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Staten Island
Staten Island
/ˌstætən ˈaɪlənd/ is the southernmost of the five boroughs of New York City
New York City
in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of New York. Located in the southwest portion of the city, Staten Island
Staten Island
is the southernmost part of both the city and state of New York, with Conference House Park located at the southern tip of the island.[2] The borough is separated from New Jersey
New Jersey
by the Arthur Kill
Arthur Kill
and the Kill Van Kull, and from the rest of New York by New York Bay. With a 2017 Census-estimated population of 479,458[1] Staten Island
Staten Island
is the least populated of the boroughs but is the third-largest in land area at 58.5 sq mi (152 km2). Staten Island
Staten Island
is the only New York City borough with a non-Hispanic White majority. The borough is coextensive with Richmond County and until 1975 was referred to as the Borough of Richmond.[3] Its flag was later changed to reflect this. Staten Island
Staten Island
has sometimes been called "the forgotten borough" by inhabitants who feel neglected by the city government.[4][5] The North Shore—especially the neighborhoods of St. George, Tompkinsville, Clifton, and Stapleton—is the most urban part of the island; it contains the designated St. George Historic District and the St. Paul's Avenue-Stapleton Heights Historic District, which feature large Victorian houses. The East Shore is home to the 2.5-mile (4 km) F.D.R. Boardwalk, the fourth-longest boardwalk in the world.[6] The South Shore, site of the 17th-century Dutch and French Huguenot
Huguenot
settlement, developed rapidly beginning in the 1960s and 1970s and is now mostly suburban in character. The West Shore is the least populated and most industrial part of the island. Motor traffic can reach the borough from Brooklyn
Brooklyn
via the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
and from New Jersey
New Jersey
via the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge, and Bayonne Bridge. Staten Island
Staten Island
has Metropolitan Transportation Authority
Metropolitan Transportation Authority
(MTA) bus lines and an MTA rapid transit line, the Staten Island
Staten Island
Railway, which runs from the ferry terminal at St. George to Tottenville. Staten Island
Staten Island
is the only borough that is not connected to the New York City
New York City
Subway system. The free Staten Island Ferry
Staten Island Ferry
connects the borough to Manhattan
Manhattan
and is a popular tourist attraction, providing views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. Staten Island
Staten Island
had the Fresh Kills
Fresh Kills
Landfill, which was the world's largest landfill before closing in 2001,[7] although it was temporarily reopened that year to receive debris from the September 11 attacks.[8] The landfill is being redeveloped as Freshkills Park, an area devoted to restoring habitat; the park will become New York City's second largest public park when completed.[9]

New York City's five boroughs

v t e

Jurisdiction Population Land area Density

Borough County Estimate (2016)[10] square miles square km persons / sq. mi persons / sq. km

Manhattan

New York

1,643,734 22.83 59.1 72,033 27,826

The Bronx

Bronx

1,455,720 42 110 34,653 13,231

Brooklyn

Kings

2,629,150 71 180 37,137 14,649

Queens

Queens

2,333,054 109 280 21,460 8,354

Staten Island

Richmond

476,015 58.5 152 8,112 3,132

City of New York

8,537,673 303.33 781.1 28,188 10,947

State of New York

19,745,289 47,214 122,284 416.4 159

Sources: see individual borough articles

Contents

1 History

1.1 Native Americans 1.2 European settlement 1.3 Richmond County 1.4 18th century and the American Revolution 1.5 19th century 1.6 Consolidation with New York City 1.7 Timeline

1.7.1 17th century 1.7.2 18th century 1.7.3 19th century 1.7.4 20th century 1.7.5 21st century

2 Geology 3 Geography

3.1 Wildlife 3.2 Parkland 3.3 Adjacent counties

4 Demographics

4.1 Languages

5 Government and politics

5.1 History 5.2 Staten Island
Staten Island
flag 5.3 Politics

5.3.1 Local politics

6 Tourism 7 Culture

7.1 Local support for the arts 7.2 Attractions

7.2.1 Museums

7.3 Newspapers 7.4 In culture

7.4.1 Film 7.4.2 Literature 7.4.3 Music 7.4.4 Television 7.4.5 Theater

8 Sports 9 Education

9.1 Public schools 9.2 Private schools 9.3 Colleges and universities

10 Transportation

10.1 Public transport

10.1.1 Ferry 10.1.2 Trains 10.1.3 Buses

10.2 Freight rail

11 Infrastructure

11.1 Hospitals 11.2 Jails

12 Nicknames 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

History[edit] Native Americans[edit] As in much of North America, human habitation appeared in the island fairly rapidly after the Wisconsin glaciation. Archaeologists have recovered tool evidence of Clovis culture
Clovis culture
activity dating from about 14,000 years ago. This evidence was first discovered in 1917 in the Charleston section of the island. Various Clovis artifacts have bsegeen discovered since then, on property owned by Mobil Oil. The island was probably abandoned later, possibly because of the extirpation of large mammals on the island. Evidence of the first permanent Native American settlements and agriculture are thought to date from about 5,000 years ago,[11] although early archaic habitation evidence has been found in multiple locations on the island.[12] Rossville points
Rossville points
are distinct arrowheads that define a Native American cultural period that runs from the Archaic period to the Early Woodland period, dating from about 1500 to 100 BC. They are named for the Rossville section of Staten Island, where they were first found near the old Rossville Post Office building.[13]

Skeletons unearthed at Lenape
Lenape
burial ground in Staten Island, the largest pre-European burial ground in NYC

At the time of European contact, the island was inhabited by the Raritan band of the Unami division of the Lenape. In Lenape, one of the Algonquian languages, Staten Island
Staten Island
was called Aquehonga Manacknong, meaning "as far as the place of the bad woods", or Eghquhous, meaning "the bad woods".[14] The area was part of the Lenape
Lenape
homeland known as Lenapehoking. The Lenape
Lenape
were later called the "Delaware" by the English colonists because they inhabited both shores of what the English named the Delaware River. The island was laced with Native American foot trails, one of which followed the south side of the ridge near the course of present-day Richmond Road and Amboy Road. The Lenape
Lenape
did not live in fixed encampments but moved seasonally, using slash and burn agriculture. Shellfish
Shellfish
was a staple of their diet, including the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) abundant in the waterways throughout the present-day New York City
New York City
region. Evidence of their habitation can still be seen in shell middens along the shore in the Tottenville section, where oyster shells larger than 12 inches (305 mm) are sometimes found. Burial Ridge, a Lenape
Lenape
burial ground on a bluff overlooking Raritan Bay in Tottenville, is the largest pre-European burial ground in New York City. Bodies have been reported unearthed at Burial Ridge
Burial Ridge
from 1858 onward. After conducting independent research, which included unearthing bodies interred at the site, ethnologist and archaeologist George H. Pepper was contracted in 1895 to conduct paid archaeological research at Burial Ridge
Burial Ridge
by the American Museum of Natural History. The burial ground today is unmarked and lies within Conference House Park. European settlement[edit] The first recorded European contact on the island was in 1520 by Italian explorer Giovanni de Verrazzano
Giovanni de Verrazzano
who sailed through The Narrows on the ship La Dauphine
La Dauphine
and anchored for one night. In 1609, English explorer Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson
sailed into Upper New York Bay on his ship the Half Moon. The Dutch named the island Staaten Eylandt (literally "States Island") in honor of the Dutch parliament, which is still known as the Staten-Generaal ("States General"). The first permanent Dutch settlement of the New Netherland
New Netherland
colony was made on Governor's Island
Governor's Island
in 1624, which they had used as a trading camp for more than a decade before. In 1626, the colony transferred to the island of Manhattan
Manhattan
which was designated as the capital of New Netherland. The Dutch did not establish a permanent settlement on Staaten Eylandt for many decades. From 1639 to 1655, Cornelis Melyn and David de Vries made three separate attempts to establish one there, but each time the settlement was destroyed in conflicts between the Dutch and the local tribe.[15] In 1661, the first permanent Dutch settlement was established at Oude Dorp (Dutch for "Old Village") by a small group of Dutch, Walloon, and French Huguenot
French Huguenot
families,[16] just south of the Narrows near South Beach. Many French Huguenots had gone to the Netherlands as refugees from the religious wars in France, suffering persecution for their Protestant faith, and some joined the emigration to New Netherland. At one point nearly a third of the residents of the Island spoke French.[17] The last vestige of Oude Dorp is the name of the present-day neighborhood of Old Town adjacent to Old Town Road.[18]

Voorlezer's House
Voorlezer's House
built c. 1696

Billiou-Stillwell-Perine House

Richmond County[edit] At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War
Second Anglo-Dutch War
in 1667, the Dutch ceded New Netherland to England in the Treaty of Breda, and the Dutch Staaten Eylandt, anglicized as "Staten Island", became part of the new English colony of New York. In 1670, the Native Americans ceded all claims to Staten Island
Staten Island
to the English in a deed to Governor Francis Lovelace. In 1671, in order to encourage an expansion of the Dutch settlements, the English resurveyed Oude Dorp (which became known as "Old Town") and expanded the lots along the shore to the south. These lots were settled primarily by Dutch families and became known as Nieuwe Dorp (meaning "New Village"), which later became anglicized as New Dorp. Captain Christopher Billopp, after years of distinguished service in the Royal Navy, came to America in 1674 in charge of a company of infantry. The following year, he settled on Staten Island, where he was granted a patent for 932 acres (3.8 km2) of land. According to one version of an oft-repeated but inaccurate tale, Captain Billopp's seamanship secured Staten Island
Staten Island
to New York, rather than to New Jersey: the island would belong to New York if the captain could circumnavigate it in one day, which he did. Mayor Michael Bloomberg perpetuated the myth by referring to it at a news conference in Brooklyn
Brooklyn
on February 20, 2007.[19] In 1683, the colony of New York was divided into ten counties. As part of this process, Staten Island, as well as several minor neighboring islands, was designated as Richmond County. The name derives from the title of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, an illegitimate son of King Charles II. In 1687 and 1688, the English divided the island into four administrative divisions based on natural features: the 5,100-acre (21 km2) manorial estate of colonial governor Thomas Dongan
Thomas Dongan
in the northeastern hills known as the "Lordship or Manner of Cassiltown", along with the North, South, and West divisions. These divisions later evolved into the four towns of Castleton, Northfield, Southfield, and Westfield. In 1698, the population was 727.[20] The government granted land patents in rectangular blocks of eighty acres (320,000 m2), with the most desirable lands along the coastline and inland waterways. By 1708, the entire island had been divided up in this fashion, creating 166 small farms and two large manorial estates, the Dongan estate and a 1,600-acre (6.5 km2) parcel on the southwestern tip of the island belonging to Christopher Billopp.[11] The first county seat was established in New Dorp
New Dorp
in what was called Stony Brook at the time.[21] In 1729, the county seat was moved to the village of Richmond Town, located at the headwaters of the Fresh Kills near the center of the island. By 1771, the island's population had grown to 2,847.[20] 18th century and the American Revolution[edit]

Lord Howe, who met Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
at the Conference House
Conference House
for a failed peace conference, frequented the Rose and Crown Tavern
Rose and Crown Tavern
at New Dorp Lane and Richmond Road.

The island played a significant role in the American Revolutionary War. On March 17, 1776, the British forces under Lord Howe evacuated Boston
Boston
and sailed for Halifax, Nova Scotia. From Halifax, Howe prepared to attack New York City, which then consisted entirely of the southern end of Manhattan
Manhattan
Island. General George Washington
George Washington
led the entire Continental Army
Continental Army
to New York City
New York City
in anticipation of the British attack. Howe used the strategic location of Staten Island
Staten Island
as a staging ground for the invasion. Over 140 British ships arrived over the summer of 1776 and anchored off the shores of Staten Island
Staten Island
at the entrance to New York Harbor. The British soldiers and Hessian mercenaries numbered about 30,000. Howe established his headquarters in New Dorp
New Dorp
at the Rose and Crown Tavern, near the junction of present New Dorp
New Dorp
Lane and Amboy Road. There the representatives of the British government reportedly received their first notification of the Declaration of Independence. In August 1776, the British forces crossed the Narrows to Brooklyn
Brooklyn
and outflanked the American forces at the Battle of Long Island, resulting in the British control of the harbor and the capture of New York City shortly afterwards. Three weeks later, on September 11, 1776, Lord Howe received a delegation of Americans consisting of Benjamin Franklin, Edward Rutledge, and John Adams
John Adams
at the Conference House
Conference House
on the southwestern tip of the island on the former estate of Christopher Billopp. However, the Americans refused a peace offer from Howe in exchange for withdrawing the Declaration of Independence, and the conference ended without an agreement.

The Conference House

On August 22, 1777, the Battle of Staten Island
Battle of Staten Island
occurred between the British forces and several companies of the 2nd Canadian Regiment fighting alongside other American companies. The battle was inconclusive, though both sides surrendered over a hundred troops as prisoners. The Americans finally withdrew. In early 1780, while the Kill Van Kull
Kill Van Kull
was frozen over, Lord Stirling led an unsuccessful Patriot raid from New Jersey
New Jersey
on the western shore of Staten Island. It was repulsed in part by troops led by British Commander Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings. British forces remained on Staten Island
Staten Island
for the remainder of the war. Most Patriots fled after the British occupation, and the sentiment of those who remained was predominantly Loyalist. Even so, the islanders found the demands of supporting the troops to be heavy. The British army kept headquarters in neighborhoods such as Bulls Head. Many buildings and churches were destroyed for their materials, and the military's demand for resources resulted in an extensive deforestation by the end of the war. The British army again used the island as a staging ground for its final evacuation of New York City
New York City
on December 5, 1783. After their departure, many Loyalist landowners fled to Canada, and their estates were subdivided and sold. 19th century[edit]

Historic Richmond Town
Historic Richmond Town
museum complex is located in the heart of Staten Island.

On July 4, 1827, the end of slavery in New York state was celebrated at Swan Hotel, West Brighton. Rooms at the hotel were reserved months in advance as local abolitionists and prominent free blacks prepared for the festivities. Speeches, pageants, picnics, and fireworks marked the celebration, which lasted for two days. In 1860, parts of Castleton and Southfield were made into a new town, Middletown. The Village of New Brighton in the town of Castleton was incorporated in 1866, and in 1872 the Village of New Brighton annexed all the remainder of the Town of Castleton and became coterminous with the town. Consolidation with New York City[edit]

New housing on Staten Island, 1973. Photo by Arthur Tress.

US Navy ships tied up at the home port pier during Fleet Week
Fleet Week
in 2007

The towns of Staten Island
Staten Island
were dissolved in 1898 with the consolidation of the City of Greater New York, as Richmond County became one of the five boroughs of the expanded city. Although consolidated into the City of Greater New York
City of Greater New York
in 1898, the county sheriff of Staten Island
Staten Island
maintained control of the jail system, unlike the other boroughs who had gradually transferred control of the jails to the Department of Corrections. The jail system was not transferred until January 1, 1942. Today, Staten Island
Staten Island
is the only borough without a New York City
New York City
Department of Corrections major detention center. The construction of the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, along with the other three major Staten Island
Staten Island
bridges, created a new way for commuters and tourists to travel from New Jersey
New Jersey
to Brooklyn, Manhattan, and areas farther east on Long Island. The network of highways running between the bridges has effectively carved up many of Staten Island's old neighborhoods. The bridge opened many areas of the borough to residential and commercial development, especially in the central and southern parts of the borough, which had been largely undeveloped. Staten Island's population doubled from about 221,000 in 1960 to about 443,000 in 2000. Throughout the 1980s, a movement to secede from the city (notably championed by longtime New York State
New York State
Senator and former Republican Party mayoral nominee John J. Marchi) steadily grew in popularity, reaching its peak during the mayoral term of David Dinkins. In a 1993 referendum, 65% voted to secede, but implementation was blocked in the State Assembly.[22] In the 1980s, the United States Navy
United States Navy
had a base on Staten Island called Naval Station New York. It had two sections: a Strategic Homeport in Stapleton and a larger section near Fort Wadsworth, where the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
enters the island. The base was closed in 1994 through the Base Realignment and Closure process because of its small size and the expense of basing personnel there. Fresh Kills
Fresh Kills
and its tributaries are part of the largest tidal wetland ecosystem in the region. Its creeks and wetlands have been designated a Significant Coastal Fish and Wildlife Habitat by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Opened along Fresh Kills
Fresh Kills
as a "temporary landfill" in 1947, the Fresh Kills Landfill
Fresh Kills Landfill
was a repository of trash for the city of New York. The landfill, once the world's largest man-made structure,[23] was closed in 2001,[24] but was briefly re-opened for the debris from Ground Zero following the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
in 2001. It is being converted into a park. Plans for the park include a bird-nesting island, public roads, boardwalks, soccer and baseball fields, bridle paths, and a 5,000-seat stadium.[25] Today, freshwater and tidal wetlands, fields, birch thickets, and a coastal oak maritime forest, as well as areas dominated by non-native plant species, are all within the boundaries of Fresh Kills.

Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
connecting the eastern portion of the island to Brooklyn

Timeline[edit] This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. 17th century[edit]

1609 – Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson
names island "Staaten Eylandt."[26] 1630 – Island granted by the Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
to Michael Pauw.[27] 1636 – Part of the island granted by the Dutch West India Company
Dutch West India Company
to David Pietersen de Vries.[27] 1640 – Remaining part of the island granted by the Dutch West India Company to Cornelis Melyn.[28] 1641 – Settlement established by David Pietersen de Vries
David Pietersen de Vries
at Oude Dorp, New Netherland.[27] 1655–60 – Lenape
Lenape
attack and burn the last Cornelius Melyn/David de Vries attempt at settlement, capturing or killing the Dutch settlers 1664 – Island transferred from Dutch to British.[26] 1668 – Island becomes part of British Province of New York.[26] 1670 – Island's first church, for the Waldensian Evangelical Church, was established in Stony Brook (now New Dorp) 1698 – Island population reaches 727; slaves constitute 10%

18th century[edit]

1713 – St. Andrew's Church built.[29] 1727 – Richmond village becomes seat of Richmond County, New York.[27] 1740 – Moravian Cemetery
Moravian Cemetery
established.[30] 1763 – Moravian Church built.[29] 1776

July 3: British military occupation begins.[26] September 11: Staten Island Peace Conference
Staten Island Peace Conference
held.

1777 – August 22: Battle of Staten Island
Battle of Staten Island
occurs. 1783 – November 25: British military occupation ends.[26] 1788 – Towns of Castleton, Northfield, Southfield, and Westfield established.[28][31] 1792 – Reformed Dutch Church incorporated.[29] 1799 – Quarantine
Quarantine
established.[28]

19th century[edit]

1802 – Episcopal Church (Northfield) built.[32] 1817 – Richmond Turnpike Company ferry begins operating to New York City. 1823 – Population: 6,135.[33] 1825 – Old Staten Island
Staten Island
Dyeing Establishment incorporated (approximate date).[34] 1826 – Agricultural Society organized.[35] 1828 – Fort Tompkins Light
Fort Tompkins Light
commissioned. 1833 – Sailors' Snug Harbor
Sailors' Snug Harbor
opens for retired merchant seamen. 1837

Courthouse and jail built.[28] Pavilion Hotel in business.[36]

1840 – Bethel United Methodist Church (Tottenville) built. 1842 – Woodrow Methodist Church
Woodrow Methodist Church
built. 1844 – Dutch Reformed Church on Staten Island
Reformed Church on Staten Island
built. 1845 – Moravian Church built.[37] 1847 – Richmond County Law Library[38] and Marine's Family Asylum founded.[28] 1848 – St. Peter's Cemetery established. 1855 – St. Joseph's Church established. 1856

Staten Island Historical Society founded.[39] New Dorp Light
New Dorp Light
commissioned.[28]

1860

Staten Island Rapid Transit Railway
Staten Island Rapid Transit Railway
begins operating. Town of Middletown formed from parts of Castleton and Southfield.[28] Fort Tompkins built.

1861 – Battery Weed
Battery Weed
fortification built. 1865 – Church of the Holy Comforter built. 1866

Brighton Heights Reformed Church
Brighton Heights Reformed Church
and St. Paul's Memorial Church (Staten Island, New York) built. Staten Island
Staten Island
Leader newspaper begins publication.[40] Villages of Edgewater and Port Richmond incorporated.[28]

1869 – Tottenville and S.R. Smith Infirmary incorporated.[28][34] 1870 – Population: 33,029.[41] 1871

July 30: Westfield ferry disaster. New Brighton Village Hall
New Brighton Village Hall
built.

1878 – St. Philip's Baptist Church, the first Black church
Black church
on Staten Island, opens. 1880 – Staten Island
Staten Island
Water Supply Company established.[34] 1881 – Natural Science Association founded.[42] 1883

November: Richmond County bicentennial.[43] Wagner College
Wagner College
founded in Rochester. It does not move to Staten Island until 1918.

1884 – Saint George Terminal
Saint George Terminal
and Staten Island Academy
Staten Island Academy
open. 1886

Richmond County Advance newspaper begins publication. Richmond County Savings Bank
Richmond County Savings Bank
and St. John's Guild Children's Hospital (New Dorp) established.[44]

1888 – Richmond County Country Club opens.[45] 1890 – Population: 51,693.[27] 1894 – Calvary Presbyterian Church built. 1898

January 1: Island becomes Borough of Richmond of New York City.[27] George Cromwell
George Cromwell
becomes Borough President.

20th century[edit]

1900 – Population: 67,021.[27] 1901 – June 14: Northfield ferry accident. 1902 – Curtis High School begins construction. 1903 – Fort Wadsworth
Fort Wadsworth
Light commissioned. Notre Dame Academy (Grymes Hill) established.[44] 1904 – Christ Church New Brighton (Episcopal)
Christ Church New Brighton (Episcopal)
built. Curtis High School is established. 1906 – Staten Island Borough Hall
Staten Island Borough Hall
built. Happyland Amusement Park opens. 1907 – Public Museum of the Staten Island
Staten Island
Institute of Arts and Sciences established.[46]

Temple Emanu-El built. Procter & Gamble factory (Milliken) opens.[44]

1910 – Population: 85,969.[27] 1919 – Richmond County Courthouse built. 1923 – Staten Island Tunnel
Staten Island Tunnel
construction begins. 1924

May: Huguenot-Walloon- New Netherland
New Netherland
300th Anniversary of Religious Freedom in 1924 celebrated in Huguenot
Huguenot
with 2,000 spectators attending dedication of a church as a National Memorial to the Huguenots.[47] Ritz Theater (Port Richmond) built.

1926

Staten Island
Staten Island
Armory built.[48] Conference House Park
Conference House Park
established. Fire destroys St. George ferry terminal, killing three and causing $22 million in damage.

1927 – Port Richmond High School
Port Richmond High School
established. 1928 – Outerbridge Crossing
Outerbridge Crossing
(bridge) opens to Perth Amboy, New Jersey. Goethals Bridge
Goethals Bridge
opens to Elizabeth, New Jersey. 1929 – St. George Theater
St. George Theater
built. 1930 – Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church opens.[49] 1931 – Bayonne Bridge
Bayonne Bridge
opens to Bayonne, New Jersey.[50] 1933 – Notre Dame College (Staten Island) opens. 1935 – South Beach-Franklin Delano Roosevelt Boardwalk constructed. 1936 – Staten Island Zoo
Staten Island Zoo
opens. Robin Road Trestle
Robin Road Trestle
(bridge) built. Foreign trade zone established on Staten Island.[51] 1937 – Our Lady of Mount Carmel Grotto
Our Lady of Mount Carmel Grotto
construction begins. 1938 – Lane Theater opens in New Dorp.[52] 1941 – Beachland Amusements opens. 1942 – January 1: Staten Island
Staten Island
jails transferred from the County Sheriff's Department to the NYC Department of Corrections 1947 – Fresh Kills
Fresh Kills
Landfill, Willowbrook State School, and Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art established. 1949 – Great Kills Park
Great Kills Park
opens. 1950 – Population: 191,555. 1953 – March 31: Passenger service discontinued on the North Shore Branch and the South Beach Branch
South Beach Branch
train lines. 1956 – Staten Island
Staten Island
Community College (later College of Staten Island) founded.[53] 1958 – Historic Richmond Town
Historic Richmond Town
(museum) established. 1959 – Arthur Kill
Arthur Kill
Vertical Lift Bridge opens to Elizabethport, New Jersey. 1960 – December 16: One of the two planes in the 1960 New York mid-air collision crashes into Staten Island.[54] 1962 – Archaeology Society of Staten Island
Staten Island
founded.[55] 1963

April 20: Rossville Fire. Ferry from Tottenville to Perth Amboy discontinued.

1964 – Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
opens to Brooklyn. Staten Island Expressway opens. 1965 – Willowbrook Parkway opens. 1966 – Staten Island Register newspaper begins publication.[40] Robert T. Connor becomes Borough President. Hylan Plaza
Hylan Plaza
shopping centre in business. 1970 – Population: 295,443. 1971

July 1: SIRT turned over to division of the MTA. St. John's University Staten Island
Staten Island
campus opens.

1973 – Staten Island Mall
Staten Island Mall
in business. 1975 – "Borough of Richmond" becomes "Borough of Staten Island."[56] 1976 – Arthur Kill
Arthur Kill
Correctional Facility and College of Staten Island established. Staten Island Children's Museum opens. 1977 – Preservation League of Staten Island[57] and Newhouse Center for Contemporary Art founded. Anthony Gaeta becomes Borough President. 1978 – Northfield Community Local Development Corp. founded. 1979 – Fort Wadsworth
Fort Wadsworth
transferred to US Navy from US Army. 1980 – Population: 352,029. 1981 – WSIA
WSIA
radio begins broadcasting. 1984 – Ralph J. Lamberti
Ralph J. Lamberti
becomes Borough President.[58] 1988 – Staten Island
Staten Island
AIDS Task Force founded.[59] 1990

Naval homeport opens.[60] Guy Molinari
Guy Molinari
becomes Borough President.

1992 – RZA, GZA, and Ol' Dirty Bastard
Ol' Dirty Bastard
form the Wu Tang Clan
Wu Tang Clan
out of the Clifton and Stapleton sections of the Island. Along with Inspectah Deck, Raekwon
Raekwon
the Chef, U-God, Ghostface Killah, Method Man, and Masta Killa. 1993 – November 2: Voters approve secession of Staten Island
Staten Island
from New York City.[61] 1994 – Staten Island
Staten Island
Conservatory of Music founded.[62] Naval Homeport is closed due to BRAC. 1999 – The New York Chinese Scholar's Garden
The New York Chinese Scholar's Garden
and College of Staten Island Baseball Complex open. Staten Island Yankees
Staten Island Yankees
baseball team established.

21st century[edit]

2001 – Richmond County Bank Ballpark
Richmond County Bank Ballpark
opens. Fresh Kills
Fresh Kills
Landfill closes but receives remains and debris from the collapse of the Twin Towers from the September 11 Attacks 2002 – James Molinaro
James Molinaro
becomes Borough President. 2004 – Eltingville Transit Center
Eltingville Transit Center
built. 2007 – Richmond University Medical Center
Richmond University Medical Center
established. 2008 – Staten Island
Staten Island
LGBT Community Center opens.[59] 2010 – Population: 468,730. 2011 – Mosque (Dongan Hills) opens.[63] Arthur Kill
Arthur Kill
Correctional Facility closes. 2012 – October: Hurricane Sandy. 2017–2019 – now called the " Staten Island
Staten Island
Renaissance" – $1.5 billion invested in construction in St. George and Stapleton – waterfront luxury apartments, new entertainment, hundreds of new stores, famous restaurants – Empire Outlets, a 5-star hotel and the world's largest ferris wheel, New York Wheel, 60 stories high, are all under construction.

Geology[edit]

The geology of Staten Island.

Serpentinite
Serpentinite
shown in rock cut along I-278
I-278
in Staten Island
Staten Island
by Todt Hill marked on USGS geological map.

During the Paleozoic Era, the tectonic plate containing the continent of Laurentia
Laurentia
and the plate containing the continent of Gondwanaland were converging, the Iapetus Ocean
Iapetus Ocean
that separated the two continents gradually closed, and the resulting collision between the plates formed the Appalachian Mountains. During the early stages of this mountain building known as the Taconic orogeny, a piece of ocean crust from the Iapetus Ocean
Iapetus Ocean
broke off and became incorporated into the collision zone and now forms the oldest bedrock strata of Staten Island, the serpentinite. This strata of the Lower Paleozoic (approximately 430 million years old) consists predominantly of the serpentine minerals, antigorite, chrysotile, and lizardite; it also contains asbestos and talc. At the end of the Paleozoic era (248 million years ago) all major continental masses were joined into the supercontinent of Pangaea. The Palisades Sill
Palisades Sill
has been designated a National Natural Landmark, being "the best example of a thick diabase sill in the United States." It underlies a portion of northeast Staten Island, with a visible outcropping in Travis, off Travis Road in the William T. Davis Wildlife Refuge. This is the same formation which appears in New Jersey and upstate New York along the Hudson River
Hudson River
in Palisades Interstate Park. The sill extends southward beyond the cliffs in Jersey City
Jersey City
beneath the Upper New York Harbor and resurfaces on Staten Island. The Palisades sill date from the Early Jurassic
Early Jurassic
period, 192 to 186 million years ago. Staten Island
Staten Island
has been at the southern terminus of various periods of glaciation. The most recent, the Wisconsin Glacier, ended approximately 12,000 years ago. The accumulated rock and sediment deposited at the terminus of the glacier is known as the terminal moraine present along the central portion of the island. The evidence of these glacial periods is visible in the remaining wooded areas of Staten Island
Staten Island
in the form of glacial erratics and kettle ponds.[64] At the retreat of the ice sheet, Staten Island
Staten Island
was connected by land to Long Island, as the Narrows had not yet formed. Geologists' reckonings of the course of the Hudson River
Hudson River
have placed it alternatively through the present course of the Raritan River, south of the island, or through present-day Flushing Bay
Flushing Bay
and Jamaica Bay. Geography[edit] See also: List of Staten Island
Staten Island
neighborhoods According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Richmond County has a total area of 102.5 square miles (265 km2), of which 58.5 square miles (152 km2) is land and 44.0 square miles (114 km2) (43%) is water.[65] It is the third-smallest county in New York by land area and fourth-smallest by total area. Staten Island
Staten Island
is geographically a part of New Jersey.[66] Staten Island is separated from Long Island
Long Island
by the Narrows and from mainland New Jersey
New Jersey
by the Arthur Kill
Arthur Kill
and the Kill Van Kull. Staten Island
Staten Island
is positioned at the center of New York Bight, a sharp bend in the shoreline between New Jersey
New Jersey
and Long Island. The region is considered vulnerable to sea-level rise.[67] On October 29, 2012, the island experienced severe damage and loss of life along with the destruction of many homes during Hurricane Sandy.[68][69] In addition to the main island, the borough and county also include several small uninhabited islands:

The Isle of Meadows
Isle of Meadows
(at the mouth of Fresh Kills) Prall's Island
Prall's Island
(in the Arthur Kill) Shooters Island
Shooters Island
(in Newark Bay; part of it belongs to New Jersey) Swinburne Island
Swinburne Island
(in Lower New York Bay) Hoffman Island
Hoffman Island
(in Lower New York Bay)

The highest point on the island, the summit of Todt Hill, elevation 410 ft (125 m), is also the highest point in the five boroughs, as well as the highest point on the Atlantic Coastal Plain south of Great Blue Hill
Great Blue Hill
in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
and the highest point on the coast proper south of Maine's Camden Hills. Ward's Point
Ward's Point
in the neighborhood of Tottenville is the southernmost point in the state of New York. Staten Island
Staten Island
is the only borough in New York City
New York City
that does not share a land border with another borough (Marble Hill in Manhattan
Manhattan
is contiguous with the Bronx). The borough has a land border with Elizabeth and Bayonne, New Jersey, on uninhabited Shooters Island. Wildlife[edit]

From left to right, as seen from northeastern Staten Island: Jersey City, Statue of Liberty, Lower Manhattan, and Downtown Brooklyn.

Staten Island
Staten Island
is home to a large and diverse population of wildlife. Wildlife found on Staten Island
Staten Island
include white tailed deer (which have increased from a population of 24 in 2008 to 2,000 in 2017 due to a hunting ban and a lack of predators),[70] as well as hundreds of species of birds including bald eagles, turkey, hawks, egrets and ring-necked pheasants. Staten Island
Staten Island
is home to horseshoe crabs, cotton tailed rabbits, opossums, raccoons, garter snakes, red-eared slider turtles, newts, spring peeper frogs, leopard frogs, fox, box turtles, northern snapping turtles and common snapping turtles. Parkland[edit] Staten Island
Staten Island
includes thousands of acres of federal, state, and local park land, including the "greenbelt" and "blue belt" park systems and the Gateway National Recreation Area
Gateway National Recreation Area
in addition to hundreds of acres of private wooded areas. The National Park Service maintains full-time Wildland Firefighters to patrol the Staten Island
Staten Island
sites in wildfire brush trucks. The parks on Staten Island
Staten Island
are managed by various state, federal and local agencies. Five sites are part of the 26,000-acre (110 km2) Gateway National Recreation Area, managed by the U.S. National Park Service
U.S. National Park Service
and patrolled by the United States
United States
Park Police:

Great Kills Park Miller Field Fort Wadsworth Hoffman Island Swinburne Island

Two New York State
New York State
parks are managed by the New York State
New York State
Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation:

Mount Loretto Unique Area Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve

New York State
New York State
Park Police officers patrol these parks and the surrounding streets. 359 acres (145 ha) of State Forests, state wildlife management areas and Wetlands are managed by the New York State
New York State
Department of Environmental Conservation:

Saint Francis Woodland Butler Manor Woods Arden Heights Woods Todt Hill
Todt Hill
Woods North Mount Loretto State Forest Lemon creek Tidal Wetland Wildlife Management Area Blosers Wetland Wildlife Management Area Goethal Pond Wetland Bridge Creek Tidal Wetland Old Place Creek Tidal Wetland Oakwood Beach Wetland Sharrots Shoreline Natural Resource Area Sawmill Creek Wetland

The 359 acres (145 ha) of NYS Department of Environmental Conservation land throughout the island are patrolled by New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Police officers and one NYS DEC Forest Ranger, who has the dual task of law enforcement and fire suppression. The New York City
New York City
Department of Parks and Recreation manages 156 parks, including:

Conference House
Conference House
Park Willowbrook Park Graniteville Quarry Park Silver Lake Park Clove Lake Park

Adjacent counties[edit]

Places adjacent to Staten Island

Union County, New Jersey Hudson County, New Jersey New York County (Manhattan)

Richmond County (Staten Island)

Kings County (Brooklyn)

Middlesex County, New Jersey Monmouth County, New Jersey

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 3,835

1800 4,564

19.0%

1810 5,347

17.2%

1820 6,135

14.7%

1830 7,082

15.4%

1840 10,965

54.8%

1850 15,061

37.4%

1860 25,492

69.3%

1870 33,029

29.6%

1880 38,991

18.1%

1890 51,713

32.6%

1900 67,021

29.6%

1910 85,969

28.3%

1920 116,531

35.6%

1930 158,346

35.9%

1940 174,441

10.2%

1950 191,555

9.8%

1960 221,991

15.9%

1970 295,443

33.1%

1980 352,029

19.2%

1990 378,977

7.7%

2000 443,728

17.1%

2010 468,730

5.6%

Est. 2017 479,458

2.3%

U.S. Decennial Census[71] 1790–1960[72] 1900–1990[73] 1990–2000[74] 2010 and 2017[1]

Main article: Demographics of Staten Island At the 2010 Census, there were 468,730 people living in Staten Island, which is an increase of 5.6% since the 2000 Census. Staten Island
Staten Island
is the only New York City
New York City
borough with a non-Hispanic White majority. According to the 2010 Census, 64.0% of the population was non-Hispanic White, down from 79% in 1990,[75] 10.6% Black or African American, 0.4% American Indian and Alaska Native, 7.5% Asian, 0.2% from some other race (non-Hispanic) and 2.6% of two or more races. 17.3% of Staten Island's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race). In 2009, approximately 20.0% of the population was foreign born, and 1.8% of the populace was born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parents. Concordantly, 78.2% of the population was born in the United States. Approximately 28.6% of the population over five years of age spoke a language other than English at home, and 27.3% of the population over twenty-five years of age had a bachelor's degree or higher.[76] According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the borough's population was 75.7% White (65.8% non-Hispanic White alone), 10.2% Black or African American
African American
(9.6% non-Hispanic Black or African American alone), 0.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 7.4% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 4.6% from Some other race, and 1.9% from Two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 15.9% of the population.[77] According to the survey, the top ten European ancestries were the following:

Italian: 33.7% Irish: 14.2% German: 5.7% Russian: 3.8% Polish: 3.4% English: 1.6% Ukrainian: 1.3% Norwegian: 1.0% Greek: 1.0% French: 0.9%

The borough has the highest proportion of Italian Americans of any county in the United States. Since the 2000 census, a large Russian community has been growing on Staten Island, particularly in the Rossville, South Beach, and Great Kills area. There is also a significant Polish community mainly in the South Beach and Midland Beach area and there is also a large Sri Lankan community on Staten Island, concentrated mainly on Victory Boulevard on the northeastern tip of Staten Island
Staten Island
towards St. George. The Little Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in the Tompkinsville neighborhood is one of the largest Sri Lankan communities outside of the country of Sri Lanka.[78][79] The borough is also home to a Chinanteco-speaking Mexican American
Mexican American
community.[80] The vast majority of the borough's African American
African American
and Hispanic residents live north of the Staten Island
Staten Island
Expressway, or Interstate 278. In terms of religion, the population is largely Roman Catholic. There is a growing presence of Egyptian Copts, the vast majority of whom are members of the Coptic Orthodox Church.[81] Per the 2009 American Community Survey, the median income for a household was $55,039, and the median income for a family was $64,333. Males had a median income of $50,081 versus $35,914 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $23,905. About 7.9% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over. Languages[edit] As of 2010[update], 70.39% (306,310) of Staten Island
Staten Island
residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 10.02% (43,587) spoke Spanish, 3.14% (13,665) Russian, 3.11% (13,542) Italian, 2.39% (10,412) Chinese, 1.81% (7,867) other Indo-European languages, 1.38% (5,990) Arabic, 1.01% (4,390) Polish, 0.88% (3,812) Korean, 0.80% (3,500) Tagalog, 0.76% (3,308) other Asian languages, 0.62% (2,717) Urdu, 0.57% (2,479) other Indic languages, and African languages were spoken as a main language by 0.56% (2,458) of the population over the age of five. In total, 29.61% (128,827) of Staten Island's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[82] Government and politics[edit] History[edit]

Presidential Elections Results[83]

Year Republican Democratic Third Parties

2016 56.1% 101,437 41.0% 74,143 3.0% 5,380

2012 48.1% 74,223 50.7% 78,181 1.2% 1,776

2008 51.7% 86,062 47.6% 79,311 0.7% 1,205

2004 56.4% 90,325 42.7% 68,448 0.9% 1,370

2000 45.0% 63,903 51.9% 73,828 3.1% 4,398

1996 40.8% 52,207 50.5% 64,684 8.7% 11,116

1992 47.9% 70,707 38.5% 56,901 13.6% 20,152

1988 61.5% 77,427 38.0% 47,812 0.6% 736

1984 65.1% 83,187 34.7% 44,345 0.2% 294

1980 58.6% 64,885 33.7% 37,306 7.7% 8,456

1976 54.1% 56,995 45.5% 47,867 0.4% 464

1972 74.2% 84,686 25.6% 29,241 0.2% 196

1968 55.3% 54,631 35.2% 34,770 9.5% 9,423

1964 45.5% 42,330 54.4% 50,524 0.1% 92

1960 56.5% 50,356 43.4% 38,673 0.1% 94

1956 76.6% 64,233 23.4% 19,644 0.0% 0

1952 66.2% 55,993 33.4% 28,280 0.4% 294

1948 54.1% 39,539 41.6% 30,442 4.3% 3,153

1944 57.1% 42,188 42.6% 31,502 0.3% 228

1940 50.2% 38,911 49.5% 38,307 0.3% 249

1936 32.5% 22,852 65.7% 46,229 1.9% 1,308

1932 35.3% 21,278 61.1% 36,857 3.7% 2,210

1928 46.1% 24,995 53.4% 28,945 0.5% 294

1924 47.9% 18,007 42.0% 15,801 10.1% 3,778

1920 63.2% 17,844 33.2% 9,373 3.7% 1,041

1916 44.4% 7,319 53.6% 8,843 2.0% 336

1912 19.3% 3,035 53.6% 8,445 27.1% 4,277

1908 45.3% 6,831 49.1% 7,401 5.7% 852

1904 47.7% 7,000 49.0% 7,182 3.3% 486

1900 45.8% 6,042 51.2% 6,759 3.0% 400

1896 55.1% 6,170 39.8% 4,452 5.1% 576

1892 38.1% 4,091 57.0% 6,122 4.9% 528

1888 40.8% 4,100 57.4% 5,764 1.8% 179

1884 37.4% 3,164 60.7% 5,135 1.9% 164

See also: Government of New York City Since New York City's consolidation in 1898, Staten Island
Staten Island
has been governed by the New York City
New York City
Charter that provides for a "strong" mayor-council system. The centralized New York City
New York City
government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services on Staten Island. The office of Borough President
Borough President
was created in the consolidation of 1898 to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City
New York City
Board of Estimate, which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. The Office of Borough President
Borough President
became one focal point for opinions over the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
when former intelligence agent and peace activist Ed Murphy ran for office in 1973, sponsored by the Staten Island Democratic Association. Murphy's combat veteran status deflected traditional right-wing attacks on liberals, and the campaign facilitated the emergence of more liberal politics on Staten Island. In 1989 the Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States
declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional on the grounds that Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the board than Staten Island, the least populous borough, a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause
Equal Protection Clause
pursuant to the high court's 1964 "one man, one vote" decision.[84]

Borough Hall in St. George, Staten Island.

Since 1990 the Borough President
Borough President
has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations. Staten Island's Borough President
Borough President
is James Oddo, a Republican elected in November 2013 with 69.1% of the vote. Oddo is the only Republican borough president in New York City. Staten Island's politics differ considerably from those of New York City's other boroughs. Although in 2005 44.7% of the borough's registered voters were registered Democrats and 30.6% were registered Republicans, the Republican Party holds a small majority of local public offices. Staten Island
Staten Island
is the base of New York City's Republican Party in citywide elections. In the 2001 mayoral election, borough voters chose Republican Michael Bloomberg, with 75.87% of the vote, over Democrat Mark Green, with 21.15% of the vote. Since Green narrowly lost the election citywide, Staten Island
Staten Island
provided the margin of Bloomberg's victory. The main political divide in the borough is demarcated by the Staten Island Expressway; areas north of the Expressway tend to be more liberal while the south tends to be more conservative. Local party platforms center on affordable housing, education and law and order. Two out of Staten Island's three New York City
New York City
Council members are Republicans, including conservative commentator Joe Borelli. In national elections, Staten Island
Staten Island
is a Republican-leaning swing county. Staten Island
Staten Island
has voted for a Democratic presidential nominee only four times since 1952: in 1964, 1996, 2000, and 2012. In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush
George W. Bush
received 56% of the vote in Staten Island, and Democrat John Kerry
John Kerry
received 43%. By contrast, Kerry outpolled Bush in New York City's other four boroughs by a cumulative margin of 77% to 22%. In the 2008 presidential election, Republican John McCain
John McCain
won 52% of the vote in the borough to Democrat Barack Obama's 48%. In 2012, the borough flipped and was won by incumbent Democrat Barack Obama, who took 51% of the vote to Republican Mitt Romney's 48%. This made it the fourth time since 1952 that Democrats have carried Staten Island, and made the borough one of the few parts of the country where Barack Obama
Barack Obama
gained an advantage compared to 2008.[85] In 2016, Republican Donald Trump
Donald Trump
carried Staten Island by 15.1%, the largest margin of any presidential candidate since 1988. He became the first ever presidential candidate to receive 100,000 votes out of Staten Island. Each of the city's five counties (coterminous with each borough) has its own criminal court system and District Attorney, the chief public prosecutor who is directly elected by popular vote. Michael McMahon, a Democrat, is the current District Attorney.[86] Staten Island
Staten Island
has three City Council members, two Republicans and one Democrat, the smallest number among the five boroughs. It also has three administrative districts, each served by a local Community Board. Community Boards are representative bodies that field complaints and serve as advocates for local residents. In the 2009 election for city offices, Staten Island
Staten Island
elected its first black official, Debi Rose, who defeated the incumbent Democrat in the North Shore city council seat in a primary and then went on to win the general election. Staten Island
Staten Island
lies entirely within New York's 11th congressional district, which also includes part of southwestern Brooklyn. It is represented by Daniel Donovan, who was elected in a special election on May 5, 2015, to replace Michael Grimm, who had resigned earlier in the year after pleading guilty to tax fraud.[87][88] Staten Island
Staten Island
flag[edit] The flag is on a white background in the center of which is the design of a seal in the shape of an oval. Within the seal appears the color blue to symbolize the skyline of the borough, in which two seagulls appear colored in black and white. The green outline represents the countryside of the borough with white outline denoting the residential areas of Staten Island. Below is inscribed the words "Staten Island" in gold. Below this are five wavy lines of blue to symbolize the water that surrounds the island borough on all sides. Gold fringe outlines the flag.[89] Politics[edit] Staten Island
Staten Island
politics differ considerably from the rest of the city, being far friendlier to the Republicans than other boroughs, although Democrats have a substantial plurality in registration. According to the New York State
New York State
Board of Elections, as of April 1, 2005, there were 119,601 registered Democrats in Staten Island
Staten Island
versus only 82,193 registered Republicans.

Party affiliation of Staten Island
Staten Island
registered voters

Party 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996

Democratic (%) 44.70 44.76 45.19 45.39 45.63 45.47 45.51 45.60 46.38 46.15

Republican (%) 30.64 30.47 30.77 30.55 30.68 30.76 31.17 31.60 30.80 31.28

No affiliation (%) 19.00 19.10 18.46 18.54 18.67 18.84 18.67 18.25 18.43 18.48

Other (%) 5.66 5.67 5.58 5.52 5.02 4.93 4.65 4.55 4.39 4.09

Local politics[edit] Staten Island
Staten Island
representation in the state assembly has two Democrats and two Republicans. The 60th district[90] is represented by Republican Nicole Malliotakis, and the 62nd,[91] which encompasses most of the south shore of the island, by Joseph Borelli. But both the 61st[92] and 63rd[93] districts have elected Democrats, Matthew Titone and Michael J. Cusick. Staten Island
Staten Island
is split between two State Senate Districts. Most of the island used to be represented by Republican John J. Marchi,[94] the longest-serving legislator in state history; but is now represented by Republican Andrew Lanza; while the North Shore belongs to the Brooklyn-based district of Democrat Diane Savino.[95] In New York City
New York City
mayoral elections, Staten Island
Staten Island
has traditionally been reliably Republican, having voted for the Republican mayoral nominee in every election since 1989, having last voted Democratic for incumbent Mayor Ed Koch
Ed Koch
in 1985. Staten Island's high Republican turnout is considered one of the major factors that helped Rudy Giuliani win in 1993 against incumbent Democratic Mayor David Dinkins. Tourism[edit] In 2009, Borough President
Borough President
James Molinaro
James Molinaro
started a program to increase tourism on Staten Island. At the top of that program was a new website, visitstatenisland.com. The tourism program also includes a " Staten Island
Staten Island
Attractions" video that is aired in both the Staten Island and the Manhattan
Manhattan
Whitehall ferry terminals, as well as informational kiosks at the terminals, which supply printed information on Staten Island
Staten Island
attractions, entertainment and restaurants. The 625 ft (191 m)[96][97][98] New York Wheel, which could become the world's tallest Ferris wheel, is to be constructed in the St. George neighborhood, alongside the planned Empire Outlets
Empire Outlets
retail complex.[96] Construction began in 2016 and is estimated to be completed by the end of 2019. Staten Island
Staten Island
is known as the borough of parks because of its numerous parks. Some well known parks are Clove Lakes, Silver Lake, Greenbelt and High Rock. A great sight to see gorgeous points of Staten Island is Moses Mountain, which is a hill where Robert Moses
Robert Moses
wanted to build a highway through but protests defeated this arrangement. It is now a key point of Staten Island
Staten Island
for tourists. Culture[edit] See also: Culture of New York City Local support for the arts[edit]

"Postcards 9/11 Memorial", at St. George Esplanade

Artists and musicians have been moving to Staten Island's North Shore so they can be in close proximity to Manhattan
Manhattan
but also have enough affordable space to live and work.[5][99][100] Filmmakers, most of whom work independently, also play an important part in Staten Island's art scene, which has been recognized by the local government. Staten Island
Staten Island
Arts (formerly The Council on the Arts and Humanities for Staten Island) is Staten Island's local arts council and helps support local artists and cultural organizations with regrants, workshops, folklife and arts-in-education programs, and advocacy.[101] Conceived by the Staten Island Economic Development Corporation to introduce independent and international films to a broad and diverse audience, the Staten Island
Staten Island
Film Festival (SIFF) held its first four-day festival in 2006. Attractions[edit] Historic Richmond Town
Historic Richmond Town
is New York City's living history village and museum complex. Visitors can explore the diversity of the American experience, especially that of Staten Island
Staten Island
and its neighboring communities, from the colonial period to the present. The village area occupies 25 acres (100,000 m2) of a 100-acre (0.40 km2) site with about 15 restored buildings, including homes, commercial and civic buildings, and a museum. The island is home to the Staten Island
Staten Island
Zoo. Zoo construction commenced in 1933 as part of the Federal Government's works program on an eight-acre (three-hectare) estate willed to New York City. It was opened on June 10, 1936, the first zoo in the U.S. specifically devoted to an educational mandate. In the late 1960s, the zoo maintained the most complete rattlesnake collection in the world with 39 varieties. Museums[edit]

Sailors' Snug Harbor

Snug Harbor Cultural Center, the Alice Austen
Alice Austen
House Museum, the Conference House, the Garibaldi–Meucci Museum, Historic Richmond Town, Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art, the Noble Maritime Collection, Sandy Ground Historical Museum,[102] Staten Island Children's Museum, the Staten Island Museum
Staten Island Museum
and the Staten Island Botanical Garden, home of The New York Chinese Scholar's Garden
The New York Chinese Scholar's Garden
can all be found on the island. The National Lighthouse Museum
National Lighthouse Museum
recently undertook a major fundraising project and opened in 2012, and the Staten Island Museum
Staten Island Museum
(art, science, and history) plans to open a new branch in Snug Harbor by 2014. The Seguine Mansion, also known as The Seguine-Burke Mansion, is located on Lemon Creek near the southern shore of Staten Island. The Greek Revival house is one of the few surviving examples of 19th century life on Staten Island. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is a member of the Historic House Trust. It is an underappreciated attraction, harboring 18 peacocks[103] and an equestrial center.

Newspapers[edit] Staten Island's local paper is The Staten Island
Staten Island
Advance. The paper also has an affiliated website called silive.com. In culture[edit] Film[edit] Movies filmed partially or wholly on Staten Island
Staten Island
include:

Analyze This The Astronaut's Wife The Atomic Space Bug A Beautiful Mind Bad Hurt Big Daddy Big Fan The Birth of a Nation Cropsey Combat Shock A Conversation with Norman The Devil's Own Donnie Brasco Easy Money Freedomland Fur The Godfather Goodfellas

Grace Quigley He Knows You're Alone How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days The Irishman The Jimmy Show Joe the King Little Children Neighbors Nerve The Other Guys The Perils of Pauline (1914 serial) Scent of a Woman School of Rock

Shamus Stairwell: Trapped in the World Trade Center Sisters Sorry, Wrong Number Splendor in the Grass Staten Island Staten Island
Staten Island
Summer The Toxic Avenger Two Family House War of the Worlds Wedding Daze Who's That Knocking at My Door Working Girl

Literature[edit] Ki Longfellow
Ki Longfellow
was born on the island. Longfellow is the author of The Secret Magdalene and other books. Her Sam Russo historical detective noir novels are based in and around Stapleton. Lois Lowry, the author of The Gossamer and many other books, attended school on Staten Island. Writer Paul Zindel
Paul Zindel
lived in Staten Island
Staten Island
during his youth and based most of his teenage novels in the island. George R.R. Martin
George R.R. Martin
based King's Landing on the view of Staten Island from his childhood home in Bayonne, New Jersey.[104] Music[edit] Main article: Music of New York City Staten Island
Staten Island
also has a local music scene. Most shows are at The Full Cup or the old Dock Street in Stapleton. These venues in the North Shore are part of the art movement mentioned above. Local bands include many punk, ska, hardcore punk, indie, metal, and pop punk bands. Musicians who were born or reside on Staten Island
Staten Island
and groups that formed on Staten Island
Staten Island
are found at List of people from Staten Island. Television[edit]

Time Warner Cable's news channel NY1
NY1
airs a weekly show called This Week on Staten Island, hosted by Anthony Pascale. The magazine style show takes content from NY1's daily/hourly newscasts called "Your Staten Island
Staten Island
News Now". The documentary, A Walk Around Staten Island
Staten Island
with David Hartman and Barry Lewis, premiered on public television station WNET
WNET
on December 3, 2007, profiling Staten Island
Staten Island
culture and history, including major attractions such as the Staten Island
Staten Island
Ferry, Historic Richmondtown, the Conference House, Snug Harbor Cultural Center, the Chinese Scholars Garden and many more sites.[105]

Theater[edit]

The St. George Theater

The St. George Theatre serves as a cultural arts center, hosting educational programs, architectural tours, television and film shoots, concerts, comedy, Broadway touring companies, and small and large children's shows. Artists who have performed there include The B-52s, The Jonas Brothers, Tony Bennett, and Don McLean. In 2012, the NBC musical drama Smash filmed several scenes there.[106] Sports[edit] See also: Sports in New York City

The Richmond County Bank Ballpark

Tennis
Tennis
is said to have made its debut in the United States
United States
of America on Staten Island
Staten Island
in New York State. The first American National championship was played there in September 1880. Tennis
Tennis
was introduced in Staten Island
Staten Island
by Mary Ewing Outerbridge.[107] Staten Island
Staten Island
Yankees, New York–Penn League
New York–Penn League
baseball, Class A Minor League affiliate to the New York Yankees The New York Cosmos u23, part of the USL Premier Development League (PDL), call Staten Island
Staten Island
home. The team plays at Monsignor Farrell High School and is affiliated with the New York Cosmos. The New York Metropolitans
New York Metropolitans
of the American Association played baseball on Staten Island
Staten Island
from April 1886 through 1887. Erastus Wiman, the developer of St. George, brought the team to Staten Island
Staten Island
where they played in a stadium called the St. George Grounds, near the site of the current-day Staten Island
Staten Island
Yankees' Richmond County Bank Ballpark and the Staten Island Ferry
Staten Island Ferry
terminal. Wagner College
Wagner College
participates in Division I athletics. NBA basketball coach P.J. Carlesimo coached the Wagner College Basketball team the "Seahawks". Staten Island
Staten Island
formerly had a National Football League
National Football League
team, the Stapletons. Based in Stapleton. Their stadium, Thompson Stadium, was located on the site of Berta A. Dreyfus Intermediate School 49
Berta A. Dreyfus Intermediate School 49
and the Stapleton Houses. They played in the league from 1929 to 1932, defeating the New York Giants
New York Giants
twice and the Chicago Cardinals once. During the 1932 NFL season the Stapletons, last in the NFL, played the eventual season champion Chicago Bears
Chicago Bears
to a scoreless tie. Football Hall of Famer Ken Strong played for the Stapletons. The New York Predators of the semi-pro Regional American Football League have called Staten Island
Staten Island
home since their inception in 1998. Owned by Bill Simo, they play most home games at St. Peters H.S.[108] There was a controversial plan by the International Speedway Corporation to build a speedway on the island that would host NASCAR races by 2010. ISC abandoned the plan in 2006, citing financial concerns. In 1964 Staten Island's Mid Island Little League won the Little League World Series in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. The Staten Island
Staten Island
Cricket
Cricket
Club, incorporated in 1866,[109] is the oldest continuously operating cricket club in the United States.[110]

Education[edit] See also: Education in New York City
New York City
and List of high schools in New York City Public schools[edit] Public schools in the borough are managed by the New York City Department of Education, the largest public school system in the United States. Public middle schools include Intermediate Schools 2, 7, 14, 16, 21, 24, 27, 32, 34, 35, 42, 46, 48, 49, 51, 61, 63, 72 and 75, and 861, a K to 8 school as well as part of the Petrides School (which runs from kindergarten to high school) Public high schools include:

College of Staten Island
College of Staten Island
High School for International Studies Curtis High School Gaynor McCown Expeditionary Learning School New Dorp
New Dorp
High School Petrides High School Port Richmond High School Staten Island
Staten Island
Technical High School Susan E. Wagner High School Tottenville High School Ralph R. McKee CTE High School

Private schools[edit]

Staten Island Academy
Staten Island Academy
is the only independent private (non-public, non-religious) grade school on the island and is one of the oldest in the entire country.

Nondenominational Christian

Gateway Academy (co-educational)

Catholic

St. John Villa Academy
St. John Villa Academy
(all-girls) St. Peter's Boys High School
St. Peter's Boys High School
(all-boys) St. Peter's High School for Girls
St. Peter's High School for Girls
(all-girls) Notre Dame Academy (New York) (all-girls) St. Joseph Hill Academy
St. Joseph Hill Academy
(all-girls) Monsignor Farrell High School
Monsignor Farrell High School
(all-boys) Moore Catholic High School
Moore Catholic High School
(co-educational) St. Joseph by the Sea High School
St. Joseph by the Sea High School
(co-educational)

Moore Catholic and St. Joseph by the Sea are the only co-educational Catholic high schools on the island. Islamic

Miraj Islamic
Islamic
School (co-educational)

Colleges and universities[edit]

The College of Staten Island
College of Staten Island
is one of the eleven senior colleges of the City University of New York
City University of New York
(CUNY). The college offers both associate's and bachelor's degrees. The College of Staten Island
College of Staten Island
also offers post-graduate level study from master's to doctoral level study. Wagner College
Wagner College
is a coeducational private liberal arts college with an enrollment of 2,000 undergraduates and 500 graduate students. St. John's University has a campus on Staten Island. It is a private, coeducational Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
university.

Transportation[edit]

The Staten Island Ferry
Staten Island Ferry
provides travel between lower Manhattan
Manhattan
and the St. George Ferry Terminal.

Staten Island
Staten Island
is connected to New Jersey
New Jersey
via three vehicular bridges and one railroad bridge. The Outerbridge Crossing
Outerbridge Crossing
to Perth Amboy, New Jersey, is at the southern end of Route 440, and the Bayonne Bridge
Bayonne Bridge
to Bayonne, New Jersey, is at the northern end of Route 440, which continues into Jersey City, New Jersey. From the New Jersey
New Jersey
Turnpike, the Goethals Bridge
Goethals Bridge
using I-278
I-278
connects from Elizabeth, New Jersey, to the Staten Island
Staten Island
Expressway. The Arthur Kill
Arthur Kill
Vertical Lift Railroad Bridge carries freight between the northwest part of the island and Elizabeth, New Jersey. Staten Island
Staten Island
is connected to Brooklyn
Brooklyn
via the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
using the Staten Island Expressway. The only pedestrian link to Staten Island
Staten Island
is via a footpath on the Bayonne Bridge. Unlike the other four boroughs, Staten Island
Staten Island
has no large, numbered grid system. New Dorp's grid has a few numbered streets, but they do not intersect with any numbered avenues. Some neighborhoods, however, organize their street names alphabetically. Staten Island
Staten Island
was, at one point, concurrently home to the longest vertical lift bridge, steel arch bridge, and suspension bridge in the world; the Arthur Kill
Arthur Kill
Vertical Lift Bridge, Bayonne Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, respectively. The Arthur Kill
Arthur Kill
Bridge still holds the title for longest vertical lift bridge, while the Bayonne and Verrazano bridges are now the 4th and 8th longest, in their respective categories. Staten Island
Staten Island
has more cars per capita than any other borough in New York City, with car ownership attained by 81.6% of all Staten Island households. Citywide, the car ownership rate is 45%.[111] Public transport[edit] Public transportation on the island is limited to:

New York City
New York City
Department of Transportation ( Staten Island
Staten Island
Ferry) MTA Regional Bus Operations
MTA Regional Bus Operations
(local service on Staten Island
Staten Island
and express service to Manhattan) Staten Island Railway
Staten Island Railway
service from St. George to Tottenville

Ferry[edit] The Staten Island Ferry
Staten Island Ferry
is the only direct transportation network from Staten Island
Staten Island
to Manhattan, roughly a 25-minute trip.[112] The St. George ferry terminal, built in 1950, recently underwent a $130-million renovation and now features floor-to-ceiling glass for panoramic views of the harbor and incoming ferries. The ferry had its fare eliminated in 1997. The Staten Island Ferry
Staten Island Ferry
had undergone ramp renovations which were completed in 2014. The Staten Island
Staten Island
Ferry transports over 60,000 passengers per day. The ferry makes the 25 minute trip across New York Harbor 109 times every weekday, 24 hours every day, while utilizing five boats, and 75 times on Saturdays and 68 times every Sunday, using a three boat fleet. NYS Department of Transportation Peace Officers in conjunction with the New York City Police Department and U.S Coast Guard patrol the ferry terminal.[citation needed] Trains[edit]

The Staten Island Railway
Staten Island Railway
operates along the Richmond/Amboy Roads corridor.

The Staten Island Railway
Staten Island Railway
traverses the island from its northeastern tip to its southwestern tip. The Staten Island Railway
Staten Island Railway
opened in 1860[113][114][115] and was owned and operated by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) until July 1, 1971, when the line was bought by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority.[116] The Staten Island Railway continued to have its own railway police, the Staten Island Rapid Transit Police, until 2005 when the 25 officer police force was consolidated into the Metropolitan Transportation Authority
Metropolitan Transportation Authority
Police. MTA Police officers patrol the island's only passenger railway. Staten Island is the only borough not served by the New York City
New York City
Subway, as the Staten Island Tunnel
Staten Island Tunnel
was abandoned in the middle of construction in the 1920s. It lies dormant beneath Owl's Head Park in Brooklyn. As such, express bus service is provided by NYC Transit throughout Staten Island to Lower and Midtown Manhattan. A five-mile right of way exists along the north shore of Staten Island. The rail line was built, owned, and operated by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, which used the line for passenger service until 1953. It then became a Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
freight line until the 1980s, when freight service was stopped. There have been proposals to revive the abandoned North Shore Branch
North Shore Branch
of the Staten Island Railway for passenger service as a rail line or for use as Bus Rapid Transit.[117] There is also a proposal to build a West Shore Light Rail in the center of the Dr. Martin Luther King Expressway, Staten Island Expressway, and West Shore Expressway, continuing to Richmond Valley, Staten Island, to connect with the main line of the Staten Island Railway. The South Beach Branch, which transported summer vacationers to South Beach, Staten Island, ceased service in 1953.[118] Buses[edit] Further information: List of bus routes in Staten Island
List of bus routes in Staten Island
and List of express bus routes in New York City
New York City
§  Manhattan
Manhattan
to Staten Island MTA Regional Bus Operations
MTA Regional Bus Operations
provides local and limited bus service with over 30 lines throughout Staten Island. Most lines feed into the St. George Ferry Terminal
St. George Ferry Terminal
in the northeastern corner of the borough. Three lines (the S53, S93, S79 SBS) provide service over the Verrazano Bridge to Bay Ridge, Brooklyn. The S79 SBS is the first Select Bus Service route in the borough. Beginning September 4, 2007, the MTA began offering bus service from Staten Island
Staten Island
to Bayonne, New Jersey, over the Bayonne Bridge
Bayonne Bridge
via the S89 limited-stop bus, allowing passengers to connect to the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail's 34th Street Station, giving Staten Island
Staten Island
residents a new route into Manhattan. It is notably, despite Staten Island's proximity to New Jersey, the only route directly into New Jersey
New Jersey
from Staten Island
Staten Island
via public transportation.[119] Express bus service to Manhattan
Manhattan
via the Verrazano Bridge and the Gowanus Expressway
Gowanus Expressway
is also available for a $6.50 fare each way. The X1, X10, and X17 are the only ones to run outside of rush hour.[120] The X17 received Sunday service on September 30, 2012, and also makes a stop in Bay Ridge to compensate for the loss of the X28 in that area. In January 2013, the X1 became the first express bus route to receive 24/7 service.[121] Freight rail[edit] Conrail Shared Assets Operations
Conrail Shared Assets Operations
operates freight rail service for customers of CSX Transportation
CSX Transportation
and the Norfolk Southern Railway
Norfolk Southern Railway
via the Travis Branch
Travis Branch
with a 38 acres (15 ha) intermodal on-dock rail facility on the southern end of Staten Island
Staten Island
which connects to the National Rail System via the Arthur Kill
Arthur Kill
Rail Bridge to New Jersey. In addition to the intermodal on-dock rail yard, the Conrail Staten Island Rail line also connects to the Sanitation departments waste transfer station. Conrail railroad police officers patrol and respond to emergencies along the freight line. Infrastructure[edit] Hospitals[edit] Staten Island
Staten Island
is the only borough without a hospital operated by New York City. The Richmond University Medical Center
Richmond University Medical Center
and the Staten Island University Hospital are privately operated. Jails[edit] Staten Island
Staten Island
is the only borough without a New York City
New York City
Department of Corrections major detention center. The Department of Corrections only maintains court holding jails at the three court buildings on Staten Island
Staten Island
for inmates attending court. The various police agencies on Staten Island
Staten Island
maintain in-house holding jails for post arrest detention prior to transfer to a corrections jail in another borough. The Staten Island
Staten Island
county sheriff operated a jail system on Staten Island until 1942, when the Staten Island
Staten Island
jail system was transferred from the county sheriff's department to the New York City
New York City
Department of Corrections and eventually closed. In 1976, the New York State Department of Correctional Services opened the Arthur Kill Correctional Facility of Staten Island, but the facility was closed in 2011. Nicknames[edit] Staten Island
Staten Island
has acquired a number of nicknames over the decades, some connected to the notion that it is considered an afterthought by other New York City
New York City
residents. The "Forgotten Borough" was first used nearly 100 years ago in a New York Times
New York Times
article which quoted a real estate executive. The phrase was more used during the secession movement of the 1990s, and came into greater use in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy.[122] The hip-hop group Wu-Tang Clan
Wu-Tang Clan
coined the nickname "Shaolin Land" (later simply Shaolin) as part of their slang. Most recently people have been using "The Rock", more commonly associated with Alcatraz, as a nickname which first appeared in a New York Times article in 2007.[123] See also[edit]

New York City
New York City
portal Islands portal

List of people from Staten Island List of counties in New York List of Staten Island
Staten Island
neighborhoods National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in Richmond County, New York Staten Island
Staten Island
Legal Services Staten Island
Staten Island
Economic Development Corporation

Notes[edit]

^ a b c "State and County QuickFacts – Richmond County (Staten Island Borough), New York". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved March 31, 2018.  ^ " Conference House
Conference House
Park". New York City
New York City
Parks. Retrieved June 21, 2014.  ^ "Timeline of Staten Island
Staten Island
– 1900s – Present". New York Public Library. Archived from the original on January 13, 2006. Retrieved January 16, 2006. Well over 75% of south shore residents report Italian ancestry, due in large part of residents moving from heavily populated Italian-American
Italian-American
neighborhoods such as Bensonhurst (little Italy) Brooklyn
Brooklyn
to Staten Island.  ^ Brown, Chip (January 30, 1994). "Escape From New York". The New York Times. Retrieved January 14, 2008. Given their status as residents of "the forgotten borough" – the sorry Cinderella sister in New York's dysfunctional family – maybe the giddiest aspect of all was the attention.  ^ a b Buckley, Cara (October 7, 2007). "Bohemia by the Bay". The New York Times. Retrieved January 14, 2008. Even as New York's hip young things invade and colonize neighborhoods near, far and out of state, Staten Island
Staten Island
has stayed stubbornly uncool. It remains the forgotten borough.  ^ "South Beach & FDR Boardwalk
Boardwalk
of Staten Island, NYC". Si-web.com. Retrieved January 11, 2012.  ^ " Fresh Kills
Fresh Kills
Landfill". Freshkills Park
Freshkills Park
Blog. Retrieved January 11, 2012.  ^ History: Staten Island, US Army Corps of Engineers Archived September 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Fresh Kills
Fresh Kills
Park". Retrieved November 4, 2011.  ^ "Current Population Estimates: NYC". NYC.gov. Retrieved June 10, 2017.  ^ a b Jackson, 1995 ^ Ritchie, 1963 ^ Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Volumes 3–4 By American Museum of Natural History ^ Bayles, Richard Mather (1887). History of Richmond County (Staten Island), New York.  ^ Russell Shorto, The Island at the Center of the World: The Epic Story of Dutch Manhattan
Manhattan
and the Forgotten Colony that Shaped America. First Edition. New York City: Vintage Books (a Division of Random House, 2004), ISBN 1-4000-7867-9 ^ Ellis, Edward Robb (1966). The Epic of New York City. Old Town Books. p. 55.  ^ Memories: Staten Island
Staten Island
might well have been called Huguenot
Huguenot
Island Accessed February 11, 2018 ^ Scheltema, Gajus and Westerhuijs, Heleen (eds.), Exploring Historic Dutch New York. Museum of the City of New York/Dover Publications, New York (2011) ISBN 978-0-486-48637-6 ^ Chan, Sewell (February 21, 2007). "That Old Tale About S.I.? Hold On Now". New York Times.  ^ a b Greene and Harrington (1932). American Population Before the Federal Census of 1790. New York. , as cited in: Rosenwaike, Ira (1972). Population History of New York City. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-8156-2155-8.  ^ Morris, Ira. Morris's Memorial History of Staten Island, New York, Volume 1. 1898, page 40 ^ McFadden, Robert D. (March 5, 1994). "'Home Rule' Factor May Block S.I. Secession". The New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2009.  ^ John, Lloyd; Mitchinson, John (October 5, 2006). QI: The Book of General Ignorance. Faber and Faber. pp. 114–115. ISBN 0-571-23368-6.  ^ "Fresh Kills: Landfill
Landfill
to Landscape". Archived from the original on June 3, 2007 – via archive.org.  ^ "Fresh Kills". New York City
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Department of City Planning. 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2009.  ^ a b c d e Arthur Fremont Rider (1916), "Staten Island", Rider's New York City and Vicinity, New York: H. Holt and Company  ^ a b c d e f g h "Staten Island", Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York, 1910, OCLC 14782424  ^ a b c d e f g h i Franklin B. Hough (1872), "Richmond County", Gazetteer of the State of New York, Albany, N.Y: Andrew Boyd, OCLC 18450990  ^ a b c " Staten Island
Staten Island
Church Records", Collections of the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, NY, 4, 1909  ^ "Pokémon Go players trespass in Staten Island's Moravian Cemetery".  ^ Hartman, Barry. "An Island Within a Cty". A Walk Around Staten Island. WNET
WNET
13. Retrieved September 23, 2013.  ^ A.Y. Hubbell (1898), History of Methodism and the Methodist Churches of Staten Island, New York: Richmond Pub. Co.  ^ Jedidiah Morse; Richard C. Morse (1823), "Richmond County", A New Universal Gazetteer (4th ed.), New Haven: S. Converse  ^ a b c Richard Mather Bayles (1887), History of Richmond County (Staten Island), New York from its discovery to the present time, New York: L.E. Preston  ^ Ira K. Morris (1898), Morris's Memorial History of Staten Island, New York, New York: Memorial Pub. Co.  v.1, v.2 (1900) ^ "Pavilion, New Brighton", The Plain Dealer, NY, July 15, 1837, OCLC 11777382  ^ " Staten Island
Staten Island
Rich in Little Known Historical Landmarks", The New York Times, July 13, 1913  ^ Davies Project. "American Libraries before 1876". Princeton University. Retrieved August 10, 2013.  ^ McMillen, Loring (1942). "How We Study Local History on Staten Island". New York History. 23. JSTOR 23135244.  ^ a b "US Newspaper Directory". Chronicling America. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Retrieved August 10, 2013.  ^ George Ripley; Charles A. Dana, eds. (1879). "Staten Island". The American Cyclopaedia (2nd ed.). New York: D. Appleton and Company.  ^ Sciences, Staten Island
Staten Island
Institute of Arts and (1906). Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences ... History, Act of Incorporation, Constitution and By-laws.  ^ Proceedings of the Bi-Centennial Celebration of Richmond County, Staten Island, New York, New York, 1883  ^ a b c "Mapping Staten Island". Museum of the City of New York. 2012.  ^ "Richmond Country Country Club Story". Staten Island: Richmond Country Country Club. Retrieved August 10, 2013.  ^ American Art Annual, 17, NY: American Federation of Arts, 1920  ^ [1] July 10, 2014. Accessed February 11, 2018 ^ "On Staten Island, the Fight to Save a Proud Past", The New York Times, September 19, 2009  ^ Kenneth M Gold; Lori Robin Weintrob (2011). Discovering Staten Island: a 350th anniversary commemorative history. Charleston, South Carolina: History Press. ISBN 9781609491703.  ^ Bayonne Bridge
Bayonne Bridge
over the Kill van Kull between Port Richmond, Staten Island, New York and Bayonne, New Jersey. Dedication November 14th, 1931  ^ "U.S. Foreign-Trade Zones Board Order Summary". Washington DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration. Retrieved September 16, 2016.  ^ "Movie Theaters in New York". Los Angeles: Cinema Treasures. Retrieved August 10, 2013.  ^ [2] Accessed February 8, 2018 ^ http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/tag/park-slope-plane-crash/ ^ "New York City: Staten Island
Staten Island
On The Web". New York Public Library. Retrieved August 10, 2013.  ^ Jeffrey A. Kroessler (2002), New York year by year: a chronology of the great metropolis, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0814747515  ^ "Preservation League of Staten Island". Retrieved August 10, 2013.  ^ "New S.I. Borough President
Borough President
is Sworn In", The New York Times, November 11, 1984  ^ a b " Staten Island
Staten Island
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, & Transgender History". Staten Island
Staten Island
LGBT Community Center. Retrieved August 10, 2013.  ^ "A Final Staten Island
Staten Island
Homecoming". The New York Times. February 6, 1994. Retrieved August 10, 2013.  ^ "Staten Island: Secession Is Approved; Next Move Is Albany's". The New York Times. November 3, 1993.  ^ "About Us". Staten Island
Staten Island
Conservatory of Music. Retrieved August 10, 2013.  ^ "Mosque Opens Quietly on Staten Island", The New York Times, August 18, 2011  ^ Isachsen, Yngvar W. "Continental Collisions and Ancient Volcanoes: The Geology of Southeastern New York", Educational Leaflet No. 24, The New York State
New York State
Educational Department. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States
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Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved January 7, 2015.  ^ Snyder, John P. (June 1968). The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries 1606 – 1968 (PDF) (1st ed.). Trenton, New Jersey: New Jersey Bureau of Geology and Topography. p. 14. Retrieved April 11, 2016.  ^ "U.S. Geological Survey Studies in the New York Bight". Woods Hole Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved November 8, 2012.  ^ "Why Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
Hit Staten Island
Staten Island
So Hard". AccuWeather, Inc. Retrieved November 8, 2012.  ^ Paulsen, Ken. " Staten Island
Staten Island
Hurricane Sandy
Hurricane Sandy
overview: Thursday evening". Staten Island
Staten Island
Advance. Retrieved November 8, 2012.  ^ Wolfe, Jonathan (2017-09-22). "Solving Staten Island's Deer Problem With a Snip and a Stitch". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-09-23.  ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States
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Census Bureau. Retrieved January 7, 2015.  ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 7, 2015.  ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 7, 2015.  ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States
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Census Bureau. Retrieved January 7, 2015.  ^ "New York – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 6, 2012.  ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Search". factfinder.census.gov.  ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder.census.gov.  ^ Peck, Harrison. "NYC The Official Guide – Must-See Little Sri Lanka: 7 Great Things to See and Do". © 2006–2011 NYC & Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Retrieved November 27, 2011.  ^ Zavatto, Amy (August 5, 2010). "Frommer's – New York City: Exploring Staten Island's Little Sri Lanka". © 2000–2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2011.  ^ Claudio Torrens (May 28, 2011). "Some NY immigrants cite lack of Spanish as barrier". UTSanDiego.com. Retrieved February 10, 2013.  ^ "For Island Coptics, a momentous occasion". Free Copts. October 20, 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2009.  ^ "Richmond County, New York". Modern Language Association. Archived from the original on June 19, 2006. Retrieved August 10, 2013.  ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org.  ^ Board of Estimate of City of New York v. Morris, 489 U.S. 688, 87-1022 ( Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States
March 22, 1989). ^ "Statement and Return Report" (PDF). NYC Board of Elections. December 27, 2012. Retrieved December 30, 2012.  ^ Jorgensen, Jillian (November 3, 2015). "Democrat Michael McMahon Wins Staten Island
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Advance. Retrieved May 5, 2015. ^ "Michael Grimm: NY Congressman resigns after guilty plea". BBC News. Retrieved December 30, 2014.  ^ "Regional Information". Retrieved February 21, 2012.  ^ " New York State
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Department of Transportation. Retrieved July 14, 2009.  ^ Roess, Roger P.; Sansome, Gene (2013). The Wheels That Drove New York: A History of the New York City
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Became the 'Forgotten Borough Retrieved December 25, 2017 ^ A Day for Peace (and Quiet) on the Ferry Retrieved December 25, 2017

References[edit]

Kenneth T. Jackson (editor); The Encyclopedia of New York City; Yale University Press; ISBN 0-300-05536-6 (1995). John Waldman; Heartbeats in the Muck; ISBN 1-55821-720-7 The Lyons Press; (2000) Famous Staten Islanders page at the New York Public Library
New York Public Library
site: Staten Island
Staten Island
gets its own Tourism Website "History: A timeline of Staten Island". Staten Island
Staten Island
Advance.  John H. Betts The Minerals of New York City
New York City
published in Rocks & Minerals magazine, Volume 84, No. 3 pages 204–252 (2009).

Further reading[edit] Published in the 19th century

Darby, William (1834), "Richmond County", A new gazetteer of the United States
United States
of America (2nd ed.), Hartford: E. Hopkins  Charles H. Sweetser (1868), "Seaside Resorts: Staten Island", Book of Summer Resorts, New York: Evening Mail Office, OCLC 6043819  John Jacob Clute (1877), Annals of Staten Island, from its discovery to the present time, New York: C. Vogt  John Disturnell, ed. (1877), "Staten Island", Summer Resorts and Watering Places ... within fifty miles of the city of New York, New York: J. Wiley & Sons  Selden C. Judson (1886), Illustrated Sketch Book of Staten island, New York, its industries and commerce, New York: S.C. Judson  Campbell, Reau (1889), Rides and Rambles on Staten Island, New York: C.G. Crawford  Kobbé, Gustav (1890), Staten Island: a Guide, New York: G. Kobbé  Daniel Van Pelt (1898), Leslie's History of the Greater New York, 2, New York, U.S.A: Arkell Pub. Co., OCLC 1850560 

chapter 20: Richmond, or Staten Island: Olden Times chapter 21: Richmond, or Staten Island: Present Century

Trow's Business and Residential Directory of the Borough of Richmond, City of New York. NY: Trow Directory, Printing & Bookbinding Co. 1899. 

Published in the 20th century

John Louis Sublett (2009), "Richmond County", Staten Island: A Walk Down Memory Lane (1st ed.), NY: CreateSpace  "Borough of Richmond", Appleton's Dictionary of New York and Vicinity (27th ed.), Appleton, 1905  Ingersoll, Ernest (1906), "Greater New York: Staten Island", Rand, McNally & Co.'s Handy Guide to New York City, Brooklyn, Staten Island, and other districts included in the enlarged city (20th ed.), Chicago: Rand, McNally, OCLC 29277709  Richmond Borough Association of Women Teachers. (1909), Staten Island and Staten Islanders, New York: Grafton Press  Frank Bergen Kelley (1913), "Borough of Richmond", Historical Guide to the City of New York (2nd ed.), New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, City History Club of New York, OCLC 4723529  Calvin D. Van Name (1921), Staten Island: a report by the President of the Borough of Richmond to the Mayor  Federal Writers' Project
Federal Writers' Project
(1939). "Richmond". New York City
New York City
Guide. American Guide Series. NY: Random House.  Briffault, Richard (1992). "Voting Rights, Home Rule, and Metropolitan Governance: The Secession of Staten Island
Staten Island
as a Case Study in the Dilemmas of Local Self-Determination". Columbia Law Review. 92. JSTOR 1122970. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Staten Island, New York City.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Staten Island.

Staten Island
Staten Island
– Office of the Borough President VisitStatenIsland.com – Official Tourism Website of Staten Island Staten Island
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Other websites

New York Public Library. Images related to Staten Island, various dates Staten Island
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Film Festival Staten Island
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Attractions Video Online Collections Database, Staten Island
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Historical Society StatenIsland.com – A Staten Island
Staten Island
web site for information on Staten Island Old Staten Island. A comprehensive website about Staten Island's Past

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