Tel Aviv (Hebrew: תֵּל אָבִיב, [tel aˈviv], Arabic: تل
أَبيب) is the second most populous city in
Israel – after
Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush
Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area. Located on the country's
Mediterranean coastline and with a population of 438,818, it is the
financial and technological center of the country.
Silicon Wadi is
another name for Gush Dan, in comparison to
Silicon Valley in the U.S.
state of California.
Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Ron
Huldai, and is home to many foreign embassies. It is a global city
and is ranked 34th in the Global Financial Centres Index. Tel Aviv
has the third-largest economy in the
Middle East after
Abu Dhabi and
Kuwait City.[not in citation given] The city has the 31st highest
cost of living in the world.
Tel Aviv receives over 2.5 million
international visitors annually.
Tel Aviv is home to
Tel Aviv University, the largest university in the country with more
than 30,000 students.
The city was founded in 1909 by Jews on the outskirts of the ancient
port city of
Jaffa (Hebrew: יָפוֹ Yafo). Its name means Spring
Hill, though the hill was mostly sand. The modern city's first
neighborhoods had already been established in 1886, the first of which
was Neve Tzedek.
Immigration by mostly Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel
Aviv soon outpaced that of Jaffa, which had a majority Arab population
at the time.
Tel Aviv and
Jaffa were later merged into a single
municipality in 1950, two years after the establishment of the State
of Israel. Tel Aviv's White City, designated a
UNESCO World Heritage
Site in 2003, comprises the world's largest concentration of
International Style buildings, including
Bauhaus and other related
modernist architectural styles.
1 Etymology and origins
Tel Aviv neighborhoods North of Jaffa
2.3 Ottoman era
2.4 Under the British Mandate
2.5 After Israeli independence
2.5.1 Arab–Israeli conflict
4 Local government
4.1 List of Mayors of Tel Aviv
4.1.1 Mandatory Palestine (1920–1948)
4.1.2 State of
4.2 City council
7.2 High-rise construction and towers
9 Culture and contemporary life
9.1 Entertainment and performing arts
9.2 Tourism and recreation
10 Environment and urban restoration
11.1 Bus and taxi
11.5 Light rail
12 Twin towns and sister cities
14 People born in Tel Aviv
17 External links
Etymology and origins
Tel Aviv, founded in 1909, is named after Theodor Herzl's 1902 novel,
Altneuland, meaning "Old New Land".
Tel Aviv is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzl's Altneuland ("Old New
Land"), translated from German by Nahum Sokolow. Sokolow had adopted
the name of a Mesopotamian site near the city of Babylon mentioned in
Ezekiel: "Then I came to them of the captivity at Tel Aviv, that lived
by the river Chebar, and to where they lived; and I sat there
overwhelmed among them seven days." The name was chosen in 1910
from several suggestions, including "Herzliya". It was found fitting
as it embraced the idea of a renaissance in the ancient Jewish
homeland. Aviv is Hebrew for "spring", symbolizing renewal, and tel is
a man-made mound accumulating layers of civilization built one over
the other and symbolizing the ancient.
Although founded in 1909 as a small settlement on the sand dunes North
Tel Aviv was envisaged as a future city from the start. Its
founders hoped that in contrast to what they perceived as the squalid
and unsanitary conditions of neighbouring Arab towns,
Tel Aviv was to
be a clean and modern city, inspired by the European cities of Warsaw
and Odessa. The marketing pamphlets advocating for its
establishment in 1906, wrote:
In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and
sidewalks and electric lights. Every house will have water from wells
that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city, and
also sewerage pipes will be installed for the health of the city and
— Akiva Arieh Weiss, 1906
Timeline of Tel Aviv
Timeline of Tel Aviv and Jaffa
The ancient port of Jaffa—where, according to the Bible,
sail into the
Mediterranean Sea before being swallowed by a fish
Builder in Tel Aviv, 1920s
Jaffa, now a part of Tel Aviv, was an important port city in the
region for many centuries. Archaeological evidence shows signs of
human settlement there starting in roughly 7,500 BC. Its natural
harbor has been used since the Bronze Age. By the time
Tel Aviv was
founded as a separate city during Ottoman rule of the region, it had
been ruled by the Canaanites, Egyptians, Israelites, Philistines,
Babylonians, Persians, Phonecians, Seleucids, Hasmonean Jews, Romans,
Byzantines, Rashiduns, Crusaders, Ayyubids, and Mamluks before coming
under Ottoman rule in 1515. It had been fought over numerous times.
The city is mentioned in ancient Egyptian documents, as well as the
Tel Aviv neighborhoods North of Jaffa
First Aliyah in the 1880s, when Jewish immigrants began
arriving in the region in significant numbers, new neighborhoods were
Jaffa on the current territory of Tel Aviv. The first
was Neve Tzedek, founded by
Mizrahi Jews due to overcrowding in Jaffa
and built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche. Other neighborhoods
were Neve Shalom (1890), Yafa Nof (1896), Achva (1899), Ohel Moshe
Kerem HaTeimanim (1906), and others. Once
Tel Aviv received
city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed
municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa.
Nahlat Binyamin, Tel Aviv, in 1913
Herzl Street and the
Herzliya Hebrew Gymnasium in 1913
Sarona, Tel Aviv
Second Aliyah led to further expansion. In 1906, a group of Jews,
among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh
Weiss and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit (lit. "homestead")
society. The society's goal was to form a "Hebrew urban centre in a
healthy environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics and
modern hygiene." The urban planning for the new city was
influenced by the Garden city movement. The first 60 plots were
purchased in Kerem Djebali near
Jaffa by Jacobus Kann, a Dutch
citizen, who registered them in his name to circumvent the Turkish
prohibition on Jewish land acquisition. Meir Dizengoff, later Tel
Aviv's first mayor, also joined the Ahuzat Bayit society. His
Tel Aviv involved peaceful co-existence with
On 11 April 1909, 66 Jewish families gathered on a desolate sand dune
to parcel out the land by lottery using seashells. This gathering is
considered the official date of the establishment of Tel Aviv. The
lottery was organised by Akiva Aryeh Weiss, president of the building
society. Weiss collected 120 sea shells on the beach, half of
them white and half of them grey. The members' names were written on
the white shells and the plot numbers on the grey shells. A boy drew
names from one box of shells and a girl drew plot numbers from the
second box. A photographer, Avraham Soskin, documented the event. The
first water well was later dug at this site, located on what is today
Rothschild Boulevard, across from Dizengoff House. Within a year,
Herzl, Ahad Ha'am, Yehuda Halevi, Lilienblum, and Rothschild streets
were built; a water system was installed; and 66 houses
(including some on six subdivided plots) were completed. At the
end of Herzl Street, a plot was allocated for a new building for the
Herzliya Hebrew High School, founded in
Jaffa in 1906. On 21 May
1910, the name
Tel Aviv was adopted. The flag and city arms of Tel
Aviv (see above) contain under the red Star of David 2 words from the
biblical book of Jeremiah: "I (God) will build You up again and you
will be rebuilt." (Jer 31:4)
Tel Aviv was planned as an independent
Hebrew city with wide streets and boulevards, running water for each
house, and street lights.
Tel Aviv had grown to more than 1 square kilometre (247
acres). However, growth halted in 1917 when the Ottoman
authorities expelled the residents of
Jaffa and Tel Aviv. A report
The New York Times
The New York Times by
United States Consul Garrels in
Alexandria, Egypt described the
Jaffa deportation of early April 1917.
The orders of evacuation were aimed chiefly at the Jewish
population. Jews were free to return to their homes in
Tel Aviv at
the end of the following year when, with the end of World War I and
the defeat of the Ottomans, the British took control of Palestine.
The town had rapidly become an attraction to immigrants, with a local
The immigrants were attracted to
Tel Aviv because they found in it all
the comforts they were used to in Europe: electric light, water, a
little cleanliness, cinema, opera, theatre, and also more or less
advanced schools... busy streets, full restaurants, cafes open until 2
a.m., singing, music, and dancing.
Under the British Mandate
Shadal Street, 1926
Rothschild Boulevard, circa 1930
Herzl Street, 1934
Magen David Square in 1936
Allenby Street in 1940
Master plan for
Tel Aviv by Patrick Geddes, 1925
Tel Aviv, established as suburb of Jaffa, received township or local
council status in 1921, and city status in 1934.
According to a census conducted in 1922 by the British Mandate
Tel Aviv had a population of 15,185 inhabitants,
consisting of 15,065 Jews, 78 Muslims and 42 Christians.
Increasing in the 1931 census to 46,101, in 12,545 houses. With
increasing Jewish immigration during the British administration,
friction between Arabs and Jews in Palestine increased. On 1 May 1921,
Jaffa Riots resulted in the deaths of 48 Arabs and 47 Jews and
injuries to 146 Jews and 73 Arabs. In the wake of this violence,
many Jews left
Jaffa for Tel Aviv, increasing the population of Tel
Aviv from 2,000 in 1920 to around 34,000 by 1925.
Jaffa train station
Tel Aviv began to develop as a commercial center. In 1923, Tel
Aviv was the first town to be wired to electricity in Palestine,
Jaffa later in the same year. The opening ceremony of the
Jaffa Electric Company powerhouse, on 10 June 1923, celebrated the
lighting of the two main streets of Tel Aviv.
In 1925, the Scottish biologist, sociologist, philanthropist and
pioneering town planner
Patrick Geddes drew up a master plan for Tel
Aviv which was adopted by the city council led by Meir Dizengoff.
Geddes's plan for developing the northern part of the district was
based on Ebenezer Howard's garden city movement. The plan
consisted of four main features: a hierarchical system of streets laid
out in a grid, large blocks consisting of small-scale domestic
dwellings, the organization of these blocks around central open
spaces, and the concentration of cultural institutions to form a civic
center. While most of the northern area of
Tel Aviv was built
according to this plan, the influx of European refugees in the 1930s
necessitated the construction of taller apartment buildings on a
larger footprint in the city.
Ben Gurion House
Ben Gurion House was built in 1930–31, part of a new workers'
housing development. At the same time, Jewish cultural life was given
a boost by the establishment of the Ohel Theatre and the decision of
Habima Theatre to make
Tel Aviv its permanent base in 1931.
Tel Aviv was granted municipal status in 1934. The Jewish
population rose dramatically during the
Fifth Aliyah after the Nazis
came to power in Germany. By 1937 the Jewish population of Tel
Aviv had risen to 150,000, compared to Jaffa's mainly Arab
69,000 residents. Within two years, it had reached 160,000, which
was over a third of Palestine's total Jewish population. Many new
Jewish immigrants to Palestine disembarked in Jaffa, and remained in
Tel Aviv, turning the city into a center of urban life. Friction
during the 1936–39 Arab revolt led to the opening of a local Jewish
Tel Aviv Port, independent of Jaffa, in 1938. It closed on 25
October 1965. Lydda Airport (later Ben Gurion Airport) and Sde Dov
Airport opened between 1937 and 1938.[unreliable source]
Many German Jewish architects trained at the Bauhaus, the Modernist
school of architecture in Germany, and left
Germany during the 1930s.
Some, like Arieh Sharon, came to Palestine and adapted the
architectural outlook of the
Bauhaus and similar schools to the local
conditions there, creating what is recognized as the largest
concentration of buildings in the International Style in the
world.[unreliable source] Tel Aviv's White City emerged in the
1930s, and became a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site in 2003. Tel Aviv
was hit during the Italian Bombing of Palestine in World War II. On 9
September 1940, 137 were killed in the bombing of Tel Aviv.
According to the 1947 UN Partition Plan for dividing Palestine into
Jewish and Arab states, Tel Aviv, by then a city of 230,000, was to be
included in the proposed Jewish state.
Jaffa with, as of 1945, a
population of 101,580 people—53,930 Muslims, 30,820 Jews and 16,800
Christians—was designated as part of the Arab state. Civil War broke
out in the country and in particular between the neighbouring cities
Tel Aviv and Jaffa, which had been assigned to the Jewish and Arab
states respectively. After several months of siege, on 13 May 1948,
Jaffa fell and the Arab population fled en masse.
After Israeli independence
Crowd outside Dizengoff House (now Independence Hall) to witness the
proclamation and signing of Israel's Declaration of Independence in
Israel declared Independence on 14 May 1948, the population of
Tel Aviv was over 200,000.
Tel Aviv was the temporary government
center of the State of
Israel until the government moved to Jerusalem
in December 1949. Due to the international dispute over the status of
Jerusalem, most embassies remained in or near Tel Aviv. In the
early 1980s, 13 embassies in
Jerusalem moved to
Tel Aviv as part of
the UN's measures responding to Israel's 1980
Today, all national embassies are in
Tel Aviv or environs.
The boundaries of
Tel Aviv and
Jaffa became a matter of contention
Tel Aviv municipality and the Israeli government in
1948. The former wished to incorporate only the northern Jewish
suburbs of Jaffa, while the latter wanted a more complete
unification. The issue also had international sensitivity, since
the main part of
Jaffa was in the Arab portion of the United Nations
Partition Plan, whereas
Tel Aviv was not, and no armistice agreements
had yet been signed. On 10 December 1948, the government announced
the annexation to
Tel Aviv of Jaffa's Jewish suburbs, the Palestinian
neighborhood of Abu Kabir, the Palestinian village of Salama and some
of its agricultural land, and the Jewish 'Hatikva' slum. On 25
February 1949, the depopulated Palestinian village of al-Shaykh
Muwannis was also annexed to Tel Aviv. On 18 May 1949, Manshiya
and part of Jaffa's central zone were added, for the first time
including land that had been in the Arab portion of the UN partition
plan. The government voted on the unification of
Tel Aviv and
Jaffa on 4 October 1949, but the decision was not implemented until 24
April 1950 due to the opposition of
Tel Aviv mayor
The name of the unified city was
Tel Aviv until 19 August 1950, when
it was renamed Tel Aviv-Yafo in order to preserve the historical name
Azrieli Sarona in 2016.
Park Tzameret residential neighborhood under construction
Tel Aviv thus grew to 42 square kilometers (16.2 sq mi). In
1949, a memorial to the 60 founders of
Tel Aviv was
constructed. Over the past 60 years,
Tel Aviv has developed
into a secular, liberal-minded center with a vibrant nightlife and
In the 1960s, some of the older buildings were demolished, making way
for the country's first high-rises. The Shalom Meir Tower, which was
completed in 1965. was Israel's tallest building until 1999. Tel
Aviv's population peaked in the early 1960s at 390,000, representing
16 percent of the country's total. A long period of steady
decline followed, however, and by the late 1980s the city had an aging
population of 317,000. High property prices pushed families out
and deterred young people from moving in. At this time,
gentrification began in the poor neighborhoods of southern Tel Aviv,
and the old port in the north was renewed. New laws were
introduced to protect Modernist buildings, and efforts to preserve
them were aided by
UNESCO recognition of the Tel Aviv's White City as
a world heritage site. In the early 1990s, the decline in population
was reversed, partly due to the large wave of immigrants from the
former Soviet Union.
Tel Aviv also began to emerge as a high-tech
center. The construction of many skyscrapers and high-tech office
buildings followed. In 1993,
Tel Aviv was categorized as a world
city. The city is regarded as a strong candidate for global city
Gulf War in 1991,
Tel Aviv was attacked by
Scud missiles from
Iraq. Iraq hoped to provoke an Israeli military response, which could
have destroyed the US–Arab alliance. The
United States pressured
Israel not to retaliate, and after
Israel acquiesced, the US and
Netherlands rushed Patriot missiles to defend against the attacks, but
they proved largely ineffective.
Tel Aviv and other Israeli cities
continued to be hit by Scuds throughout the war, and every city in the
Tel Aviv area except for
Bnei Brak was hit. A total of 74 Israelis
died as a result of the Iraqi attacks, mostly from suffocation and
heart attacks, while approximately 230
Israelis were injured.
Extensive property damage was also caused, and some 4,000 Israelis
were left homeless. It was feared that Iraq would fire missiles filled
with nerve agents or sarin. As a result, the Israeli government issued
gas masks to its citizens. When the first Iraqi missiles hit Israel,
some people injected themselves with an antidote for nerve gas. The
inhabitants of the southeastern suburb of HaTikva erected an
angel-monument as a sign of their gratitude that "it was through a
great miracle, that many people were preserved from being killed by a
direct hit of a
On 4 November 1995, Israel's prime minister, Yitzhak Rabin, was
assassinated at a rally in
Tel Aviv in support of the Oslo peace
accord. The outdoor plaza where this occurred, formerly known as Kikar
Malchei Yisrael, was renamed Rabin Square.
Tel Aviv celebrated its official centennial. In addition
to city- and country-wide celebrations, digital collections of
historical materials were assembled. These include the History section
of the official Tel Aviv-Yafo Centennial Year website; the Ahuzat
Bayit collection, which focuses on the founding families of Tel Aviv,
and includes photographs and biographies; and Stanford
University's Eliasaf Robinson
Tel Aviv Collection, documenting the
history of the city.
Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force F-16I Sufas over Tel Aviv
Since the First Intifada,
Tel Aviv has suffered from Palestinian
political violence. The first suicide attack in
Tel Aviv occurred on
19 October 1994, on the Line 5 bus, when a bomber killed 22 civilians
and injured 50 as part of a
Hamas suicide campaign. On 6 March
Hamas suicide bomber killed 13 people (12 civilians and
1 soldier) in the
Dizengoff Center suicide bombing. Three
women were killed by a
Hamas terrorist in the
Café Apropo bombing
Café Apropo bombing on
27 March 1997.
Tel Aviv Dolphinarium, site of the 2001 Dolphinarium discotheque
suicide bombing, in which 21 Israelis, mostly teenagers, were killed.
One of the most deadly attacks occurred on 1 June 2001, during the
Second Intifada, when a suicide bomber exploded at the entrance to the
Dolphinarium discothèque, killing 21, mostly teenagers, and injuring
Hamas suicide bomber killed six civilians
and injured 70 in the
Allenby Street bus bombing.
Twenty-three civilians were killed and over 100 injured in the Tel
Aviv central bus station massacre. Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades
claimed responsibility for the attack. In the Mike's Place suicide
bombing, an attack on a bar by a
British Muslim suicide bomber
resulted in the deaths of three civilians and wounded over 50.
Hamas and Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed joint responsibility. An
Islamic Jihad bomber killed five and wounded over 50 in the 25
February 2005 Stage Club bombing. The most recent suicide attack
in the city occurred on 17 April 2006, when 11 people were killed and
at least 70 wounded in a suicide bombing near the old central bus
Another attack took place on 29 August 2011 in which a Palestinian
attacker stole an Israeli taxi cab and rammed it into a police
checkpoint guarding the popular
Haoman 17 nightclub in
Tel Aviv which
was filled with 2,000 Israeli teenagers. After crashing, the
assailant went on a stabbing spree, injuring eight people. Due to
Israel Border Police roadblock at the entrance and immediate
response of the Border Police team during the subsequent stabbings, a
much larger and fatal mass-casualty incident was avoided.
On 21 November 2012, during Operation Pillar of Defense, the Tel Aviv
area was targeted by rockets, and air raid sirens were sounded in the
city for the first time since the Gulf War. All of the rockets either
missed populated areas or were shot down by an
Iron Dome rocket
defense battery stationed near the city. During the operation, a bomb
blast on a bus wounded at least 28 civilians, three
seriously. This was described as a terrorist attack by
Israel, Russia, and the
United States and was condemned by the United
Nations, United States, United Kingdom,
France and Russia, whilst
Sami Abu Zuhri declared that the organisation
"blesses" the attack.
Tel Aviv seen from space in 2003
City plan of Tel Aviv, Israel.
Tel Aviv is located around 32°5′N 34°48′E / 32.083°N
34.800°E / 32.083; 34.800 on the Israeli Mediterranean coastline,
in central Israel, the historic land bridge between Europe, Asia and
Africa. Immediately north of the ancient port of Jaffa,
Tel Aviv lies
on land that used to be sand dunes and as such has relatively poor
soil fertility. The land has been flattened and has no important
gradients; its most notable geographical features are bluffs above the
Mediterranean coastline and the
Yarkon River mouth. Because of the
Tel Aviv and the
Gush Dan region, absolute borders
Tel Aviv and
Jaffa and between the city's neighborhoods do not
The city is located 60 kilometers (37 mi) northwest of Jerusalem
and 90 kilometers (56 mi) south of the city of Haifa.
Neighboring cities and towns include
Herzliya to the north, Ramat
HaSharon to the northeast, Petah Tikva, Bnei Brak,
Ramat Gan and
Giv'atayim to the east,
Holon to the southeast, and
Bat Yam to the
south. The city is economically stratified between the north and
Tel Aviv is considered less affluent than northern Tel
Aviv with the exception of
Neve Tzedek and northern and north-western
Tel Aviv is home to
Azrieli Center and the important
financial and commerce district along Ayalon Highway. The northern
Tel Aviv is home to
Tel Aviv University, Hayarkon Park, and
upscale residential neighborhoods such as
Ramat Aviv and Afeka.
A winter thunderstorm in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv has a
Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification:
Csa), and enjoys plenty of sunshine throughout the year. Most
precipitation falls in the form of rain between the months of October
and April, with intervening dry summers. The average annual
temperature is 20.9 °C (69.6 °F), and the average sea
temperature is 18–20 °C (64–68 °F) during the winter,
and 24–29 °C (75–84 °F) during the summer. The city
averages 528 millimeters (20.8 in) of precipitation annually.
Tel Aviv last about five months, from June to October.
August, the warmest month, averages a high of 30.6 °C
(87.1 °F), and a low of 25 °C (77 °F). The high
relative humidity due to the location of the city by the Mediterranean
Sea, in a combination with the high temperatures, creates a thermal
discomfort during the summer. Summer low temperatures in Tel Aviv
seldom drop below 20 °C (68 °F).
Winters are mild and wet, with most of the annual precipitation
falling within the months of December, January and February as intense
rainfall and thunderstorms. In January, the coolest month, the average
maximum temperature is 17.6 °C (63.7 °F), the minimum
temperature averages 10.2 °C (50.4 °F). During the colder
days of winter, temperatures may reach a low of 6 °C
(43 °F). Both freezing temperatures and snowfall are extremely
rare in the city.
Autumns and springs are characterized by sharp temperature changes,
with heat waves that might be created due to hot and dry air masses
that arrive from the nearby deserts. During heatwaves in autumn and
springs, temperatures usually climb up to 35 °C (95 °F)
and even up to 40 °C (104 °F), accompanied with
exceptionally low humidity. An average day during autumn and spring
has a high of 23 °C (73 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F),
and a low of 15 °C (59 °F) to 18 °C (64 °F).
The highest recorded temperature in
Tel Aviv was 46.5 °C
(115.7 °F) on 17 May 1916, and the lowest is −1.9 °C
(28.6 °F) on 7 February 1950, during a cold wave that brought
the only recorded snowfall in Tel Aviv.
Tel Aviv mean sea temperature
18.8 °C (65.8 °F)
17.6 °C (63.7 °F)
17.9 °C (64.2 °F)
18.6 °C (65.5 °F)
21.2 °C (70.2 °F)
24.9 °C (76.8 °F)
27.4 °C (81.3 °F)
28.6 °C (83.5 °F)
28.2 °C (82.8 °F)
26.3 °C (79.3 °F)
23.2 °C (73.8 °F)
20.6 °C (69.1 °F)
Climate data for
Tel Aviv (Temperature: 1987–2010, Precipitation:
Record high °C (°F)
Mean maximum °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Mean minimum °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%) (at 1200 GMT)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Israel Meteorological Service
Hong Kong Observatory
Hong Kong Observatory for data of sunshine hours
Climate data for
Tel Aviv the West Coast (2005–2014)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Israel Meteorological Service databases
Rabin Square and
Tel Aviv City Hall
Tel Aviv City Hall looking northwest
Tel Aviv is governed by a 31-member city council elected for a
five-year term in direct proportional elections.
All Israeli citizens over the age of 18 with at least one year of
Tel Aviv are eligible to vote in municipal elections. The
municipality is responsible for social services, community programs,
public infrastructure, urban planning, tourism and other local
Tel Aviv City Hall
Tel Aviv City Hall is located at Rabin
Ron Huldai has been mayor of
Tel Aviv since 1998. Huldai
was reelected for a fourth term in the 2013 municipal elections,
Nitzan Horowitz who ran at the head of the
Huldai's term equals that of the previously longest serving mayor,
Shlomo Lahat, who was in office for 19 years. The shortest
serving was David Bloch, in office for two years, 1925–27.
Tel Aviv is known to be a stronghold for the left, in
both local and national issues. Typically of Israel, in which the left
and right wing votes tend to be "reversed", the left wing vote is
especially true for the city's mostly affluent central and northern
neighborhoods, though not the case for its working-class southeastern
neighborhoods which tend to vote for right wing parties in national
elections. Outside the kibbutzim,
Meretz receives more votes in
Tel Aviv than in any other city in Israel.
Tel Aviv old city hall
List of Mayors of Tel Aviv
Mandatory Palestine (1920–1948)
Mayor of Tel Aviv
Following the 2013 municipal elections,
Meretz gained an unprecedented
6 seats on the council. However, having been reelected as mayor,
Huldai and the
Tel Aviv 1 list lead the coalition, which controls 29
of 31 seats.
Tel Aviv City Council, 2013–2018 Term
Tel Aviv 1
Rov Ha'ir (City Majority)
Ir Le'kulanu (City for All)
Partial (2 of 3 seats, Shelley Dvir remained in the Opposition)
Tel Aviv (Shas, Jewish Home, Torah Judaism)
Ko'ach Le'gimla'im (Power to Pensioners)
Drom Ha'ir (South Tel Aviv)
Tel Aviv B'tucha (Safe Tel Aviv)
Aseifat Horim (Parents' Assembly)
Tzedek Hevrati (Social Justice)
Mahapach Yarok (Green Revolution)
The Vladimir Schreiber Institute of Mathematics at
Tel Aviv University
In 2006, 51,359 children attended school in Tel Aviv, of whom
8,977 were in municipal kindergartens, 23,573 in municipal
elementary schools, and 18,809 in high schools. Sixty-four
percent of students in the city are entitled to matriculation, more
than 5 percent higher than the national average. About 4,000
children are in first grade at schools in the city, and population
growth is expected to raise this number to 6,000. As a result,
20 additional kindergarten classes were opened in 2008–09 in
the city. A new elementary school is planned north of Sde Dov as well
as a new high school in northern Tel Aviv.
The first Hebrew high school, called
Herzliya Hebrew Gymnasium, was
built in 1905 on Herzl Street.
Tel Aviv University, the largest university in Israel, is known
internationally for its physics, computer science, chemistry and
linguistics departments. Together with
Bar-Ilan University in
neighboring Ramat Gan, the student population numbers over 50,000,
including a sizeable international community. Its campus is
located in the neighborhood of Ramat Aviv.
Tel Aviv also has
several colleges. The
Herzliya Hebrew Gymnasium moved from Jaffa
Tel Aviv in 1909 and moved to
Jabotinsky Street in the early
1960s. Other notable schools in
Tel Aviv include Shevah Mofet,
Hebrew school in the city, Ironi Alef High School for Arts
Sarona, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv has a population of 438,818 spread over a land area of 52,000
dunams (52.0 km2) (20 mi²), yielding a population density
of 7,606 people per square km (19,699 per square mile). According to
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), as of 2009[update] Tel
Aviv's population is growing at an annual rate of 0.5 percent. Jews of
all backgrounds form 91.8 percent of the population, Muslims and Arab
Christians make up 4.2 percent, and the remainder belong to other
groups (including various Christian and Asian communities). As
Tel Aviv is a multicultural city, many languages are spoken in
addition to Hebrew. According to some estimates, about 50,000
unregistered African and Asian foreign workers live in the city.
Compared with Westernised cities, crime in
Tel Aviv is relatively
According to Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, the average income in the
city, which has an
Unemployment Rate of 4.6%, is 20% above the
national average. The city's education standards are above the
national average: of its 12th-grade students, 64.4 percent are
eligible for matriculation certificates. The age profile is
relatively even, with 22.2 percent aged under 20, 18.5 percent aged
20–29, 24 percent aged 30–44, 16.2 percent aged between 45 and 59,
and 19.1 percent older than 60.
Tel Aviv's population reached a peak in the early 1960s at around
390,000, falling to 317,000 in the late 1980s as high property prices
forced families out and deterred young couples from moving in.
Since the 1990s, population has steadily grown. Today, the city's
population is young and growing. In 2006, 22,000 people
moved to the city, while only 18,500 left, and many of the new
families had young children. The population is expected to reach
450,000 by 2025; meanwhile, the average age of residents fell from
35.8 in 1983 to 34 in 2008. The population over age 65 stands at
14.6 percent compared with 19% in 1983.
The Great Synagogue
Tel Aviv has 544 active synagogues, including historic buildings
such as the Great Synagogue, established in the 1930s. In 2008, a
center for secular Jewish Studies and a secular yeshiva opened in the
city. Tensions between religious and secular Jews before the gay
pride parade ended in vandalism of a synagogue. The number of
churches has grown to accommodate the religious needs of diplomats and
foreign workers. The population was 93% Jewish, 1% Muslim, and 1%
Christian. The remaining 5 percent were not classified by
Israel Meir Lau is chief rabbi of the city.
The restored Immanuel Church, Jaffa
Tel Aviv is an ethnically diverse city. The Jewish population, which
forms the majority group in
Tel Aviv consists of the descendants of
immigrants from all parts of the world, including
Ashkenazi Jews from
Europe, North America, South America,
Australia and South Africa, as
well as Sephardic and
Mizrahi Jews from Southern Europe, North Africa,
India, Central Asia, West Asia, and the Arabian Peninsula. There are
also a sizable number of Ethiopian Jews and their descendants living
in Tel Aviv. In addition to Muslim and
Arab Christian minorities in
the city, several hundred Armenian Christians who reside in the city
are concentrated mainly in
Jaffa and some Christians from the former
Soviet Union who immigrated to
Israel with Jewish spouses and
relatives. In recent years,
Tel Aviv has received many non-Jewish
migrants from Asia and Africa, students, foreign workers (documented
and undocumented) and refugees. There are many economic migrants and
refugees from African countries, primarily
Eritrea and Sudan, located
in the southern part of the city.
Kerem HaTeimanim was founded as a predominantly Yemenite Jewish
neighborhood in the center of Tel Aviv
Further information: Neighborhoods of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv is divided into nine districts that have formed naturally
over the city's short history. The oldest of these is Jaffa, the
ancient port city out of which
Tel Aviv grew. This area is
traditionally made up demographically of a greater percentage of
Arabs, but recent gentrification is replacing them with a young
professional and artist population. Similar processes are occurring in
nearby Neve Tzedek, the original Jewish neighborhood outside of Jaffa.
Ramat Aviv, a district in the northern part of the city that is
largely made up of luxury apartments and includes
Tel Aviv University,
is currently undergoing extensive expansion and is set to absorb the
beachfront property of
Sde Dov Airport
Sde Dov Airport after its decommissioning.
The area known as
HaKirya is the
Israel Defense Forces (IDF)
headquarters and a large military base.
Moreover, in the past few years,
Rothschild Boulevard which is located
at beginning in
Neve Tzedek had become an attraction both of tourist,
businesses and startups. It features a wide, tree-lined central strip
with pedestrian and bike lanes. Historically, there was a demographic
split between the Ashkenazi northern side of the city, including the
district of Ramat Aviv, and the southern, more Sephardi and Mizrahi
Neve Tzedek and Florentin.[unreliable
Since the 1980s, major restoration and gentrification projects have
been implemented in southern Tel Aviv.[unreliable source] Baruch
Yoscovitz, city planner for
Tel Aviv beginning in 2001, reworked old
British plans for the Florentin neighborhood from the 1920s, adding
green areas, pedestrian malls, and housing. The municipality invested
two million shekels in the project. The goal was to make Florentin the
Soho of Tel Aviv, and attract artists and young professionals to the
neighborhood. Indeed, street artists, such as Dede, installation
artists such as Sigalit Landau, and many others made the upbeat
neighborhood their home base. Florentin is now known as a
hip, "cool" place to be in
Tel Aviv with coffeehouses, markets, bars,
galleries and parties.
Tel Aviv from the Azrieli Center
Bauhaus (left) and 1920s Eclectic (right) architecture styles
Tel Aviv is home to different architectural styles that represent
influential periods in its history. The early architecture of Tel Aviv
consisted largely of European-style single-story houses with red-tiled
roofs. Neve Tzedek, the first neighborhood to be constructed
Jaffa is characterised by two-story sandstone
buildings. By the 1920s, a new eclectic Orientalist style came
into vogue, combining European architecture with Eastern features such
as arches, domes and ornamental tiles. Municipal construction
followed the "garden city" master plan drawn up by Patrick Geddes.
Two- and three-story buildings were interspersed with boulevards and
public parks. Various architectural styles, such as Art Deco,
classical and modernist also exist in Tel Aviv.
Main article: Bauhaus
Bauhaus architecture was introduced in the 1920s and 1930s by German
Jewish architects who settled in Palestine after the rise of the
Nazis. Tel Aviv's White City, around the city center, contains more
than 5,000 Modernist-style buildings inspired by the Bauhaus
school and Le Corbusier. Construction of these buildings,
later declared protected landmarks and, collectively, a
Heritage Site, continued until the 1950s in the area around Rothschild
Boulevard. Some 3,000 buildings were created in this style
between 1931 and 1939 alone. In the 1960s, this architectural
style gave way to office towers and a chain of waterfront hotels and
commercial skyscrapers. Some of the city's Modernist buildings
were neglected to the point of ruin. Before legislation to preserve
this landmark architecture, many of the old buildings were demolished.
Efforts are under way to refurbish
Bauhaus buildings and restore them
to their original condition.
The famous eclectic Orientalist style Beit Levin, by Yehuda
Magidovitch, backed by tall skyscrapers
High-rise construction and towers
See also: List of tallest buildings in Tel Aviv
Azrieli Center complex contains some of the tallest skyscrapers in
The Shalom Meir Tower, Israel's first skyscraper, was built in Tel
Aviv in 1965 and remained the country's tallest building until 1999.
At the time of its construction, the building rivaled Europe's tallest
buildings in height, and was the tallest in the Middle East.
In the mid-1990s, the construction of skyscrapers began throughout the
entire city, altering its skyline. Before that,
Tel Aviv had had a
generally low-rise skyline. However, the towers were not
concentrated in certain areas, and were scattered at random locations
throughout the city, creating a disjointed skyline.
Nehoshtan Tower, Neve Tzedek
New neighborhoods, such as
Park Tzameret, have been constructed to
house apartment towers such as YOO
Tel Aviv towers, designed by
Philippe Starck. Other districts, such as Sarona, have been developed
with office towers. Other recent additions to Tel Aviv's skyline
include the 1 Rothschild Tower and First International Bank
Tel Aviv celebrated its centennial in 2009,
the city attracted a number of architects and developers, including I.
M. Pei, Donald Trump, and Richard Meier. American journalist
David Kaufman reported in New York magazine that since
Tel Aviv "was
UNESCO World Heritage site, gorgeous historic buildings from
the Ottoman and
Bauhaus era have been repurposed as fabulous hotels,
eateries, boutiques, and design museums." In November 2009,
Haaretz reported that
Tel Aviv had 59 skyscrapers more than 100 meters
tall. Currently, dozens of skyscrapers have been approved or are
under construction throughout the city, and many more are planned. The
tallest building approved is the Egged Tower, which would become
Israel's tallest building upon completion. According to current
plans, the tower is planned to have 80 floors, rise to a height of 270
meters, and will have a 50-meter spire.
Meier on Rothschild
Meier on Rothschild tower
In 2010, the
Tel Aviv Municipality's Planning and Construction
Committee launched a new master plan for the city for 2025. It decided
not to allow the construction of any additional skyscrapers in the
city center, while at the same time greatly increasing the
construction of skyscrapers in the east. The ban extends to an area
between the coast and Ibn Gabirol Street, and also between the Yarkon
River and Eilat Street. It did not extend to towers already under
construction or approved. One final proposed skyscraper project was
approved, while dozens of others had to be scrapped. Any new buildings
there will usually not be allowed to rise above six and a half
stories. However, hotel towers along almost the entire beachfront will
be allowed to rise up to 25 stories. According to the plan, large
numbers of skyscrapers and high-rise buildings at least 18 stories
tall would be built in the entire area between
Ibn Gabirol Street
Ibn Gabirol Street and
the eastern city limits, as part of the master plan's goal of doubling
the city's office space to cement
Tel Aviv as the business capital of
Israel. Under the plan, "forests" of corporate skyscrapers will line
both sides of the Ayalon Highway. Further south, skyscrapers rising up
to 40 stories will be built along the old Ottoman railway between Neve
Tzedek and Florentine, with the first such tower there being the Neve
Tzedek Tower. Along nearby Shlavim Street, passing between
south Tel Aviv, office buildings up to 25 stories will line both sides
of the street, which will be widened to accommodate traffic from the
city's southern entrance to the center.
In November 2012, it was announced that to encourage investment in the
city's architecture, residential towers throughout
Tel Aviv would be
extended in height. Buildings in
Jaffa and the southern and eastern
districts may have two and a half stories added, while those on Ibn
Gabirol Street might be extended by seven and a half stories.
The "First International Bank Tower" in Tel Aviv's financial district
Tel Aviv has been ranked as the twenty-fifth most important financial
center in the world. It was built on sand dunes in an area
unsuitable for farming. Instead, it developed as a hub of business and
scientific research.[unreliable source] In 1926, the country's
first shopping arcade, Passage Pensak, was built there. By 1936,
as tens of thousands of middle class immigrants arrived from Europe,
Tel Aviv was already the largest city in Palestine. A small port was
built at the Yarkon estuary, and many cafes, clubs and cinemas opened.
Herzl Street became a commercial thoroughfare at this time.
Economic activities account for 17 percent of the GDP. In 2011,
Tel Aviv had an unemployment rate of 4.4 percent.
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Its building is optimized for computer
trading. Its computer systems are located in an underground bunker in
case of emergencies, in which there is space for personnel to keep the
exchange active during emergencies.
The city has been described as a "flourishing technological center" by
Newsweek and a "miniature Los Angeles" by The Economist. In
1998, the city was described by
Newsweek as one of the 10 most
technologically influential cities in the world. Since then, high-tech
industry in the
Tel Aviv area has continued to develop. The Tel
Aviv metropolitan area (including satellite cities such as Herzliya
and Petah Tikva) is Israel's center of high-tech, sometimes referred
to as Silicon Wadi.
Tel Aviv is home to the
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange (TASE), Israel's only
stock exchange, which has reached record heights since the 1990s.
Stock exchange has also gained attention for its
resilience and ability to recover from war and disasters. For example,
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange was higher on the last day of both the
2006 Lebanon war and the 2009 Operation in Gaza than on the first day
of fighting Many international venture-capital firms, scientific
research institutes and high-tech companies are headquartered in the
city. Industries in
Tel Aviv include chemical processing, textile
plants and food manufacturers.[unreliable source] The city's
nightlife, cultural attractions and architecture attract tourists
whose spending benefits the local economy.
Shops at the Dizengoff Center
In 2016, the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network
Loughborough University reissued an inventory of world
cities based on their level of advanced producer services. Tel Aviv
was ranked as a alpha- world city.
Kiryat Atidim high tech zone opened in 1972 and the city has
become a major world high tech hub. In December 2012, the city was
ranked second on a list of top places to found a high tech startup
company, just behind Silicon Valley. In 2013,
Tel Aviv had more
than 700 startup companies and research and development centers, and
was ranked the second-most innovative city in the world, behind
Medellín and ahead of New York City.
According to Forbes, nine of its fifteen Israeli-born billionaires
live in Israel; four live in
Tel Aviv and its suburbs. The
cost of living in
Israel is high, with
Tel Aviv being its most
expensive city to live in. According to Mercer, a human resources
consulting firm based in New York, as of 2010[update]
Tel Aviv is the
most expensive city in the
Middle East and the 19th most expensive in
Shopping malls in
Tel Aviv include Dizengoff Center,
Ramat Aviv Mall
and Azrieli Shopping Mall and markets such as Carmel Market, Ha'Tikva
Market, and Bezalel Market.
Culture and contemporary life
Entertainment and performing arts
The Suzanne Dellal Center for Dance and Theatre
A street café in Florentin, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv is a major center of culture and entertainment. Eighteen
of Israel's 35 major centers for the performing arts are located
in the city, including five of the country's nine large theatres,
where 55% of all performances in the country and 75 percent of all
attendance occurs. The
Tel Aviv Performing Arts Center
Tel Aviv Performing Arts Center is
home of the Israeli Opera, where
Plácido Domingo was house tenor
between 1962 and 1965, and the Cameri Theatre. With
2,482 seats, the
Heichal HaTarbut is the city's largest theatre
and home to the
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.
Habima Theatre, Israel's national theatre, was closed down for
renovations in early 2008, and reopened in November 2011 after major
remodeling. Enav Cultural Center is one of the newer additions to the
cultural scene. Other theatres in
Tel Aviv are the Gesher Theatre
and Beit Lessin Theater; Tzavta and Tmuna are smaller theatres that
host musical performances and fringe productions. In Jaffa, the Simta
and Notzar theatres specialize in fringe as well.
Tel Aviv is home to
the Batsheva Dance Company, a world-famous contemporary dance troupe.
The Israeli Ballet is also based in Tel Aviv. Tel Aviv's center
for modern and classical dance is the Suzanne Dellal Center for Dance
and Theatre in Neve Tzedek.
The city often hosts global musical acts such as Paul McCartney, Elton
John, Madonna, The Rolling Stones, Radiohead,
Depeche Mode and Damian
Marley etc. in venues such as Hayarkon Park, the
Israel Trade Fairs
& Convention Center, the Barby Club, the Zappa Club and Live Park
Rishon Lezion just south of Tel Aviv. Opera and
classical music performances are held daily in Tel Aviv, with many of
the world's leading classical conductors and soloists performing on
Tel Aviv stages over the years.
Tel Aviv Cinematheque
Tel Aviv Cinematheque screens art movies, premieres of short and
full-length Israeli films, and hosts a variety of film festivals,
among them the Festival of Animation, Comics and Caricatures, "Icon"
Science Fiction and Fantasy Festival, the Student Film Festival, the
Jazz, Film and Videotape Festival and Salute to Israeli Cinema. The
city has several multiplex cinemas.
Tourism and recreation
Hayarkon Park is the largest city park in Tel Aviv
Early evening at the beach
Tel Aviv receives about 2.5 million international visitors annually,
the fifth-most-visited city in the
Middle East & Africa. .
In 2010, Knight Frank's world city survey ranked it 34th
Tel Aviv has been named the third "hottest city for
2011" (behind only
New York City
New York City and Tangier) by Lonely Planet,
third-best in the
Middle East and Africa by
Travel + Leisure
Travel + Leisure magazine
(behind only Cape Town and Jerusalem), and the ninth-best beach city
in the world by National Geographic.
Tel Aviv is
consistently ranked as one of the top
LGBT destinations in the
world. The city has also been ranked as one of the top 10
Tel Aviv is known as "the city that never sleeps" and a "party
capital" due to its thriving nightlife, young atmosphere and famous
Tel Aviv has branches of some of the
world's leading hotels, including the Crowne Plaza, Sheraton, Dan,
Isrotel and Hilton. It is home to many museums, architectural and
cultural sites, with city tours available in different languages.
Apart from bus tours, architectural tours, Segway tours, and walking
tours are also popular.
Tel Aviv has 44 hotels
with more than 6,500 rooms.
The beaches of
Tel Aviv and the city's promenade play a major role in
the city's cultural and touristic scene, often ranked as some of the
best beaches in the world.
Hayarkon Park is the most visited
urban park in Israel, with 16 million visitors annually. Other parks
within city limits include Charles Clore Park, Independence Park, Meir
Park and Dubnow Park. About 19% of the city land are green
Tel Aviv by night
Tel Aviv is an international hub of highly active and diverse
nightlife with bars, dance bars and nightclubs staying open well past
midnight. The largest area for nightclubs is the
Tel Aviv port, where
the city's large, commercial clubs and bars draw big crowds of young
clubbers from both
Tel Aviv and neighboring cities. The South of Tel
Aviv is known for the popular
Haoman 17 club, as well as for being the
city's main hub of alternative clubbing, with underground venues
including established clubs like the Block Club, Comfort 13 and
Paradise Garage, as well as various warehouse and loft party venues.
The Allenby/Rothschild area is another popular nightlife hub,
featuring such clubs as the Pasaz, Radio EPGB and the Penguin. In
Absolut Vodka introduced a specially designed bottle dedicated
Tel Aviv as part of its international cities series.
Tel Aviv has become an international center of fashion and
design. It has been called the "next hot destination" for
fashion. Israeli designers, such as swimwear company
their collections at leading fashion shows, including New York's
Park fashion show. In 2011,
Tel Aviv hosted its first
Fashion Week since the 1980s, with Italian designer
Roberto Cavalli as
a guest of honor.
Tel Aviv Pride
Tel Aviv Pride is the largest annual pride parade in the Middle East
Named "the best gay city in the world" by American Airlines, Tel Aviv
is one of the most popular destinations for
internationally, with a large
LGBT community. American
journalist David Kaufman has described the city as a place "packed
with the kind of ‘we're here, we're queer’ vibe more typically
Sydney and San Francisco. The city hosts its well-known pride
parade, the biggest in Asia, attracting over 200,000 people
yearly. In January 2008, Tel Aviv's municipality established the
LGBT Community centre, providing all of the municipal and
cultural services to the
LGBT community under one roof. In December
Tel Aviv began putting together a team of gay athletes for the
2009 World Outgames in Copenhagen. In addition,
Tel Aviv hosts an
LGBT Film Festival.
LGBT community is the subject of Eytan Fox's 2006 film The
Tel Aviv is famous for its wide variety of world-class restaurants,
offering traditional Israeli dishes as well as international
fare. More than 100 sushi restaurants, the third highest
concentration in the world, do business in the city. In Tel Aviv
there are some dessert specialties, the most known is the Halva ice
cream traditionally topped with date syrup and pistachios
The Herta and Paul Amir Building in the
Tel Aviv Museum of Art
Israel has the highest number of museums per capita of any country,
with three of the largest located in Tel Aviv. Among these
are the Eretz
Israel Museum, known for its collection of archaeology
and history exhibits dealing with the Land of Israel, and the Tel Aviv
Museum of Art. Housed on the campus of
Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv University is Beth
Hatefutsoth, a museum of the international
Jewish diaspora that tells
the story of Jewish prosperity and persecution throughout the
centuries of exile. Batey Haosef Museum specializes in
Forces military history. The
Palmach Museum near
Tel Aviv University
offers a multimedia experience of the history of the Palmach. Right
next to Charles Clore
Park is a museum of the Etzel. The
Fairs & Convention Center, located in the northern part of the
city, hosts more than 60 major events annually. Many offbeat
museums and galleries operate in the southern areas, including the Tel
Aviv Raw Art contemporary art gallery.
Tel Aviv is the only city with three clubs in Israeli Premier League,
the country's top football league.
Maccabi Tel Aviv Sports Club was
founded in 1906 and competes in more than 10 sport fields. Its
basketball team, Maccabi Tel Aviv, is a world-known professional team,
that holds 50 Israeli titles, has won 39 editions of the Israel
cup, and has six European Championships, and its football team
has won 21 Israeli league titles and has won 23 State Cups, four Toto
Cups and two Asian Club Championships. Yael Arad, an athlete in
Maccabi's judo club, won a silver medal in the 1992 Olympic
Tel Aviv Marathon
Tel Aviv Marathon going through Hayarkon Park
National Sport Center – Tel Aviv
National Sport Center – Tel Aviv (also Hadar Yosef Sports Center) is
a compound of stadiums and sports facilities. It also houses the
Olympic Committee of
Israel and the National Athletics Stadium with
the Israeli Athletic Association.
Tel Aviv Sports Club, founded in 1923, comprises more than 11
sports clubs, including Hapoel
Tel Aviv Football Club (13
championships, 16 State Cups, one
Toto Cup and once Asian champions)
which plays in Bloomfield Stadium, men's and women's basketball clubs.
Bnei Yehuda (once Israeli champion, twice State Cup winners and twice
Toto Cup winner) is the only Israeli football team in the top division
that represents a neighborhood, the
Hatikva Quarter in Tel Aviv, and
not a city.
Tel Aviv and Beitar
Tel Aviv both formerly played in the top
division, but dropped into the lower leagues, and merged in 2000, the
new club now playing in Liga Artzit, the third tier. Another former
first division team, Maccabi Jaffa, is now defunct, as are Maccabi
HaTzefon Tel Aviv, Hapoel HaTzefon
Tel Aviv and Hakoah Tel Aviv, who
merged with Maccabi
Ramat Gan and moved to
Ramat Gan in 1959.
Bloomfield Stadium before its demolition in August 2016
Two rowing clubs operate in Tel Aviv. The
Tel Aviv Rowing Club,
established in 1935 on the banks of the Yarkon River, is the largest
rowing club in Israel. Meanwhile, the beaches of
Tel Aviv provide
Matkot (beach paddleball) scene.
Tel Aviv Lightning
Tel Aviv in the
Israel Baseball League.
Tel Aviv also
has an annual half marathon, run in 2008 by 10,000 athletes with
runners coming from around the world.
In 2009, the
Tel Aviv Marathon
Tel Aviv Marathon was revived after a fifteen-year
hiatus, and is run annually since, attracting a field of over 18,000
Tel Aviv is also ranked to be 10th best to-skateboarding city by
The three largest newspaper companies in
Israel – Yedioth Ahronoth,
Haaretz – are all based within the city limits.
Several radio stations cover the
Tel Aviv area, including the
city-based Radio Tel Aviv.
The three major Israeli television networks,
Authority, Keshet, Reshet, and Channel 10, are based in the city, as
well as two of the most popular radio stations in Israel: Galatz and
Galgalatz, which are both based in Jaffa. Studios of the international
news channel i24news is located at
Port Customs House. An
English language radio station, TLV1, is based at Kikar Hamedina.
Environment and urban restoration
IDF soldiers cleaning the beaches at Tel Aviv, which have scored
highly in environmental tests.
Tel Aviv is ranked as the greenest city in Israel. Since 2008,
city lights are turned off annually in support of Earth Hour. In
February 2009, the municipality launched a water saving campaign,
including competition granting free parking for a year to the
household that is found to have consumed the least amount of water per
In the early 21st century, Tel Aviv's municipality transformed a
derelict power station into a public park, now named "Gan HaHashmal"
("Electricity Park"), paving the way for eco-friendly and
environmentally conscious designs. In October 2008, Martin Weyl
turned an old garbage dump near Ben Gurion International Airport,
called Hiriya, into an attraction by building an arc of plastic
bottles. The site, which was renamed
Park to honor
Israel's former prime minister, will serve as the centerpiece in what
is to become a 2,000-acre (8.1 km2) urban wilderness on the
outskirts of Tel Aviv, designed by German landscape architect, Peter
Charles Clore Park
At the end of the 20th century, the city began restoring historical
neighborhoods such as
Neve Tzedek and many buildings from the 1920s
and 1930s. Since 2007, the city hosts its well-known, annual Open
Tel Aviv weekend, which offers the general public free entrance
to the city's famous landmarks, private houses and public buildings.
In 2010, the design of the renovated
Port (Nemal Tel Aviv)
won the award for outstanding landscape architecture at the European
Biennial for Landscape Architecture in Barcelona.
In 2014, the Sarona Market Complex opened, following an 8-year
renovation project of Sarona colony.
Main article: Transport in Tel Aviv
Ayalon Highway which runs through Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv is a major transportation hub, served by a comprehensive
public transport network, with many major routes of the national
transportation network running through the city.
Short video about
Tel Aviv from the Israeli News Company
Bus and taxi
As with the rest of Israel, bus transport is the most common form of
public transport and is very widely used. The
Tel Aviv Central Bus
Station is located in the southern part of the city. The main bus
Tel Aviv metropolitan area
Tel Aviv metropolitan area operated by Dan Bus Company,
Metropoline and Kavim. the Egged Bus Cooperative, Israels's largest
bus company, provides intercity transportation.
The city is also served by local and inter-city share taxis. Many
local and inter-city bus routes also have sherut taxis that follow the
same route and display the same route number in their window. Fares
are standardised within the region and are comparable to or less
expensive than bus fares. Unlike other forms of public transport,
these taxis also operate on Fridays and Saturdays (the Jewish sabbath
"Shabbat"). Private taxis are white with a yellow sign on top. Fares
are standardised and metered, but may be negotiated ahead of time with
Tel Aviv Central Railway Station
Tel Aviv Central railway station is the main railway station of
the city, and the busiest station in Israel. The city has three
additional railway stations along the Ayalon Highway: Tel Aviv
University, HaShalom (adjacent to Azrieli Center) and HaHagana (near
Tel Aviv Central Bus Station),
Tel Aviv Mercaz. It is estimated
that over a million passengers travel by rail to Tel Aviv
monthly. The trains do not run on Saturday and the principal Jewish
festivals (Rosh Hashana (2 days), Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Simkhat Torah,
Pessach (Passover) first and fifth days and Shavuot (Pentecost).
Jaffa Railway Station was the first railway station in the Middle
East. It served as the terminus for the Jaffa–
Jerusalem railway. The
station opened in 1891 and closed in 1948. In 2005–2009, the station
was restored and converted into an entertainment and leisure venue
marketed as "HaTachana", Hebrew for "the station" (see homepage
Begin Road as seen from Azrieli Center
The main highway leading to and within the city is the Ayalon Highway
(Highway 20), which runs in the eastern side of the city from north to
south along the Ayalon River riverbed. Driving south on Ayalon gives
access to Highway 4 leading to Ashdod, Highway 1, leading to Ben
Gurion International Airport and
Jerusalem and Highway 431 leading to
Rehovot and the Highway 6 Trans-
Driving north on Ayalon gives access to the Highway 2 coastal road
leading to Netanya,
Hadera and Haifa. Within the city, main routes
include Kaplan Street, Allenby Street, Ibn Gabirol Street, Dizengoff
Street, Rothschild Boulevard, and in
Jaffa the main route is Jerusalem
Boulevard. Namir Road connects the city to Highway 2, Israel's main
north–south highway, and Begin/
Jabotinsky Road, which provides
access from the east through Ramat Gan,
Bnei Brak and Petah Tikva. Tel
Aviv, accommodating about 500,000 commuter cars daily, suffers
from increasing congestion. In 2007, the Sadan Report recommended the
introduction of a congestion charge similar to that of
London in Tel
Aviv as well as other Israeli cities. Under this plan, road users
traveling into the city would pay a fixed fee.
The main airport serving Greater
Tel Aviv is Ben Gurion International
Airport. Located in the neighbouring city of Lod, it handled over 20
million passengers in 2017. Ben Gurion is the main hub of El Al,
Israir Airlines and Sun D'Or. The airport is 15 kilometres
(9 mi) southeast of Tel Aviv, on Highway 1 between
Tel Aviv and
Jerusalem. Sde Dov (IATA: SDV), in northwestern Tel Aviv, is a
domestic airport and is planned be closed in favor of real-estate
development. In the future all services to Sde Dov will be
transferred to Ben Gurion Airport.
Tel Aviv Light Rail
The first line of a light rail system is under construction and
scheduled to open in 2020. The Red Line starts at Petah Tikva's
Central Bus Station, east of
Tel Aviv and follows the
(Route 481) westwards at street level. At the point where Jabotinsky
Road and Highway 4 intersect the line drops into an underground tunnel
for 10 km (6.21 mi) through Bnei Brak,
Ramat Gan and Tel
Aviv and emerges again to street level just before Jaffa, where it
turns southwards towards Bat Yam.
The underground section will include 10 stations, including an
Israel Railways services at
Tel Aviv Central Railway
Station and the nearby 2000 Terminal. A maintenance depot, connected
via a branch line and tunnel to the main section of the line, will be
constructed in Kiryat Arye, across from the existing Kiryat Arye
suburban railway station. The intended builder and operator of the
first line, MTS, has had financial difficulties that postponed the
line's opening. In May 2010, the ministry of finance decided to cancel
the agreement with MTS due to the difficulties and the agreement was
cancelled in August 2010. The line is being built instead by NTA
Tel Aviv region's mass transit development authority.
Initially, the line's targeted opening was in 2012 and today the
target is 2016 after several postponements due to the disagreements
with MTS and NTA's takeover of the project.
The second line is scheduled to open in 2021.
See also: SkyTran
Tel Aviv municipality is currently working on building a SkyTran
system across the city, under which light, two-person cars will be
transported along elevated magnetic levitation tracks. Initially, a
SkyTran loop will be built around the campus of
Industries, followed by a commercial network around the city. This
will be the pilot project of the
SkyTran system, which is planning
other such projects around the world.
Tel-O-Fun bicycle rental system
Tel Aviv Municipality encourages the use of bicycles in the city.
Plans called for expansion of the paths to 100 kilometers
(62.1 mi) by 2009. As of April 2011 the municipality has
completed construction of the planned 100 kilometres (62 miles) of
In April 2011,
Tel Aviv municipality launched Tel-O-Fun, a bicycle
sharing system, in which 150 stations of bicycles for rent were
installed within the city limits. As of October 2011, there are
125 active stations, providing more than 1,000 bicycles.
Twin towns and sister cities
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improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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See also: List of Israeli twin towns and sister cities
Tel Aviv is twinned with:
Kazakhstan (since 1999)
China (since 2004)
South Korea (since 2000)
Turkey (since 1998)
Spain (since 1998)
Serbia (since 1990) (Partner)
Italy (since 1994)
Greece (since 1994)
Hungary (since 1989) (Partner)
Moldova (since 2000)
Poland (since 1994)
Russia (since 2001)
Bulgaria (since 1992)
Poland (since 1992)
Germany (since 1980) (Partner)
Germany (since 1992) (Partner)
Germany (since 1980)
France (since 1962)
United States (Partner)
New York City,
United States (since 1996)
United States (since 1966)
Panama (since 2013)
Argentina (since 1988)
Brazil (since 2004)
The Israeli Interior Ministry is planning on eventually annexing the
neighboring city of
Bat Yam into Tel Aviv. Current plans call for the
merger to take place in 2023 after a few years' preparation.
It has been suggested that if this proves successful, other
neighboring cities such as
Ramat Gan and
Givatayim would then be
merged into Tel Aviv. Some officials envision that as part of these
Tel Aviv will become a supercity with several
sub-municipalities in the style of Greater London.
People born in Tel Aviv
Main category: People from Tel Aviv
In alphabetical order by surname; stage names are treated as single
Ron Arad, architect and industrial designer
Miri Ben-Ari, "The Hip Hop Violinist"
Borgore, dubstep producer and DJ
Dana International, musician and singer
Daniel Samohin, figure ice skater
Noam Dar, professional wrestler
Oded Fehr, actor
Uri Geller, illusionist,
Esti Ginzburg, model and actress
Ofra Haza, singer
Erez Komarovsky, chef, baker, educator, and author
Yair Lapid, politician
TJ Leaf, professional basketball player
Tzipi Livni, politician
Shlomit Malka, model
Benjamin Netanyahu, politician
Ido Pariente, mixed martial artist fighter and trainer
Itzhak Perlman, musician and conductor
Sasha Roiz, actor
Denis Shapovalov, Canadian tennis player
Orli Shoshan, Star Wars film actress
Subliminal, rapper and record producer
Ayelet Zurer, actress
Hila Klein, artist and YouTube personality
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tel Aviv-Yafo.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tel Aviv.
Tel Aviv municipality website
The History of
Tel Aviv (in Arabic)
Tel Aviv Foundation
Tel Aviv bus map
Tel Aviv District
Other sub-divisions: Center District
Judea and Samaria Area
Israeli cities with a 50,000+ population
200,000 and more
Modi'in Illit (located in the West Bank)
Summer Paralympic Games
Summer Paralympic Games host cities
1968: Tel Aviv
New York City
New York City / Stoke Mandeville
Barcelona / Madrid
2016: Rio de Janeiro
2028: Los Angeles
BNF: cb11998352q (data)