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Coordinates: 32°00′N 35°15′E / 32.000°N 35.250°E / 32.000; 35.250

State of Palestine[i] دولة فلسطين (Arabic) Dawlat Filasṭīn

Flag

Coat of arms

Anthem: "فدائي" "Fida'i"[1][2] "My Redemption"

Territory claimed by the State of Palestine
State of Palestine
(green)[3] Territory also claimed by Israel
Israel
(light green)

Status Partially recognized state, UN observer state Recognized by 136 UN member states

Proclaimed capital Administrative center

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(East)[ii][4][5] Ramallah

Largest city Gaza City

Official languages Arabic

Demonym Palestinian

Government Unitary semi-presidential republic[6]

• President

Mahmoud Abbasb

• Prime Minister

Rami Hamdallah

• Speaker of Parliament

Salim Zanoun

Legislature National Council

Formation

• Declaration of Independence

15 November 1988

• UNGA observer state resolution

29 November 2012

• Sovereignty dispute with Israel

Ongoingc[iii][7][8]

Area

• Total

6,020[9] km2 (2,320 sq mi) (163rd)

• Water (%)

3.5[10]

• West Bank

5,860 km2

• Gaza Strip

360 km2[11]

Population

• 2014 estimate

4,550,368[12] (123rd)

• Density

731/km2 (1,893.3/sq mi)

GDP (PPP) 2008a estimate

• Total

$11.95 billiona (–)

• Per capita

$2,900a (–)

Gini (2009) 35.5[13] medium

HDI (2014)  0.677[14] medium · 113th

Currency

Egyptian pound
Egyptian pound
(EGP) Israeli new shekel
Israeli new shekel
(ILS) Jordanian dinar
Jordanian dinar
(JOD)[15] (see also Palestinian currency)

Time zone Palestine Standard Time (UTC+2)

• Summer (DST)

Palestine Summer Time (UTC+3)

Date format dd/mm/yyyy

Drives on the right

Calling code +970

ISO 3166 code PS

Internet TLD .ps

Population
Population
and economy statistics and rankings are based data of the PCBS. Also the leader of the state's government.[iv] The territories claimed are under Israeli occupation.

This article contains Arabic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين‎ Filasṭīn), officially the State of Palestine[i] (Arabic: دولة فلسطين‎ Dawlat Filasṭīn), is a de jure sovereign state[16][17] in the Middle East
Middle East
claiming the West Bank
West Bank
(bordering Israel
Israel
and Jordan) and Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
(bordering Israel
Israel
and Egypt)[3] with East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as the designated capital although its administrative center is located in Ramallah.[ii][4][5] Most of the areas claimed by the State of Palestine
State of Palestine
have been occupied by Israel
Israel
since 1967 in the consequence of the Six-Day War.[8] The population is 4,550,368 as of 2014, ranked 123rd in the world. After World War II, in 1947, the United Nations
United Nations
adopted a Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine
Mandatory Palestine
recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem.[18] After the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel
Israel
on 14 May 1948,[19][20][21] neighboring Arab armies invaded the former British mandate on the next day and fought the Israeli forces.[22][23] Later, the All-Palestine Government
All-Palestine Government
was established by the Arab League
Arab League
on 22 September 1948 to govern the Egyptian-controlled enclave in Gaza. It was soon recognized by all Arab League
Arab League
members except Transjordan. Though jurisdiction of the Government was declared to cover the whole of the former Mandatory Palestine, its effective jurisdiction was limited to the Gaza Strip.[24] Israel
Israel
later captured the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank
West Bank
(including East Jerusalem) from Jordan, and the Golan Heights
Golan Heights
from Syria
Syria
in June 1967 following the Six-Day War. Following the withdrawals of Egypt
Egypt
from Sinai and Gaza (1982) and Jordan
Jordan
from the West Bank
West Bank
(1988), the State of Palestine
State of Palestine
proclaimed its independence on 15 November 1988 by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in Algiers
Algiers
as a government-in-exile. Since the signing of the Oslo Accords
Oslo Accords
in 1993, the Palestinian National Authority was formed the following year to govern the areas A and B in the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza Strip. Gaza would later be ruled by Hamas
Hamas
in 2007 after Israel
Israel
withdrawal from Gaza two years prior. The State of Palestine
State of Palestine
is recognized by 136 UN members and since 2012 has a status of a non-member observer state in the United Nations
United Nations
– which amounts to a de facto, or implicit, recognition of statehood.[25][26][27] It is a member of the Arab League, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, G77, and the International Olympic Committee.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 History 4 Politics

4.1 Government 4.2 Administrative divisions 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 International recognition 4.5 Raising the flag at the UN 4.6 Legal status

5 Security 6 Demographics

6.1 Religion

7 Economy

7.1 Tourism

8 Infrastructure

8.1 Communications 8.2 Transportation 8.3 Water supply and sanitation

9 Education 10 Culture

10.1 Media 10.2 Sports

11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology Further information: Palestine (region)
Palestine (region)
§ Etymology, and Timeline of the name "Palestine" Since the British Mandate, the term "Palestine" has been associated with the geographical area that currently covers the State of Israel, the West Bank
West Bank
and the Gaza Strip.[28] General use of the term "Palestine" or related terms to the area at the southeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
beside Syria
Syria
has historically been taking place since the times of Ancient Greece, with Herodotus
Herodotus
writing of a "district of Syria, called Palaistine" in which Phoenicians
Phoenicians
interacted with other maritime peoples in The Histories.[29][non-primary source needed] Some other terms that have been used to refer to all or part of the geographical region of "Palestine" include Canaan, Land of Israel (Eretz Yisrael or Ha'aretz),[30][v] Greater Syria, the Holy Land, Iudaea Province, Judea, Coele-Syria,[vi] " Israel
Israel
HaShlema", Kingdom of Israel, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Zion, Retenu (Ancient Egyptian), Southern Syria, Southern Levant
Southern Levant
and Syria
Syria
Palaestina. Geography Main article: Geography of the State of Palestine The areas claimed by the State of Palestine
State of Palestine
lie in the Levant. The Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
borders the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the west, Egypt
Egypt
to the south, and Israel
Israel
to the north and east. The West Bank
West Bank
is bordered by Jordan
Jordan
to the east, and Israel
Israel
to the north, south, and west. Thus, the two enclaves constituting the area claimed by State of Palestine have no geographical border with one another, being separated by Israel. These areas would constitute the world's 163rd largest country by land area.[31][32] History Main article: History of the State of Palestine See also: History of Palestine In 1947, the UN adopted a partition plan for a two-state solution in the remaining territory of the mandate. The plan was accepted by the Jewish leadership but rejected by the Arab leaders, and Britain refused to implement the plan. On the eve of final British withdrawal, the Jewish Agency for Israel
Israel
declared the establishment of the State of Israel
Israel
according to the proposed UN plan. The Arab Higher Committee did not declare a state of its own and instead, together with Transjordan, Egypt, and the other members of the Arab League
Arab League
of the time, commenced military action resulting in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. During the war, Israel
Israel
gained additional territories that were designated to be part of the Arab state under the UN plan. Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
and Transjordan occupied and then annexed the West Bank. Egypt
Egypt
initially supported the creation of an All-Palestine Government, but disbanded it in 1959. Transjordan never recognized it and instead decided to incorporate the West Bank
West Bank
with its own territory to form Jordan. The annexation was ratified in 1950 but was rejected by the international community. The Six-Day War
Six-Day War
in 1967, when Israel
Israel
fought against Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, ended with Israel occupying the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza Strip, besides other territories. In 1964, when the West Bank
West Bank
was controlled by Jordan, the Palestine Liberation Organization was established there with the goal to confront Israel. The Palestinian National Charter
Palestinian National Charter
of the PLO defines the boundaries of Palestine as the whole remaining territory of the mandate, including Israel. Following the Six-Day War, the PLO moved to Jordan, but later relocated to Lebanon
Lebanon
after Black September in 1971. The October 1974 Arab League
Arab League
summit designated the PLO as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" and reaffirmed "their right to establish an independent state of urgency."[33] In November 1974, the PLO was recognized as competent on all matters concerning the question of Palestine by the UN General Assembly granting them observer status as a "non-state entity" at the UN.[34][35] After the 1988 Declaration of Independence, the UN General Assembly officially acknowledged the proclamation and decided to use the designation "Palestine" instead of "Palestine Liberation Organization" in the UN.[36][37] In spite of this decision, the PLO did not participate at the UN in its capacity of the State of Palestine's government.[38] In 1979, through the Camp David Accords, Egypt
Egypt
signaled an end to any claim of its own over the Gaza Strip. In July 1988, Jordan
Jordan
ceded its claims to the West Bank—with the exception of guardianship over Haram al-Sharif—to the PLO. In November 1988, the PLO legislature, while in exile, declared the establishment of the "State of Palestine". In the month following, it was quickly recognised by many states, including Egypt
Egypt
and Jordan. In the Palestinian Declaration of Independence, the State of Palestine
State of Palestine
is described as being established on the "Palestinian territory", without explicitly specifying further. Because of this, some of the countries that recognised the State of Palestine in their statements of recognition refer to the "1967 borders", thus recognizing as its territory only the occupied Palestinian territory, and not Israel. The UN membership application submitted by the State of Palestine
State of Palestine
also specified that it is based on the "1967 borders".[3] During the negotiations of the Oslo Accords, the PLO recognised Israel's right to exist, and Israel
Israel
recognised the PLO as representative of the Palestinian people. Between 1993 and 1998, the PLO made commitments to change the provisions of its Palestinian National Charter
Palestinian National Charter
that are inconsistent with the aim for a two-state solution and peaceful coexistence with Israel. After Israel
Israel
took control of the West Bank
West Bank
from Jordan
Jordan
and Gaza Strip from Egypt, it began to establish Israeli settlements there. These were organised into Judea
Judea
and Samaria
Samaria
district (West Bank) and Hof Aza Regional Council (Gaza Strip) in the Southern District. Administration of the Arab population of these territories was performed by the Israeli Civil Administration
Israeli Civil Administration
of the Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories and by local municipal councils present since before the Israeli takeover. In 1980, Israel
Israel
decided to freeze elections for these councils and to establish instead Village Leagues, whose officials were under Israeli influence. Later this model became ineffective for both Israel
Israel
and the Palestinians, and the Village Leagues began to break up, with the last being the Hebron
Hebron
League, dissolved in February 1988.[39] In 1993, in the Oslo Accords, Israel
Israel
acknowledged the PLO negotiating team as "representing the Palestinian people", in return for the PLO recognizing Israel's right to exist in peace, acceptance of UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338, and its rejection of "violence and terrorism".[40] As a result, in 1994 the PLO established the Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
(PNA or PA) territorial administration, that exercises some governmental functions[iii] in parts of the West Bank
West Bank
and the Gaza Strip.[41][42] In 2007, the Hamas takeover of Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
politically and territorially divided the Palestinians, with Abbas's Fatah
Fatah
left largely ruling the West Bank
West Bank
and recognized internationally as the official Palestinian Authority,[43] while Hamas
Hamas
secured its control over the Gaza Strip. In April 2011, the Palestinian parties signed an agreement of reconciliation, but its implementation had stalled[43] until a unity government was formed on 2 June 2014.[44] As envisioned in the Oslo Accords, Israel
Israel
allowed the PLO to establish interim administrative institutions in the Palestinian territories, which came in the form of the PNA. It was given civilian control in Area B and civilian and security control in Area A, and remained without involvement in Area C. In 2005, following the implementation of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan, the PNA gained full control of the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
with the exception of its borders, airspace, and territorial waters.[iii] Following the inter-Palestinian conflict in 2006, Hamas
Hamas
took over control of the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
(it already had majority in the PLC), and Fatah
Fatah
took control of the West Bank. From 2007, the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
was governed by Hamas, and the West Bank
West Bank
by Fatah. On 29 November 2012, in a 138–9 vote (with 41 abstentions and 5 absences),[45] the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly passed resolution 67/19, upgrading Palestine from an "observer entity" to a "non-member observer state" within the United Nations
United Nations
system, which was described as recognition of the PLO's sovereignty.[26][27][46][47][48] Palestine's new status is equivalent to that of the Holy See.[49] The UN has permitted Palestine to title its representative office to the UN as "The Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine
State of Palestine
to the United Nations",[50] and Palestine has instructed its diplomats to officially represent "The State of Palestine"—no longer the Palestinian National Authority.[48] On 17 December 2012, UN Chief of Protocol Yeocheol Yoon declared that "the designation of 'State of Palestine' shall be used by the Secretariat in all official United Nations documents",[51] thus recognising the title 'State of Palestine' as the state's official name for all UN purposes. As of 14 September 2015, 136 (7001705000000000000♠70.5%) of the 193 member states of the United Nations
United Nations
have recognised the State of Palestine.[47][52] Many of the countries that do not recognise the State of Palestine
State of Palestine
nevertheless recognise the PLO as the "representative of the Palestinian people". The PLO's Executive Committee is empowered by the Palestinian National Council to perform the functions of government of the State of Palestine.[53] Politics Government Main article: Palestinian government See also: Politics of the Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
and Politics of the Palestine Liberation Organization

The destroyed Palestinian Legislative Council
Palestinian Legislative Council
building in Gaza City, Gaza– Israel
Israel
conflict, September 2009

The State of Palestine
State of Palestine
consists of the following institutions that are associated with the Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO):

President of the State of Palestine[54][iv] – appointed by the Palestinian Central Council[55] Palestinian National Council – the legislature that established the State of Palestine[6] Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization – performs the functions of a government in exile,[47][53][56][57] maintaining an extensive foreign-relations network

These should be distinguished from the President of the Palestinian National Authority, Palestinian Legislative Council
Palestinian Legislative Council
(PLC) and PNA Cabinet, all of which are instead associated with the Palestinian National Authority. The State of Palestine's founding document is the Palestinian Declaration of Independence,[6] and it should be distinguished from the unrelated PLO Palestinian National Covenant
Palestinian National Covenant
and PNA Palestine Basic Law.

Map of the Palestinian Authority
Palestinian Authority
showing the area currently under Palestinian administration in red (Areas A and B).

Map of the Palestinian Governorates.

Administrative divisions See also: ISO 3166-2:PS The State of Palestine
State of Palestine
is divided into sixteen administrative divisions.

Name Area (km2)[58] Population Density (per km2) muhfaza or district capital

Jenin 583 311,231 533.84 Jenin

Tubas 402 64,719 160.99 Tubas

Tulkarm 246 182,053 740.05 Tulkarm

Nablus 605 380,961 629.68 Nablus

Qalqiliya 166 110,800 667.46 Qalqilya

Salfit 204 70,727 346.7 Salfit

Ramallah
Ramallah
& Al-Bireh 855 348,110 407.14 Ramallah

Jericho
Jericho
& Al Aghwar 593 52,154 87.94 Jericho

Jerusalem 345 419,108a 1214.8a Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(De Jure and disputed)

Bethlehem 659 216,114 927.94 Bethlehem

Hebron 997 706,508 708.63 Hebron

North Gaza 61 362,772 5947.08 Jabalya[citation needed]

Gaza 74 625,824 8457.08 Gaza City

Deir Al-Balah 58 264,455 4559.56 Deir al-Balah

Khan Yunis 108 341,393 3161.04 Khan Yunis

Rafah 64 225,538 3524.03 Rafah

a. Data from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
includes occupied East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
with its Israeli population The governorates in the West Bank
West Bank
are grouped into three areas per the Oslo II Accord. Area A forms 18% of the West Bank
West Bank
by area, and is administered by the Palestinian government.[59][60] Area B forms 22% of the West Bank, and is under Palestinian civil control, and joint Israeli-Palestinian security control.[59][60] Area C, except East Jerusalem, forms 60% of the West Bank, and is administered by the Israeli Civil Administration, except that the Palestinian government provides the education and medical services to the 150,000 Palestinians in the area.[59] More than 99% of Area C is off limits to Palestinians.[61] There are about 330,000 Israelis living in settlements in Area C,[62] in the Judea
Judea
and Samaria
Samaria
Area. Although Area C is under martial law, Israelis living there are judged in Israeli civil courts.[63] East Jerusalem, the proclaimed capital of Palestine, is administered as part of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
District of Israel, but is claimed by Palestine as part of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Governorate. It was annexed by Israel
Israel
in 1980,[59] but this annexation is not recognised by any other country.[64] Of the 456,000 people in East Jerusalem, roughly 60% are Palestinians and 40% are Israelis.[59][65] Foreign relations See also: Foreign relations of Palestine, List of diplomatic missions of Palestine, and List of diplomatic missions to Palestine Representation of the State of Palestine
State of Palestine
is performed by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). In states that recognise the State of Palestine it maintains embassies. The Palestine Liberation Organization is represented in various international organizations as member, associate or observer. Because of inconclusiveness in sources[66] in some cases it is impossible to distinguish whether the participation is executed by the PLO as representative of the State of Palestine, by the PLO as a non-state entity or by the PNA. International recognition

International recognition of the State of Palestine

Main articles: International recognition of the State of Palestine
International recognition of the State of Palestine
and Palestine 194 On 15 December 1988, the State of Palestine's declaration of independence of November 1988 was acknowledged in the General Assembly with Resolution 43/177.[67] As of 14 September 2015, 136 (7001705000000000000♠70.5%) of the 193 member states of the United Nations
United Nations
have recognised the State of Palestine. Many of the countries that do not recognise the State of Palestine nevertheless recognise the PLO as the "representative of the Palestinian people". The PLO's executive committee is empowered by the PNC to perform the functions of government of the State of Palestine.[53] On 29 November 2012,[45] UN General Assembly resolution 67/19
UN General Assembly resolution 67/19
passed, upgrading Palestine to "non-member observer state" status in the United Nations.[47][48] The change in status was described as "de facto recognition of the sovereign state of Palestine".[25] On 3 October 2014, new Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven
Stefan Löfven
used his inaugural address in parliament to announce that Sweden
Sweden
would recognise the state of Palestine. The official decision to do so was made on 30 October, making Sweden
Sweden
the first EU member state outside of the former communist bloc to recognise the state of Palestine. Most of the EU's 28 member states have refrained from recognising Palestinian statehood and those that do – such as Hungary, Poland and Slovakia – did so before accession.[68][69][70] On 13 October 2014, the UK House of Commons voted by 274 to 12 in favour of recognising Palestine as a state.[71] The House of Commons backed the move "as a contribution to securing a negotiated two-state solution" – although less than half of MPs took part in the vote. However, the UK government is not bound to do anything as a result of the vote: its current policy is that it "reserves the right to recognise a Palestinian state bilaterally at the moment of our choosing and when it can best help bring about peace".[72] On 2 December 2014, the French parliament voted by 331 to 151 in favour of urging their government to recognise Palestine as a state. The text, proposed by the ruling Socialists and backed by left-wing parties and some conservatives, asked the government to "use the recognition of a Palestinian state with the aim of resolving the conflict definitively".[73] On 31 December 2014, the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council voted down a resolution demanding the end of Israeli occupation and statehood by 2017. Eight members voted for the Resolution (Russia, China, France, Argentina, Chad, Chile, Jordan, Luxembourg), however following strenuous US and Israeli efforts to defeat the resolution,[74] it did not get the minimum of nine votes needed to pass the resolution. Australia and the United States voted against the resolution, with five other nations abstaining.[75][76][77] On 10 January 2015, the first Palestinian embassy in a western European country is open in Stockholm, Sweden.[78] On 13 May 2015, the Vatican announced it was shifting recognition from the PLO to the State of Palestine, confirming a recognition of Palestine as a state after the UN vote of 2012.[79] Monsignor Antoine Camilleri, Vatican foreign minister, said the change was in line with the evolving position of the Holy See, which has referred unofficially to the State of Palestine
State of Palestine
since Pope Francis's visit to the Holy Land in May 2014.[80] On 23 December 2015 the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution demanding Palestinian sovereignty over the natural resources in the Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
under Israeli occupation. It called on Israel to desist from the exploitation, damage, cause of loss or depletion and endangerment of Palestinian natural resources, the right of Palestinians to seek restitution for extensive destruction. The motion was passed by 164 votes to 5, with Canada, Federated States of Micronesia, Israel, Marshall Islands, and the United States opposing.[81] Raising the flag at the UN In August 2015, Palestine's representatives at the UN presented a draft resolution that would allow the non-member observer states Palestine and the Holy See
Holy See
to raise their flags at the United Nations headquarters. Initially, the Palestinians presented their initiative as a joint effort with the Holy See, which the Holy See
Holy See
denied.[82] In a letter to the Secretary General and the President of the General Assembly, Israel’s Ambassador at the UN Ron Prosor
Ron Prosor
called the step "another cynical misuse of the UN ... in order to score political points".[83] After the vote, the US Ambassador Samantha Power said that "raising the Palestinian flag
Palestinian flag
will not bring Israelis and Palestinians any closer together".[84] US state department spokesman Mark Toner called it a "counterproductive" attempt to pursue statehood claims outside of a negotiated settlement.[85] Legal status Main article: Legal status of the State of Palestine There are a wide variety of views regarding the status of the State of Palestine, both among the states of the international community and among legal scholars. The existence of a state of Palestine, although controversial, is a reality in the opinions of the states that have established bilateral diplomatic relations.[86][87][88][89] Security Main article: Palestinian Security Services The State of Palestine
State of Palestine
has a number of security forces, including a Civil Police Force, National Security Forces and Intelligence Services, with the function of maintaining security and protecting Palestinian citizens and the Palestinian State. Demographics Main articles: Demographics of the Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
and Demographics of Israel According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the State of Palestine had population of 4,420,549 people in 2013.[90] Within an area of 6,220 square kilometres (2,400 sq mi), there is a population density of 731 people per square kilometre.[citation needed] To put this in a wider context, the average population density of the world was 53 people per square kilometre based on data from 5 July 2014.[citation needed] Religion

Religion
Religion
of Palestinians (est. 2014)    Islam
Islam
(93%)    Christianity
Christianity
(6%)   Druze/ Samaritans
Samaritans
(1%)

Palestinian girls in Nablus

Illustration of Palestinian Christian
Palestinian Christian
home in Jerusalem, ca 1850. By W. H. Bartlett

93% of Palestinians are Muslim,[91] the vast majority of whom are followers of the Sunni
Sunni
branch of Islam,[92] with a small minority of Ahmadiyya,[93] and 15% being nondenominational Muslims.[94] Palestinian Christians
Palestinian Christians
represent a significant minority of 6%, followed by much smaller religious communities, including Druze
Druze
and Samaritans.[citation needed] Economy Main article: Economy of the Palestinian territories Tourism Main article: Tourism
Tourism
in the Palestinian territories Tourism
Tourism
in the Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
refers to tourism in East Jerusalem, the West Bank
West Bank
and the Gaza Strip. In 2010, 4.6 million people visited the Palestinian territories, compared to 2.6 million in 2009. Of that number, 2.2 million were foreign tourists while 2.7 million were domestic.[95] Most tourists come for only a few hours or as part of a day trip itinerary. In the last quarter of 2012 over 150,000 guests stayed in West Bank
West Bank
hotels; 40% were European and 9% were from the United States and Canada.[96] Lonely Planet travel guide writes that "the West Bank
West Bank
is not the easiest place in which to travel but the effort is richly rewarded."[97] In 2013 Palestinian Authority Tourism
Tourism
minister Rula Ma'ay'a stated that her government aims to encourage international visits to Palestine, but the occupation is the main factor preventing the tourism sector from becoming a major income source to Palestinians.[98] There are no visa conditions imposed on foreign nationals other than those imposed by the visa policy of Israel. Access to Jerusalem, the West Bank, and Gaza is completely controlled by the Government of Israel. Entry to the occupied Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
requires only a valid international passport.[99] Infrastructure Communications Main article: Communications in the Palestinian territories The communications infrastructure in the Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
is growing at a very rapid pace and continually being updated and expanded.[citation needed] Transportation Main article: Transport in the Palestinian territories Water supply and sanitation Main article: Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
are characterized by severe water shortage and are highly influenced by the Israeli occupation. The water resources of Palestine are fully controlled by Israel
Israel
and the division of groundwater is subject to provisions in the Oslo II Accord. Generally, the water quality is considerably worse in the Gaza strip when compared to the West Bank. About a third to half of the delivered water in the Palestinian territories
Palestinian territories
is lost in the distribution network. The lasting blockade of the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
and the Gaza War have caused severe damage to the infrastructure in the Gaza Strip.[100][101] Concerning wastewater, the existing treatment plants do not have the capacity to treat all of the produced wastewater, causing severe water pollution.[102] The development of the sector highly depends on external financing.[103] Education The literacy rate of Palestine was 96.3% according to a 2014 report by the United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme, which is high by international standards. There is a gender difference in the population aged above 15 with 5.9% of women considered illiterate compared to 1.6% of men.[104] Illiteracy among women has fallen from 20.3% in 1997 to less than 6% in 2014.[104] Culture Main article: Culture of Palestine Media There are a number of newspapers, news agencies, and satellite television stations in the State of Palestine. News agencies include Ma'an News Agency, Wafa, Palestine News Network and the satellite television includes Al-Aqsa TV, Al-Quds TV, Sanabel TV. Sports Football is the most popular sport among the Palestinian people. Rugby is also a popular sport. The Palestine national football team represents the country in international football. See also

Palestinian self-determination Palestinian territories Israeli-occupied territories Israeli settlement Water Rights in Israel-Palestine

Asia
Asia
portal Geography portal Middle East
Middle East
portal Palestine portal

Notes

i.   ^ Note that the name Palestine can commonly be interpreted as the entire territory of the former British Mandate, which today also incorporates Israel. The history was expressed by Mahmoud Abbas
Mahmoud Abbas
in his September 2011 speech to the United Nations: "... we agreed to establish the State of Palestine
State of Palestine
on only 22% of the territory of historical Palestine – on all the Palestinian Territory occupied by Israel
Israel
in 1967."[105] The name is also officially used as the short-form reference to the State of Palestine[4] and this should be distinguished from other homonymous uses for the term including the Palestinian Authority,[106] the Palestine Liberation Organization,[36] and the subject of other proposals for the establishment of a Palestinian state.

ii.   ^ The Palestinian Declaration of Independence
Palestinian Declaration of Independence
proclaims the "establishment of the State of Palestine
State of Palestine
on our Palestinian territory with its capital Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Al-Quds Ash-Sharif)."[6] The same decision was taken also by the PLC in May 2002 when it approved the PNA Basic Law, which states unambiguously " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is the Capital of Palestine".[107] Ramallah
Ramallah
is the administrative capital where government institutions and foreign representative offices are located. Jerusalem's final status awaits future negotiations between Israel
Israel
and the Palestinian Authority
Palestinian Authority
(see "Negotiating Jerusalem", University of Maryland at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 14 May 2006)). The United Nations
United Nations
and most countries do not accept Israel's annexation of East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
through the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Law of 1980 (see Kellerman 1993, p. 140) and maintain their embassies to Israel
Israel
in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
(see The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency). The international community also does not recognize either Israeli or Palestinian sovereignty over Jerusalem.[108]

iii.   ^ Israel
Israel
allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on the area classification. It maintains minimal interference (retaining control of borders: air,[109] sea beyond internal waters,[109][110] land[111]) in the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
(its interior and Egypt
Egypt
portion of the land border are under Hamas control), and varying degrees of interference elsewhere.[112][113][114][115][116] See also Israeli-occupied territories.

iv.   ^ So far both presidents of the State of Palestine, Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
and his successor Mahmoud Abbas, were appointed beforehand as Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization, the committee performing the functions of State of Palestine government.[47][53] See also Leaders of Palestinian institutions.

v.   ^ The New Testament, taking up a term used once in the Tanakh
Tanakh
(1 Samuel 13:19),[117][118] speaks of a larger theologically-defined area, of which Palestine is a part, as the "land of Israel"[119] (γῆ Ἰσραήλ) (Matthew 2:20–21), in a narrative paralleling that of the Book of Exodus.[120]

vi.   ^ Other writers, such as Strabo, referred to the region as Coele-Syria ("all Syria") around 10–20 CE.[121]

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Bibliography

Bercovitch, Jacob; Zartman, I. William (2008). Bercovitch, Jacob; Kremenyuk, Victor; Zartman, I. William,, eds. The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution (illustrated ed.). SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4129-2192-3. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Brownlie, Ian; Goodwin-Gill, Guy S.; Talmon, Stefan; Jennings, Robert (1999). The Reality of International Law: Essays in Honour of Ian Brownlie (illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-826837-6. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Gerson, Allan (1978). Israel, the West Bank
West Bank
and International Law. London: Frank Cass. ISBN 978-0-7146-3091-5. Grant, Thomas D. (1999). The Recognition of States: Law and Practice in Debate and Evolution. Greenwood Publishing Group (via Google Books). ISBN 978-0-275-96350-7.  Hillier, Tim (1998). Sourcebook on Public International Law (illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85941-050-9.  Kassim, Anis F. (1997). The Palestine Yearbook of International Law 1989 (illustrated ed.). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 978-90-411-0342-0.  p. 49 p. 279 p. 291 p. 294 Kellerman, Aharo n (1993). "Society and Settlement: Jewish Land of Israel
Israel
in the Twentieth Century". Albany, New York: State University of New York Press (via Google Books): 352. ISBN 978-0-7914-1295-4.  Kogan Page (2004). Middle East
Middle East
Review (27th, illustrated ed.). Kogan Page. ISBN 978-0-7494-4066-4.  Le More, Anne (2008). International Assistance to the Palestinians After Oslo: Political Guilt, Wasted Money (illustrated ed.). Routledge (via Google Books). ISBN 978-0-415-45385-1.  Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan; Mango, Anthony (2003). Encyclopedia of the United Nations
United Nations
and International Agreements (3rd ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-93921-8. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Quigley, John B. (2005). The Case for Palestine: An International Law Perspective (2nd, revised ed.). Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-3539-9.  Rubin, Don (1999). The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre: The Arab World (illustrated, reprint ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-05932-9.  Sayigh, Yezid (1999). Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-829643-0.  Segal, Jerome M. (1997). Tomis Kapitan, ed. Philosophical Perspectives on the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-1-56324-878-8.  Silverburg, Sanford R. (2002). Palestine and International Law: Essays on Politics and Economics. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-1191-7.  Takkenberg, Alex (1998). The Status of Palestinian Refugees in International Law (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-826590-0.  Talmon, Stefan (1998). Recognition of Governments in International Law: With Particular Reference to Governments in Exile (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press
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(via Google Books). ISBN 978-0-19-826573-3.  Europa World Year Book 2. Taylor & Francis (via Google Books). 2004. ISBN 978-1-85743-255-8.  The Middle East
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and North Africa 2004 (50th, illustrated ed.). Routledge. 2004. ISBN 978-1-85743-184-1. 

Further reading

Arzt, Donna E. (1997). Refugees into Citizens: Palestinians and the End of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (illustrated ed.). Council on Foreign Relations. ISBN 978-0-87609-194-4.  Fowler, Michael; Bunck, Julie Marie (1995). Law, Power, and the Sovereign State: The Evolution and Application of the Concept of Sovereignty. Penn State University Press
Penn State University Press
(via Google Books). ISBN 978-0-271-01471-5.  Peters, Joel (1992). Israel
Israel
and Africa: The Problematic Friendship (illustrated ed.). I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1-870915-10-6.  Taylor & Francis Group; Dean, Lucy (2003). The Middle East
Middle East
and North Africa 2004: 2004 (illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1-85743-184-1.  Tessler, Mark A. (1994). A History of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict (2nd, illustrated ed.). Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-35848-6.  Watson, Geoffrey R. (2000). The Oslo Accords: International Law and the Israeli–Palestinian Peace Agreements (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-829891-5. 

External links

Status of Palestine in the United Nations
United Nations
(A/RES/67/19) Full Text Cross, Tony (24 September 2011). "After Abbas's UN Bid Are Palestinians Closer To Having a State?". Radio France Internationale. Retrieved 2011-9-28. Recognition of a Palestinian state Premature Legally Invalid and Undermining any Bona Fide Negotiation Process Political Statement accompanying Palestinian Declaration of Independence Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations The Historic Compromise: The Palestinian Declaration of Independence and the Twenty-Year Struggle for a Two-State Solution International Recognition of a Unilaterally Declared Palestinian State: Legal and Policy Dilemmas, by Tal Becker

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recognition relations

North Korea

relations

South Korea

relations

UN observer states

Partially unrecognised

Palestine

recognition relations

Non-UN member states

Recognised by at least one UN member

Abkhazia

recognition relations

Kosovo

recognition relations

Northern Cyprus

relations relations

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

recognition relations

South Ossetia

recognition relations

Taiwan

relations

Recognised only by non-UN members

Artsakh

recognition relations

Transnistria

recognition relations

Unrecognised

Somaliland

relations

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Arab League

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Arab world

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Members

Algeria Bahrain Comoros Djibouti Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Mauritania Morocco Oman Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Somalia Sudan Tunisia United Arab Emirates Yemen
Yemen
(until 2017)

Observers

Armenia Brazil Eritrea India Turkey Venezuela

Suspended

Syria

Candidates

Chad South Sudan

Diplomacy

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Life

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Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
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Members

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Suspended

Syria

Observers

Countries and territories

Bosnia and Herzegovina Central African Republic Northern Cyprus1 Russia Thailand

Muslim communities

Moro National Liberation Front

International organizations

Economic Cooperation Organization African Union Arab League Non-Aligned Movement United Nations

1 As the "Turkish Cypriot State".

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Non-Aligned Movement

Members

List of members of Non-Aligned Movement India
India
and the Non-Aligned Movement Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the Non-Aligned Movement Egypt
Egypt
and the Non-Aligned Movement

Structure

Organizations

NAM News Network

Principles

Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence

Summits

Bandung Conference Non-Aligned Foreign Ministers Conference 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement

Founders

Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia) Sukarno (Indonesia) Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(India) Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
(Ghana) Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt)

People

Houari Boumediene Fidel Castro Nelson Mandela Mohamed Morsi Nicolás Maduro

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Countries and dependencies of Asia

Sovereign states

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Palestine Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand East Timor
East Timor
(Timor-Leste) Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Taiwan

Dependencies and special administrative regions

Australia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands

China

Hong Kong Macau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia British Indian Ocean Territory

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Middle East

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