The SENEGAL RIVER (Arabic : نهر السنغال, French :
Fleuve Sénégal) is a 1,086 km (675 mi) long river in West Africa
that forms the border between
* 1 Geography
* 2 History
* 2.1 Arab sources
* 2.2 Cartographic representation
* 2.3 European contact
* 3 Etymology
* 4 See also
* 5 References
* 6 Sources
* 7 Further reading
* 8 External links
The Senegal's headwaters are the Semefé (Bakoye) and Bafing rivers
which both originate in
Guinea ; they form a small part of the
Guinean-Malian border before coming together at
Bafoulabé in Mali.
From there, the
Senegal river flows west and then north through Talari
Gorges near Galougo and over the
Gouina Falls , then flows more gently
Kayes , where it receives the Kolimbiné . After flowing together
with the Karakoro , it prolongs the former's course along the
Mali-Mauritanian border for some tens of kilometers till Bakel where
it flows together with the Falémé
River , which also has its source
in Guinea, subsequently runs along a small part of the Guinea-Mali
frontier to then trace most of the Senegal-
Mali border up to Bakel.
Senegal further flows through semi-arid land in the north of
Senegal, forming the border with
Mauritania and into the Atlantic . In
Kaedi it accepts the Gorgol from Mauritania. Flowing through Bogué it
Richard Toll where it is joined by the
Ferlo coming from
Lac de Guiers . It passes through
approaching its mouth, around the Senegalese island on which the city
of Saint-Louis is located, to then turn south. It is separated from
Atlantic Ocean by a thin strip of sand called the Langue de
Barbarie before it pours into the ocean itself.
The river has two large dams along its course, the multi-purpose
Mali and the Maka-Diama
Dam downstream on the
Senegal border, near the outlet to the sea, preventing
access of salt water upstream . In between Manantali and Maka-Diama is
Félou Hydroelectric Plant which was originally completed in 1927
and uses a weir . The power station was replaced in 2014. In 2013,
construction of the
Gouina Hydroelectric Plant upstream of Felou at
Gouina Falls began.
River has a drainage basin of 270,000 km2, a mean flow of
680 m3/s and an annual discharge of 21.5 km3. Important tributaries
are the Falémé
River , Karakoro
River , and the Gorgol
Kaédi the river divides into two branches. The left
branch called the Doué runs parallel to the main river to the north.
After 200 km the two branches rejoin a few kilometres downstream of
Pondor . The long strip of land between the two branches is called the
In 1972 Mali,
Senegal founded the Organisation pour la
mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal (OMVS) to manage the river basin.
Guinea joined in 2005.
At the present time, only very limited use is made of the river for
the transport of goods and passengers. The OMVS have looked at the
feasibility of creating a navigable channel 55 m in width between the
small town of
Mali and Saint-Louis , a distance of 905
km. It would give landlocked
Mali a direct route to the Atlantic
The aquatic fauna in the
River basin is closely associated
with that of the Gambia
River basin, and the two are usually combined
under a single ecoregion known as the Senegal-Gambia Catchments .
Although the species richness is moderately high, only three species
of frogs and one fish are endemic to this ecoregion.
The existence of the
River was known to the early
Mediterranean civilizations. It was called Bambotus by Pliny the Elder
(from Phoenician "behemoth " for hippopotamus ) and Nias by Claudius
Ptolemy . It was visited by Hanno the Carthaginian around 450 BCE at
his navigation from
Carthage through the pillars of Herakles to Theon
Mount Cameroon ) in the Gulf of
Guinea . There was trade from
here to the
Mediterranean World, until the destruction of
its west African trade net in 146 BCE.
In the Early Middle Ages (c. 800 CE), the
contact with the
Mediterranean world with the establishment of the
Trans-Saharan trade route between
Morocco and the
Ghana Empire . Arab
geographers, like al-Masudi of Baghdad (957), al-Bakri of Spain (1068)
and al-Idrisi of Sicily (1154), provided some of the earliest
descriptions of the
Senegal River. Early Arab geographers believed
River and the upper Niger
River were connected to
each other, and formed a single river flowing from east to west, which
they called the "Western Nile" or the "Nile of the Blacks". It was
believed to be either a western branch of the Egyptian Nile
drawn from the same source (variously conjectured to some great
internal lakes of the Mountains of the Moon , or
Ptolemy 's Ghir or
Gihon stream). Western Nile (Senegal-Niger River)
according to al-Bakri (1068)
Arab geographers Abd al-Hassan Ali ibn Omar (1230), Ibn Said
al-Maghribi (1274) and Abulfeda (1331), label the
Senegal as the "Nile
of Ghana " (Nil Gana or Nili Ganah).
River reached into the heart of the gold-producing
Ghana Empire and later the
Mali Empire , Trans-Saharan traders gave
Senegal its famous nickname as the "
River of Gold". The
Trans-Saharan stories about the "
River of Gold" reached the ears of
Mediterranean merchants that frequented the ports of
Morocco and the
lure proved irresistible. Arab historians report at least three
separate Arab maritime expeditions - the last one organized by a group
of eight mughrarin ("wanderers") of
Lisbon (before 1147) - that tried
to sail down the Atlantic coast, possibly in an effort find the mouth
of the Senegal.
Western Nile (Senegal-Niger River) according to Muhammad
Drawing from Classical legend and Arab sources, the "
River of Gold"
found its way into European maps in the 14th century. In the Hereford
Mappa Mundi (c. 1300), there is a river labelled "Nilus Fluvius" drawn
parallel to the coast of Africa, albeit without communication with
Atlantic (it ends in a lake). It depicts some giant ants digging up
gold dust from its sands, with the note "Hic grandes formice auream
serican arenas". In the mappa mundi made by
Pietro Vesconte for the
c. 1320 atlas of Marino Sanuto , there is an unnamed river stemming
from the African interior and opening in the Atlantic ocean. The 1351
Medici-Laurentian Atlas shows both the Egyptian Nile and the western
Nile stemming from the same internal mountain range, with the note
that "Ilic coligitur aureaum". The portolan chart of Giovanni da
Carignano (1310s-20s) has the river with the label, iste fluuis exit
de nilo ubi multum aurum repperitur.
In the more accurately-drawn portolan charts , starting with the 1367
Domenico and Francesco Pizzigano and carried on in the 1375
Catalan Atlas , the 1413 chart of Mecia de Viladestes , etc. the
River of Gold" is depicted (if only speculatively), draining into the
Atlantic Ocean somewhere just south of
Cape Bojador . The legend of
Cape Bojador as a terrifying obstacle, the 'cape of no return' to
European sailors, emerged around the same time (possibly encouraged by
Trans-Saharan traders who did not want to see their land route
sidestepped by sea).
The river is frequently depicted with a great river island midway,
the "Island of Gold", first mentioned by al-Masudi, and famously
called "Wangara" by al-Idrisi and "Palolus" in the 1367 Pizzigani
brothers chart. It is conjectured that this riverine "island" is in
fact just the
Bambuk -Buré goldfield district, which is practically
surrounded on all sides by rivers - the
Senegal river to the north,
River to the west, the Bakhoy to the east and the Niger
and Tinkisso to the south. Course of the "
River of Gold"
(Senegal-Niger) in the 1413 portolan chart of Mecia de Viladestes .
The 1413 portolan chart of Mecia de Viladestes gives perhaps the most
detailed depiction of the early state of European knowledge about the
River prior to the 1440s. Viladestes labels it "
River of Gold"
("riu del or") and locates it a considerable distance south of Cape
Bojador (buyeter) - indeed, south of a mysterious "cap de abach"
(possibly Cape Timris). There are extensive notes about the
plentifulness of ivory and gold in the area, including a note that
"This river is called Wad al-Nil and also is called the
Gold, for one can here obtain the gold of Palolus. And know that the
greater part of those that live here occupy themselves collecting gold
on the shores of the river which, at its mouth, is a league wide, and
deep enough for the largest ship of the world."
Senegal River, kingdom of
The galley of
Jaume Ferrer is depicted off the coast on the left,
with a quick note about his 1346 voyage. The golden round island at
the mouth of the
River is the indication (customary on
portolan charts) of river mouth bars or islands - in this case,
probably a reference to the
Langue de Barbarie
Langue de Barbarie or the island of
Saint-Louis ). The first town, by the mouth of the Senegal, is called
"isingan" (arguably the etymological source of the term "Senegal").
East of that, the
Senegal forms a riverine island called "insula de
bronch" (Île à
Morfil ). By its shores lies the city of "tocoror"
Takrur ). Above it is a depiction of the
Almoravid general Abu Bakr
ibn Umar ("Rex Bubecar") on a camel. Further east, along the river, is
the seated emperor (mansa ) of
Mali ("Rex Musa Meli", prob. Mansa Musa
), holding a gold nugget. His capital, "civitat musa meli" is shown on
the shores of the river, and the range of Emperor of Mali's sway is
suggested by all the black banners (an inscription notes "This lord of
the blacks is called Musa Melli, Lord of Guinea, the greatest noble
lord of these parts for the abundance of the gold which is collected
in his lands". Curiously, there is a defiant gold-bannered town south
of the river, labelled "tegezeut" (probably the Ta'adjast of
al-Idrisi), and might be an ichoate reference to
East of Mali, the river forms a lake or "Island of Gold" shown here
studded with river-washed gold nuggets (this is what the Pizzigani
brothers called the island of "Palolus", and most commentators take to
indicate the Bambuk-Buré goldfields). It is connected by many streams
to the southerly "mountains of gold" (labelled "montanies del lor",
Futa Djallon /
Bambouk Mountains and
Loma Mountains of Sierra
Leone). It is evident the
Senegal river morphs east, unbroken, into
River - the cities of "tenbuch" (
Timbuktu ), "geugeu" (
and "mayna" (
Niamey ? or a misplaced Niani ?) are denoted along the
same single river. South of them (barely visible) are what seem like
the towns of
Kukiya (on the eastern shore of the Island of Gold), and
east of that, probably
Sokoto (called "Zogde" in the Catalan Atlas)
and much further southeast, probably
Kano . Moorish man, Trarza
region of the
River Valley, Abbé David Boilat, 1853
North of the Senegal-Niger are the various oases and stations of the
trans-Saharan route ("Tutega" = Tijigja, "Anzica" = In-Zize, "Tegaza"
= Taghaza, etc.) towards the
Mediterranean coast. There is an
unlabeled depiction of a black African man on a camel traveling from
Hoggar ) to the town of "Organa" ("ciutat organa",
variously identified as Kanem or
Ouargla or possibly even a misplaced
depiction of Ghana - long defunct, but, on the other hand,
contemporaneous with the depicted Abu Bakr). Nearby sits its
Arab-looking king ("Rex Organa") holding a scimitar. The
River of Gold
is sourced at a circular island, what seem like the Mountains of the
Moon (albeit unlabeled here). From this same source also flows north
White Nile towards Egypt, which forms the frontier between the
Muslim "king of
Nubia " ("Rex Onubia", his range depicted by
crescent-on-gold banners) and the Christian
Prester John ("Preste
Joha"), i.e. the emperor of
Ethiopia in the garb of a Christian bishop
(coincidentally, this is the first visual depiction of
Prester John on
a portolan chart).
Uniquely, the Viladestes map shows another river, south of the
Senegal, which it labels the "flumen gelica" (poss. angelica), which
some have taken to depict the Gambia
River . In the 1459 mappa mundi
Fra Mauro , drawn a half-century later, after the Portuguese had
already visited the
Senegal (albeit still trying to respect Classical
sources), shows two parallel rivers running east to west, both of them
sourced from the same great internal lake (which,
Fra Mauro asserts,
is also the same source as the Egyptian Nile). Mauro names the two
parallel rivers differently,calling one "flumen Mas ("Mas River"), the
other the "canal dal oro" ("Channel of Gold"), and makes the note that
"Inne larena de questi do fiume se trova oro de paiola" ("In the sands
of both these rivers gold of 'palola' may be found"), and nearer to
the sea, "Qui se racoce oro" ("Here gold is collected"), and finally,
on the coast, "Terra de Palmear" ("Land of Palms"). It is notable that
Fra Mauro knew of the error of Henry the Navigator's captains about
the Daklha inlet, which Mauro carefully labels "Reodor" ("Rio do
Ouro", Western Sahara), distinctly from the "Canal del Oro" (Senegal
Christian Europeans soon began attempting to find the sea route to
the mouth of the Senegal. The first known effort may have been by the
Vandino and Ugolino Vivaldi , who set out down the
coast in 1291 in a pair of ships (nothing more is heard of them). In
Jaume Ferrer set out on a galley with the
explicit objective of finding the "
River of Gold" (Riu de l'Or), where
he heard that most people along its shores were engaged in the
collection of gold and that the river was wide and deep enough for the
largest ships. Nothing more is heard of him either. In 1402, after
establishing the first European colony on the
Canary Islands , the
French Norman adventurers
Jean de Béthencourt and Gadifer de la Salle
set about immediately probing the African coast, looking for
directions to the mouth of Senegal. Boat on
The project of finding the
Senegal was taken up in the 1420s by the
Henry the Navigator
Henry the Navigator , who invested heavily to reach
it. In 1434, one of Henry's captains,
Gil Eanes , finally surpassed
Cape Bojador and returned to tell about it. Henry immediately
dispatched a follow up mission in 1435, under
Gil Eanes and Afonso
Gonçalves Baldaia . Going down the coast, they turned around the
al-Dakhla peninsula in the
Western Sahara and emerged into an inlet,
which they excitedly believed to be the mouth of the
The name they mistakenly bestowed upon the inlet - "Rio do Ouro" - is
a name it would remain stuck with down to the 20th century.
Realizing the mistake, Henry kept pressing his captains further down
the coast, and in 1445, the Portuguese captain
Nuno Tristão finally
Langue de Barbarie
Langue de Barbarie , where he noticed the desert end and
the treeline begin, and the population change from 'tawny' Sanhaja
Berbers to 'black'
Wolof people . Bad weather or lack of supplies
prevented Tristão from actually reaching the mouth of the Senegal
River, but he rushed back to Portugal to report he had finally found
the "Land of the Blacks" (Terra dos Negros), and that the "Nile" was
surely nearby. Shortly after (possibly still within that same year)
Dinis Dias (sometimes given as Dinis Fernandes) was
the first known European since antiquity to finally reach the mouth of
Senegal River. However, Dias did not sail upriver, but instead
kept sailing down the
Grande Côte to the bay of
The very next year, in 1446, the Portuguese slave -raiding fleet of
Lançarote de Freitas arrived at the mouth of the Senegal. One of its
captains, Estêvão Afonso , volunteered to take a launch to explore
upriver for settlements, thus becoming the first European to actually
Senegal river. He didn't get very far. Venturing ashore at
one point along the river bank, Afonso tried to kidnap two Wolof
children from a woodsman's hut. But he ran into their father, who
proceeded to chase the Portuguese back to their launch and gave them
such a beating that the explorers gave up on going any further, and
turned back to the waiting caravels. Young boys swimming in the
Sometime between 1448 and 1455, the Portuguese captain Lourenço Dias
opened regular trade contact on the
Senegal River, with the Wolof
Waalo (near the mouth of the
Senegal River) and
little below that), drumming up a profitable business exchanging
Mediterranean goods (notably, horses) for gold and slaves. Chronicler
Gomes Eanes de Zurara
Gomes Eanes de Zurara , writing in 1453, still called it the "Nile
Alvise Cadamosto , writing in the 1460s, was already
calling it the "Senega" , and it is denoted as Rio do Çanagà on most
subsequent Portuguese maps of the age. Cadamosto relates the legend
that both the
Senegal and the Egyptian Nile were branches of the
River that stems from the
Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden and flows
Ethiopia . He also notes that the
Senegal was called "the
Niger" by the ancients - probably a reference to
Ptolemy 's legendary
'Nigir' (below the Gir), which would be later identified by Leo
Africanus with the modern Niger
River . Much the same story is
repeated by Marmol in 1573, with the additional note that both the
River and Gambia
River were tributaries of the Niger
However, the contemporary African atlas of Venetian cartographer Livio
Sanuto , published in 1588, sketches the Senegal, the Niger and the
Gambia as three separate, parallel rivers.
detail from the map of Guillaume Delisle (1707), which still assumes
Senegal connected to the Niger; this would be corrected in
subsequent edititions of Delisle's map (1722, 1727), where it was
shown ending at a lake, south of the Niger.
João de Barros (writing in 1552) says the
river's original local Wolof name was Ovedech (which according to one
source, comes from "vi-dekh", Wolof for "this river"). His
Damião de Góis (1567) records it as Sonedech (from
"sunu dekh", Wolof for "our river"). Writing in 1573, the Spanish
Luis del Marmol Carvajal asserts that the Portuguese called
it Zenega, the 'Zeneges' (Berber Zenaga ) called it the Zenedec, the
'Gelofes' (Wolofs ) call it Dengueh, the 'Tucorones' (Fula Toucouleur
) called it Mayo, the 'Çaragoles' (Soninke Sarakole of Ngalam )
called it Colle and further along (again, Marmol assuming
connected to the Niger), the people of Bagamo' (Bambara of
called it Zimbala (Jimbala?) and the people of
Timbuktu called it the
The 16th-century chronicler
Joao de Barros
Joao de Barros asserts the Portuguese
renamed it "Senegal" because that was the personal name of a local
Wolof chieftain who frequently conducted business with the Portuguese
traders. But this etymology is doubtful (e.g. the ruler of Senegalese
river state of
Waalo bears the title 'Brak ', and Cadamosto gives the
personal name of the
Senegal river chieftain as "Zucholin"). The
confusion may have arisen because Cadamosto says the Portuguese
interacted frequently with a certain Wolof chieftain south of the
river, somewhere on the
Grande Côte , which he refers to as Budomel.
"Budomel" is almost certainly a reference to the ruler of
Cayor , a
combination of his formal title ("
Damel "), prefixed by the generic
Wolof term bor ("lord"). Curiously, Budomel is reminiscent of Vedamel
already used by the Genoese back in the 14th century as an alternative
name of the
Senegal River. It is almost certain that the Genoese
"Vedamel" are corruptions from the Arabic, either Wad al-mal ("River
of Treasure", i.e. Gold) or, alternatively, Wad al-Melli ("
Mali") or even, by transcription error, Wad al-Nill ("
River of Nile").
Route of the Senegal, map from 1889
Other etymological theories for "Senegal" abound. A popular one,
first proposed by Fr. David Boilat (1853), was that "Senegal" comes
from the Wolof phrase sunu gaal, meaning "our canoe" (more precisely,
"our pirogue "). Bailot speculates the name probably arose as a
misunderstanding, that when a Portuguese captain came across some
Wolof fishermen and asked them what the name of the river was, they
believed he was asking who their fishing boat belonged to, and replied
simply "it is our canoe" (sunu gaal). The "our canoe" theory has been
popularly embraced in modern
Senegal for its charm and appeal to
national solidarity ("we're all in one canoe", etc.).
More recent historians suggest the name "Senegal" is probably a
derivation of Azenegue, the Portuguese term for the Saharan Berber
Zenaga people that lived north of it.
A strong challenge to this theory is that "Senegal" is much older,
and might derive from "Sanghana" (also given as Isenghan, Asengan,
Singhanah), a city described by the Arab historian al-Bakri in 1068 as
located by the mouth of the
River (straddling both banks) and
the capital of a local kingdom. The location Senegany is depicted in
1351 Genoese map known as the
Medici Atlas (Laurentian Gaddiano
portolan). This town ("Isingan") is fantastically depicted in the
1413 portolan map of
Majorcan cartographer Mecia de Viladestes . The
name itself might be of Berber Zenaga origin, speculatively related to
'Ismegh' ('black slave', analogous to the Arabic \'abd ) or 'sagui
nughal' ('border'). Some sources claim 'Isinghan' remained the usual
Berber term to refer to the Wolof kingdom of
Serer people from the south have advanced the claim that the
river's name is originally derived from the compound of the Serer term
"Sene" (from Rog Sene , Supreme Deity in
Serer religion ) and "O Gal"
(meaning "body of water").
* ^ Hydrographic data for Dagana,
Senegal 1903-1974, Unesco
International Hydrological Programme, retrieved 24 May 2012 .
* ^ A B C SENEGAL-HYCOS: Renforcement des capacités nationales et
régionales d’observation, transmission et traitement de données
pour contribuer au développement durable du bassin du Fleuve
Sénégal (Document de projet préliminaire) (PDF) (in French),
Système Mondial d’Observation du Cycle Hydrologique (WHYCOS), 2007
* ^ UNH/GRDC Composite Runoff Fields V 1.0 data for Dagana.
* ^ Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (2008). Senegal-Gambia.
Accessed 2 May 2011.
* ^ Pliny, Natural History, Lib. 5, Ch.1 (p.380)
* ^ A translation of al-Bakri's 1068 account is found in Levtzion
Cape Non was called "Caput finis Gozolae" after the Gazzula
the western Sahara) and covers all of
Barbary (land of the Bebers).
* ^ João de Andrade Corvo (1882: p.70)
* ^ Zurara (p.178-83), Barros (p.110-12)
* ^ Cadamosto suggest this was begun in 1450: "Five years before I
went on this voyage, this river was discovered by three caravels
belonging to Don Henry, which entered it, and their commanders settled
peace and trade with the Moors; since which time ships have been sent
to this place every year to trade with the natives." Cadamosto (Engl.
1811 trans., p.220) The identification of Lourenço Dias as the opener
of Portuguese trade on the
River is suggested in a 1489
document. See Russell (2000:p.97n14).
* ^ Cadamosto (Engl. 1811 trans., (p.213). Giovanni Battista
Ramusio , publisher of the 1550 Italian edition of Cadamosto's memoir,
refers to the gold from the
Senegal as oro tiber (p.107), thus leading
some to imagine it was also customary to call the
Senegal the Tiber
River ! In all likelihood, "Tiber Gold" was just a generic Italian
reference to river-dug gold.
* ^ Cadamosto (p.220; Ital: p.111).
* ^ By confounding the Ptolemy's Greek 'Nigir' with the Latin word
Leo Africanus assumed the "Nile of the Blacks" (i.e.
Senegal-Niger of the Arab traders) must be the Nigir of the ancients.
See Leo Africanus, (Ital: p.7, Eng: p.124
Luis del Marmol Carvajal (1573) (ch. 17)
* ^ Barros, Décadas da Ásia (p.109). See also Bailot (1853:
* ^ See also A.M. de Castilho (1866) Descripção e roteiro da
costa occidental de Africa, vol. 1, p.92.
* ^ Marmol (1573), Lib. VIII, ch.3. See also Phérotée de La Croix
(1688: Ch. 2 p.406) and Cooley (1841: p.38)
* ^ Barros, p.109. This is reiterated in Marmol, Ch.8.3.
* ^ Cadamosto (Ital: p.110; Eng: p.220).
* ^ Cadamosto (Ital: p.113; Eng., p.225 )
* ^ Russell (2000: p.298)
* ^ e.g. in a Genoese note about
Jaume Ferrer 's 1346 trip to the
River Gold, "Istud flumen vocatur Vedamel similiter vocatur riu Auri".
See G. Gråberg (1802) Annali di geografia e di statistica, Genoa,
vol. II, p.290
* ^ The "
River of Treasure" interpretation of Vedamel can be found
in J.G.H. "'Histoire du commerce entre le Levant et l'Europe' in 1831,
Antologia; giornale di scienze, lettere e arti, Vol. 3 (Aug.) p.27.
R.H. Major (p.113) proposes the "Nile" interpretation.
* ^ Fr. David Boilat (1853) Esquisses sénégalaises p.199
* ^ Bailot, p.199
* ^ Monod 1968). Cooley (1841: p.50, p.55) believes that al-Idrisi,
contrarily to al-Bakri, might have confused Sanghana with Ganah/Awkat,
the capital of the
Ghana empire .
* ^ Delafosse "
Senegal River", in First encyclopaedia of Islam,
1913-1936, Leiden: E.J. Brill. vol. 7 (p.223-24)
* ^ A B C Monteil, 1964: p.91
* Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "
Senegal (river)". Encyclopædia
Britannica . 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 639.
João de Barros (1552–59) Décadas da Ásia: Dos feitos, que os
Portuguezes fizeram no descubrimento, e conquista, dos mares, e terras
do Oriente.. Vol. 1 (Dec I, Lib.1-5).
* Beazley, C.R. (1899) "Introduction" to vol. 2 of C.R. Beazley and
E. Prestage, editors, Zurara's The Chronicle of the Discovery and
Conquest of Guinea. London: Haklyut
* Fr. David Boilat (1853)Esquisses sénégalaises: physionomie du
pays, peuplades, commerce, religions, passé et avenir, récits et
légendes Paris: Bertrand. online
Alvise Cadamosto (1460s) "Il Libro di Messer Alvise Ca da Mosto
Gentilhuomo Venetiano" & "Navigatione del Capitano Pietro di Sintra
Portoghese scritta per il medesimo M. Alvise da Ca da Mosto", as
printed in Venice (1550), by
Giovanni Battista Ramusio , ed., Primo
volume delle navigationi et viaggi nel qua si contine la descrittione
dell'Africa, et del paese del Prete Ianni, on varii viaggi, dal mar
Rosso a Calicut, or, An inquiry into the early history and geography
of Central Africa London: Arrowsmith. online
* Delafosse, M. (1912) Haut-Sénégal-Niger. 3 vols, Paris: Emil
* Hrbek, I. (1992) Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh century.
University of California Press.
* Levtzion, N. (1973) Ancient Ghana and
Mali London: Methuen
* Levtzion, N. and J.F.P. Hopkins, editors, (2000) Corpus of early
Arabic sources for West African history, Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener.
Leo Africanus (1526) "Descrittione dell’ Africa, & delle cose
notabili che lui sono, per Giovan Lioni Africano"Descrittione
dell’Africa", as printed in Venice (1550), by Giovanni Battista
Ramusio , ed., Primo volume delle navigationi et viaggi nel qua si
contine la descrittione dell'Africa, et del paese del Prete Ianni, on
varii viaggi, dal mar
Rosso a Calicut, being the narrative of the
discovery by sea, within one century, of more than half the world.
1877 edition, London: S. Low, Marston, Searle, si dichiarano le
Provincie, Popoli, Regni, Città; Porti, Monti, Fiumi, Laghi, e
Costumi dell' Africa. Con XII tavole di essa Africa in dissegno di
rame. Aggiuntivi de piu tre Indici da M. Giovan Carlo Saraceni,
Venice: Damiano Zenaro.
* Winter, H. (1962) "The
Fra Mauro Portolan Chart in the Vatican",
Imago Mundi, vol. 16, p. 17-28.
Gomes Eanes de Zurara
Gomes Eanes de Zurara (1453) Crónica dos feitos notáveis que se
passaram na Conquista da Guiné por mandado do Infante D. Henrique or
Chronica do descobrimento e conquista da Guiné.
* Betz, R. L. (2007). The Mapping of Africa: a cartobibliography of
printed maps of the African continent to 1700. Hes & de Graaf. ISBN
* Davidson, Basil (1998).
West Africa Before the Colonial Era: a
history to 1850. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-31852-1 .
* De la Roncière, Charles (1925). La découverte de l'Afrique au
moyen âge. 2 volumes. Cairo: Société Royale de Géographie
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* The Hydrology of Senegal