijuana developed a greater variety of attractions and
activities to offer its visitors.
In 1994, PRI presidential candidate
Luis Donaldo Colosio
Luis Donaldo Colosio was
Tijuana while making an appearance in the plaza of
Lomas Taurinas, a neighborhood nestled in a valley near Centro. The
shooter was caught and imprisoned, but doubts remain about who the
mastermind might have been.
In the new century,
Tijuana has become an important city of commerce
and migration for
Mexico and US. In spite of the 9/11 on 2001 and the
violence and crime wave from 2008-2011, the city has received a big
number of tourists from US, China, Japan and the south of Mexico.
Thanks to the realization of cultural and business festivals, the city
has improved its image before the world, standing out as a competitive
city for investment. Currently, the commercial and business sector is
committed to the boom in the gastronomic industry, craft beer,
entertainment and real estate, as well as medical tourism, to attract
visitors and investors.
Colorado Hill, the highest elevation of Tijuana.
Tijuana is the western-most city in Mexico, and consequently in Latin
America, and the 2nd largest city of northern Mexico. Located about
210 kilometers (130 mi) west of the state-capital, Mexicali, the
city is bordered to the north by the cities of Imperial Beach, and the
San Diego neighborhoods of San Ysidro and Otay Mesa, California. To
the southwest of the city is
Rosarito Beach, while to the south is
unincorporated territory of
Tijuana Municipality. The city is nestled
among hills, canyons, and gullies. The central part of the city lies
in a valley through which flows the channeled
Housing development in the
Tijuana Hills has led to eradication of
many seasonal mountain streams. This lack of natural drainage makes
places within the city vulnerable to landslides during the rainy
season. The varied terrain of
Tijuana gives the city elevation
extremes that range from sea level to 790 metres (2,590 ft).
Tijuana is noted for its rough terrain, which includes many canyons,
steep hills, and mesas. Among noted canyons in
Tijuana are Canyon K
and Canyon Johnson. Large
Tijuana hills include Red Hill (Cerro
Colorado) and Hill of the Bees (Cerro de las Abejas) in the eastern
part of the city.
The city is located near the terminus of the
Tijuana River and within
Tijuana River Basin. The
Tijuana River is an intermittent river,
195 km (121 mi) long, on the Pacific coast of northern Baja
Mexico and Southern
California in the United States. It
drains an arid area along the California–
Baja California border,
Mexico for most of its course and then crossing the
border for the last 8 km (5 mi) of its course where it forms
an estuary that empties into the ocean. The river's lower reaches
harbor the last undeveloped coastal wetlands in
San Diego County, and
some of the last in Southern California, amidst a highly urbanized
environment at the southern city limits of Imperial Beach.
Downtown Tijuana was built at the bottom of the river valley, the
district is subject to seasonal flooding created by drain-off from the
Tijuana Hills. During this time, east-bound portions of the Via Rapida
(east-west highway) may be blocked off by the
Tijuana Police due to
Main article: List of tallest buildings in Tijuana
Zona Río, the main business district
The city's skyscraper history is relatively recent. Some of the
first highrise building complexes constructed in the city were the
twin towers of Grand Hotel Tijuana.
Tijuana experienced a building
boom that was brought to a halt by the Great Recession. Among
buildings that succumbed to the time period was the Trump Ocean Resort
Mexico that would have been located in Playas and reached
98 m (322 ft). Currently the tallest building, and soon
to be the largest complex in footage, New
City Residential reaches
102 m (335 ft). Overall, the city maintains 33 completed
structures with other proposed and under-construction skyscrapers.
Tijuana skyline is the fifth largest skyline in
Mexico and is
located in the
Zona Rio and to a smaller extent, Playas de Tijuana. In
Zona Rio the buildings are concentrated on the
lined parallel to the river; and on the edges of the
Club. In Playas the high rises are currently focused on the coast.
Recent construction on high rises has begun in the aforementioned
areas, as buildings such as New
City Residential and Grand Hotel
Tijuana have been developed and taken prominent places in the skyline
as the tallest buildings. From Tijuana's skyline the
San Diego skyline
can also be seen.
Houses on a hill in Tijuana
Boroughs and neighborhoods
The municipality of
Tijuana is divided into eight administrative
boroughs, or Delegaciones. The
Tijuana metropolitan area
Tijuana metropolitan area occupies all
of borough seats. The boroughs are in turn divided into colonias or
ejidos. These boroughs offer administrative services such as urban
planning, civil registry, inspection, verification, public works and
community development and are served by a delegado.
Revolución Av in Centro neighborhood.
Centro — "Delegación Centro" includes the old downtown (Zona
Centro), new business district (Zona Río), red light district (Zona
Norte), and other adjacent neighborhoods ("zonas"). This is the
historical midpoint of Tijuana; the municipal palace is located here
as well as most of the tourist zones, such as
Avenida Revolución and
the business district. The
Tijuana Cultural Center
Tijuana Cultural Center (CECUT for CEntro
CUltural de Tijuana) is located here as well as the Plaza Río
Tijuana, until recently the largest mall in the state, within the Zona
Cerro Colorado — The Cerro Colorado ("Red Hill") is located here and
it is surrounded by houses. Because of its height many of the area's
antennae for radio and television stations are located on its peak.
La Mesa — This is where the Morelos Park, the largest public park in
the city, is located, as well as the Plaza Mundo Divertido, the new
Macroplaza and the CETYS University.
Otay Centenario — This borough was created in 2014 by merging Mesa
de Otay and Centenario boroughs. In this borough sits the Tijuana
International Airport. The
Tijuana campus of the Autonomous University
Baja California and the Technologico are also located here as well
as many maquiladoras. This is the borough with the largest number of
factories and maquiladoras. Its largest colony is Ciudad Industrial
("Industrial City"). Three of the city's most important streets,
Boulevard Bellas Artes, Boulevard Industrial and Fed 2, are located
here. This delegacion contains the
Otay Mesa entry to the United
States and the Friendship Park (Parque de la amistad).
Playas de Tijuana — This is the westernmost borough of the city
bordered by the
Pacific Ocean on the west and the
United States border
on the north. This is where the beaches of
Tijuana are located (hence
the name) and it is also one of the two exits to the south towards
Rosarito and Ensenada.
La Presa — literally "'the dam'", this is the largest borough in
size and the Abelardo L. Rodríguez Dam is located within its limits,
hence its name. The new Corredor
Tijuana 2000 s and the Tijuana-Tecate
free road run through it.
San Antonio de los Buenos — This is mostly a residential area
although it also has two industrial parks.
Sanchez Taboada — Like the previous borough this is mostly a
residential area, but within its borders are located many
"maquiladoras" specially at Pacific Industrial Park.
Tijuana's climate is a semi-arid (Köppen climate classification
BSh), with about 231 mm (9.09 in) of annual
precipitation, and generally mild to warm weather year-round. It has
characteristics of the
Mediterranean climate (Csa) found to the
immediate north, with most of the annual precipitation falling in the
winter, between the months of November and March.
Tijuana River Estuary with
Tijuana Hills in the back
During the rainy season, November through March, storms originate from
fronts entering off of the Pacific Ocean. January is the wettest month
of the year for the city and during this time a periodic event,
similar to June Gloom, is observed created by marine layer. January is
the coolest month, during which temperatures average 13.6 °C
(56.5 °F). In the city April signifies the end of winter and the
Santa Ana winds
Santa Ana winds – observed in Southern
California as well.
Though the daytime highs are generally around 20 °C
(68 °F), heat waves can reach up to 33 °C (91 °F).
The hottest months in the city, also the dry season, are August and
September, during which temperatures average 22.0 °C
(71.6 °F). Summers are by far the driest time of year since
influences from the
California Current and the North Pacific High
suppress the formation of rainfall caused by the North American
Monsoon. As in coastal Southern California, air pollution sometimes
occurs during periods of temperature inversion, especially during
summer and fall, but (unlike
Mexico City) is seldom severe and in
recent years has lessened due to cleaner car engines.
Frost and snow are rare phenomena in the city as temperatures are
usually well above freezing. Yet, in December 1967, snow fell in the
city and in January 2007 feather light snow fell in the east of the
city. However, excessive amounts of snow fall have never been recorded
in the city. On February 14, 2008 a winter storm caused an unusual
snowfall in the upper reaches of the hills of the city. During this
time heavy snowfall was also observed in the
Cuyamaca Mountains of San
The record low temperature recorded in the city was −6 °C
(21 °F), while the highest was 49 °C (120 °F).
Climate data for Tijuana
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Servicio Meteorologico Nacional
Source #2: BBC weather (sun and humidity).
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A decorative minaret in Tijuana
Tijuana has a diverse cosmopolitan population which includes migrants
from other parts of
Mexico and from all over the world.
one of Mexico's largest Asian populations, predominantly consisting of
Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese immigrants.
Tijuana also has a large
and rapidly growing population of
United States citizens, mostly from
Southern California. Many Latin Americans, notable Argentines, Cubans,
and Guatemalans, have made
Tijuana their home. The city is also has
many Lebanese, Italian, French, Spanish citizens.
Tijuana's traffic near the Mexico-USA international borderline.
The majority of Tijuana's migrant Mexican population hail from
Sinaloa, Michoacán, Jalisco, Oaxaca, and the Federal District.
Because of the diversity of
Mexico and the influx of immigrants from
almost every region in the country, there are no accurate estimates on
ethnicity or race of the current population. The heavy influx of
immigrants to the city and municipality of
Tijuana has led to job
creation in the form of over 700 twin-plant (maquiladora) factories,
which serve as the basis of employment for the majority of the
working-class people in northern Mexico. The high poverty level in
Tijuana is attributed to the city's "magnet status" for people who
have come from the poorer south of the nation and citizens from other
nations seeking to escape from extreme poverty.
Tijuana holds a status
that provides the possibility of employment as well as higher
education and the dream of crossing the border.
Tijuana and Baja
California in general have much stronger economies and higher incomes
than other Mexican cities along the
United States border, as well as
more moderate weather.
Tijuana today is one of the fastest growing cities in
Mexico with an
average of 80,000 people moving to
Tijuana yearly. In
terms of area, the city grows by approximately three hectares a day,
mostly east and south as the city is mostly built out to the beach
already with the exception of some canyons. Along
with settlements separated from
Tijuana proper and other communities
unimproved land, big business moves in providing supermarkets and
retail to marginal areas, along with paved roads. The city experiences
the construction of 26,000 new settlers a year that
has led to the unregulated, illegal squatter homes that takes place in
the hills and valleys of ever expanding Tijuana, most of these areas
are yet to be served by city services, including the addition of
sidewalks, paving, streetlights, public transit and other services.
However this is an ongoing process; as older and existing squatter
areas are brought into the city services, more marginal areas become
occupied by squatters.
Squatter areas are home to displaced and uprooted people, among them
the indigenous and poverty stricken, migrants deported from the USA,
many of whom are also without Mexican citizenship. In recent years,
working class suburban housing estates have sprung up in the fringes
to provide safe homes and a sense of land ownership, to escape and
isolate their families and young ones from the violence of the drug
war and squatter areas, these outlying communities tend to be much
better equipped than their squatter counterparts. Nevertheless, some
remote areas are drug lords plantations for narcotics, and delinquency
spreads to even areas that are considered safe havens, which
periodically come to light in the newspapers.
National Population Council (CONAPO) data has estimated that by 2030,
growth rates maintaining, the city will become the second largest in
Mexico and anchor to the fourth largest metropolitan area in Mexico.
The suburban sprawl observed in
Tijuana leaves the downtown and beach
areas relatively affluent.
Border fence between
Tijuana (right) and San Diego's border patrol
INEGI Census 2010 counted the population of
Tijuana to be
1.3 million, only two percent more than in 2005 Census,
Council estimates from 2010 have placed the population closer to two
million, at 1.6 million. As funding for cities is based on the
populace of the city, the Council worries about receiving adequate
funds to provide for the needs of the city. The population
discrepancies may be explained by a few factors. Shanty towns which
have not been rasterized[clarification needed] and an undercount,
people having left
Tijuana for United States, and people leaving
Tijuana for the interior of
Mexico due to the intensification of the
drug war, and suburbanization outside city limits but still inside the
municipality. Tijuana, because of the dreams of border crossers, and
its relatively higher wages compared to the rest of Mexico, naturally
attracts immigrants. Since an improvement in security since 2011, the
Tijuana as reflected in the 2015 Mexican census is
expected to return to its normal growth curve; the great reduction in
violence should make the settlement of
Tijuana an attractive option
again versus fringe valleys, nevertheless exact figures from the
According to the Second Census of Population and Housing of the year
2010 conducted by the
INEGI (National Institute of Statistics,
Geography and Informatics) the municipality of
Tijuana has 1,559,683
inhabitants within 879 km2, the city or settlement of Tijuana
only covers ⅔ of that area. While the metropolitan area of Tijuana
(1392 km2), composed of
Municipality, has 1,751,302 inhabitants.
Tecate Municipality, adjacent
Tijuana Municipality, has not yet been considered by the government
as part of the metropolitan area. However, there is great economic and
cultural exchange between the cities regions though there are still
expanses of rural land. As
Tijuana grows, many of its suburbs have
been built increasingly inland, and in the direction of Tecate; Valley
of the Palms is a large planned city between the two.
As of 2005[update] the large majority of the city's population, 96%,
adhere to the beliefs of Christianity. The denominations are further
divided into followers of
Catholicism – 61% – and of Protestantism
– 35%. While other beliefs occupying a 4% margin in the city include
Taoism (among other Asian and European religions), atheism and
agnosticism is also found.
Tijuana is well known for being the birthplace and base of the Tijuana
Cartel. From 2007 through 2010,
Tijuana experienced an unusually
high level of violent crime related to gang violence, in part derived
Mexican drug war
Mexican drug war and human trafficking. Homicides peaked in
2010, when 844 people were killed, compared to 355 in 2004 and
349 in the first eight months of 2011. Reportedly, the wave of
violence resulted from a turf war as municipal President Jorge Hank
Rhon allowed the crime to spread and the administration of President
Felipe Calderón weakened the local Arellano Félix cartel; violence
slowed when the larger
Sinaloa cartel took control.
During peak years of violent crime in the city, gun battles between
rival cartels, and between cartels and the police, erupted in public.
In April 2008, police found 1,500 shell casings on various streets
after one battle left 13 suspected drug traffickers dead. In 2009
and depending on the source,
Municipality experienced either
556 or 1,118 murders, mostly as a result of the drug war.
There were 492 murders in 2013, a 48% increase in the homicide rate
between 2012 and 2013. This is the highest number of murders since
Palacio de Gobierno de
At present the parties with greater presence in
Tijuana are the
National Action Party (PAN),
Institutional Revolutionary Party
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI),
and Ecologist Green Party of
Mexico (PVEM). The PAN has been the
dominant party in the city for 20 years. Historically the PRI had been
the dominant party in regional politics, until 1989 when the PAN began
to dominate the city, until yet again, in 2004, PRI began regaining
prominence and won the Mayor's Office.
Less prominent parties also maintain relations with the dominant
parties. These other parties, with less presence include the New
Alliance Party (PANAL),
Social Encounter Party
Social Encounter Party (PES), and Party of the
Democratic Revolution (PRD). Allied with the PAN at the state and
local level under the Alliance for
Baja California are the Social
Encounter Party (PES) and New Alliance Party (PANAL). Allied with the
PRI at the state and local level under the "Alliance for Better
Living" are the Ecologist Green Party of
Mexico (PVEM) and Baja
California State Party (PEBC).
Tijuana's importance and rise to a global city has led to its
recognition among countries worldwide. In addition to international
Tijuana has received political recognition and
is a developing a political center currently host to eight consulates
from European, Asian, and North American countries.
Building at Playas de Tijuana
Panoramic view of Tijuana
Tijuana is a large manufacturing center, and in addition to tourism,
it serves as a cornerstone of the city economy. In the past decade
Tijuana became the medical device manufacture capital of the
North American continent, surpassing previous leader Minneapolis -
The city's proximity to Southern
California and its large, skilled,
diverse, and relatively inexpensive workforce make it an attractive
city for foreign companies looking to establish extensive industrial
parks composed of assembly plants that are called maquiladoras, even
more so than other cities in the US-Mexican border zone, taking
advantage of the
North American Free Trade Agreement
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) to export
products. At its peak, in 2001
Tijuana had roughly 820 of these
'maquiladoras' (today[when?] the number is closer to 550). Foreign
and domestic companies employ thousands of employees in these plants,
usually in assembly-related labor. Such jobs are not demanding but
typically offer above average (although not high paying) salaries for
Mexico, with most maqiladoras jobs beginning at Mex$100 per day (about
5 US dollars, as of September 2016), significantly above the Mexican
minimum wage of Mex$57.46 (about 3 US dollars, as of September 2016).
Companies that have set up maquiladoras in
Tijuana include Lanix,
Hyundai, Sony, Vortec, BMW, Vizio, Toyota, Dell, Samsung, Kodak,
Matsushita/Panasonic, Bimbo, GE, Nabisco, Ford, Microsoft, Cemex,
Zonda, Philips, Pioneer, Airbus, Plantronics, Siemens Mexico, Jaguar,
Pall Medical, Tara,
Sanyo and Volkswagen. Many of the maquiladoras are
located in the
Otay Mesa and Florido sections of Tijuana.
There are also some high-tech firms and telemarketing companies in the
city, drawing people with technical trade and college degrees to
Tijuana. One example is Telvista, a Texas-based telemarketing company
which maintains three call centers along Blvd. Agua Caliente. This
Tijuana a popular city for migrant workers as well as college
graduates from other parts of
Mexico as well as other countries to the
Economic development has its central business district at Zona Río,
which together, with the corridor along Blvd. Agua Caliente (the
extension of Avenida Revolución), contains the majority of the
higher-end office space in the city. Binational economic development
along the US–
Mexico border is key to the development of Tijuana
going forward. Multiple regional (San Diego-US/Tijuana-MX) think-tanks
exist on both sides of the border that promote such regional
collaboration and innovation.
Tourist economy and entertainment
Tijuana also relies on tourism for a major part of its revenue. About
300,000 visitors cross by foot or car from the San Ysidro point of
entry in the
United States every day. Restaurants and taco stands,
pharmacies, bars and dance clubs, and shops and stalls selling Mexican
crafts and souvenirs are part of the draw for the city's tourists,
many located within walking distance of the border. The city's tourist
Downtown Tijuana including the nightlife hot spots
around La Sexta, Avenida Revolucion, souvenir shopping at the Mercado
de Artesanías and Plaza Viva Tijuana, Tijuana's Cultural Center
(CECUT) and neighboring
Plaza Río Tijuana shopping center, and the
city's best known vices, in the form of its legal Red Light District
and gambling (Agua Caliente). Mexico's drinking age of 18 (vs. 21 in
the United States) makes it a common weekend destination for many high
school and college aged Southern Californians who tend to stay on
Tijuana is also known for its red-light district
Zona Norte (also
referred to as La Coahuila after one of its main streets) with legal
prostitution in strip clubs and on the street. The strip clubs are
typically full-contact, meaning the dancers will allow patrons to
fondle them. Many dancers also sell their sexual services.
Tijuana has many pharmacies that target visitors from the United
States, which sell some medicines without prescriptions and/or at much
lower costs than in the U.S. Many medications still require a Mexican
prescription, which can be obtained from adjacent doctors' offices.
People filling up prescriptions for drugs classified in the US as
Schedule II or Schedule III have found it more difficult to locate
such medications, and the purchase of pseudoephedrine also has become
Tijuana pharmacies, just as in the U.S. For a
prescription to be filled in
Tijuana and brought legally to the United
States, any drug covered by the US
Controlled Substances Act
Controlled Substances Act would
require a prescription from the
United States for re-import. Americans
are allowed to import up to a 90-day supply of non-controlled
medications for personal use back to the USA from
Mexico and other
Businesses such as auto detailing, medical services, dentistry and
plastic surgery are heavily marketed and are usually cheaper than in
Tijuana is headquarters for Mexico's largest gambling concern, Grupo
Caliente, and home to several of its casinos.
Tijuana possesses a diversity of shopping malls.
Plaza Río Tijuana is
the largest mall and is located just a few minutes away from the U.S.
border between Paseo de los Heroes and the
Tijuana River. The mall
Cinépolis and a
Cinépolis VIP movie theater, a Sanborns
restaurant and a variety of shops, including the large department
store Sears. Plaza Mundo Divertido is off of Tijuana's main east-west
highway with arcades and rides for the whole family. Plaza Monarca is
on a north-south artery Gato Bronco and is anchored by the Cinépolis
and grocery store chain Soriana. Plaza Carrousel, so named because the
mall contains a children's merry-go-round, is minutes from the Cinco y
Diez retail hub centered around a former five and dime store. The
beach community of
Playas de Tijuana
Playas de Tijuana saw a burst of construction in
2004, which yielded the Plaza Coronado complex next to the existing
Comercial Mexicana-anchored Centro Comercial Playas.
Tijuana was the headquarters of 14-store
Dorian's department store
chain until its demise in 2009.
Tijuana, along with the nearby Valle de Guadalupe, has recently become
a culinary hotspot due to its
Baja Med cuisine, including chefs such
as Javier Plascencia, but also for its tacos, other street food, food
trucks, coffee houses and artisanal beer.
CITEC – Unidad Valle de las Palmas – Campus Tijuana
UABC Community Center
Tijuana is home to many private Primary Schools, Secondary Schools and
High Schools as well as nationally high ranked colleges and
universities. Notable primary and secondary schools include
Metropolitan, Instituto México, Instituto Cumbres, President Lázaro
Cárdenas School, Agua Caliente School Center High, Politécnico de
Baja California(CLUB DE QUÍMICA), José Fimbres Moreno School and the
State High School, and Ignacio Ramírez School located in Cerro
Colorado. These schools maintain recognition for their demands and
Tijuana maintains multiple higher education institutions. These
Autonomous University of Baja California, Tijuana
Autonomous University of Baja California, Tijuana (UABC),
Instituto Tecnológico de
Tijuana (ITT), Universidad Iberoamericana
(UIA-Tijuana), CETYS Universidad, Universidad Xochicalco, and
University of the Californias. Other colleges include Tijuana
Tijuana University of Technology, Graduate Center
of the Northwest, and the University of Professional Development. The
city is the seat of the Colegio de la Frontera Norte (COLEF), an
institution of scientific research and higher education, specializing
in the study of the problems in the border region between
the United States. In August 2009, Metropolitan UABC opened in Valle
de Las Palmas, in the
Tijuana metropolitan area.
Culture and contemporary life
Many foreigners travel to
Tijuana to drink and dance, buy prescription
drugs, purchase bootleg brand-name clothing, timepieces, and other
personal accessories found globally, as well as manufactured and
hand-crafted local curiosities. Locals and regular tourists avoid
hassles by visiting the clubs at Plaza Fiesta or other areas of the
Zona Río without the crowds, heavy marketing, and occasional tourist
misbehavior or outright lawbreaking common on the Revolución strip.
Avenida Revolución has been known for its proliferation of
nightclub shows, primarily catering to casual tourists. While still an
entertaining town with an enjoyable atmosphere, locals and tourists
alike would agree that it has lost its "anything goes" mentality which
it had once acquired, a mindset that was dangerous to tourists,
locals, and the tourism industry as a whole.
Tijuana became infamous, especially around the time of WWII, for
“donkey shows” in which women were purported to have sex with a
Entertainment and performing arts
Tijuana Country Club
Although poverty is widespread throughout the city, a very affluent
and prominent society has developed in Tijuana.
evident throughout certain districts. The
Tijuana Cultural Center
(CECUT) opened on October 20, 1982 with the goals of strengthening
Tijuana's image, and to advertise cultural tourism from the US. The
building was constructed by the architects Pedro Ramírez Vázquez and
Manuel Rosen Morrison. The CECUT first opened as part of the National
Fund for Social Activities then in 1983 it was part of the Ministry of
Tourism. Later that year CECUT was joined into the Ministry of Public
Education. Finally, in 1986 the CECUT gained its own independence, and
was able to plan its own budget. In 1988 they changed their actions
guiding themselves towards a comprehensive national cultural
It is composed of lecture rooms, video rooms, a library, an exhibition
hall, the Museum of the Californias, a futuristic planetary movie
theater that displays
IMAX films, and a restaurant. Since 1992, the
CECUT has hosted the Orchestra of
Baja California (OBC) and the Center
of Scenic Arts of the Northwest (CAEN), it headquarters the
Hispanic-American Center for Guitar (CHG). Since 2001, the CECUT
receives about a million visitors per year, making it Baja
California's most important cultural center. Another important culture
center is La Casa de la Cultura, which comprises a school, a theater,
and a public library. Dance, painting, music, plastic arts,
photography and languages are taught there. The city also has the
Instituto Municipal de Arte y Cultura (Municipal Institute of Art and
Tijuana Wax Museum, and the Museo El
Trompo (The Trompo
Tijuana Country Club (Club Campestre de Tijuana) has many affluent
members and a famous golf course. A large sized Rotary Club is also
located in Tijuana. The
Grand Hotel Tijuana
Grand Hotel Tijuana and many luxurious
restaurants have been developed along Bulevar Agua Caliente (often
called "El Bulevar" by locals) and in the Zona Rio. Around the country
club and Agua Caliente, many developments of wealthy and luxurious
gated communities have filled the hillsides, most of which have views
Mount Soledad in
San Diego or areas of Orange County.
Tijuana's most prestigious entertainment center is the
Club golf club, but the
Agua Caliente Racetrack would be the most
notable that is open to the general public. Parque Morelos has a small
zoo and park space; Parque de la Amistad has a small pond, and a
running and dirt-bike track. Parque Teniente Guerrero is a park
located downtown with a public library and weekend entertainment by
clowns. All public libraries in
Tijuana have Internet access;
unfortunately, many of the available computers are not in service.
Plus a library card is needed to use the computers. To get a library
card one must have a government issued id card plus one has to provide
two special size photographs. This of course leaves much of the huge
immigrant population of
Tijuana out of luck, as many of them don't
have identification cards.
El Foro was an attraction for being a jai
alai venue, but now is commonly used as a concert venue.
Tijuana's nightlife scene is one of the city's strongest attractions.
The area surrounding "La Sexta", the intersection at Calle Sexta and
Av. Revolucion, is now a major hub of new bars and dance clubs. Zona
Rio, Tijuana's new Downtown, is home to some of the city's finest
restaurants and bars. Another capstone of Tijuana's entertainment
offerings is its adult nightlife industry, which includes the city's
red light district as well as less conspicuous adult entertainment
Monument to Hope in Otay Mesa
Tijuana also has a very active and independent artist community whose
internationally recognized work has earned
Tijuana the title of "one
of the most important new cultural meccas", according to
Newsweek., an exhibition of Tijuana's current art scene, is being
curated by the Museum of Contemporary Art
San Diego and is traveling
across the USA in 2006 and 2007. Art collectives like Bulbo and
film production like Palenque Filmaciones explore the use of film like
Tijuana Makes Me Happy, media like television bulbo
TV and print "bulbo PRESS", to show different realities of
of Mexico. In 2004,
Tijuana earned international acclaim for an art
exhibition displayed on the cement banks of the
Tijuana River and
along the Mexico/U.S. border fence in Otay Mesa.
Graffiti is widespread in Tijuana. They can range from free-hand
writing in spray can and marker form, often carrying social or sexual
commentary in English or Spanish, pictures in wheatpaste and stencils,
consisting of stenciled renderings of personalities crucial to
Hispanic culture from past and present eras, such as television news
announcers or stars, but also extending to images of artists like
Tijuana may seem at first to consist
largely of simplistic tags and thus not as technically evolved,
colorful, or accepted in the mainstream as the "pieces" of graffiti
scenes of the United States, Europe, or Japan, but large, colorful
graffiti murals adorn walls from both native Tijuanan artists as well
as visiting graffiti writers, especially from California. The Tijuanan
art pieces show as much prowess and skill as those made by their more
renowned U.S. counterparts, although illicit graffiti are strongly
discouraged by the
Tijuana government, as in other major metropolitan
Among other things,
Tijuana has been the inspiration for
Los Tucanes de Tijuana and, more recently, the birthplace of
Nortec music style and Ruidoson, resulting in a very large and active
electronic music scene where groups and artists like Los Macuanos,
Maria y Jose, Siberium, Hidhawk and
enjoys a large base of support in many other musical scenes such as
mexican hip hop, reggae, hardcore, punk, black metal and house music.
Famous musicians are from
Tijuana including the pop-rock
Lynda Thomas and
Vanessa Zamora , the world known
singer Julieta Venegas, fussion rock projects like
Tijuana No and
international indie punk bands like
Delux & Los Kung-Fu Monkeys.
Musical clubs along the
Avenida Revolución area and others often
cater to a diverse range of tastes by offering nightly variations on
musical fare, such as new wave music one night, and punk rock bands on
the next. Interestingly, some metal bands from Europe whose members
cannot perform in the
United States due to prior felony convictions in
their own countries will play music festivals in
Tijuana so as to
attract fans from both
Mexico and the United States.
The Estadio Caliente
Toros de Tijuana
Circuito de Baloncesto de La Costa Del Pacifico
Auditorio Municipal (Tijuana)
Major Arena Soccer League
Unidad Deportiva Tijuana
The city is home to the
Tijuana Zonkeys professional basketball team
of the CIBACOPA basketball league. The team is composed mostly of
Mexico and plays from February to July in the Municipal
The city has a strong tradition of association football, Club Tijuana
began playing in the
Liga MX México Primera División on the 2011/12
season, winning the 2012 Apertura title. They play their matches at
the Estadio Caliente, a new 33,000 seat stadium. The team's mascot is
the Xoloitzcuintle, a famous Mexican hairless dog.
Tijuana also has a long history of producing many world champion
professional boxers, such as
Antonio Margarito and Erik Morales.
The stadium is the Estadio Caliente, match venue for Club Tijuana, a
Liga MX México Primera División football team. It is located in the
Agua Caliente Racetrack in Tijuana,
Baja California (Mexico). Caliente
Homes Stadium, is a multi-purpose center in Tijuana. It is mainly used
for football matches, has a seating capacity of 21,000 spectators.
Opened in June 2008, according to the work schedule. It was a
significant reason for
Tijuana Club was promoted to the México
Primera División; FEMEXFUT requires participating teams should have a
stadium with a seating capacity of over 15,000. It is at this stage
the U-17 FIBA
Americas Championship 2009 was held bound for Nigeria.
Was introduced in México Primera División during the Apertura 2011
tournament of the Mexican Football Federation.
The Gasmart Stadium for baseball is the home of the Toros de Tijuana.
It was opened in 1977 and housed the Colts missing
Pacific League. Subsequently, the stadium was used for football
matches. For 2004, professional baseball returned, now with a
franchise LMB under the name of "Toros de Tijuana", the following year
would change its name to "Colts" as it had been known in its earlier
stage. At first it was called Cerro Colorado Stadium due to its
location at the foot of this hill. With the return of baseball, chain
supermarkets "Calimax" bought the naming rights to the stadium. In
2004, the first season of "Toros", the fans had a great response,
filling the stadium in most matches. On April 4, 2013, the stadium was
remodeled, marking the beginning of a new era of Toros de
Excel Medical Center
Tijuana State Commission of Public Services (CESPT) supplies the
city with its water, while the city receives its electricity from La
Comisión Federal de Electricidad
Comisión Federal de Electricidad (CFE).
International Boundary Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP)
developed, as a joint project of the USA and
Mexico in the mid-1980s
following substantial environmental studies, treats
25 million gallons of water per day (mgd) from the
directly pumped across the border from the central collection point in
Mexico. When the river is flowing, the diversion system of the plant
begins operating and diverts up to about 12-13mgd to the IWTP. The
total amount of water being diverted must not exceed 25 mgd, based on
a monthly average decided upon by permit conditions, although the IWTP
can treat sustained flows up to 45mgd daily and peaks of 70mgd for a
short period. The diversion system regularly sends approximately six
to eight million gallons of water daily to the IWTP. The plant is
currently being upgraded to include a secondary treatment facility.
The city also four to five decentralize units that are part of the
Rosarito Potable Water and Wastewater Master Plan. This plan
was required as part of Public Law 106-457, put into order November 7,
2000, which was written to allow the Bajagua project to move forward.
The master plan was a binational collaborative effort by EPA and CESPT
and addressed San Diego-Tijuana's needs for the next 20 years.
The plants are intended to treat approximately 5mgd each, to tertiary
levels and provide the reclaimed water to the surrounding areas for
agriculture, industry etc. There are several issues that they are
facing: no infrastructure to convey the reclaimed water to customers
and inadequate groundwater recharge infrastructure.
Tijuana's telephonic system operates under area code 664, but it is
not the same area code 664 which is part of the North American
Numbering Plan (NANP) because
Mexico is not one of the countries
represented by the
North American Numbering Plan
North American Numbering Plan Administration
(NANPA) where the country code is 1. So to dial a phone number from
San Diego to
Tijuana will require the use of an international access
code and Mexico's Country Code, 52, before dialing the area code and
the number. Likewise for anyone calling from
Tijuana to the United
Telephonic land lines in
Tijuana are provided by the company Telnor;
other companies include Axtel and Alestra. Popular cell phone carriers
in the city-region include Movistar, Telcel, Iusacell, Unefon, Nextel,
in conjunction with
Nextel USA, provides coverage in the city and all
Baja California for American
Nextel is popular
among businessmen, students, and professionals. Cell phones also have
historic usage in
Tijuana as the first cellular call in
Tijuana in 1989.
Fed. 1 towards
San Diego and the Rio Zone
Tijuana is a major gateway to the interior of
Mexico to which it is
connected by air and road directly, and by sea via the ports of
Ensenada and San Diego. Within
Tijuana there are freeways and other
roads, and buses, but no passenger rail.
Local public transportation in
Tijuana is run by semiprivate
companies, and has one of the most complex, or perhaps unorganized
International Airport (General Abelardo L. Rodríguez IA)
is the city's main airport, one of the busiest in Mexico, and serves
eleven airlines with destinations across
Mexico and Shanghai, China.
Tijuana Airport is also a second main airport for the
San Diego area
for passengers heading south into
Mexico and Latin America, who may
use the airport's
Cross Border Xpress
Cross Border Xpress terminal located on the U.S.
side of the border in
Otay Mesa and connected to the rest of the
airport on the Mexican side by a pedestrian toll bridge. U.S. and
Canadian destinations can be reached via the
San Diego International
Airport, located about 35 kilometers (22 mi) north of the
Two important Mexican federal highway corridors start in Tijuana, one
of them is Fed 1, which runs south through the Baja California
Rosarito Beach, Baja Mar, and Ensenada before ending
in Cabo San Lucas,
Baja California Sur. From
Tijuana to Ensenada, most
travelers take Fed 1D (scenic road), a four-lane, limited access toll
road that runs by the coast starting at Playas de Tijuana. Fed 2 runs
east for 1,000 kilometres (620 miles) near the international border,
currently as far as Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua.
Within the metropolitan area the Corredor Tijuana-
Mesa de Otay
Mesa de Otay in the northeast of the city with
Rosarito Beach in the southwest.
Just north of the San Ysidro border crossing, Interstate 5 and
Interstate 805 head northbound to
San Diego and beyond. From the Otay
Mesa border crossing,
Interstate 905 takes drivers west to connect
with both I-805 and I-5.
The city's main bus station is in its eastern borough. There is a
small terminal downtown which serves a few Mexican bus lines and
Greyhound Lines and Crucero USA. Another bus station is
located near the border with frequent services to Ensenada, and other
major cities including Mazatlán, Culiacán, Hermosillo, and
Guadalajara. Major bus lines operating in
Tijuana include Azul y
Blanco de Magallanes (Blue & White) and Transporte Efectivo
Tijuana – TEEXTI; modernizing system originally intended
to phase out the other lines that partially introduced but ceased and
merged with Azul y Blanco.
Tijuana underwent a major overhaul of its existing system of
guayines, or shared fixed-route station wagons, forcing the
replacement of the guayines with new models of vans, serving as
fixed-route taxis. Major transit hubs include Centro (Downtown
Tijuana), Otay, Soler, and the Cinco y Diez avenues. Taxi lines
operating in the city include Free Taxis, those that do not maintain a
specific route; Economic Taxis; Diamond Taxis – black or yellow
cabs; and regular taxis maintaining a set route. There are as many bus
lines and routes as fixed-route taxi ones or calafias, and new routes
for buses, taxis or calafias are frequently created, due to high
demand of public transportation. Public transportation service is
inexpensive, with bus tickets at maximum, USD $0.75. Fixed-route taxis
are somewhat more expensive, depending on the taxi route, reaching USD
$2.00. Bus, taxi and calafia lines and routes are distinguished from
one another by their vehicles colors.
Local BRT system
Amistad station of the SITT bus rapid transit system in Tijuana
A bus rapid transit system SITT operates one route from Downtown
Tijuana and Garita Puerto
Mexico near the San Ysidro Port of Entry,
southeasterly along the
Tijuana River to Terminal Insurgentes in the
southeast of the city. It is part of a planned system of main and
feeder lines that would replace other buses and minibuses.
Previously there have been plans for a light rail service, for example
in January 2009, the
City Council and the Ministry of Communications
and Transportation announced such a system along the
however so far nothing has come of these plans.
There is, however a light rail connection to Downtown
San Diego and
beyond starting immediately north of the
San Ysidro Port of Entry
San Ysidro Port of Entry to
the U.S. at the
San Ysidro Transit Center
San Ysidro Transit Center where municipal buses also
Twin towns – sister cities
Tijuana has multiple sister cities and twin towns. These relations
have been formalized by a variety of organizations as well as
municipal governments. Currently twinned with the
Peoples Republic of China
San Diego–Tijuana portal
Notable people of Tijuana
^ a b c d
^ Link to 2015 Mexican Census Info INEGI: Instituto Nacional de
Estadística, Geografía e Informática.
^ a b Walker, Margath (January 2011). "Knowledge production and border
nationalism in northern Mexico". Nations and Nationalism. 17 (1):
^ GaWC. "The World According to GaWC". Retrieved 2011-02-26.
^ Piore, Adam (September 2, 2002). "How to Build a Creative City".
^ "Massive traffic cripples
Tijuana border crossing". 19 April 2017
– via Reuters.
^ "World Gazetteer – San Diego-Tijuana". Archived from the original
^ "World Gazetteer – Metropolitan Areas of America". Archived from
the original on 2007-09-30.
^ Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas
^ As determined at the second Symposium of History, 1975.
^ Carruthers (2000), page 212
^ a b c "
Tijuana Timeline Diagram". Skyscraper Source Media. Retrieved
June 5, 2011.
^ Spagat, Elliot (March 6, 2009). "Trump Baja venture leaves buyers
high and dry". latimes.com. Associated Press. Retrieved February 22,
Ayuntamiento de Tijuana, B.C. Mexico". tijuana.gob.mx.
^ "Doble responsabilidad desde el 1 de enero", Frontera, 2014-01-15
^ "Bourough of Playas de Tijuana".
City of Tijuana. Retrieved July 21,
^ M. Kottek; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World
Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol.
Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved April
^ Adams, David; Comrie, Andrew (1997). "The North American Monsoon".
78 (10). American Meteorological Society: 2197–2213.
doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<2197:TNAM>2.0.CO;2. Retrieved May
^ "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951–2010" (in Spanish). Servicio
Meteorológico Nacional. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
^ "Average Conditions;
International Airport". BBC. Retrieved
March 18, 2013.
^ "MEXICO: Baja California". Citypopulation.de. 2012-01-08. Retrieved
June 1, 2012.
^ Note for 2010, much of the 5-year growth has occurred in the
Tijuana (suburbs) rather than the city itself as the
urban fringe expands as people escape into isolated suburban
subdivisions due to drug violence.
Tijuana Striving for Better Days".
San Diego Union-Tribune.
Retrieved May 9, 2011.
Tijuana Cartel". Violence across the border. Retrieved 25 September
^ a b c Diaz, Lizbeth (September 5, 2011). "
Tijuana violence slows as
one cartel takes control". Thomson Reuters.
^ Cearley, Anna (May 24, 2005). "Days are grueling and grisly for
Tijuana's homicide cop".
San Diego Union-Tribune.
^ "13 dead in
Tijuana shootouts". CNN
^ "Denuncias Registradas Ante Agencias del Ministerio Publico del
Fuero Comun" (PDF) (in Spanish).
Portal de Transparencia del Gobierno
del Estado de Baja California. Retrieved 2011-02-20.
^ "Estadísticas de Mortalidad" (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de
Estadística y Geografía. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
Mexico 2014 Crime and Safety Report: Tijuana
^ "Foreign Embassies and Consulates in Mexico". GoAbroad.com.
Retrieved August 14, 2011.
^ "Analysis by Crossborder Group Finds
City in North
America for Medical Device Manufacturing Employment".
Development Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2011.
Maquiladora estadísticas abril 2005". cfomaquiladoras.org.
^ Alberts, Hana R., "
Sony Hives Off Major Factory", Forbes, September
^ "10 sorpresas gastronómicas en
Tijuana (10 culinary surprises in
Tijuana)", Travesías, October 2015
^ "Foreign Affairs". Los Angeles Magazine. 45 (6). June 1, 2000.
Retrieved 2010-04-25. 'the donkey show,' which highlighted a Catherine
the Great-style coupling
^ Historia http://www.cecut.gob.mx/acerca.php
^ Strange New World
^ Pagel, David Pagel (2007-01-30). "ART REVIEW Tijuana's scrappy,
do-it-yourself spirit Ingenuity seizes the day as a traveling
exhibition brings a vibrant creative scene across the border". Los
Angeles Times. p. E–1.
^ C.Michael Hogan, Marc Papineau et al., 1985 Preliminary Assessment
of Environmental Effects of Sewage on
San Diego Beaches (EIS).
Prepared by Earth Metrics Inc. for the U.S. EPA, Region IX.
^ Sprint Baja Services on Sprint.com
^ "Jorge Ramos manages support light rail project". El Sol de Tijuana.
January 14, 2009.
^ "Sister Cities – Interactive
City Directory – Tijuana, Mexico".
Sister Cities International. Retrieved Nov 12, 2013.
Mexico becomes Wuhan's 20th sister city". Retrieved 1
See also: Bibliography of the history of Tijuana
Kun, Josh, and Fiamma Montezemolo, eds.
Tijuana Dreaming: Life and Art
at the Global Border (Duke University Press; 2012) 387 pages;
scholarly and popular essays including material translated from
Spanish for the first time; topics include the city's image in fiction
as a Prohibition-era "city of sin" for American visitors
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San Vicente Reservoir
Tijuana River Estuary
Coordinates: 32°31′30″N 117°02′0″W / 32.52500°N
117.03333°W / 32.52500; -117.03333