Shusha (Azerbaijani: Şuşa; Russian: Шуша), or Shushi (Armenian:
Շուշի), is a city in the disputed region of
the South Caucasus. It has been under the control of the
Artsakh Republic since its capture in 1992 during the
Nagorno-Karabakh War. However, it is a de jure part of the Republic of
Azerbaijan, with the status of an administrative division of the
Shusha Rayon. Situated at an altitude of 1,400–1,800
metres (4,600–5,900 ft) in the picturesque Karabakh mountains,
Shusha was a popular mountain recreation resort in the Soviet era.
According to some sources the town of
Shusha was founded in 1752 by
Panah Ali Khan. Other sources suggest that
Shusha served as a
town and an ancient fortress in the Armenian principality of Varanda
during the Middle Ages and through the 18th century. From
the mid-18th century to 1822
Shusha was the capital of the Karabakh
Khanate. The town became one of the cultural centers of the South
Caucasus after the Russian conquest of the
Caucasus region in the
first half of the 19th century over Qajar Iran. Over time, it
became a city and a home to many Azerbaijani intellectuals, poets,
writers and especially, musicians (e.g., the ashiks, mugham singers,
Along with Tbilisi; it was one of the two main Armenian cities of the
Transcaucasus and the center of a self-governing Armenian principality
from medieval times through the 1750s. It also had religious and
strategic importance to the Armenians, housing the Ghazanchetsots
Cathedral, the church of Kanach Zham, two other churches, a monastic
convent, and serving (along with
Lachin district to the west) as a
land link to Armenia.
Throughout modern history the city mainly fostered a mixed
Armenian–Azerbaijani population. Following the
Shusha massacre in
1920 by Azerbaijani forces and their Turkish supporters, the Armenian
half of the population of the city was mostly killed or expelled, and
the city reduced to a town with a dominant Azerbaijani population.
After the capture of
Shusha in 1992 by Armenian forces, its population
diminished dramatically again and is now almost exclusively Armenian.
1.2 Conflict with the Qajars
Shusha within the Russian Empire
1.4 Early 20th century
1.5 Soviet era
2.1 History Museum of Shusha/Shushi
4 Economy and tourism
5 Twin towns – sister cities
6 Notable natives
7 See also
9 External links
Yukhari Govhar Agha Mosque, opened in 1885
Holy Mother of God "Kanach Zham" church, opened in 1818
Shusha as a settlement is first mentioned as Shushi in the Middle
Ages, with the 15th century illuminated Armenian
Gospel kept on
display at Yerevan's
Matenadaran (archival number 8211) being the
earliest known artifact from the town. The
Gospel was created in
Shusha by the calligrapher Ter-Manuel in 1428.
According to several sources, a settlement called Shushi served as an
ancient fortress in the Armenian principality of Varanda, and had
traditionally belonged to the Melik-Shahnazarian princely
dynasty. The town and fort of
Shusha was mentioned as a
linchpin of one of East Armenian military districts, called
"syghnakhs", which played a key role in the Armenian commander Avan
Yuzbashi's campaign against Ottoman forces in the 1720s and 1730s,
during the Turkish invasion of the Southern Caucasus.
Kehva Chelebi, an Armenian patriot who maintained correspondence
between the meliks of Karabakh and the Russian authorities, in this
report of 1725 mentions Shushi as a town and a fort:
… The nearest Armenian stronghold … was Shushi. Shushi is four
days' distance from Shemakhi. Armed Armenians under the command of
Avan Yuzbashi guard it. After meeting with the Armenian leaders,
including the Patriarch, they returned to Derbent via Shemakhi. Rocky
mountains surround the town of Shushi. The number of the armed
Armenians has not been determined. There are rumors that the Armenians
have defeated the Turks in a number of skirmishes in Karabagh …
In his letter of 1769 to the Russian diplomat Count P. Panin, the
Erekle II documented that "there was an 'ancient'
fortress which was conquered, through deceit, by one man from the
Muslim Jevanshir tribe." The same information about the 'ancient'
fortress is confirmed by the Russian Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov
in his letter to Prince Grigory Potemkin. Suvorov writes that
the Armenian prince Melik Shahnazar of Varanda surrendered his
fortress Shushikala to "certain Panah", whom he calls "chief of an
unimportant part of nomadic Muslims living near the Karabakh
borders." When discussing Karabakh and
Shusha in the 18th century,
the Russian diplomat and historian S. M. Bronevskiy (Russian: С. М.
Броневский (1763-1830) implied in his Historical Notes that
Shusha was a possession of the Melik-Shahnazarian clan. Russian
historian P. G. Butkov (Russian: П. Г. Бутков (1775-1857)
The palace of Khurshidbanu Natavan, the daughter of the last ruler of
Karabakh Khanate, late 19th-early 20th centuries
The Armenian quarters of
Shusha - with the Cathedral of the Holy
Saviour in the background- in the early 20th century, before their
destruction by Azerbaijani military units in 1920
Azerbaijani and some Armenian 19th century sources, including Mirza
Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi, Mirza Adigozal bey, Abbasgulu Bakikhanov,
Mirza Yusuf Nersesov and Raffi, attest to the foundation of the town
Shusha in 1750-1752 (according to other sources, 1756–1757) by
Panah-Ali khan Javanshir
Panah-Ali khan Javanshir (r. 1748-1763), the founder and the first
ruler of the
Karabakh Khanate (1748–1822), which comprised both
Lowland and Highland Karabakh. The mid-18th century foundation
is supported by Encyclopaedia of Islam, Brockhaus and Efron
Encyclopedic Dictionary and Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
According to Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi (1773–1853), the author
of the Persian-language text History of Karabakh, one of the most
significant chronicles on the history of Karabakh in 18th-19th
centuries, the Karabakh nobility assembled to discuss the danger of
invasion from Iran and told Panah Ali Khan, "We must build among the
impassable mountains such an inviolable and inaccessible fort, so that
no strong enemy could take it." Melik Shahnazar of Varanda, who was
the first of the Armenian meliks (dukes) to accept the suzerainty of
Panah Ali Khan
Panah Ali Khan and who would remain his loyal supporter, suggested a
location for the new fortress. Thus, Panahabad-
Shusha was founded.
According to Mirza Jamal Javanshir, before Panah Ali khan constructed
the fortress there were no buildings there and it was used as a
cropland and pasture by the people of the nearby village of
Shoshi. Panah khan resettled to
Shusha the population of
Shahbulag and some nearby villages, and built strong
Another account is presented by Raffi, an Armenian novelist and
historian, in his work The Princedoms of Khamsa, who asserts that the
Shusha was built on was desolate and uninhabited before
Panah-Ali Khan's arrival. He states, "[Panah-Ali Khan and
Melik-Shahnazar of Varanda] soon completed the construction (1762) [of
the fortress] and moved the Armenian population of the nearby village
of Shosh (Շոշ), called also Shoshi, or Shushi into the
The town was initially named Panahabad, after its founder.
During the rule of Ibrahim-Khalil khan (r. 1763-1806), the son of
Panah Ali khan, the town received its present name from a nearby
Armenian village called Shushi, also known as Shushikent ("village of
Shushi") or Shosh.
Conflict with the Qajars
See also: Battle of Krtsanisi
Although Panah Ali khan has been in conflict with Nader Shah, but the
new ruler of Persia, Adil Shah, issued a firman (decree) recognizing
Panah Ali as the Khan of Karabakh. Less than a year after Shusha
was founded, the
Karabakh Khanate was attacked by Mohammad Hassan Khan
Qajar, one of the major claimants to the Iranian throne. During the
Safavid Empire Karabakh was for almost two centuries ruled by
Ziyad-oglu family of the clan of
Qajars (of Turkic origin), and
therefore, Muhammed Hassan khan considered Karabakh his hereditary
Muhammed Hassan khan besieged
Shusha (Panahabad at that time) but soon
had to retreat, because of the attack on his territory by his major
opponent to the Iranian throne,
Karim Khan Zand. His retreat was so
hasty that he even left his cannons under the walls of Shusha
fortress. Panah Ali khan counterattacked the retreating troops of
Mohammad Hassan khan and even briefly took
Ardabil across the Aras
In 1756 (or 1759)
Shusha and the
Karabakh Khanate underwent a new
attack from Fath-Ali Khan Afshar, ruler of Urmia. With his 30,000
strong army Fatali khan also managed to gain support from the meliks
(feudal vassals) of Jraberd and Talish (Gulistan), however melik
Shahnazar of Varanda continued to support Panah Ali khan. Siege of
Shusha lasted for six months and Fatali khan eventually had to
When Karīm Khan Zand took control of much of Iran, he forced Panāh
Khan to come to
Shiraz (Capital), where he died as a hostage.
Panah-Ali Khan's son Ibrahim-Khalil Khan was sent back to Karabakh as
governor. Under him Karabakh khanate became one of the strongest
state formations and
Shusha grew. According to travelers who visited
Shusha at the end of 18th-early 19th centuries the town had about
2,000 houses and approximately 10,000 population.
In summer 1795
Shusha was subjected to a major attack by Agha Mohammad
Khan Qajar, son of Mohammad Hassan khan who attacked
Shusha in 1752.
Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar's goal was to end with the feudal
fragmentation and to restore the old Safavid State in Iran. By early
1795, he had already secured mainland Iran and was directly afterwards
poised to bring the entire
Caucasus region back within the Iranian
domains. For this purpose he also wanted to proclaim himself shah
(king) of Iran. However, according to the Safavid tradition, shah had
to take control over the whole of
South Caucasus and
his coronation. Therefore,
Karabakh Khanate and its fortified capital
Shusha, were the first and major obstacle to achieve these ends.
Mohammad Khan Qajar
Mohammad Khan Qajar besieged
Shusha with the centre part of
70,000-strong army, after having crossed the Aras River. The right
and left wings were sent to resubjugate Shirvan-
Dagestan and Erivan
respectively. Agha Mohammad Khan himself led the centre part of the
main army, besieging
Shusha between 8 July and 9 August 1795.
Ibrahim Khalil khan mobilized the population for a long-term defense.
The number of militia in
Shusha reached 15,000. Women
fought together with men. The Armenian population of
Karabakh also actively participated in this struggle against the
Iranians and fought side by side with the Muslim population, jointly
organizing ambushes in the mountains and forests.
The siege lasted for 33 days. Not being able to capture Shusha, Agha
Mohammad Khan for now ceased the siege, and advanced to Tiflis
(present-day Tbilisi), which despite desperate resistance was occupied
and exposed to unprecedented destruction. The Khan of Karabakh,
Ibrahim Khan, eventually surrendered to Mohammad Khan after
discussions, including the paying of regular tribute and to surrender
hostages, though the Qajar forces were still denied entrance to
Shusha. Since the main objective was Georgia, Mohammad Khan was
willing to have Karabakh secured by this agreement for now, for he and
his army subsequently moved further.
In 1797 Agha Mohammad Shah Qajar, having successfully resubjugated
Georgia and the wider Caucasus, and had by that time has already
managed to declare himself shah conform the same traditions Nader Shah
had done as well in the nearby Mughan plain, (nowadays shared
between the Republic of
Azerbaijan and Iran) decided to carry out a
second attack on Karabakh.
Trying to avenge the previous humiliating defeat Qajar devastated the
surrounding villages near Shusha. The population could not recover
from the previous 1795 attack and also suffered from serious drought
which lasted for three years. The artillery of the enemy also caused
serious losses amongst the city defenders. Thus, in 1797 Agha Mohammad
Shah succeeded in seizing
Shusha and Ibrahim Khalil khan had to flee
However, several days after the seizure of Shusha, Agha Mohammad Khan
was killed in mysterious circumstances by his bodyguards in the
town.Ibrahim Khalil khan returned to Shushi and ordered that the
shah’s body be honorably buried until further instructions from the
nephew and heir of Agha Mohammad Shah, Baba Khan, who soon assumed the
title of Fath-Alī Shah. Ibrahim khan, in order to maintain
peaceful relations with Tehran and retain his position as the khan of
Karabakh, gave his daughter Agha Begom, known as Aghabaji, as one of
the wives of the new shah.
Shusha within the Russian Empire
From the early 19th century, Russian ambitions in the
increase its territories at the expense of neighbouring
Qajar Iran and
Ottoman Turkey began to rise. Following the annexation of Georgia in
1801, some of the khanates accepted Russian protectorate in the
immediate years afterwards. In 1804, the Russian
Pavel Tsitsianov directly invaded
Qajar Iran initiating the
Russo-Persian War of 1804-1813. Amidst the war, in 1805, an agreement
was made between the
Karabakh Khanate and the
Russian Empire on the
transfer of the
Karabakh Khanate to Russia amidst the war, but had
close to no usage, as both parties were still at war and the Russians
were unable to consolidate any effective possession over Karabakh.
Ashaghi Govhar Agha Mosque, opened in 1876
Russian Empire consolidated its power in the Karabakh khanate
Treaty of Gulistan
Treaty of Gulistan in 1813, when Iran was forced to
recognize the belonging of the Karabakh khanate, along most of the
other khanates they possessed in the Caucasus, to Russia, comprising
Dagestan and most of the
Azerbaijan Republic, while
officially ceding Georgia as well, thus irrevocably losing the greater
part of its Caucasian territories. Absolute consolidation of
Russian power over Karabakh and the recently conquered parts of the
Caucasus from Iran were confirmed with the outcome of the
Russo-Persian War of 1828-1828 and the ensuing Treaty of Turkmenchay
Ghazanchetsots Cathedral, opened in 1887
During the Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828 the citadel at
out for several months and never fell. After this
Shusha ceased to be
a capital of a khanate, which was dissolved in 1822, and instead
became an administrative capital of first the Karabakh province
(1822–1840), following Persia's ceding to Russia, and then of the
Shusha district (uyezd) of the
Elisabethpol Governorate (1840–1923).
Shusha grew and developed, with successive waves of migrants moving to
the city, particularly Armenians.
A survey prepared by the Russian imperial authorities in 1823, a year
after and several years before the 1828 Armenian migration from Persia
to the newly established Armenian Province, shows that all Armenians
of Karabakh compactly resided in its highland portion, i.e., on the
territory of the five traditional Armenian principalities, and
constituted an absolute demographic majority on those lands. The
survey's more than 260 pages recorded that the district of Khachen had
twelve Armenian villages and no Tatar (Muslim) villages; Jalapert
(Jraberd) had eight Armenian villages and no Tatar villages; Dizak had
fourteen Armenian villages and one Tatar village; Gulistan had twelve
Armenian and five Tatar villages; and Varanda had twenty-three
Armenian villages and one Tatar village.
Beginning from the 1830s the town was divided into two parts:
Turkic-speaking Muslims lived in the eastern lower quarters, while
Armenian Christians settled in the relatively new western upper
quarters of the town. The Muslim part of the town was divided into
seventeen quarters. Each quarter had its own mosque, Turkish bath,
water-spring and also a quarter representative, who would be elected
among the elderlies (aksakals), and who would function as a sort of
head of present-day municipality. The Armenian part of the town
consisted of 12 quarters, five churches, town and district school and
The population of the town primarily dealt with trade, horse-breeding,
carpet-weaving and wine and vodka production.
Shusha was also the
biggest center of silk production in the Caucasus. Most of the Muslim
population of the town and of Karabakh in general was engaged in sheep
and horse-breeding and therefore, had a semi-nomadic lifestyle,
spending wintertime in lowland Karabakh in wintering pastures and
spring and summer in summering pastures in
Shusha and other
In the 19th century,
Shusha was one of the great cities of the
Caucasus, larger and more prosperous than either
Baku or Yerevan.
Standing in the middle of a net of caravan routes, it had ten
Caravanserais. It was well known for its silk trade, its paved
roads, brightly colored carpets, big stone houses, and fine-bred
horses. In 1824, George Keppel, the Earl of Albemarle, passed
through the city. He found two thousand houses in the town, with
three-quarters of the inhabitants Azerbaijanis and one-quarter
Armenian. He furthermore noted regarding the town;
(...) The language is a dialect of the Turkish; but its inhabitants,
with the exception of the Armenians, generally read and write Persian.
The trade is carried on principally by the Armenians, between the
towns of Sheki, Nakshevan, Khoi and Tabriz."
Early 20th century
Shusha pogrom and Armenian–Azerbaijani War
A photo taken in 1918 of the Karabakh reconciliation commission,
composed of religious leaders and elders of both Armenian and
Armenian half of
Shusha destroyed by Azerbaijani armed forces in 1920,
with the defiled cathedral of the Holy Savior and Aguletsots church on
Ruins of the Armenian part of
Shusha after the 1920 pogrom with the
church of the Holy Mother of God "Kanach Zham" in the background
The beginning of the 20th century marked the first Armenian-Tartar
clashes throughout Azerbaijan. This new phenomenon had two reasons.
First, it was the result of increased tensions between the local
Muslim population and Armenians, whose numbers increased throughout
the 19th century as a result of Russian resettlement policies. Second,
by the beginning of the 20th century peoples of the Caucasus, similar
to other non-Russian peoples in the periphery of the Russian Empire
began to seek cultural and territorial autonomy. That is why, in the
beginning of the 20th century in Russia itself was a period of
bourgeois and Bolshevik revolutions, in the peripheries these
movements have acquired a character of the national liberation
The initial clashes between ethnic Armenians and Azerbaijanis took
Baku in February 1905. Soon, the conflict spilled over to
other parts of the Caucasus, and on August 5, 1905 first conflict
between the Armenian and Azerbaijani inhabitants of
Shusha took place.
As a result of the mutual pogroms and killings, hundreds of people
died and more than 200 houses were burned.
World War I
World War I and subsequent collapse of the Russian Empire,
Karabakh was claimed by
Azerbaijan to be part of the Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic, a decision hotly disputed by neighboring Armenia
and by Karabakh's Armenian population, which claimed Karabakh as part
of the First Republic of Armenia. After the defeat of Ottoman empire
in the World War I, Armenian forces under
Andranik Ozanian defeated
Azeri forces under
Khosrov bey Sultanov
Khosrov bey Sultanov in Abdallyar, and began
heading down the
Lachin corridor towards Shusha. Shortly before
Andranik could arrive, British troops under General W. M. Thomson
encouraged him to retreat, as Armenian military activity may have an
adverse effect on the region's status to be decided at the 1919 Paris
Peace Conference. Trusting Thomson, Andranik left, and the British
troops occupied Karabakh. The British command provisionally affirmed
Sultanov (appointed by the Azerbaijani government) as the
governor-general of Karabakh and Zangezur, pending final decision by
the Paris Peace Conference.
To make the local Armenians surrender to the Azerbaijani rule Sultanov
employed most severe measures against them such as terror, blockade
In August 1919, the Karabakh National Council was forced to enter into
a provisional treaty agreement with the Azerbaijani government,
recognizing the authority of the
Azerbaijan government until the issue
of the mountainous part of Karabakh would be settled at the Paris
Peace Conference. Despite signing the Agreement, the Azerbaijani
government continuously violated the terms of the treaty, employing
even more severe measures against the Armenian population[need
quotation to verify]. Ethnic conflict began to erupt in the
region. According to Michael P. Croissant on 5 June 1919, 600 Armenian
inhabitants of the villages surrounding
Shusha were killed by
Azerbaijani and Kurdish irregulars. Sultanov claimed that those
irregulars were not under his control. The strife culminated with
an Armenian uprising, which was suppressed by the
Azerbaijani army. In late March 1920 the Armenian half of the police
forces was reported by a British journalist to have murdered the
Azerbaijani half during the latter's traditional Novruz Bayram holiday
celebtrations. The Armenian surprise attack was organised and
coordinated by the forces of the Armenian Republic.
Azerbaijani outrage for this surprise attack ultimately led to the
pogrom of March 1920, in which between 500 and 20,000[citation
needed] of the Armenian population of
Shusha was killed, and many
forced to flee.
According to the description of an Azerbaijani communist Ojahkuli
... the ruthless destruction of defenceless women, children, old
women, old men, etc has begun. Armenians were exposed to a mass
slaughter. ... beautiful Armenian girls were raped, then shot. ... By
the order of ... Khosrov-bek Sultanov; the pogroms proceeded for more
than six days. Houses in the Armenian part have been partially
demolished, plundered and reduced all to ashes, everyone led away
women to submit to the wishes of executioner musavatists. During these
historically artful forms of punishment, Khosrov-bek Sultanov, spoke
about holy war (jihad) in his speeches to the Moslems, and called on
them to finally finish the Armenians of the city of Shusha, not
sparing women, children, etc.[verification needed]
Nadezhda Mandelstam wrote about
Shusha in the 1920s, "in this town,
which formerly of course was healthy and with every amenity, the
picture of catastrophe and massacres was terribly visual. ... They say
after the massacres all the wells were full of dead bodies. ... We
didn't see anyone in the streets on the mountain. Only in
downtown—in the market-square, there were a lot of people, but there
wasn't any Armenian among them; all were Muslims".
View from the town
In 1920, the Bolshevik 11th
Red Army invaded
Azerbaijan and then
Armenia and put an end to the national de facto governments that
existed in those two countries. Beginning from this period, conflict
over control of Karabakh and its central town of Shusha, moved from
the battlefield to the diplomatic sphere.
In order to attract Armenian public support, the
Bolsheviks promised to resolve the issue of the disputed territories,
including Karabakh, in favor of Armenia. However, on July 5, 1921 the
Caucasus Bureau (Kavburo) of the Communist Party adopted the following
decision regarding the future status of Karabakh: "Proceeding from the
necessity of national peace among Muslims and Armenians and of the
economic ties between upper (mountainous) and lower Karabakh, of its
permanent ties with Azerbaijan, mountainous Karabakh is to remain
within AzSSR, receiving wide regional autonomy with the administrative
center in Shusha, which is to be included in the autonomous region."
As a result, Mountainous Karabakh Autonomous Region was established
Azerbaijan SSR in 1923.
T-72 tank standing as a memorial commemorating the Capture of Shusha
by the Armenian forces
The decision favoring
Azerbaijan was due to Stalin, who knew that by
including the disputed and by then majority Armenian-populated region
within the boundaries of Azerbaijan, it would ensure Moscow’s
position as power broker.
Stepanakert after the Armenian communist leader
Stepan Shaumyan), a small village that was previously known with its
Armenian name of Vararakn, became the new regional capital of the
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast and soon became its largest town.
The town remained half-ruined until the 1960s, when the town began to
gradually revive due to its recreational potential. In 1977
declared a reservation of
Azerbaijan architecture and history and
became one of the major resort-towns in the former USSR.
The Armenian quarter continued to lie in ruins until the beginning of
the 1960s. In 1961, Baku's communist leadership finally passed a
decision to clear away much of the ruins, even though many old
buildings still could have been renovated. Three Armenian and one
Russian churches were demolished and the Armenian part of the town was
built up with plain buildings typical of the Khrushchev era.[citation
Shusha in ruins in 2010
With the start of
Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1988
Shusha became the most
important Azeri stronghold in Karabakh, from where Azeri forces
constantly shelled the capital Stepanakert. On May 9, 1992 the town
was captured by Armenian forces and the Azeri population fled. The
city was looted and burnt by Armenians. As of 2002, ten years later
after the city's capture by the Armenian forces, some 80% of the town
was in ruins.
After the end of the war, the town was repopulated by Armenians,
mostly refugees from
Azerbaijan and other parts of Karabakh, as well
as members of the Armenian diaspora. While the population of the town
is barely half of the pre-war number, and the demographic of the town
has changed from mostly Azeri to completely Armenian, a slow recovery
can be seen. The Goris-
Stepanakert Highway passes through the town,
and is a transit and tourist destination for many. There are some
hotels in the city, and reconstruction work continues, in particular,
Ghazanchetsots Cathedral recently finished going through the
After the war, a
T-72 tank commanded by the Karabakhi Armenian Gagik
Avsharian was placed as a memorial. The tank had been hit during the
town's capture, killing the driver and gun operator, but Avsharian
jumped free from the hatch. The tank was restored and its number, 442,
repainted in white on the side.
Uzeyir Hajibeyov (top left) with his family in
Because of historical specifics
Shusha contains both Armenian and
Azerbaijani cultural monuments, while the surrounding territories
include also many ancient Armenian villages.
Shusha is one of the Armenian religious and cultural centers
and predominately Armenian cities of Caucasus. The Eastern
Armenian version of four Gospels (Holy Bible) was completed in 1830 in
Shusha, and then was published in
Moscow for the first time.
The city was also one of the leading centres of Azeri culture. The
Shusha is extremely popular with the musical traditions of
Shusha is home to one of the leading schools of
mugham, traditional Azerbaijani genre of vocal and instrumental arts.
Shusha is particularly renowned for this art.
Shusha is also well known for sileh rugs, floor coverings from the
South Caucasus. Those from the
Caucasus may have been woven in the
vicinity of Shusha. A similar Eastern Anatolian type usually shows a
different range of colours.
History Museum of Shusha/Shushi
Located in the detached house of the mid-19th century, in the centre
of the historical quarter, the museum to the history of
Shusha is the
collection of artifacts illustrating the centuries-old past of the
ancient city-fortress, including the rich archaeological material of
Hellenistic period that has changed the former ideas that
founded in the 18th century. The collection of the museum contains
many ethnographic materials, including the goods of local masters.
Household articles of the 19th century illustrate the life of Shusha
inhabitants. The collection of photos and reproductions, arranged on
the stands of the museum halls, make the cultural life of the city of
that period very tangible. Other materials illustrate the desolation
Shusha in 1920. A special stand is devoted to the military
operation on the takeover of
Shusha on 9 May 1992. Here, the diorama
of the battle is located, which creates the history of fights in the
Historical population and ethnic composition of Shusha
March 1920: Massacre and expulsion of Armenian population by
Nagorno-Karabakh conflict: Expulsion of Armenian
May 1992: Capture by Armenian forces. Expulsion of Azerbaijani
Following the capture of
Shusha by the Armenian forces in 1992, the
Azerbaijani population of the town fled and the present population
consists of around 4,500 Armenians, mainly refugees from
Baku, and other parts of Karabakh and Azerbaijan. As a
result of the war, there are no Azerbaijanis living in Shusha
According to the last population census in 1989, the town of Shusha
had a population of 17,000 and
Shusha district had a population of
23,000. 91.7% of population of
Shusha district and 98% of
were Azerbaijani. The highland portion of Karabakh, where Shusha
was built, traditionally had an Armenian majority of the population.
When discussing Karabakh and
Shusha in the 18th century, the Russian
diplomat and historian S. M. Bronevskiy indicated in his “Historical
Notes” that Karabakh, which he said "is located in Greater Armenia"
had as many as 30-40 thousand armed Armenian men in 1796.
According to first Russian-held census of 1823 conducted by Russian
officials Yermolov and Mogilevsky, in
Shusha were 1,111 (72.5%) Muslim
families and 421 (27.5%) Armenian families. Seven years later,
according to 1830 data, the number of Muslim families in Shusha
decreased to 963 and the number of Armenian families increased to
George Keppel, the Earl of Albemarle, who in 1824 on his way back to
England from India arrived in Karabakh from Persia, wrote that
“Sheesha contains two thousand houses: three parts of the
inhabitants are Tartars, and the remainder Armenians”.
Shusha/Shushi in 2015
A survey prepared by the Russian imperial authorities in 1823 shows
that all Armenians of Karabakh compactly resided in its highland
portion, i.e. on the territory of the five traditional Armenian
principalities, and constituted an absolute demographic majority on
those lands. The survey's more than 260 pages recorded that the five
districts had 57 Armenian villages and seven Tatar villages.
The 19th century also brought some alterations to the ethnic
demographics of the region. Following the invasions from Iran
(Persia), Russo-Persian wars and subjection of Karabakh khanate to
Russia, many Muslim families emigrated to Iran while many Armenians
moved to Shusha.
In 1851, the population of
Shusha was 15,194 people, in 1886 –
30,000, in 1910 – 39,413 and in 1916 – 43,869, of which
23,396 (53%) were Armenians, and 19,121 (44%) were Tatars
By the end of the 1880s the percentage of Muslim population living in
Shusha district (part of earlier Karabakh province) decreased even
further and constituted only 41.5%, while the percentage of the
Armenian population living in the same district increased to 58.2% in
By the second half of the 19th century
Shusha had become the largest
town in the Karabakh region and the second largest town in the
Caucasus after Tbilisi. However, after the pogrom
against the Armenian population in 1920 and the burning of the town,
Shusha was reduced to a small provincial town of some 10,000 people.
Armenians did not begin to return until after World War II. It was not
until the 1960s that the Armenian quarter began to be rebuilt.
Economy and tourism
Shusha/Shushi as seen from the road approaching the town
There have been efforts to revive the city's post-war economy by the
Shushi Revival Fund, the ArmeniaFund, and by the local
government. Investment in tourism has led to the opening of the
Shoushi Hotel, the Avan Shushi Plaza Hotel and the Shushi Grand Hotel.
A tourist information office has also opened, the first in the
Republic of Mountainous Karabakh. The two remaining Armenian churches
have been renovated, and schools, museums and the Naregatsi Arts
Institute have opened.
Twin towns – sister cities
France (since October 2014, between French and
Armenian sides only)
France (since May 2015, between French and Armenian
Hungary (between Hungarian and Azerbaijani sides
Jafargulu agha Javanshir (1787-1867), Azerbaijani poet and major
general of the Imperial Russian Army.
Ivan Davidovich Lazarev
Ivan Davidovich Lazarev (1820-1879), Armenian lieutenant general of
the Imperial Russian Army.
Natavan (1832-1897), one of the best lyrical poets of
Sadigjan (1846-1902), Azerbaijani musician.
Muratsan (1854-1908), Armenian writer and novelist.
Amanullah Mirza Qajar (1857-1937), Azerbaijani major general of the
Imperial Russian Army.
Leo (1860-1932), Armenian historian.
Stepan Aghajanian (1863-1940), Armenian painter.
Hambardzum Arakelian (1865-1918), Armenian journalist and public
Alexander Atabekian (1868-1933), prominent Armenian anarchist.
Mashadi Jamil Amirov (1875-1928), Azerbaijani mugam singer, father of
prominent composer Fikret Amirov.
Vartan Sarkisov (1875-1955), Soviet-Armenian architect.
Freidun Aghalyan (1876-1944), Armenian architect.
Tuman Tumanian (1879-1906), Armenian liberation movement leader.
Zulfugar Hajibeyov (1884-1950), Soviet-Azerbaijani composer.
Ahmed Agdamski (1884-1954), Soviet-Azerbaijani opera sinegr.
Arsen Terteryan (1882-1953), Soviet-Armenian scientist.
Artashes Babalian (1886-1959), politician of the First Republic of
Sahak Ter-Gabrielyan (1886-1937), Soviet-Armenian statesman.
Hayk Gyulikekhvyan (1886-1951), Armenian literary critic.
Ashot Hovhannisyan (1887-1972), Soviet-Armenian statesman and
Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli
Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli (1887-1943), Soviet-Azerbaijani and writer.
Nariman bey Narimanbeyov
Nariman bey Narimanbeyov (1889-1937), Azerbaijani lawyer and statesman
Mikael Arutchian (1897-1961), Soviet-Armenian painter.
Ivan Tevosian (1902-1958), Soviet-Armenian statesman.
Ivan Knunyants (1906-1990), Soviet-Armenian chemist.
Gevork Kotiantz (1909-1996), Soviet-Armenian painter.
Armen Takhtajan (1910-2009), Soviet-Armenian botanist.
Nelson Stepanyan (1913-1944), Soviet-Armenian pilot and
Lieutenant-Colonel of the Red Army.
Barat Shakinskaya (1914-1999), Soviet-Azerbaijani actress.
Gurgen Boryan (1915-1971), Soviet-Armenian poet and playwright.
Soltan Hajibeyov (1919-1974), Soviet-Azerbaijani composer.
Usta Gambar Karabakhi
Usta Gambar Karabakhi (1930-1905), Azerbaijani ornamentalist painter.
Seyran Ohanyan (born 1962), Armenian politician and military
Battle of Shusha
List of Armenians from Shusha
List of Azerbaijanis from Shusha
^ a b c Sarukhanyan, Vahe (2 June 2015). "Շուշին փորձում
է կրկին կրթական կենտրոն դառնալ". Hetq (in
Armenian). ...քաղաքում գրանցված է 4.446
^  Embassy of
Azerbaijan in Austria
^ a b The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume 4, Parts 69–78, Brill,
1954, p. 573.
^ a b
Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary
Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (1890–1907).
Shusha. St Petersburg.
^ a b
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1969–1978). Shusha. Moscow.
^ a b c Bournoutian, George A. Armenians and Russia, 1626–1796: A
Documentary Record. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2001, page 133,
Kekhva Chelebi's Report to the Collegium of [Russian] Foreign Affairs
(17 December 1725)
^ a b c d Цагарели А. А. Грамота и гругие
исторические документы XVIII столетия,
относяшиеся к Грузии, Том 1. СПб 1891, ц.
434–435. This book is available online from Google Books. Cite
error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ReferenceA" defined multiple
times with different content (see the help page).
^ a b Армяно-русские отношения в XVIII
веке. Т. IV. С. 212, as cited in О. Р. Айрапетов,
Мирослав Йованович, М. А. Колеров, Брюс
Меннинг, Пол Чейсти. Русский Сборник
Исследования По Истории России. p. 13.
Citation: «Совет мелика Адама, мелика
Овсепа и мелика Есаи был един, но среди
них раскольничал мелик Шахназар,
который был мужем хитрым, маловерным и
негодным к добрым делам, коварным и
предающим братьев. В Карабах приходит
некое племя Джваншир, словно
бездомные скитальцы на земле, чинящее
разбой и кочующее в шатрах, главарю
которых имя было Панах-хан. Коварный
во злых делах мелик Шахназар призвал
его себе в помощь, по собственной воле
подчинился ему и передал свою
^ a b Կռունկ Հայոց աշխարհին. 1863. № 8, էջ
622 (Krunk Hayots Ashkharhi. 1863. № 8. С. 622), as cited in
О. Р. Айрапетов, Мирослав Йованович, М.
А. Колеров, Брюс Меннинг, Пол Чейсти.
Русский Сборник Исследования По
Истории России. p. 14. Citation: «Шахназар,
мелик Варанды, страшась союза между
Меликом Чараберда Адамом и Меликом
Гюлистана Овсепом, сам подружился с
Панах-ханом, отдал ему свое поселение
Шушинскую крепость, а также свою дочь
в жены». 
^ Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to
Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014
^ "Azerbaijan" (2007) In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February
3, 2007, from
Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
^ Suny, Ronald (1996). Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. DIANE
Publishing. p. 108. ISBN 0788128132.
^ Crossroads and Conflict: Security and Foreign Policy in the Caucasus
and Central Asia, By Gary K. Bertsch, Scott A. Jones, Cassady B.
Craft, Routledge, 2000, ISBN 0-415-92274-7, p. 297
^ Boris Baratov. A Journey to Karabakh. Moscow, 1998, pp. 32–33
^ Hravard Hakobian. Miniatures of Artsakh and
centuries. p. 25, Yerevan, 1989
^ Епископ Макар Бархутарянц, История
Албании, том 1, Вагаршапат, 1902, с. 384 (на
арм. яз); Bishop Makar Barkhudariants. History of Aghvank. Volume
1, Vagharshapat, 1902, p. 384
^ Ulubabyan B. A. (1972), The Principality of Lower Khachen from the
14th to the 15th centuries., Historico-philological journal of Academy
of Sciences of ArmSSR № 11. pp. 95–108, p. 105. (in Armenian)
^ Khachikyan L. S., (1955), Memorial records in Armenian manuscripts
of 15 c., Part I (1401–1450), Publish. of Academy of Sciences of
ArmSSR, p. 384. (in Armenian)
^ Bishop Makar Barkhudariants. Artsakh. Baku, Aror publishing house,
1895, Chapter - City of Shushi (Շուշի քաղաք)
^ Bournoutian, George A. Armenians and Russia, 1626-1796: A
Documentary Record. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2001, Armenian
Military Activities in Karabakh and Ghapan, pages 402-413
^ А. В. Суворов и русско-армянские
отношения в 1770-1780-х годах. Ереван.
^ Bournoutian, George A. Armenians and Russia, 1626-1796: A
Documentary Record. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2001, page 134,
^ Alexander Suvorov's text says: "Мелик Шах-Назар
может собрать войска близ 1000 человек;
сей предатель своего отечества
призвал Панахана, бывшего прежде
начальником не знатной части кочующих
магометан близ границ карабагских,
отдал ему в руки свой крепкий замок
Шушикала и учинился ему с его сигнагом
покорным."А. В. Суворов и
русско-армянские отношения в 1770-1780-х
годах. Ереван. Айастан. 1981, letter to G. Potemkin
of 15 February 1780. Web reference is here:
^ S.M.Bronesvskiy. Historical Notes... St. Petersburg. 1996.
Исторические выписки о сношениях
России с Персиею, Грузиею и вообще с
горскими народами, в Кавказе
обитающими, со времён Ивана
Васильевича доныне». СПб. 1996, секция
"Карабаг". Bronesvskiy writes: "Мелик Шахназор
призвал к себе на помощь владетеля
кочующаго чавонширскаго народа Фона
хана и здал ему крепость Шуши."
^ Материалы для новой истории Кавказа
с 1722 по 1803 год П. Г. Буткова. СПб. 1869,
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ М. к стр. 236 "Archived copy". Archived from
the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
^ Also see Walker Christopher "The Armenian Presence in Mountainous
Karabakh" in "Transcaucasian Boundaries" (SOAS/GRC Geopolitics) edited
by John Wright, Richard Schofield, Suzanne Goldenberg, 1995 p. 93
"South of Khachen lay the small territory of Varanda, originally part
of its southern neighbour, Dizak, and only given a separate identity
in the early sixteenth century. The ruling family, confirmed in that
capacity by Shah Abbas I, was that of the Melik Shahnazarians. In the
territory of Varanda lies the modern town of Shushi (or Shusha)"
Azerbaijan - History, People, & Facts". britannica.com.
Retrieved 3 April 2018.
^ a b Hewsen, Robert H., Armenia: A Historical Atlas. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press, 2001, p. 155.
^ a b Bournoutian George A. A History of Qarabagh: An Annotated
Translation of Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi's Tarikh-E Qarabagh.
Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 1994, p. 72. The original text by
Mirza Jamal Javanshir calls the village "Shoshi."
^ a b c (in Russian) Mirza Jamal Javanshir Karabagi. The History of
^ Raffi. The Princedoms of Khamsa.
^ (in Russian) Great Soviet Encyclopedia, "
Oblast", 3rd edition, Moscow, 1970
^ a b (in Russian) Abbas-gulu Aga Bakikhanov. Golestan-i Iram
^ Mirza Adigozel-bek, Karabakh-name (1845), Baku, 1950, p. 54
^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Qajar Dynasty, Online Academic Edition,
^ (in Russian) Mirza Adigezal bey. Karabakh-name
^ Encyclopedia Iranica. C. Edmund Bosworth. Ganja. Archived 2007-03-11
at the Wayback Machine.
^ Bournoutian, George. "EBRAHÈM KHALÈL KHAN JAVANSHER". Encyclopedia
Iranica. Retrieved 2011-11-04.
^ Tapper, Richard (1997). Frontier Nomads of Iran: A Political and
Social History of the Shahsevan. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 114–115. ISBN 0-521-47340-3.
^ Mikaberidze 2011, p. 409.
^ Fisher et al. 1991, p. 128.
^ a b c Fisher et al. 1991, p. 126.
^ Michael Axworthy. Iran: Empire of the Mind: A History from Zoroaster
to the Present Day Penguin UK, 6 nov. 2008 ISBN 0141903414
^ Fisher et al. 1991, p. 329.
^ a b "EBRĀHĪM ḴALĪL KHAN JAVĀNŠĪR – Encyclopaedia Iranica".
Encyclopædia Iranica. 1997-12-15. Retrieved 2016-03-15.
^ Yunus, Arif. Karabakh: past and present Turan Information Agency,
2005. page 29
^ Allen F. Chew. "An Atlas of Russian History: Eleven Centuries of
Changing Borders". Yale University Press, 1967. pp 74.
^ Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to
Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 729-730 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014.
^ a b c The Penny Cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of
Useful Knowledge. 1833.
^ a b "Description of the Karabakh province prepared in 1823 according
to the order of the governor in Georgia Yermolov by state advisor
Mogilevsky and colonel Yermolov 2nd" ("Opisaniye Karabakhskoy
provincii sostavlennoye v 1823 g po rasporyazheniyu
glavnoupravlyayushego v Gruzii Yermolova deystvitelnim statskim
sovetnikom Mogilevskim i polkovnikom Yermolovim 2-m" in Russian),
^ a b Bournoutian, George A. A History of Qarabagh: An Annotated
Translation of Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi's Tarikh-E Qarabagh.
Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 1994, page 18
^ a b c d e Waal, Thomas de (2013). Black Garden:
Azerbaijan Through Peace and War, 10th Year Anniversary Edition,
Revised and Updated NYU Press. ISBN 978-0814760321 p 201
^ Waal, Thomas de (2013). "Black Garden:
Armenia and Azerbaijan
Through Peace and War, 10th Year Anniversary Edition, Revised and
Updated" NYU Press. ISBN 978-0814760321 p 201
^ Mkrtchyan, Shahen. Historical-Architectural Monuments of Nagorno
Karabagh. Yerevan, 1989, p. 341.
^ Hovannisian, Richard (1971). The Republic of Armenia: Volume 1, The
First Years, 1918–1919. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
pp. 89–90. ISBN 0-520-01805-2.
^ Tim Potier. Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South
Ossetia: A Legal Appraisal. ISBN 90-411-1477-7
^ Tadeusz Swietochowski. Russia and Azerbaijan: A Borderland in
Transition. ISBN 0-231-07068-3
^ Mutafyan Claude (1994) "Karabagh in the twentieth century." In
Chorbajyan Levon, Donabedian Patrick and Mutafian Claude (eds.) The
Caucasian Knot: The History and geo-politics of Nagorno-Karabakh.
London: Zed Books, pp. 109–170.
^ a b Michael P. Croissant. The Armenia-
Azerbaijan Conflict: Causes
and Implications. ISBN 0-275-96241-5 p. 16
^ Walker J. Christopher (ed.) (1991)
Armenia and Karabakh: The
Struggle for Unity. London: Minority Rights Group.
^ "The Nagorno-Karabagh Crisis: A Blueprint for Resolution" (PDF).
Public International Law & Policy Group and the New England Center
for International Law & Policy. June 2000. p. 3.
External link in work= (help)
^ Mutafyan Claude (1994) Karabagh in the twentieth century. In
Chorbajyan Levon, Donabedian Patrick and Mutafian Claude (eds.) The
Caucasian knot: the history and geo-politics of Nagorno-Karabakh.
London: Zed Books
^ Tim Potier. Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia and South
Ossetia: A Legal Appraisal
^ Benjamin Lieberman. Terrible Fate: Ethnic Cleansing in the Making of
Modern Europe. ISBN 1-56663-646-9
^ "Chronology: Accord Nagorny Karabakh". c-r.org. 17 February 2012.
Retrieved 3 April 2018.
^ Richard G. Hovannisian. The Republic of Armenia, Vol. III: From
London to Sèvres, February–August 1920
^  Audrey L. Altstadt. Azerbaijani Turks: Power and Identity Under
Russian Rule. Hoover Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8179-9182-4,
ISBN 978-0-8179-9182-1, p. 103
^ Thomas de Waal. Black Garden:
Azerbaijan through Peace
and War. ISBN 0-8147-1944-9
^ (in Russian) Институт Истории АН Армении,
Главное архивное управление при СМ
Республики Армения, Кафедра истории
армянского народла Ереванского
Нагорный Карабах в 1918-1923 гг. Сборник
документов и материалов. Ереван, 1992.
Документ №443: из письма члена
компартии Азербайджана Оджахкули
Мусаева правительству РСФСР. стр. 638-639
(Institute of History of the Academy of sciences of Armenia, the Main
archival department at Ministerial council of Republic Armenia,
Faculty of history of Armenian people of the
Yerevan State University.
Nagorny Karabakh per 1918–1923. Collection of documents and
materials. Yerevan, 1992. The document №443: from the letter of a
member of communist party of
Azerbaijan Ojahkuli Musaev to the
government of RSFSR. рр. 638–639)
^ (in Russian) Н. Я. Мандельштам. Книга
третья. Париж, YMCA-Ргess, 1987, с.162–164.
Nagorno-Karabakh Searching for a Solution, US Institute for Peace
^ "Groups: Azerbaijanian, Centre for Russian Studies". nupi.no.
Retrieved 3 April 2018.
^ de Waal, Thomas (10 May 2002). "
Shusha Armenians Recall Their
Bittersweet Victory". Institute for War and Peace Reporting.
^ de Waal, Thomas (2003, 2013). Black Garden:
Armenia and Azerbaijan
through Peace And War. (10th Year anniversary edition, revised and
updated) New York University Press, pp. 196-197
^ a b Crossroads and Conflict: Security and Foreign Policy in the
Caucasus and Central Asia, by Gary K. Bertsch - 2000 - 316 pages, p.
^ A Typographical Gazetteer, by Henry Cotton - 2008 - p. 206
^ Looking toward Ararat:
Armenia in Modern History, by Ronald Grigor
Suny - 1993 - 289 pages, p. 195
^ An Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge, by Thomas
Hartwell Horne, 1841, J. Whetham & Son, v.2, p. 51
^ Mattew O'Brien. Uzeir Hajibeyov and His Role in the Development of
Musical Life in Azerbaijan. – Routledge, 2004. – С. 211. –
ISBN 0-415-30219-6, 9780415302197
But later writers have preferred to emphasise the importance of
Shusha, one of the leading centres of Azeri culture, as providing a
'creative cradle' for the young boy.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Azerbaijan": Cultural life, Online
Academic Edition, 2007.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "sileh rug", Online Academic Edition,
^ a b (in Russian) Caucasian Calendar (Кавказский
Календарь), 1853, p. 128
^ a b (in Russian) НАСЕЛЕНИЕ НАГОРНОГО
^ (in Russian) г. Шуша Первая всеобщая
перепись населения Российской
Империи 1897 г. Демоскоп Weekly
^ "Шуша". Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary: In 86
Volumes (82 Volumes and 4 Additional Volumes). St. Petersburg.
^ a b (in Russian) Caucasian Calendar (Кавказский
Календарь), 1917, p. 190
^ (in Russian) ШУШИНСКИЙ РАЙОН (1939 г.)
^ (in Russian) ШУШИНСКИЙ РАЙОН (1959 г.)
^ (in Russian) ШУШИНСКИЙ РАЙОН (1970 г.)
^ (in Russian) ШУШИНСКИЙ РАЙОН (1979 г.)
^ de Waal, Thomas (2013). Black Garden:
Peace and War. NYU Press. p. 47. ISBN 9780814785782.
^ (in Russian) Всесоюзная перепись
населения 1989 г. Численность
городского населения союзных
республик, их территориальных единиц,
городских поселений и городских
районов по полу
^ a b c Amirbayov, Elchin. "Shusha's Pivotal Role in a
Nagorno-Karabagh Settlement" in Dr. Brenda Shaffer (ed.), Policy Brief
Number 6, Cambridge, MA: Caspian Studies Program, Harvard University,
December 2001, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on
2006-09-01. Retrieved 2006-09-01. .
De facto and De Jure Population by Administrative Territorial
Distribution and Sex Census in NKR, 2005. THE NATIONAL STATISTICAL
SERVICE OF NAGORNO-KARABAKH REPUBLIC
^ "Statistical yearbook of NKR 2003–2009" (PDF). stat-nkr.am.
National Statistical Service of
^ Fatullayev, Eynulla (19 January 2012). ""Карабахский
журналиста". Novoye Vremya (in Russian). Как ни
странно, но Шушу в основном заселили
бакинские армяне, и в целом город
сохранил свой традиционно
интеллигентный состав населения.
Всюду в Шуше я встречал тепло и
ностальгию бакинцев по старому
^ Antanesian, Vahe (8 May 2014). "Շուշի [Shushi]".
Armenian). Շուշիում ներկայումս բնակւում է
3000 մարդ, որոնք հիմնականում
փախստականներ են Բաքուից:
^ "Armenian Karabakh Official Says Mosques Being Repaired". Radio Free
Europe/Radio Liberty. 18 November 2010. Town residents, many of them
former Armenian refugees from
Baku and other parts of
^ Beglarian, Ashot (15 June 2007). "Karabakh: A Tale of Two Cities".
Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Now Baku’s Armenians are
scattered all over the world, with many in Shushi. Saryan noted that
Shushi is also home to Armenians who lost their homes in Mardakert and
^ Bardsley, Daniel (21 July 2009). "
Shusha breathes new life after
years of strife". The National. Abu Dhabi. Now, the only residents of
Shusha are 4,000 Armenians; all of the Azeris fled during the
^ S. M. Bronesvskiy (С.М. Броневский), Historical Notes
about the relations of Russia with Persia, Georgia and Caucasus
Mountainous nations since the times of Ivan the Terrible
(Исторические выписки о сношениях
России с Персиею, Грузиею и вообще с
горскими народами, в Кавказе
обитающими, со времён Ивана
Васильевича доныне), St. Petersburg, 1996,
^ "Review of Russian possessions in Transcaucasus" ("Obozreniye
Rossiyskih vladeniy za Kavkazom"), vol. III, St.-Petersburg, 1836, p.
^ George Thomas Keppel; earl of Albemarle. Personal Narrative of a
Journey from India to England. ISBN 1-4021-9149-9.
^ "Description of the Karabakh province prepared in 1823 according to
the order of the governor in Georgia Yermolov by state advisor
Mogilevsky and colonel Yermolov 2nd," as quoted above
^ (in Russian) Caucasian Calendar (Кавказский
Календарь), 1886, p. 319
^ "Review of the Yelizavetpol goubernia as of 1910" ("Obzor
Yelizavetpolskoy goubernii za 1910 g." in Rissian) Tbilisi, 1912 p.
^ "Shushi and Bourg-Les-Valence sign declaration of friendship".
NEWS.am. 6 October 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
^ 18 May 2015 "French city inks cooperation deal with Shushi" Check
url= value (help). Tert.am. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
^ Holding, APA Information Agency, APA. "
Gyöngyös city of Hungary
fraternize with Azerbaijan's occupied town of
Shusha - PHOTOSESSION".
apa.az. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
Fisher, William Bayne; Avery, P.; Hambly, G. R. G; Melville, C.
(1991). The Cambridge History of Iran. 7. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0521200954.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Shushi.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to
Wikisource has the text of the 1911
Encyclopædia Britannica article
Shusha: from A to Z
Historical neighborhoods of Shusha
Shusha by Travel-images.com
Armenian Guidebook Chapter on Shushi
Armeniapedia entry on Shushi
"The Twentieth Spring" – A photo essay on Shushi 20 years after it
was taken over by Armenian forces (randbild 2011)
Shusha – the town of the dead. Photo-report.
Shusha at GEOnet Names Server
World Heritage Sites in Azerbaijan
Gobustan National Park
Walled City of Baku
Sites on the Tentative List
Baku Stage Mountain
Binegadi 4th Period Fauna and Flora Deposit
Lok-Batan Mud Cone
Hyrkan State Reserve
Ordubad historical and architectural reserve
Shaki, the Khan's Palace
Surakhany, Atashgyakh (Fire - worshippers, temple - museum at
Susha historical and architectural reserve
The Caspian Shore Defensive Constructions
The mausoleums of Nakhchivan
Administrative divisions of Artsakh
Other urban communities
1 Claimed by the Republic of Artsakh but partly under Azerbaijani
Coordinates: 39°45.5′N 46°44.9′E / 39.7583°N