Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements. Because of
its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component used
in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines,
appliances, and weapons.
Iron is the base metal of steel.
Iron is able to take on two
crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic (BCC) and
face centered cubic (FCC), depending on its temperature. In the
body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the centre of
each cube, and in the face-centred cubic, there is one at the center
of each of the six faces of the cube. It is the interaction of the
allotropes of iron with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, that
gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties.
In pure iron, the crystal structure has relatively little resistance
to the iron atoms slipping past one another, and so pure iron is quite
ductile, or soft and easily formed. In steel, small amounts of carbon,
other elements, and inclusions within the iron act as hardening agents
that prevent the movement of dislocations that are common in the
crystal lattices of iron atoms.
The carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.14% of its
weight. Varying the amount of carbon and many other alloying elements,
as well as controlling their chemical and physical makeup in the final
steel (either as solute elements, or as precipitated phases), slows
the movement of those dislocations that make pure iron ductile, and
thus controls and enhances its qualities. These qualities include such
things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing,
tempering behavior, yield strength, and tensile strength of the
resulting steel. The increase in steel's strength compared to pure
iron is possible only by reducing iron's ductility.
Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but
its large-scale, industrial use began only after more efficient
production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the
production of blister steel and then crucible steel. With the
invention of the
Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era
of mass-produced steel began. This was followed by the Siemens-Martin
process and then the
Gilchrist-Thomas process that refined the quality
of steel. With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking
(BOS), largely replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost
of production and increasing the quality of the final product. Today,
steel is one of the most common man-made materials in the world, with
more than 1.6 billion tons produced annually. Modern steel is
generally identified by various grades defined by assorted standards
1 Definitions and related materials
2 Material properties
2.1 Heat treatment
4 History of steelmaking
4.1 Ancient steel
Wootz steel and Damascus steel
4.3 Modern steelmaking
4.3.1 Processes starting from bar iron
4.3.2 Processes starting from pig iron
7 Contemporary steel
8.2 Long steel
8.3 Flat carbon steel
Weathering steel (COR-TEN)
8.5 Stainless steel
8.6 Low-background steel
9 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Definitions and related materials
The noun steel originates from the Proto-Germanic adjective stahliją
or stakhlijan (made of steel), which is related to stahlaz or
stahliją (standing firm).
The carbon content of steel is between 0.002% and 2.14% by weight for
plain iron–carbon alloys. These values vary depending on alloying
elements such as manganese, chromium, nickel, iron, tungsten, carbon
and so on. Basically, steel is an iron-carbon alloy that does not
undergo eutectic reaction. In contrast, cast iron does undergo
eutectic reaction. Too little carbon content leaves (pure) iron quite
soft, ductile, and weak.
Carbon contents higher than those of steel
make a brittle alloy commonly called pig iron. While iron alloyed with
carbon is called carbon steel, alloy steel is steel to which other
alloying elements have been intentionally added to modify the
characteristics of steel. Common alloying elements include: manganese,
nickel, chromium, molybdenum, boron, titanium, vanadium, tungsten,
cobalt, and niobium. Additional elements are also important in
steel: phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, and traces of oxygen, nitrogen,
and copper, that are most frequently considered undesirable.
Plain carbon-iron alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are
known as cast iron. With modern steelmaking techniques such as powder
metal forming, it is possible to make very high-carbon (and other
alloy material) steels, but such are not common.
Cast iron is not
malleable even when hot, but it can be formed by casting as it has a
lower melting point than steel and good castability properties.
Certain compositions of cast iron, while retaining the economies of
melting and casting, can be heat treated after casting to make
malleable iron or ductile iron objects.
Steel is distinguishable from
wrought iron (now largely obsolete), which may contain a small amount
of carbon but large amounts of slag.
Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions necessary to form
Iron is commonly found in the Earth's crust in the form of an ore,
usually an iron oxide, such as magnetite or hematite.
extracted from iron ore by removing the oxygen through its combination
with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon which is then lost to
the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. This process, known as smelting, was
first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which
melts at about 250 °C (482 °F), and copper, which melts at
about 1,100 °C (2,010 °F), and the combination, bronze,
which has a melting point lower than 1,083 °C (1,981 °F).
In comparison, cast iron melts at about 1,375 °C
(2,507 °F). Small quantities of iron were smelted in ancient
times, in the solid state, by heating the ore in a charcoal fire and
then welding the clumps together with a hammer and in the process
squeezing out the impurities. With care, the carbon content could be
controlled by moving it around in the fire. Unlike copper and tin,
liquid or solid iron dissolves carbon quite readily.
All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods used
since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate of iron increases
rapidly beyond 800 °C (1,470 °F), it is important that
smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Smelting, using
carbon to reduce iron oxides, results in an alloy (pig iron) that
retains too much carbon to be called steel. The excess carbon and
other impurities are removed in a subsequent step.
Other materials are often added to the iron/carbon mixture to produce
steel with desired properties.
Nickel and manganese in steel add to
its tensile strength and make the austenite form of the iron-carbon
solution more stable, chromium increases hardness and melting
temperature, and vanadium also increases hardness while making it less
prone to metal fatigue.
To inhibit corrosion, at least 11% chromium is added to steel so that
a hard oxide forms on the metal surface; this is known as stainless
Tungsten slows the formation of cementite, keeping carbon in
the iron matrix and allowing martensite to preferentially form at
slower quench rates, resulting in high speed steel. On the other hand,
sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus are considered contaminants that make
steel more brittle and are removed from the steel melt during
The density of steel varies based on the alloying constituents but
usually ranges between 7,750 and 8,050 kg/m3 (484 and
503 lb/cu ft), or 7.75 and 8.05 g/cm3 (4.48 and
4.65 oz/cu in).
Even in a narrow range of concentrations of mixtures of carbon and
iron that make a steel, a number of different metallurgical
structures, with very different properties can form. Understanding
such properties is essential to making quality steel. At room
temperature, the most stable form of pure iron is the body-centered
cubic (BCC) structure called alpha iron or α-iron. It is a fairly
soft metal that can dissolve only a small concentration of carbon, no
more than 0.005% at 0 °C (32 °F) and 0.021 wt% at
723 °C (1,333 °F). The inclusion of carbon in alpha iron
is called ferrite. At 910 °C pure iron transforms into a
face-centered cubic (FCC) structure, called gamma iron or γ-iron. The
inclusion of carbon in gamma iron is called austenite. The more open
FCC structure of austenite can dissolve considerably more carbon, as
much as 2.1% (38 times that of ferrite) carbon at 1,148 °C
(2,098 °F), which reflects the upper carbon content of steel,
beyond which is cast iron. When carbon moves out of solution with
iron it forms a very hard, but brittle material called cementite
When steels with exactly 0.8% carbon (known as a eutectoid steel), are
cooled, the austenitic phase (FCC) of the mixture attempts to revert
to the ferrite phase (BCC). The carbon no longer fits within the FCC
austenite structure, resulting in an excess of carbon. One way for
carbon to leave the austenite is for it to precipitate out of solution
as cementite, leaving behind a surrounding phase of BCC iron called
ferrite with a small percentage of carbon in solution. The two,
ferrite and cementite, precipitate simultaneously producing a layered
structure called pearlite, named for its resemblance to mother of
pearl. In a hypereutectoid composition (greater than 0.8% carbon), the
carbon will first precipitate out as large inclusions of cementite at
the austenite grain boundaries until the percenage of carbon in the
grains has decreased to the eutectoid composition (0.8% carbon), at
which point the pearlite structure forms. For steels that have less
than 0.8% carbon (hypoeutectoid), ferrite will first form within the
grains until the remaining composition rises to 0.8% of carbon, at
which point the pearlite structure will form. No large inclusions of
cementite will form at the boundaries in hypoeuctoid steel. The
above assumes that the cooling process is very slow, allowing enough
time for the carbon to migrate.
As the rate of cooling is increased the carbon will have less time to
migrate to form carbide at the grain boundaries but will have
increasingly large amounts of pearlite of a finer and finer structure
within the grains; hence the carbide is more widely dispersed and acts
to prevent slip of defects within those grains, resulting in hardening
of the steel. At the very high cooling rates produced by quenching,
the carbon has no time to migrate but is locked within the
face-centered austenite and forms martensite.
Martensite is a highly
strained and stressed, supersaturated form of carbon and iron and is
exceedingly hard but brittle. Depending on the carbon content, the
martensitic phase takes different forms. Below 0.2% carbon, it takes
on a ferrite BCC crystal form, but at higher carbon content it takes a
body-centered tetragonal (BCT) structure. There is no thermal
activation energy for the transformation from austenite to
martensite.[clarification needed] Moreover, there is no compositional
change so the atoms generally retain their same neighbors.
Martensite has a lower density (it expands during the cooling) than
does austenite, so that the transformation between them results in a
change of volume. In this case, expansion occurs. Internal stresses
from this expansion generally take the form of compression on the
crystals of martensite and tension on the remaining ferrite, with a
fair amount of shear on both constituents. If quenching is done
improperly, the internal stresses can cause a part to shatter as it
cools. At the very least, they cause internal work hardening and other
microscopic imperfections. It is common for quench cracks to form when
steel is water quenched, although they may not always be visible.
Main article: Heat treating carbon steel
There are many types of heat treating processes available to steel.
The most common are annealing, quenching, and tempering. Heat
treatment is effective on compositions above the eutectoid composition
(hypereutectoid) of 0.8% carbon. Hypoeutectoid steel does not benefit
from heat treatment.
Annealing is the process of heating the steel to a sufficiently high
temperature to relieve local internal stresses. It does not create a
general softening of the product but only locally relieves strains and
stresses locked up within the material. Annealing goes through three
phases: recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. The temperature
required to anneal a particular steel depends on the type of annealing
to be achieved and the alloying constituents.
Quenching involves heating the steel to create the austenite phase
then quenching it in water or oil. This rapid cooling results in a
hard but brittle martensitic structure. The steel is then
tempered, which is just a specialized type of annealing, to reduce
brittleness. In this application the annealing (tempering) process
transforms some of the martensite into cementite, or spheroidite and
hence it reduces the internal stresses and defects. The result is a
more ductile and fracture-resistant steel.
Main article: Steelmaking
See also: List of countries by steel production
Iron ore pellets for the production of steel
When iron is smelted from its ore, it contains more carbon than is
desirable. To become steel, it must be reprocessed to reduce the
carbon to the correct amount, at which point other elements can be
added. In the past, steel facilities would cast the raw steel product
into ingots which would be stored until use in further refinement
processes that resulted in the finished product. In modern facilities,
the initial product is close to the final composition and is
continuously cast into long slabs, cut and shaped into bars and
extrusions and heat treated to produce a final product. Today only a
small fraction is cast into ingots. Approximately 96% of steel is
continuously cast, while only 4% is produced as ingots.
The ingots are then heated in a soaking pit and hot rolled into slabs,
billets, or blooms. Slabs are hot or cold rolled into sheet metal or
plates. Billets are hot or cold rolled into bars, rods, and wire.
Blooms are hot or cold rolled into structural steel, such as I-beams
and rails. In modern steel mills these processes often occur in one
assembly line, with ore coming in and finished steel products coming
out. Sometimes after a steel's final rolling it is heat treated
for strength, however this is relatively rare.
History of steelmaking
History of ferrous metallurgy
History of ferrous metallurgy and History of the steel
Bloomery smelting during the Middle Ages
Steel was known in antiquity and was produced in bloomeries and
The earliest known production of steel is seen in pieces of ironware
excavated from an archaeological site in
and are nearly 4,000 years old, dating from 1800 BC. Horace
identifies steel weapons such as the falcata in the Iberian Peninsula,
Noric steel was used by the Roman military.
The reputation of Seric iron of South India (wootz steel) grew
considerably in the rest of the world. Metal production sites in
Sri Lanka employed wind furnaces driven by the monsoon winds, capable
of producing high-carbon steel. Large-scale
Wootz steel production in
Tamilakam using crucibles and carbon sources such as the plant Avāram
occurred by the sixth century BC, the pioneering precursor to modern
steel production and metallurgy.
The Chinese of the
Warring States period
Warring States period (403–221 BC) had
quench-hardened steel, while Chinese of the
Han dynasty (202 BC
– 220 AD) created steel by melting together wrought iron with cast
iron, gaining an ultimate product of a carbon-intermediate steel by
the 1st century AD.
Wootz steel and Damascus steel
Wootz steel and Damascus steel
Evidence of the earliest production of high carbon steel in the Indian
Subcontinent are found in
Tamil Nadu area,
Andhra Pradesh area and Karnataka, and in
Samanalawewa areas of Sri
Lanka. This came to be known as Wootz steel, produced in South
India by about sixth century BC and exported globally. The
steel technology existed prior to 326 BC in the region as they are
mentioned in literature of Sangam Tamil, Arabic and Latin as the
finest steel in the world exported to the Romans, Egyptian, Chinese
and Arab worlds at that time – what they called Seric Iron. A
200 BC Tamil trade guild in Tissamaharama, in the South East of Sri
Lanka, brought with them some of the oldest iron and steel artifacts
and production processes to the island from the classical
period. The Chinese and locals in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
had also adopted the production methods of creating
Wootz steel from
Chera Dynasty Tamils of South India by the 5th century AD.
In Sri Lanka, this early steel-making method employed a unique wind
furnace, driven by the monsoon winds, capable of producing high-carbon
steel. Since the technology was acquired from the Tamilians
from South India, the origin of steel technology in
India can be conservatively estimated at 400–500 BC.
The manufacture of what came to be called Wootz, or Damascus steel,
famous for its durability and ability to hold an edge, may have been
taken by the Arabs from Persia, who took it from India. It was
originally created from a number of different materials including
various trace elements, apparently ultimately from the writings of
Zosimos of Panopolis. In 327 BCE,
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great was rewarded by
the defeated King Porus, not with gold or silver but with 30 pounds of
steel. Recent studies have suggested that carbon nanotubes were
included in its structure, which might explain some of its legendary
qualities, though given the technology of that time, such qualities
were produced by chance rather than by design. Natural wind was
used where the soil containing iron was heated by the use of wood. The
ancient Sinhalese managed to extract a ton of steel for every 2 tons
of soil, a remarkable feat at the time. One such furnace was found
Samanalawewa and archaeologists were able to produce steel as the
Crucible steel, formed by slowly heating and cooling pure iron and
carbon (typically in the form of charcoal) in a crucible, was produced
Merv by the 9th to 10th century AD. In the 11th century, there
is evidence of the production of steel in Song China using two
techniques: a "berganesque" method that produced inferior,
inhomogeneous, steel, and a precursor to the modern Bessemer process
that used partial decarbonization via repeated forging under a cold
A Bessemer converter in Sheffield, England
Since the 17th century, the first step in European steel production
has been the smelting of iron ore into pig iron in a blast
furnace. Originally employing charcoal, modern methods use coke,
which has proven more economical.
Processes starting from bar iron
Blister steel and
In these processes pig iron was refined (fined) in a finery forge to
produce bar iron, which was then used in steel-making.
The production of steel by the cementation process was described in a
treatise published in Prague in 1574 and was in use in
1601. A similar process for case hardening armour and files was
described in a book published in
Naples in 1589. The process was
introduced to England in about 1614 and used to produce such steel by
Sir Basil Brooke at
Coalbrookdale during the 1610s.
The raw material for this process were bars of iron. During the 17th
century it was realized that the best steel came from oregrounds iron
of a region north of Stockholm, Sweden. This was still the usual raw
material source in the 19th century, almost as long as the process was
Crucible steel is steel that has been melted in a crucible rather than
having been forged, with the result that it is more homogeneous. Most
previous furnaces could not reach high enough temperatures to melt the
steel. The early modern crucible steel industry resulted from the
Benjamin Huntsman in the 1740s.
Blister steel (made as
above) was melted in a crucible or in a furnace, and cast (usually)
Processes starting from pig iron
A Siemens-Martin steel oven from the
Brandenburg Museum of Industry.
White-hot steel pouring out of an electric arc furnace.
The modern era in steelmaking began with the introduction of Henry
Bessemer process in 1855, the raw material for which was
pig iron. His method let him produce steel in large quantities
cheaply, thus mild steel came to be used for most purposes for which
wrought iron was formerly used. The
Gilchrist-Thomas process (or
basic Bessemer process) was an improvement to the Bessemer process,
made by lining the converter with a basic material to remove
Another 19th-century steelmaking process was the Siemens-Martin
process, which complemented the Bessemer process. It consisted of
co-melting bar iron (or steel scrap) with pig iron.
These methods of steel production were rendered obsolete by the
Linz-Donawitz process of basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS), developed in
the 1950s, and other oxygen steel making methods. Basic oxygen
steelmaking is superior to previous steelmaking methods because the
oxygen pumped into the furnace limited impurities, primarily nitrogen,
that previously had entered from the air used. Today, electric arc
furnaces (EAF) are a common method of reprocessing scrap metal to
create new steel. They can also be used for converting pig iron to
steel, but they use a lot of electrical energy (about 440 kWh per
metric ton), and are thus generally only economical when there is a
plentiful supply of cheap electricity.
See also: History of the steel industry (1850–1970), Global steel
Steel production by country, and List of steel
Steel production (in million tons) by country in 2007
The steel industry is often considered an indicator of economic
progress, because of the critical role played by steel in
infrastructural and overall economic development. In 1980, there
were more than 500,000 U.S. steelworkers. By 2000, the number of
steelworkers fell to 224,000.
The economic boom in China and India caused a massive increase in the
demand for steel. Between 2000 and 2005, world steel demand increased
by 6%. Since 2000, several Indian and Chinese steel firms have
risen to prominence,[according to whom?] such as
Tata Steel (which
Corus Group in 2007),
Baosteel Group and Shagang Group.
ArcelorMittal is however the world's largest steel producer.[citation
needed] In 2005, the
British Geological Survey
British Geological Survey stated China was the
top steel producer with about one-third of the world share; Japan,
Russia, and the US followed respectively.
In 2008, steel began trading as a commodity on the London Metal
Exchange. At the end of 2008, the steel industry faced a sharp
downturn that led to many cut-backs.
Main article: Ferrous metal recycling
Steel is one of the world's most-recycled materials, with a recycling
rate of over 60% globally; in the United States alone, over
82,000,000 metric tons (81,000,000 long tons) were recycled in the
year 2008, for an overall recycling rate of 83%.
Bethlehem Steel (
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania facility pictured) was one of
the world's largest manufacturers of steel before its closure in 2003
Modern steels are made with varying combinations of alloy metals to
fulfill many purposes.
Carbon steel, composed simply of iron and
carbon, accounts for 90% of steel production.
Low alloy steel
Low alloy steel is
alloyed with other elements, usually molybdenum, manganese, chromium,
or nickel, in amounts of up to 10% by weight to improve the
hardenability of thick sections. High strength low alloy steel has
small additions (usually < 2% by weight) of other elements,
typically 1.5% manganese, to provide additional strength for a modest
Corporate Average Fuel Economy
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations have given
rise to a new variety of steel known as Advanced High Strength Steel
(AHSS). This material is both strong and ductile so that vehicle
structures can maintain their current safety levels while using less
material. There are several commercially available grades of AHSS,
such as dual-phase steel, which is heat treated to contain both a
ferritic and martensitic microstructure to produce a formable, high
strength steel. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel
involves special alloying and heat treatments to stabilize amounts of
austenite at room temperature in normally austenite-free low-alloy
ferritic steels. By applying strain, the austenite undergoes a phase
transition to martensite without the addition of heat. Twinning
Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel uses a specific type of strain to
increase the effectiveness of work hardening on the alloy.
Carbon Steels are often galvanized, through hot-dip or electroplating
in zinc for protection against rust.
Stainless steels contain a minimum of 11% chromium, often combined
with nickel, to resist corrosion. Some stainless steels, such as the
ferritic stainless steels are magnetic, while others, such as the
austenitic, are nonmagnetic. Corrosion-resistant steels are
abbreviated as CRES.
Some more modern steels include tool steels, which are alloyed with
large amounts of tungsten and cobalt or other elements to maximize
solution hardening. This also allows the use of precipitation
hardening and improves the alloy's temperature resistance. Tool
steel is generally used in axes, drills, and other devices that need a
sharp, long-lasting cutting edge. Other special-purpose alloys include
weathering steels such as Cor-ten, which weather by acquiring a
stable, rusted surface, and so can be used un-painted. Maraging
steel is alloyed with nickel and other elements, but unlike most steel
contains little carbon (0.01%). This creates a very strong but still
Eglin steel uses a combination of over a dozen different elements in
varying amounts to create a relatively low-cost steel for use in
bunker buster weapons. Hadfield steel (after Sir Robert Hadfield) or
manganese steel contains 12–14% manganese which when abraded
strain-hardens to form an incredibly hard skin which resists wearing.
Examples include tank tracks, bulldozer blade edges and cutting blades
on the jaws of life.
In 2016, a breakthrough in creating a strong light aluminium steel
alloy which might be suitable in applications such as aircraft was
announced by researchers at Pohang University of Science and
Technology. Adding small amounts of nickel was found to result in
precipitation as nano particles of brittle B2 intermetallic compounds
which had previously resulted in weakness. The result was a cheap
strong light steel alloy—nearly as strong as titanium at 10% of the
cost—which is slated for trial production[when?] at industrial
scale by POSCO, a Korean steelmaker.
Most of the more commonly used steel alloys are categorized into
various grades by standards organizations. For example, the Society of
Automotive Engineers has a series of grades defining many types of
steel. The American Society for Testing and Materials has a
separate set of standards, which define alloys such as A36 steel, the
most commonly used structural steel in the United States. The JIS
also define series of steel grades that are being used extensively in
Japan as well as in third world countries.
A roll of steel wool
Iron and steel are used widely in the construction of roads, railways,
other infrastructure, appliances, and buildings. Most large modern
structures, such as stadiums and skyscrapers, bridges, and airports,
are supported by a steel skeleton. Even those with a concrete
structure employ steel for reinforcing. In addition, it sees
widespread use in major appliances and cars. Despite growth in usage
of aluminium, it is still the main material for car bodies.
used in a variety of other construction materials, such as bolts,
nails, and screws and other household products and cooking
Other common applications include shipbuilding, pipelines, mining,
offshore construction, aerospace, white goods (e.g. washing machines),
heavy equipment such as bulldozers, office furniture, steel wool,
tools, and armour in the form of personal vests or vehicle armour
(better known as rolled homogeneous armour in this role).
A carbon steel knife
Before the introduction of the
Bessemer process and other modern
production techniques, steel was expensive and was only used where no
cheaper alternative existed, particularly for the cutting edge of
knives, razors, swords, and other items where a hard, sharp edge was
needed. It was also used for springs, including those used in clocks
With the advent of speedier and thriftier production methods, steel
has become easier to obtain and much cheaper. It has replaced wrought
iron for a multitude of purposes. However, the availability of
plastics in the latter part of the 20th century allowed these
materials to replace steel in some applications due to their lower
fabrication cost and weight.
Carbon fiber is replacing steel in
some cost insensitive applications such as aircraft, sports equipment
and high end automobiles.
A steel bridge
A steel pylon suspending overhead power lines
As reinforcing bars and mesh in reinforced concrete
Structural steel in modern buildings and bridges
Input to reforging applications
Flat carbon steel
The inside and outside body of automobiles, trains, and ships.
Weathering steel (COR-TEN)
Main article: Weathering steel
Highliner train cars
A stainless steel gravy boat
Main article: Stainless steel
Rail passenger vehicles
Body piercing jewellery
Main article: Low-background steel
Steel manufactured after World War II became contaminated with
radionuclides by nuclear weapons testing. Low-background steel, steel
manufactured prior to 1945, is used for certain radiation-sensitive
applications such as Geiger counters and radiation shielding.
Global steel industry trends
Iron in folklore
Second Industrial Revolution
Tamahagane, used in Japanese swords
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Density of Steel". Retrieved 2009-04-23.
^ Sources differ on this value so it has been rounded to 2.1%, however
the exact value is rather academic because plain-carbon steel is very
rarely made with this level of carbon. See:
Smith & Hashemi 2006, p. 363—2.08%.
Degarmo, Black & Kohser 2003, p. 75—2.11%.
Ashby & Jones 1992—2.14%.
^ Smith & Hashemi 2006, p. 363.
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^ a b Smith & Hashemi 2006, pp. 373–378.
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^ Smith & Hashemi 2006, p. 249.
^ Smith & Hashemi 2006, p. 388.
^ Smith & Hashemi 2006, p. 361
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