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Coordinates : 60°0′N 105°0′E / 60.000°N 105.000°E / 60.000; 105.000

Siberia

Russian : _Сибирь_ (_Sibir_)

Geographical region

Siberian Federal District

Geographic Russian Siberia North Asia
North Asia

COUNTRY Russia
Russia
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan

REGION North Asia
North Asia

BORDERS ON West: Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
North: Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
East: Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
South: Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Mongolia
Mongolia
, PRC
PRC

PARTS West Siberian Plain
West Siberian Plain
Central Siberian Plateau
Central Siberian Plateau
_others..._

HIGHEST POINT Klyuchevskaya Sopka

- elevation 4,649 m (15,253 ft)

AREA 13,100,000 km2 (5,057,938 sq mi)

POPULATION 36,000,000 (_2017_)

DENSITY 2.7/km2 (7/sq mi)

SIBERIA (/saɪˈbɪəriə/ ; Russian : Сиби́рь, tr. _Sibir'_; IPA: ( listen )) is an extensive geographical region , and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia
North Asia
. Siberia
Siberia
has historically been a part of Russia
Russia
since the 17th century.

The territory of Siberia
Siberia
extends eastwards from the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
to the watershed between the Pacific
Pacific
and Arctic
Arctic
drainage basins . The Yenisei River conditionally divides Siberia
Siberia
into two parts, Western and Eastern. Siberia
Siberia
stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and to the national borders of Mongolia
Mongolia
and China
China
. With an area of 13.1 million square kilometres (5,100,000 sq mi), Siberia
Siberia
accounts for 77% of Russia's land area, but it is home to just 40 million people—27% of the country's population. This is equivalent to an average population density of about 3 inhabitants per square kilometre (7.8/sq mi) (approximately equal to that of Australia
Australia
), making Siberia
Siberia
one of the most sparsely populated regions on Earth. If it were a country by itself, it would still be the largest country in area, but in population it would be the world's 35th-largest and Asia's 14th-largest.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology * 2 Prehistory
Prehistory
* 3 History

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Mountain ranges * 4.2 Lakes and rivers * 4.3 Grasslands * 4.4 Geology * 4.5 Climate

* 5 Fauna

* 5.1 Order Artiodactyla

* 5.2 Order Carnivora

* 5.2.1 Family Felidae * 5.2.2 Family Ursidae

* 6 Flora * 7 Politics

* 8 Borders and administrative division

* 8.1 Major cities

* 9 Economy * 10 Sport * 11 Demographics * 12 Religion * 13 Transport

* 14 Culture

* 14.1 Cuisine

* 15 Notable residents * 16 See also * 17 References * 18 Bibliography * 19 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The origin of the name is unknown. Some sources say that "Siberia" originates from the Siberian Tatar word for "sleeping land" (Sib Ir). Another account sees the name as the ancient tribal ethnonym of the Sirtya (ru) (also "Syopyr" (sʲɵpᵻr)), a folk, which spoke a language that later evolved into the Ugric languages . This ethnic group was later assimilated to the Siberian Tatar people.

The modern usage of the name was recorded in the Russian language after the Empire's conquest of the Siberian Khanate . A further variant claims that the region was named after the Xibe people . The Polish historian Chycliczkowski has proposed that the name derives from the proto-Slavic word for "north" (север, _sever_), but Anatole Baikaloff has dismissed this explanation. He said that the neighbouring Chinese, Arabs and Mongolians (who have similar names for the region) would not have known Russian. He suggests that the name is a combination of two words, _"su"_ (water) and _"bir"_ (wild land).

PREHISTORY

The region is of paleontological significance, as it contains bodies of prehistoric animals from the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Epoch , preserved in ice or permafrost . Specimens of Goldfuss cave lion cubs , Yuka (mammoth) and another woolly mammoth from Oymyakon , a woolly rhinoceros from the Kolyma River , and bison and horses from Yukagir , were found here.

The Siberian Traps were formed by one of the largest-known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earth\'s geological history . They continued for a million years and are considered a possible cause of the "Great Dying " about 250 million years ago, which is estimated to have killed 90% of species existing at the time.

At least three species of human lived in Southern Siberia
Siberia
around 40,000 years ago: _H. sapiens _, _H. neanderthalensis _, and the Denisovans . The last was determined in 2010, by DNA evidence, to be a new species.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Siberia and List of Russian explorers
List of Russian explorers
Chukchi , one of many indigenous peoples of Siberia
Siberia
.

Siberia
Siberia
was inhabited by different groups of nomads such as the Enets , the Nenets , the Huns
Huns
, the Scythians and the Uyghurs . The Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern Tobolsk
Tobolsk
was known as a prominent figure who endorsed Kubrat as _Khagan_ of Old Great Bulgaria
Old Great Bulgaria
in 630. The Mongols conquered a large part of this area early in the 13th century.

With the breakup of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir was established in the late 15th century. Turkic-speaking Yakut migrated north from the Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
region under pressure from the Mongol
Mongol
tribes during the 13th to 15th century. Siberia
Siberia
remained a sparsely populated area. Historian John F. Richards wrote: "... it is doubtful that the total early modern Siberian population exceeded 300,000 persons."

The growing power of Russia
Russia
in the West began to undermine the Siberian Khanate in the 16th century. First, groups of traders and Cossacks began to enter the area. The Russian Army was directed to establish forts farther and farther east to protect new settlers from European Russia. Towns such as Mangazeya , Tara , Yeniseysk and Tobolsk
Tobolsk
were developed, the last being declared the capital of Siberia. At this time, _Sibir_ was the name of a fortress at Qashlik, near Tobolsk. Gerardus Mercator , in a map published in 1595, marks _Sibier_ both as the name of a settlement and of the surrounding territory along a left tributary of the Ob. Other sources contend that the Xibe , an indigenous Tungusic people , offered fierce resistance to Russian expansion beyond the Urals. Some suggest that the term "Siberia" is a Russification of their ethnonym.

By the mid-17th century, Russia
Russia
had established areas of control that extended to the Pacific
Pacific
. Some 230,000 Russians
Russians
had settled in Siberia by 1709. Siberia
Siberia
was a destination for sending exiles .

The first great modern change in Siberia
Siberia
was the Trans-Siberian Railway , constructed during 1891–1916. It linked Siberia
Siberia
more closely to the rapidly industrialising Russia
Russia
of Nicholas II . Around seven million people moved to Siberia
Siberia
from European Russia
Russia
between 1801 and 1914. From 1859 to 1917, more than half a million people migrated to the Russian Far East . Siberia
Siberia
has extensive natural resources. During the 20th century, large-scale exploitation of these was developed, and industrial towns cropped up throughout the region. Siberian Cossack
Cossack
family in Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk

At 7:15 a.m. on 30 June 1908, millions of trees were felled near the Podkamennaya Tunguska (Stony Tunguska) River in central Siberia
Siberia
in the Tunguska Event . Most scientists believe this resulted from the air burst of a meteor or a comet. Even though no crater has ever been found, the landscape in the (uninhabited) area still bears the scars of this event.

In the early decades of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(especially the 1930s and 1940s), the government established the GULAG state agency to administer a system of penal labour camps , replacing the previous katorga system. According to semi-official Soviet estimates, which were not made public until after the fall of the Soviet government, from 1929 to 1953 more than 14 million people passed through these camps and prisons, many of which were in Siberia. Another 7 to 8 million people were internally deported to remote areas of the Soviet Union (including entire nationalities or ethnicities in several cases).

Half a million (516,841) prisoners died in camps from 1941 to 1943 due to food shortages caused by World War II
World War II
. At other periods, mortality was comparatively lower. The size, scope, and scale of the GULAG slave labour camps remains a subject of much research and debate. Many Gulag camps were positioned in extremely remote areas of northeastern Siberia. The best known clusters are _ Sevvostlag _ (_The North-East Camps_) along the Kolyma River and _ Norillag _ near Norilsk , where 69,000 prisoners were kept in 1952. Major industrial cities of Northern Siberia, such as Norilsk and Magadan , developed from camps built by prisoners and run by ex-prisoners.

GEOGRAPHY

Further information: Geography of Russia
Russia
and Geography of North Asia
North Asia

Gulf of Ob Novaya Zemlya
Novaya Zemlya
Kara Sea Yenisei Ob Taymyr Peninsula Severnaya Zemlya
Severnaya Zemlya
Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
Central Siberian Plateau Siberian Federal District Lena Sakha Republic Laptev Sea New Siberian Islands Kolyma Verkhoyansk Range

Urals Federal District Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Ob Irtysh Altai Tian Shan
Tian Shan
Syr Darya
Syr Darya
Taklamakan
Taklamakan
Himalayas
Himalayas
Pamir Hindukush Tibetan Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
Mongolia
Mongolia
Gobi
Gobi
North China
China
Plain Yangtze Plain Plateau Stanovoy Range Manchuria
Manchuria
Korea
Korea
Sakhalin
Sakhalin
Amur Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
Japan
Japan
Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean

PHYSICAL MAP OF NORTHERN ASIA.

Altai, Lake Kutsherla in the Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
The peninsula of Svyatoy Nos, Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
Vasyugan River in the southern West Siberian Plain
West Siberian Plain
Siberian taiga Koryaksky volcano towering over Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on the Kamchatka Peninsula

With an area of 13.1 million square kilometres (5,100,000 sq mi), Siberia
Siberia
makes up roughly 77% of Russia's total territory and almost 10% of Earth's land surface (148,940,000 km2, 57,510,000 sq mi). While Siberia
Siberia
falls entirely within Asia, many authorities such as the UN geoscheme will not subdivide countries and will place all of Russia
Russia
as part of Europe
Europe
and/or Eastern Europe . Major geographical zones include the West Siberian Plain
West Siberian Plain
and the Central Siberian Plateau
Central Siberian Plateau
.

Eastern and central Sakha comprises numerous north-south mountain ranges of various ages. These mountains extend up to almost 3,000 metres (9,800 ft), but above a few hundred metres they are almost completely devoid of vegetation. The Verkhoyansk Range was extensively glaciated in the Pleistocene, but the climate was too dry for glaciation to extend to low elevations. At these low elevations are numerous valleys, many of them deep and covered with larch forest, except in the extreme north where the tundra dominates. Soils are mainly turbels (a type of gelisol ). The active layer tends to be less than one metre deep, except near rivers.

The highest point in Siberia
Siberia
is the active volcano Klyuchevskaya Sopka , on the Kamchatka Peninsula . Its peak is at 4,750 metres (15,580 ft).

MOUNTAIN RANGES

* Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
* Anadyr Range * Baikal Mountains * Chamar-Daban * Chersky Range * Dzhugdzhur Mountains * Gydan Mountains * Koryak Mountains * Sayan Mountains * Tannu-Ola Mountains * Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
* Verkhoyansk Mountains * Yablonoi Mountains

LAKES AND RIVERS

Main article: Rivers in Russia
Russia

* Anabar River * Angara River
Angara River
* Indigirka River * Irtysh River * Kolyma River * Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
* Lena River * Lower Tunguska River * Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Reservoir * Ob River * Popigay River * Stony Tunguska River * Upper Angara River
Angara River
* Uvs Nuur * Yana River
Yana River
* Yenisei River

GRASSLANDS

* Ukok Plateau
Ukok Plateau
— part of a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site

GEOLOGY

The West Siberian Plain
West Siberian Plain
consists mostly of Cenozoic
Cenozoic
alluvial deposits and is somewhat flat. Many deposits on this plain result from ice dams which produced a large glacial lake . This mid- to late-Pleistocene lake blocked the northward flow of the Ob and Yenisei rivers, resulting in a redirection southwest into the Caspian and Aral seas via the Turgai Valley . The area is very swampy, and soils are mostly peaty histosols and, in the treeless northern part, histels . In the south of the plain, where permafrost is largely absent, rich grasslands that are an extension of the Kazakh Steppe
Kazakh Steppe
formed the original vegetation, most of which is not visible anymore.

The Central Siberian Plateau
Central Siberian Plateau
is an ancient craton (sometimes named _Angaraland_) that formed an independent continent before the Permian (see the Siberian continent ). It is exceptionally rich in minerals, containing large deposits of gold , diamonds , and ores of manganese , lead , zinc , nickel , cobalt and molybdenum . Much of the area includes the Siberian Traps —a large igneous province . This massive eruptive period was approximately coincident with the Permian–Triassic extinction event . The volcanic event is said to be the largest known volcanic eruption in Earth\'s history . Only the extreme northwest was glaciated during the Quaternary
Quaternary
, but almost all is under exceptionally deep permafrost, and the only tree that can thrive, despite the warm summers, is the deciduous Siberian Larch (_Larix sibirica_) with its very shallow roots. Outside the extreme northwest, the taiga is dominant, covering a significant fraction of the entirety of Siberia. Soils here are mainly turbels , giving way to spodosols where the active layer becomes thicker and the ice content lower. Belukha Mountain Autumn forest in the eastern Sayan Mountains , Buryatia
Buryatia

The _Lena-Tunguska petroleum province_ includes the Central Siberian platform (some authors refer to it as the Eastern Siberian platform), bounded on the northeast and east by the Late Carboniferous through Jurassic Verkhoyansk foldbelt , on the northwest by the Paleozoic Taymr foldbelt, and on the southeast, south and southwest by the Middle Silurian to Middle Devonian Baykalian foldbelt. :228 A regional geologic reconnaissance study begun in 1932, followed by surface and subsurface mapping, revealed the Markova-Angara Arch (anticline ). This led to the discovery of the Markovo Oil
Oil
Field in 1962 with the Markovo 1 well, which produced from the Early Cambrian Osa Horizon bar -sandstone at a depth of 2,156 metres (7,073 ft). :243 The _Sredne-Botuobin Gas Field_ was discovered in 1970, producing from the Osa and the Proterozoic Parfenovo Horizon. :244 The Yaraktin Oil
Oil
Field was discovered in 1971, producing from the Vendian Yaraktin Horizon at depths of up to 1,750 metres (5,740 ft), which lies below Permian
Permian
to Lower Jurassic basalt traps . :244

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Russia
Russia

polar desert tundra alpine tundra taiga montane forest temperate broadleaf forest temperate steppe dry steppe

Vegetation in Siberia
Siberia
is mostly taiga , with a tundra belt on the northern fringe, and a temperate forest zone in the south.

The climate of Siberia
Siberia
varies dramatically, but all of it basically has short summers and long and extremely cold winters. On the north coast, north of the Arctic Circle , there is a very short (about one-month-long) summer. Taiga near Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal

Almost all the population lives in the south, along the Trans-Siberian Railway . The climate in this southernmost part is Humid continental climate (Köppen _Dfb_) with cold winters but fairly warm summers lasting at least four months. The annual average is about 0.5 °C (32.9 °F). January averages about −20 °C (−4 °F) and July about +19 °C (66 °F) while daytime temperatures in summer typically are above 20 °C (68 °F). With a reliable growing season, an abundance of sunshine and exceedingly fertile chernozem soils, southern Siberia
Siberia
is good enough for profitable agriculture , as was proven in the early 20th century.

By far the most commonly occurring climate in Siberia
Siberia
is continental subarctic (Koppen _Dfc_ or _Dwc_), with the annual average temperature about −5 °C (23 °F) and an average for January of −25 °C (−13 °F) and an average for July of +17 °C (63 °F), although this varies considerably, with a July average about 10 °C (50 °F) in the taiga–tundra ecotone . The Business oriented website and blog _Business Insider_ lists Verkhoyansk and Oymyakon , in Siberia's Sakha Republic , as being in competition for the title of the Northern Hemisphere's _ Pole of Cold _. Oymyakon is a village which recorded a temperature of −67.7 °C (−89.9 °F) on 6 February 1933. Verkhoyansk , a town further north and further inland, recorded a temperature of −69.8 °C (−93.6 °F) for 3 consecutive nights: 5, 6 and 7 February 1933. Each town is alternately considered the Northern Hemisphere's Pole of Cold, meaning the coldest inhabited point in the Northern hemisphere. Each town also frequently reaches 86 °F (30 °C) in the summer, giving them, and much of the rest of Russian Siberia, the world's greatest temperature variation between summer's highs and winter's lows, often being well over 170–180+°F (94–100+°C) between the seasons.

Southwesterly winds bring warm air from Central Asia and the Middle East. The climate in West Siberia
Siberia
(Omsk, Novosibirsk) is several degrees warmer than in the East (Irkutsk, Chita) where in the north an extreme winter subarctic climate (Köppen _Dfd_ or _Dwd_) prevails. But summer temperatures in other regions can reach +38 °C (100 °F). In general, Sakha is the coldest Siberian region, and the basin of the Yana River
Yana River
has the lowest temperatures of all, with permafrost reaching 1,493 metres (4,898 ft). Nevertheless, as far as Imperial Russian plans of settlement were concerned, cold was never viewed as an impediment. In the winter, southern Siberia
Siberia
sits near the center of the semi-permanent Siberian High , so winds are usually light in the winter.

Precipitation
Precipitation
in Siberia
Siberia
is generally low, exceeding 500 millimetres (20 in) only in Kamchatka where moist winds flow from the Sea of Okhotsk onto high mountains – producing the region's only major glaciers , though volcanic eruptions and low summer temperatures allow limited forests to grow. Precipitation
Precipitation
is high also in most of Primorye in the extreme south where monsoonal influences can produce quite heavy summer rainfall.

CLIMATE DATA FOR NOVOSIBIRSK , SIBERIA\'S LARGEST CITY

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) −12.2 (10) −10.3 (13.5) −2.6 (27.3) 8.1 (46.6) 17.5 (63.5) 24.0 (75.2) 25.7 (78.3) 22.2 (72) 16.6 (61.9) 6.8 (44.2) −2.9 (26.8) −8.9 (16) 7.0 (44.6)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −16.2 (2.8) −14.7 (5.5) −7.2 (19) 3.2 (37.8) 11.6 (52.9) 18.2 (64.8) 20.2 (68.4) 17.0 (62.6) 11.5 (52.7) 3.4 (38.1) −6.0 (21.2) −12.7 (9.1) 2.4 (36.3)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −20.1 (−4.2) −19.1 (−2.4) −11.8 (10.8) −1.7 (28.9) 5.6 (42.1) 12.3 (54.1) 14.7 (58.5) 11.7 (53.1) 6.4 (43.5) 0.0 (32) −9.1 (15.6) −16.4 (2.5) −2.3 (27.9)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 19 (0.75) 14 (0.55) 15 (0.59) 24 (0.94) 36 (1.42) 58 (2.28) 72 (2.83) 66 (2.6) 44 (1.73) 38 (1.5) 32 (1.26) 24 (0.94) 442 (17.4)

Source:

Researchers, including Sergei Kirpotin at Tomsk State University and Judith Marquand at Oxford University
Oxford University
, warn that Western Siberia has begun to thaw as a result of global warming . The frozen peat bogs in this region may hold billions of tons of methane gas , which may be released into the atmosphere. Methane is a greenhouse gas 22 times more powerful than carbon dioxide . In 2008, a research expedition for the American Geophysical Union detected levels of methane up to 100 times above normal in the atmosphere above the Siberian Arctic
Arctic
, likely the result of methane clathrates being released through holes in a frozen 'lid' of seabed permafrost , around the outfall of the Lena River and the area between the Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea .

FAUNA

A Siberian tigress and cub.

ORDER ARTIODACTYLA

* Manchurian wapiti * Siberian musk deer

ORDER CARNIVORA

Family Felidae

* Amur leopard
Amur leopard
* Amur tiger

Family Ursidae

* Asian black bear * Brown bear
Brown bear
* Polar bear
Polar bear

FLORA

* Picea obovata * Pinus pumila

POLITICS

Main article: Siberian regionalism Siberian flag used by Siberian separatists

BORDERS AND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION

Map of the most populated area of Siberia
Siberia
with clickable city names (SVG) Comparison of the nine biggest Siberian cities\' growth in the 20th century

The term "Siberia" has a long history. Its meaning has gradually changed during ages. Historically, Siberia
Siberia
was defined as the whole part of Russia
Russia
to the east of Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
, including the Russian Far East
Far East
. According to this definition, Siberia
Siberia
extended eastward from the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
to the Pacific
Pacific
coast, and southward from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
to the border of Russian Central Asia and the national borders of both Mongolia
Mongolia
and China.

Soviet-era sources (_ Great Soviet Encyclopedia
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
_ and others) and modern Russian ones usually define Siberia
Siberia
as a region extending eastward from the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
to the watershed between Pacific
Pacific
and Arctic
Arctic
drainage basins, and southward from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and the national borders of both Mongolia
Mongolia
and China
China
. By this definition, Siberia
Siberia
includes the federal subjects of the Siberian Federal District , and some of the Ural Federal District , as well as Sakha (Yakutia) Republic , which is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District . Geographically, this definition includes subdivisions of several other subjects of Urals and Far Eastern federal districts, but they are not included administratively. This definition excludes Sverdlovsk Oblast and Chelyabinsk Oblast , both of which are included in some wider definitions of Siberia.

Other sources may use either a somewhat wider definition that states the Pacific
Pacific
coast, not the watershed, is the eastern boundary (thus including the whole Russian Far East) or a somewhat narrower one that limits Siberia
Siberia
to the Siberian Federal District (thus excluding all subjects of other districts). In Russian, the word for Siberia
Siberia
is used as a substitute for the name of the federal district by those who live in the district itself and less commonly used to denote the federal district by people residing outside of it. Ulan-Ude

Federal subjects of Siberia
Siberia
(GSE) SUBJECT ADMINISTRATIVE CENTER

URAL FEDERAL DISTRICT

Khanty–Mansi Autonomous
Autonomous
Okrug Khanty-Mansiysk

Kurgan Oblast Kurgan

Tyumen Oblast Tyumen
Tyumen

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous
Autonomous
Okrug Salekhard

SIBERIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT

Altai Krai Barnaul

Altai Republic Gorno-Altaysk

Buryat Republic Ulan-Ude

Irkutsk Oblast Irkutsk
Irkutsk

Republic of Khakassia Abakan
Abakan

Kemerovo Oblast Kemerovo

Krasnoyarsk Krai Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk

Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Oblast Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk

Omsk Oblast Omsk

Tomsk Oblast Tomsk
Tomsk

Tuva
Tuva
Republic Kyzyl

Zabaykalsky Krai Chita

FAR EASTERN FEDERAL DISTRICT

Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Yakutsk

Amur waterfront in Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
Vladivostok
Vladivostok
, Primorsky Krai

Federal subjects of Siberia
Siberia
(in wide sense) SUBJECT ADMINISTRATIVE CENTER

FAR EASTERN FEDERAL DISTRICT

Amur Oblast Blagoveshchensk
Blagoveshchensk

Chukotka Autonomous
Autonomous
Okrug Anadyr

Jewish Autonomous
Autonomous
Oblast Birobidzhan

Kamchatka Krai Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky

Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
Krai Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk

Magadan Oblast Magadan

Primorsky Krai
Primorsky Krai
Vladivostok
Vladivostok

Sakhalin
Sakhalin
Oblast Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk

URAL FEDERAL DISTRICT

Chelyabinsk Oblast Chelyabinsk

Sverdlovsk Oblast Yekaterinburg

MAJOR CITIES

The most populous city of Siberia, as well as the third most populous city of Russia, is the city of Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
. Other major cities include:

* Barnaul * Irkutsk
Irkutsk
* Kemerovo * Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
* Novokuznetsk * Omsk * Tomsk
Tomsk
* Tyumen
Tyumen

Wider definitions of Siberia
Siberia
also include:

* Chelyabinsk * Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
* Vladivostok
Vladivostok
* Yekaterinburg - Some sources such as Encyclopædia Britannica include this city as it lies in the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
. Inhabitants have distanced themselves though saying that there is a difference between Siberian and Urals culture.

ECONOMY

Russia
Russia
is a key oil and gas supplier to much of Europe.

Siberia
Siberia
is extraordinarily rich in minerals , containing ores of almost all economically valuable metals . It has some of the world's largest deposits of nickel , gold , lead , coal , molybdenum , gypsum , diamonds , diopside , silver and zinc , as well as extensive unexploited resources of oil and natural gas . Around 70% of Russia's developed oil fields are in the Khanty-Mansiysk region. Russia contains about 40% of the world's known resources of nickel at the Norilsk deposit in Siberia. Norilsk Nickel
Nickel
is the world's biggest nickel and palladium producer.

Siberian agriculture is severely restricted by the short growing season of most of the region. However, in the southwest where soils are exceedingly fertile black earths and the climate is a little more moderate, there is extensive cropping of wheat , barley , rye and potatoes , along with the grazing of large numbers of sheep and cattle . Elsewhere food production, owing to the poor fertility of the podzolic soils and the extremely short growing seasons, is restricted to the herding of reindeer in the tundra—which has been practiced by natives for over 10,000 years. Siberia
Siberia
has the world's largest forests . Timber remains an important source of revenue, even though many forests in the east have been logged much more rapidly than they are able to recover. The Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
is one of the two or three richest fisheries in the world owing to its cold currents and very large tidal ranges , and thus Siberia
Siberia
produces over 10% of the world's annual fish catch, although fishing has declined somewhat since the collapse of the USSR.

SPORT

Bandy
Bandy
at Sibselmash Stadium in Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
, Siberia's biggest city and the third biggest one in Russia
Russia

Professional football teams include FC Tom Tomsk
Tomsk
, FC Sibir Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
and FK Yenisey Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
.

The Yenisey Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
basketball team has played in the VTB United League since 2011–12.

Russia's third most popular sport, bandy , is important in Siberia. In the 2015–16 Russian Bandy
Bandy
Super League season Yenisey from Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
became champions for the third year in a row by beating Baykal-Energiya from Irkutsk
Irkutsk
in the final. Two or three more teams (depending on the definition of Siberia) play in the Super League, the bronze medalists SKA-Neftyanik from Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
, the quarter-finalists Kuzbass from Kemerovo and the 11th-placed Sibselmash from Novosibirsk . In 2007 Kemerovo got Russia's first indoor arena specifically built for bandy. Now Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
has the world's biggest indoor arena specifically built for bandy, Arena Yerofey .

The 2019 Winter Universiade will be hosted by Krasnoyarsk.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Siberia Tomsk
Tomsk
, one of the oldest Siberian cities, was founded in 1604.

According to the Russian Census of 2010 , the Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Districts, located entirely east of the Ural Mountains , together have a population of about 25.6 million. Tyumen
Tyumen
and Kurgan Oblasts, which are geographically in Siberia
Siberia
but administratively part of the Urals Federal District , together have a population of about 4.3 million. Thus, the whole region of Asian Russia
Russia
(or Siberia
Siberia
in the broadest usage of the term) is home to approximately 30 million people. It has a population density of about three people per square kilometre.

All Siberians are Russian citizens, and of these Russian citizens of Siberia, most are Slavic-origin Russians
Russians
. The remaining Russian citizens of Siberia
Siberia
consists of other groups of non-indigenous ethnic origins and those of indigenous Siberian origin.

Among the largest non-Slavic group of Russian citizens of Siberia
Siberia
are the approximately 400,000 ethnic Volga Germans . The original indigenous groups of Siberia, including Mongol
Mongol
and Turkic groups such as Buryats , Tuvinians , Yakuts , and Siberian Tatars still mostly reside in Siberia, though they are minorities outnumbered by all other non-indigenous Siberians. Indeed, Slavic-origin Russians
Russians
by themselves outnumber all of the indigenous peoples combined, both in Siberia
Siberia
as a whole and its cities, except in the Republic of Tuva
Tuva
.

Slavic-origin Russians
Russians
make up the majority in the Buryat, Sakha , and Altai Republics , outnumbering the indigenous Buryats , Sakha , and Altai . The Buryat make up only 25% of their own republic, and the Sakha and Altai each are only one-third, and the Chukchi, Evenk , Khanti , Mansi , and Nenets are outnumbered by non-indigenous peoples by 90% of the population.

According to the 2002 census there are 500,000 Tatars in Siberia
Siberia
, but of these, 300,000 are Volga Tatars who also settled in Siberia during periods of colonization and are thus also non-indigenous Siberians, in contrast to the 200,000 Siberian Tatars which are indigenous to Siberia.

Of the indigenous Siberians, the Buryats , numbering approximately 500,000, are the most numerous group in Siberia, and they are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic . According to the 2002 census there were 443,852 indigenous Yakuts . Other ethnic groups indigenous to Siberia
Siberia
include Kets , Evenks , Chukchis , Koryaks
Koryaks
, Yupiks , and Yukaghirs .

About seventy percent of Siberia's people live in cities, mainly in apartments. Many people also live in rural areas, in simple, spacious, log houses. Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
is the largest city in Siberia, with a population of about 1.5 million. Tobolsk
Tobolsk
, Tomsk
Tomsk
, Tyumen
Tyumen
, Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
, Irkutsk
Irkutsk
, and Omsk are the older, historical centers.

RELIGION

Transfiguration Cathedral, Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
See also: Shamanism
Shamanism
in Siberia
Siberia

There are a variety of beliefs throughout Siberia, including Orthodox Christianity , other denominations of Christianity, Tibetan Buddhism and Islam
Islam
. An estimated 70,000 Jews live in Siberia, some in the Jewish Autonomous
Autonomous
Region
Region
. The predominant religious group is the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
.

Tradition regards Siberia
Siberia
the archetypal home of shamanism , and polytheism is popular. These native sacred practices are considered by the tribes to be very ancient. There are records of Siberian tribal healing practices dating back to the 13th century. The vast territory of Siberia
Siberia
has many different local traditions of gods. These include: Ak Ana , Anapel , Bugady Musun , Kara Khan , Khaltesh-Anki , Kini\'je , Ku\'urkil , Nga , Nu\'tenut , Numi-Torem , Numi-Turum , Pon , Pugu , Todote , Toko\'yoto , Tomam , Xaya Iccita , Zonget . Places with sacred areas include Olkhon , an island in Lake Baikal
Lake Baikal
.

TRANSPORT

Many cities in northern Siberia, such as Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky , cannot be reached by road, as there are virtually none connecting from other major cities in Russia
Russia
or Asia. The best way to tour Siberia
Siberia
is through the Trans-Siberian Railway . The Trans-Siberian Railway operates from Moscow in the west to Vladivostok
Vladivostok
in the east. Cities not near the railway are best reached by air or by the separate Baikal-Amur-Railway (BAM).

CULTURE

CUISINE

Stroganina is a raw fish dish of the indigenous people of northern Arctic
Arctic
Siberia
Siberia
made from raw, thin, long-sliced frozen fish. It is a popular dish with native Siberians.

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

* Dmitry Kroyter (born 1993), Israeli Olympic high jumper * Lev Psakhis (born 1958), Israeli chess grandmaster * Tatyana Usova (born 1987), model

SEE ALSO

* Siberian regionalism

REFERENCES

* ^ " Great Soviet Encyclopedia
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
(in Russian)". Encycl.yandex.ru. Retrieved 15 May 2010. * ^ Euan Ferguson. "Trans-Siberian for softies". _the Guardian_. Retrieved 14 January 2016. * ^ Crossley, Pamela Kyle (2002). _The Manchus_. Peoples of Asia. 14 (3rd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 213. ISBN 0-631-23591-4 . Retrieved 28 December 2013. * ^ Czaplicka, M.C. (1915). _Aboriginal Siberia_. * ^ Baikaloff, Anatole (Dec 1950). "Notes on the origin of the name "Siberia"". _Slavonic and East European Review_. 29 (72): 288. * ^ "Meet this extinct cave lion, at least 10,000 years old – world exclusive". _siberiantimes.com_. Retrieved 2016-01-30. * ^ "Yellowstone\'s Super Sister" at the Wayback Machine (archived 14 March 2005). Discovery Channel. * ^ Benton, M. J. (2005). _When Life Nearly Died: The Greatest Mass Extinction of All Time_. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28573-2 . * ^ "DNA identifies new ancient human dubbed \'X-woman\'," BBC News. 25 March 2010. * ^ Pakendorf, B.; Novgorodov, I. N.; Osakovskij, V. L.; Danilova, A. B. P.; Protod'Jakonov, A. P.; Stoneking, M. (2006). "Investigating the effects of prehistoric migrations in Siberia: Genetic variation and the origins of Yakuts". _Human Genetics_. 120 (3): 334–353. PMID 16845541 . doi :10.1007/s00439-006-0213-2 . _ This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain ._ * ^ Richards, 2003 p. 538. * ^ _ Asia
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ex magna Orbis terrae descriptione Gerardi Mercatoris desumpta, studio & industria G.M. Iunioris _ * ^ Sean C. Goodlett. "Russia’s Expansionist Policies I. The Conquest of Siberia". Falcon.fsc.edu. Retrieved 15 May 2010. * ^ http://www.economist.com/news/books-and-arts/21705305-prison-without-roof?fsrc=scn/tw/te/pe/ed/prisonwithoutaroof https://twitter.com/TheEconomist/status/768263225708257284 * ^ "Review: The Great Siberian Migration: Government and Peasant in Resettlement from Emancipation to the First World War". Retrieved 14 January 2016. * ^ _The Russian Far East: A History_. John J. Stephan (1996). Stanford University Press . p.62. ISBN 0-8047-2701-5 * ^ Fiona Hill, Russia
Russia
— Coming In From the Cold?, The Globalist , 23 February 2004 * ^ _The Unknown Gulag: The Lost World of Stalin\'s Special Settlements_. Lynne Viola (2007). Oxford University
Oxford University
Press US . p.3. ISBN 0-19-518769-5 * ^ Robert Conquest in "Victims of Stalinism: A Comment," _Europe- Asia
Asia
Studies,_ Vol. 49, No. 7 (Nov. 1997), pp. 1317–1319 states: "We are all inclined to accept the Zemskov totals (even if not as complete) with their 14 million intake to Gulag 'camps' alone, to which must be added 4–5 million going to Gulag 'colonies', to say nothing of the 3.5 million already in, or sent to, 'labour settlements'. However taken, these are surely 'high' figures." * ^ Zemskov, "Gulag," _Sociologičeskije issledovanija,_ 1991, No. 6, pp. 14–15. * ^ Stéphane Courtois, Mark Kramer. _Livre noir du Communisme: crimes, terreur, répression_. Harvard University Press , 1999. p. 206. ISBN 0-674-07608-7 * ^ Courtois and Kramer (1999), _Livre noir du Communisme,_ p.239. * ^ "Gulag: a History of the Soviet Camps". Arlindo-correia.org. Retrieved 6 January 2009. * ^ "Altai: Saving the Pearl of Siberia". Archived from the original on 22 March 2007. Retrieved 30 November 2006. * ^ Lioubimtseva E.U., Gorshkov S.P. _A Giant Siberian Lake During the Last Glacial: Evidence and Implications_; Oak Ridge National Laboratory * ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2011. _Taiga_. eds. M.McGinley & C.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Meyerhof, A. A., 1980, "Geology and Petroleum Fields in Proterozoic and Lower Cambrian Strata, Lena-Tunguska Petroleum
Petroleum
Province, Eastern Siberia, USSR", in _Giant Oil
Oil
and Gas Fields of the Decade: 1968–1978_, AAPG Memoir 30, Halbouty, M. T., editor, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum
Petroleum
Geologists, ISBN 0891813063 * ^ " Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
climate". Worldclimate.com. 4 February 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2010. * ^ " Omsk climate". Worldclimate.com. 4 February 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2010. * ^ "Kazachengoye climate". Worldclimate.com. 4 February 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2010. * ^ _Business Insider_, February 2014, http://www.businessinsider.com/verkhoyansk-russia-most-miserable-place-2014-2 * ^ Гидрометцентр России (IN RUSSIAN). ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 27 JUNE 2008. RETRIEVED 8 JANUARY 2009. * ^ Ian Sample, "Warming hits \'tipping point\'". _ The Guardian
The Guardian
_, 11 August 2005 * ^ Connor, Steve (23 September 2008). "Exclusive: The methane time bomb". _ The Independent
The Independent
_. Retrieved 3 October 2008. * ^ N. Shakhova, I. Semiletov, A. Salyuk, D. Kosmach, and N. Bel'cheva (2007), Methane release on the Arctic
Arctic
East Siberian shelf, _Geophysical Research Abstracts_, 9, 01071 * ^ Valerius Geist (January 1998). _Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behaviour, and Ecology_. Stackpole Books. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-8117-0496-0 . Retrieved 30 January 2016. * ^ Nyambayar, B.; Mix, H. & Tsytsulina, K. (2008). "_Moschus moschiferus_". _ IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008_. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 30 January 2016. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of vulnerable. * ^ Uphyrkina, O.; Miquelle, D.; Quigley, H.; Driscoll, C.; O’Brien, S. J. (2002). "Conservation Genetics of the Far Eastern Leopard (_Panthera pardus orientalis_)" (PDF). _Journal of Heredity_. 93 (5): 303–11. PMID 12547918 . doi :10.1093/jhered/93.5.303 . Retrieved 30 January 2016. * ^ Miquelle, D.; Darman, Y.; Seryodkin, I. (2011). "Panthera tigris ssp. altaica". _ IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2_. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 30 January 2016. * ^ Garshelis, D. L.; Steinmetz, R. & IUCN SSC Bear Specialist Group (2008). "Ursus thibetanus". _ IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2_. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 30 January 2016. * ^ McLellan, B.N.; Servheen, C. & Huber, D. (2008). "_Ursus arctos_". _ IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2008_. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 30 January 2016. * ^ Farjon, A. (2013). "Pinus pumila". _ IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1_. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 30 January 2016. * ^ A. Farjon (2011). "_Picea obovata_". _ IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3_. International Union for Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 10 December 2014. * ^ Малый энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона (The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary , in Russian) * ^ Сибирь—Большая советская энциклопедия (The _ Great Soviet Encyclopedia
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
_, in Russian) * ^ Сибирь- Словарь современных географических названий (in Russian) * ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Siberia-Britannica online encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 15 May 2010. * ^ "Siberia" at the Wayback Machine (archived 24 August 2000), _The Columbia Encyclopedia_, Sixth Edition * ^ David Filipov (January 5, 2017). "This Russian city says: ‘Don’t call us Siberia’". The Washington Post . Retrieved January 6, 2017. * ^ Statistics on the Development of Gas Fields in Western Siberia, Daily Questions on Energy and Economy * ^ Schlindwein, Simone (August 26, 2008). "The City Built on Oil: EU- Russia
Russia
Summit Visits Siberia\'s Boomtown". Spiegel. Retrieved 8 August 2014. * ^ " Norilsk raises 2010 nickel output forecast". Reuters. 29 January 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2014. * ^ "FAO National Aquaculture Sector Overview (NASO)". 16 January 2005. Retrieved 14 January 2016. * ^ "Google Translate". Retrieved 14 April 2016. * ^ "Google Translate". Retrieved 14 April 2016. * ^ https://i.ytimg.com/vi/_Y0lhvnE7pU/hqdefault.jpg * ^ "Информация о стадионе "КЛМ стадиона «Химик", Кемерово – Реестр – Федерация хоккея с мячом России". _rusbandy.ru_. Retrieved 14 April 2016. * ^ "Информация о стадионе "Арена «Ерофей", Хабаровск – Реестр – Федерация хоккея с мячом России". _rusbandy.ru_. Retrieved 14 April 2016. * ^ "Census 2010 official results (Russian)" * ^ "Ukrainians in Russia\'s Far East
Far East
try to maintain community life". _The Ukrainian Weekly_. May 4, 2003. * ^ "Siberian Germans". Everyculture.com. Retrieved 15 May 2010. * ^ Batalden 1997, p. 37. * ^ Archived 27 February 2002 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Russian Federation: Buryats. * ^ World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Russian Federation: Yakuts. * ^ Russian Embassy website — _Religion in Russia_ at the Wayback Machine (archived 26 September 2000) * ^ Arnold, Thomas Walker (1896). _The Preaching of Islam: A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith_. Westminster: Archibald Constable and Company. pp. 206–207. Retrieved 2015-10-11. Of the spread of Islam
Islam
among the Tatars of Siberia, we have a few particulars. It was not until the latter half of the sixteenth century that it gained a footing in this country, but even before this period Muhammadan missionaries had from time to time made their way into Siberia
Siberia
with the hope of winning the heathen population over to the acceptance of their faith, but the majority of them met with a martyr's death. When Siberia
Siberia
came under Muhammadan rule, in the reign of Kuchum Khan
Kuchum Khan
, the graves of seven of these missionaries were discovered . Kuchum Khan
Kuchum Khan
made every effort for the conversion of his subjects, and sent to Bukhara asking for missionaries to assist him in this pious undertaking. * ^ "Planting Jewish roots in Siberia". Fjc.ru. 24 May 2004. Retrieved 15 May 2010. * ^ "Why some Jews would rather live in Siberia
Siberia
than Israel", _The Christian Science Monitor _. 7 June 2010 * ^ Hoppál 2005:13 * ^ "Secrets of Siberian Shamanism
Shamanism
New Dawn : The World\'s Most Unusual Magazine". _www.newdawnmagazine.com_. Retrieved 2017-01-09. * ^ Rasputin, V.; Winchell, M.; Mikkelson, G. (1997). _Siberia, Siberia_. Northwestern University Press . pp. 322–323. ISBN 978-0-8101-1575-0 . * ^ Motarjemi, Yasmine; Moy, Gerald; Todd, E. C. D. (2013). _Encyclopedia of Food Safety_. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science , Academic Press . p. 176. ISBN 978-0-12-378613-5 . * ^ "Kroyter jumps back into picture as high-flying Israeli phenom". _jpost.com_. Retrieved 18 August 2016. * ^ Soltis, Andrew (1 November 1999). "Soviet Chess 1917-1991". McFarland. Retrieved 18 August 2016 – via Google Books. * ^ " Tatyana Usova - Fashion Model - Profile on New York Magazine". _nymag.com_. Retrieved 18 August 2016.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Batalden, Stephen K. (1997). _The Newly Independent States of Eurasia: Handbook of Former Soviet Republics_. Contributor Sandra L. Batalden (revised ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0897749405 . Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Bisher, Jamie (2006). _White Terror: Cossack
Cossack
Warlords of the Trans-Siberian_. Routledge. ISBN 1135765952 . Retrieved 24 April 2014.

* Bisher, Jamie (2006). _White Terror: Cossack
Cossack
Warlords of the Trans-Siberian_. Routledge. ISBN 1135765960 . Retrieved 24 April 2014.

* Black, Jeremy (2008). _War and the World: Military Power and the Fate of Continents, 1450–2000_. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300147694 . Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Nicholas B. Breyfogle, Abby Schrader and Willard Sunderland (eds), _Peopling the Russian Periphery: Borderland Colonization in Eurasian history_ (London, Routledge, 2007). * Etkind, Alexander (2013). _Internal Colonization: Russia\'s Imperial Experience_. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0745673546 . Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Forsyth, James (1994). _A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia\'s North Asian Colony 1581–1990_ (illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521477719 . Retrieved 24 April 2014. * James Forsyth, _A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony, 1581–1990_ (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1994). * Jack, Zachary Michael, ed. (2008). _Inside the Ropes: Sportswriters Get Their Game On_. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0803219075 . Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Steven G. Marks, _Road to Power: The Trans-Siberian Railroad and the Colonization of Asian Russia, 1850–1917_ (London, I.B. Tauris, 1991). * Mote, Victor L. (1998). _Siberia: Worlds Apart_. Westview series on the post-Soviet republics (illustrated ed.). Westview Press. ISBN 0813312981 . Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Igor V. Naumov, _The History of Siberia_. Edited by David Collins (London, Routledge, 2009) (Routledge Studies in the History of Russia and Eastern Europe). * Stephan, John J. (1996). _The Russian Far East: A History_ (illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804727015 . Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Pesterev, V. (2015). _Siberian frontier: the territory of fear_. Royal Geographical Society (with IBG), London. * Wood, Alan (2011). _Russia\'s Frozen Frontier: A History of Siberia
Siberia
and the Russian Far East 1581 – 1991_ (illustrated ed.). A&C Black. ISBN 034097124X . Retrieved 24 April 2014. * Alan Wood (ed.), _The History of Siberia: From Russian Conquest to Revolution_ (London, Routledge, 1991). * _Condé Nast\'s Traveler, Volume 36_. Condé Nast Publications. 2001. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * _Yearbook_. Contributor International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. 1992. Retrieved 24 April 2014.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Novosibirsk: the center of Siberia

* v * t * e

Regions of the world

* v * t * e

Regions of Africa
Africa

NORTH

* Mediterranean * Gibraltar Arc

* Greater Middle East
Greater Middle East

* MENA * Middle East
Middle East

* Maghreb
Maghreb

* Barbary Coast * Barbara * Ancient Libya * Atlas Mountains ( Middle Atlas
Middle Atlas
) * Sahara
Sahara
* Western Sahara
Sahara
* Sahel
Sahel

* Eastern Mediterranean

* Egypt

* Upper Egypt * Middle Egypt
Middle Egypt
* Lower Egypt * Cataracts of the Nile

.