River (Arabic: نهر السنغال, French: Fleuve
Sénégal) is a 1,086 km (675 mi) long river in West Africa
that forms the border between
Senegal and Mauritania.
2.1 Arab sources
2.2 Cartographic representation
2.3 European contact
4 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
The Senegal's headwaters are the Semefé (Bakoye) and Bafing rivers
which both originate in Guinea; they form a small part of the
Guinean-Malian border before coming together at
Bafoulabé in Mali.
From there, the
Senegal river flows west and then north through Talari
Gorges near Galougo and over the Gouina Falls, then flows more gently
past Kayes, where it receives the Kolimbiné. After flowing together
with the Karakoro, it prolongs the former's course along the
Mali-Mauritanian border for some tens of kilometers till Bakel where
it flows together with the Falémé River, which also has its source
in Guinea, subsequently runs along a small part of the Guinea-Mali
frontier to then trace most of the Senegal-
Mali border up to Bakel.
Senegal further flows through semi-arid land in the north of
Senegal, forming the border with
Mauritania and into the Atlantic. In
Kaedi it accepts the Gorgol from Mauritania. Flowing through Bogué it
Richard Toll where it is joined by the
Ferlo coming from
inland Senegal's Lac de Guiers. It passes through
approaching its mouth, around the Senegalese island on which the city
of Saint-Louis is located, to then turn south. It is separated from
Atlantic Ocean by a thin strip of sand called the Langue de
Barbarie before it pours into the ocean itself.
The river has two large dams along its course, the multi-purpose
Mali and the Maka-Diama
Dam downstream on the
Senegal border, near the outlet to the sea, preventing
access of salt water upstream. In between Manantali and Maka-Diama is
Félou Hydroelectric Plant
Félou Hydroelectric Plant which was originally completed in 1927
and uses a weir. The power station was replaced in 2014. In 2013,
construction of the
Gouina Hydroelectric Plant
Gouina Hydroelectric Plant upstream of Felou at
Gouina Falls began.
River has a drainage basin of 270,000 km2, a mean
flow of 680 m3/s and an annual discharge of 21.5 km3.
Important tributaries are the Falémé River, Karakoro River, and the
Kaédi the river divides into two branches. The left
branch called the Doué runs parallel to the main river to the north.
After 200 km the two branches rejoin a few kilometres downstream
of Pondor. The long strip of land between the two branches is called
the Île á Morfil.
In 1972 Mali,
Senegal founded the Organisation pour la
mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal (OMVS) to manage the river basin.
Guinea joined in 2005.
At the present time, only very limited use is made of the river for
the transport of goods and passengers. The OMVS have looked at the
feasibility of creating a navigable channel 55 m in width between
the small town of
Mali and Saint-Louis, a distance of
905 km. It would give landlocked
Mali a direct route to the
The aquatic fauna in the
River basin is closely associated
with that of the Gambia
River basin, and the two are usually combined
under a single ecoregion known as the Senegal-Gambia Catchments.
Although the species richness is moderately high, only three species
of frogs and one fish are endemic to this ecoregion.
The existence of the
River was known to the early
Mediterranean civilizations. It was called Bambotus by Pliny the Elder
(from Phoenician "behemoth" for hippopotamus) and Nias by Claudius
Ptolemy. It was visited by Hanno the Carthaginian around 450 BCE at
his navigation from
Carthage through the pillars of Herakles to Theon
Ochema (Mount Cameroon) in the Gulf of Guinea. There was trade from
here to the
Mediterranean World, until the destruction of
its west African trade net in 146 BCE.
In the Early Middle Ages (c. 800 CE), the
contact with the
Mediterranean world with the establishment of the
Trans-Saharan trade route between
Morocco and the Ghana Empire. Arab
geographers, like al-Masudi of Baghdad (957), al-Bakri of Spain (1068)
and al-Idrisi of Sicily (1154), provided some of the earliest
descriptions of the
Senegal River. Early Arab geographers believed
River and the upper Niger
River were connected to
each other, and formed a single river flowing from east to west, which
they called the "Western Nile". It was believed to be either a
western branch of the Egyptian Nile
River or drawn from the same
source (variously conjectured to some great internal lakes of the
Mountains of the Moon, or Ptolemy's Ghir or the Biblical Gihon
Western Nile (Senegal-Niger River) according to al-Bakri (1068)
Arab geographers Abd al-Hassan Ali ibn Omar (1230), Ibn Said
al-Maghribi (1274) and Abulfeda (1331), label the
Senegal as the "Nile
of Ghana" (Nil Gana or Nili Ganah).
River reached into the heart of the gold-producing
Ghana Empire and later the
Mali Empire, Trans-Saharan traders gave the
Senegal its famous nickname as the "
River of Gold". The Trans-Saharan
stories about the "
River of Gold" reached the ears of Sub-Alpine
European merchants that frequented the ports of
Morocco and the lure
proved irresistible. Arab historians report at least three separate
Arab maritime expeditions - the last one organized by a group of eight
mughrarin ("wanderers") of
Lisbon (before 1147) - that tried to sail
down the Atlantic coast, possibly in an effort find the mouth of the
Western Nile (Senegal-Niger River) according to Muhammad al-Idrisi
Drawing from Classical legend and Arab sources, the "
River of Gold"
found its way into European maps in the 14th century. In the Hereford
Mappa Mundi (c. 1300), there is a river labelled "Nilus Fluvius" drawn
parallel to the coast of Africa, albeit without communication with
Atlantic (it ends in a lake). It depicts some giant ants digging up
gold dust from its sands, with the note "Hic grandes formice auream
serican arenas". In the mappa mundi made by
Pietro Vesconte for
the c. 1320 atlas of Marino Sanuto, there is an unnamed river stemming
from the African interior and opening in the Atlantic ocean. The 1351
Medici-Laurentian Atlas shows both the Egyptian Nile and the western
Nile stemming from the same internal mountain range, with the note
that "Ilic coligitur aureaum". The portolan chart of Giovanni da
Carignano (1310s-20s) has the river with the label, iste fluuis exit
de nilo ubi multum aurum repperitur.
In the more accurately-drawn portolan charts, starting with the 1367
Domenico and Francesco Pizzigano
Domenico and Francesco Pizzigano and carried on in the 1375
Catalan Atlas, the 1413 chart of Mecia de Viladestes, etc. the "River
of Gold" is depicted (if only speculatively), draining into the
Atlantic Ocean somewhere just south of Cape Bojador. The legend of
Cape Bojador as a terrifying obstacle, the 'cape of no return' to
European sailors, emerged around the same time (possibly encouraged by
Trans-Saharan traders who did not want to see their land route
sidestepped by sea).
The river is frequently depicted with a great river island midway, the
"Island of Gold", first mentioned by al-Masudi, and famously called
"Wangara" by al-Idrisi and "Palolus" in the 1367 Pizzigani brothers
chart. It is conjectured that this riverine "island" is in fact just
the Bambuk-Buré goldfield district, which is practically surrounded
on all sides by rivers - the
Senegal river to the north, the Falémé
River to the west, the Bakhoy to the east and the Niger and Tinkisso
to the south.
Course of the "
River of Gold" (Senegal-Niger) in the 1413 portolan
chart of Mecia de Viladestes.
The 1413 portolan chart of Mecia de Viladestes gives perhaps the most
detailed depiction of the early state of European knowledge about the
River prior to the 1440s. Viladestes labels it "
River of Gold"
("riu del or") and locates it a considerable distance south of Cape
Bojador (buyeter) - indeed, south of a mysterious "cap de abach"
(possibly Cape Timris). There are extensive notes about the
plentifulness of ivory and gold in the area, including a note that
"This river is called Wad al-Nil and also is called the
River of Gold,
for one can here obtain the gold of Palolus. And know that the greater
part of those that live here occupy themselves collecting gold on the
shores of the river which, at its mouth, is a league wide, and deep
enough for the largest ship of the world."
Slave trade along the
Senegal River, kingdom of Cayor
The galley of
Jaume Ferrer is depicted off the coast on the left, with
a quick note about his 1346 voyage. The golden round island at the
mouth of the
River is the indication (customary on portolan
charts) of river mouth bars or islands - in this case, probably a
reference to the
Langue de Barbarie
Langue de Barbarie or the island of Saint-Louis). The
first town, by the mouth of the Senegal, is called "isingan" (arguably
the etymological source of the term "Senegal"). East of that, the
Senegal forms a riverine island called "insula de bronch" (Île à
Morfil). By its shores lies the city of "tocoror" (Takrur). Above it
is a depiction of the
Abu Bakr ibn Umar ("Rex
Bubecar") on a camel. Further east, along the river, is the seated
emperor (mansa) of
Mali ("Rex Musa Meli", prob. Mansa Musa), holding a
gold nugget. His capital, "civitat musa meli" is shown on the shores
of the river, and the range of Emperor of Mali's sway is suggested by
all the black banners (an inscription notes "This lord of the blacks
is called Musa Melli, Lord of Guinea, the greatest noble lord of these
parts for the abundance of the gold which is collected in his
lands". Curiously, there is a defiant gold-bannered town south of
the river, labelled "tegezeut" (probably the Ta'adjast of al-Idrisi),
and might be an ichoate reference to Djenné.
East of Mali, the river forms a lake or "Island of Gold" shown here
studded with river-washed gold nuggets (this is what the Pizzigani
brothers called the island of "Palolus", and most commentators take to
indicate the Bambuk-Buré goldfields). It is connected by many streams
to the southerly "mountains of gold" (labelled "montanies del lor",
the Futa Djallon/
Bambouk Mountains and
Loma Mountains of Sierra
Leone). It is evident the
Senegal river morphs east, unbroken, into
River - the cities of "tenbuch" (Timbuktu), "geugeu" (Gao)
and "mayna" (Niamey? or a misplaced Niani?) are denoted along the same
single river. South of them (barely visible) are what seem like the
Kukiya (on the eastern shore of the Island of Gold), and east
of that, probably
Sokoto (called "Zogde" in the Catalan Atlas) and
much further southeast, probably Kano.
Moorish man, Trarza region of the
River Valley, Abbé David
North of the Senegal-Niger are the various oases and stations of the
trans-Saharan route ("Tutega" = Tijigja, "Anzica" = In-Zize, "Tegaza"
= Taghaza, etc.) towards the
Mediterranean coast. There is an
unlabeled depiction of a black African man on a camel traveling from
"Uuegar" (prob. Hoggar) to the town of "Organa" ("ciutat organa",
variously identified as Kanem or
Ouargla or possibly even a misplaced
depiction of Ghana - long defunct, but, on the other hand,
contemporaneous with the depicted Abu Bakr). Nearby sits its
Arab-looking king ("Rex Organa") holding a scimitar. The
River of Gold
is sourced at a circular island, what seem like the Mountains of the
Moon (albeit unlabeled here). From this same source also flows north
White Nile towards Egypt, which forms the frontier between the
Muslim "king of Nubia" ("Rex Onubia", his range depicted by
crescent-on-gold banners) and the Christian
Prester John ("Preste
Joha"), i.e. the emperor of
Ethiopia in the garb of a Christian bishop
(coincidentally, this is the first visual depiction of
Prester John on
a portolan chart).
Uniquely, the Viladestes map shows another river, south of the
Senegal, which it labels the "flumen gelica" (poss. angelica), which
some have taken to depict the Gambia River. In the 1459 mappa mundi of
Fra Mauro, drawn a half-century later, after the Portuguese had
already visited the
Senegal (albeit still trying to respect Classical
sources), shows two parallel rivers running east to west, both of them
sourced from the same great internal lake (which,
Fra Mauro asserts,
is also the same source as the Egyptian Nile). Mauro names the two
parallel rivers differently,calling one "flumen Mas ("Mas River"), the
other the "canal dal oro" ("Channel of Gold"), and makes the note that
"Inne larena de questi do fiume se trova oro de paiola" ("In the sands
of both these rivers gold of 'palola' may be found"), and nearer to
the sea, "Qui se racoce oro" ("Here gold is collected"), and finally,
on the coast, "Terra de Palmear" ("Land of Palms"). It is notable that
Fra Mauro knew of the error of Henry the Navigator's captains about
the Daklha inlet, which Mauro carefully labels "Reodor" ("Rio do
Ouro", Western Sahara), distinctly from the "Canal del Oro" (Senegal
Christian Europeans soon began attempting to find the sea route to the
mouth of the Senegal. The first known effort may have been by the
Genoese brothers Vandino and Ugolino Vivaldi, who set out down the
coast in 1291 in a pair of ships (nothing more is heard of them). In
Jaume Ferrer set out on a galley with the
explicit objective of finding the "
River of Gold" (Riu de l'Or), where
he heard that most people along its shores were engaged in the
collection of gold and that the river was wide and deep enough for the
largest ships. Nothing more is heard of him either. In 1402, after
establishing the first European colony on the Canary Islands, the
French Norman adventurers
Jean de Béthencourt
Jean de Béthencourt and Gadifer de la Salle
set about immediately probing the African coast, looking for
directions to the mouth of Senegal.
The project of finding the
Senegal was taken up in the 1420s by the
Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator, who invested heavily to reach
it. In 1434, one of Henry's captains, Gil Eanes, finally surpassed
Cape Bojador and returned to tell about it. Henry immediately
dispatched a follow up mission in 1435, under
Gil Eanes and Afonso
Gonçalves Baldaia. Going down the coast, they turned around the
al-Dakhla peninsula in the
Western Sahara and emerged into an inlet,
which they excitedly believed to be the mouth of the
The name they mistakenly bestowed upon the inlet - "Rio do Ouro" - is
a name it would remain stuck with down to the 20th century.
Realizing the mistake, Henry kept pressing his captains further down
the coast, and in 1445, the Portuguese captain
Nuno Tristão finally
reached the Langue de Barbarie, where he noticed the desert end and
the treeline begin, and the population change from 'tawny' Sanhaja
Berbers to 'black' Wolof people. Bad weather or lack of supplies
prevented Tristão from actually reaching the mouth of the Senegal
River, but he rushed back to Portugal to report he had finally found
the "Land of the Blacks" (Terra dos Negros), and that the "Nile" was
surely nearby. Shortly after (possibly still within that same year)
Dinis Dias (sometimes given as Dinis Fernandes) was
the first known European since antiquity to finally reach the mouth of
Senegal River. However, Dias did not sail upriver, but instead
kept sailing down the
Grande Côte to the bay of Dakar.
The very next year, in 1446, the Portuguese slave-raiding fleet of
Lançarote de Freitas
Lançarote de Freitas arrived at the mouth of the Senegal. One of its
captains, Estêvão Afonso, volunteered to take a launch to explore
upriver for settlements, thus becoming the first European to actually
Senegal river. He didn't get very far. Venturing ashore at
one point along the river bank, Afonso tried to kidnap two Wolof
children from a woodsman's hut. But he ran into their father, who
proceeded to chase the Portuguese back to their launch and gave them
such a beating that the explorers gave up on going any further, and
turned back to the waiting caravels.
Young boys swimming in the
Sometime between 1448 and 1455, the Portuguese captain Lourenço Dias
opened regular trade contact on the
Senegal River, with the Wolof
Waalo (near the mouth of the
Senegal River) and
little below that), drumming up a profitable business exchanging
Mediterranean goods (notably, horses) for gold and slaves.
Chronicler Gomes Eanes de Zurara, writing in 1453, still called it the
"Nile River", but Alvise Cadamosto, writing in the 1460s, was already
calling it the "Senega" [sic], and it is denoted as Rio do Çanagà
on most subsequent Portuguese maps of the age. Cadamosto relates
the legend that both the
Senegal and the Egyptian Nile were branches
of the Biblical
River that stems from the
Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden and
flows through Ethiopia. He also notes that the
Senegal was called
"the Niger" by the ancients - probably a reference to Ptolemy's
legendary 'Nigir' (below the Gir), which would be later identified by
Leo Africanus with the modern Niger River. Much the same story is
repeated by Marmol in 1573, with the additional note that both the
River and Gambia
River were tributaries of the Niger
River. However, the contemporary African atlas of Venetian
cartographer Livio Sanuto, published in 1588, sketches the Senegal,
the Niger and the Gambia as three separate, parallel rivers.
Senegambia region, detail from the map of Guillaume Delisle (1707),
which still assumes the
Senegal connected to the Niger; this would be
corrected in subsequent edititions of Delisle's map (1722, 1727),
where it was shown ending at a lake, south of the Niger.
João de Barros
João de Barros (writing in 1552) says the
river's original local Wolof name was Ovedech (which according to one
source, comes from "vi-dekh", Wolof for "this river"). His
Damião de Góis
Damião de Góis (1567) records it as Sonedech (from
"sunu dekh", Wolof for "our river"). Writing in 1573, the Spanish
Luis del Marmol Carvajal
Luis del Marmol Carvajal asserts that the Portuguese called
it Zenega, the 'Zeneges' (Berber Zenaga) called it the Zenedec, the
'Gelofes' (Wolofs) call it Dengueh, the 'Tucorones' (Fula Toucouleur)
called it Mayo, the 'Çaragoles' (Soninke Sarakole of Ngalam) called
it Colle and further along (again, Marmol assuming
connected to the Niger), the people of Bagamo' (Bambara of Bamako?)
called it Zimbala (Jimbala?) and the people of
Timbuktu called it the
The 16th-century chronicler
Joao de Barros
Joao de Barros asserts the Portuguese
renamed it "Senegal" because that was the personal name of a local
Wolof chieftain who frequently conducted business with the Portuguese
traders. But this etymology is doubtful (e.g. the ruler of
Senegalese river state of
Waalo bears the title 'Brak', and Cadamosto
gives the personal name of the
Senegal river chieftain as
"Zucholin"). The confusion may have arisen because Cadamosto says
the Portuguese interacted frequently with a certain Wolof chieftain
south of the river, somewhere on the Grande Côte, which he refers to
as Budomel. "Budomel" is almost certainly a reference to the ruler
of Cayor, a combination of his formal title ("Damel"), prefixed by the
generic Wolof term bor ("lord"). Curiously, Budomel is reminiscent
of Vedamel already used by the Genoese back in the 14th century as an
alternative name of the
Senegal River. It is almost certain that
the Genoese "Vedamel" are corruptions from the Arabic, either Wad
River of Treasure", i.e. Gold) or, alternatively, Wad
River of Mali") or even, by transcription error, Wad
River of Nile").
Route of the Senegal, map from 1889
Other etymological theories for "Senegal" abound. A popular one, first
proposed by Fr. David Boilat (1853), was that "Senegal" comes from the
Wolof phrase sunu gaal, meaning "our canoe" (more precisely, "our
pirogue"). Bailot speculates the name probably arose as a
misunderstanding, that when a Portuguese captain came across some
Wolof fishermen and asked them what the name of the river was, they
believed he was asking who their fishing boat belonged to, and replied
simply "it is our canoe" (sunu gaal). The "our canoe" theory has
been popularly embraced in modern
Senegal for its charm and appeal to
national solidarity ("we're all in one canoe", etc.).
More recent historians suggest the name "Senegal" is probably a
derivation of Azenegue, the Portuguese term for the Saharan Berber
Zenaga people that lived north of it.
A strong challenge to this theory is that "Senegal" is much older, and
might derive from "Sanghana" (also given as Isenghan, Asengan,
Singhanah), a city described by the Arab historian al-Bakri in 1068 as
located by the mouth of the
River (straddling both banks) and
the capital of a local kingdom. The location Senegany is depicted
in 1351 Genoese map known as the
Medici Atlas (Laurentian Gaddiano
portolan). This town ("Isingan") is fantastically depicted in the
1413 portolan map of
Majorcan cartographer Mecia de Viladestes.
The name itself might be of Berber Zenaga origin, speculatively
related to 'Ismegh' ('black slave', analogous to the Arabic 'abd) or
'sagui nughal' ('border'). Some sources claim 'Isinghan' remained
the usual Berber term to refer to the Wolof kingdom of Cayor.
Serer people from the south have advanced the claim that the
river's name is originally derived from the compound of the Serer term
"Sene" (from Rog Sene, Supreme Deity in Serer religion) and "O Gal"
(meaning "body of water").
^ Hydrographic data for Dagana,
Senegal 1903-1974, Unesco
International Hydrological Programme, retrieved 24 May 2012 .
^ a b c SENEGAL-HYCOS: Renforcement des capacités nationales et
régionales d’observation, transmission et traitement de données
pour contribuer au développement durable du bassin du Fleuve
Sénégal (Document de projet préliminaire) (PDF) (in French),
Système Mondial d’Observation du Cycle Hydrologique (WHYCOS),
^ UNH/GRDC Composite Runoff Fields V 1.0 data for Dagana.
^ Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (2008). Senegal-Gambia. Accessed
2 May 2011.
^ Pliny, Natural History, Lib. 5, Ch.1 (p.380)
^ A translation of al-Bakri's 1068 account is found in Levtzion &
Hopkins, (2000, Corpus: (p.77). In French, see Monteil (1968). For an
attempt to reconstruct the
Senegal river's course from the accounts of
al-Bakri and al-Idrisi, see Cooley (1841: p.52).
^ The term "Nile" seems to have been applied quite early to the
Senegal. During the Arab conquest of North Africa in the 8th century,
Ifriqiyan commanders launched several expeditionary raids from the
Sous valley against the desert-dwelling nomadic
Berbers of Western
Sahara. There is a report from an Arab commander from the 750s who
claims to have reached as far south as "the Nile" (i.e. the Senegal).
See Hrbek (1992: p.308).
^ e.g. Leo Africanus, p.124
^ See R.H. Major (1868) Life of Prince Henry p.114
^ See Beazley (1899: p. xliv, lxxv)
^ Bevan and Phillott (1873: p.105.
^ See João de Andrade Corvo (1882) Roteiro de Lisboa a Goa por D.
João de Castro, Lisbon. p.68n.
^ Winter (1962: p.18)
^ Delafosse (1912: v.1,p.55), Crone (1937: p.xv), Mauny (1961: p.302),
Levtzion (1973: p.155). However, McIntosh (1981) suggests an
alternative identification of this riverine "island" to be the Djenné
area, around the bend of the Niger.
^ "Aquest flum es apelat ued anil axi matex es apelat riu de lor per
tal com si requyl lor de palola. Et scire debeatis quod major pars
gentium in partibus istis habitantium sunt electi ad colligendum aurum
ipso flumine, qui habet latitudinem unius legue et fondum pro majori
^ "Aquest senyor dels negres es appelat musa melli, senyor de guineua,
e aquest es el puys noble senyor de tota esta partida per labondansia
del or lo qualse recull en la sua terra"
^ The inscription above
Kano reads merely: "Africa es apelada la terca
part del mon, per rao dun rey afer fill d'abrae, qui la senyorega,
laquai partida comensa en les pars degipte al flum del cales, e finey
en gutzolanes les pars hoccidentals e combren tota la barberia
environant tôt lo mis jorn" (trans: "Africa is called the third part
of the world, after King Afer, son of Abraham, who lorded over it, its
beginning starts in the part of Egypt by the river of Cairo (Cales =
adjective of Cairo) and the western part ends at Cape Non
Cape Non was called "Caput finis Gozolae" after the
Berbers of the western Sahara) and covers all of
of the Bebers).
^ João de Andrade Corvo (1882: p.70)
^ Zurara (p.178-83), Barros (p.110-12)
^ Cadamosto suggest this was begun in 1450: "Five years before I went
on this voyage, this river was discovered by three caravels belonging
to Don Henry, which entered it, and their commanders settled peace and
trade with the Moors; since which time ships have been sent to this
place every year to trade with the natives." Cadamosto (Engl. 1811
trans., p.220) The identification of Lourenço Dias as the opener of
Portuguese trade on the
River is suggested in a 1489 document.
See Russell (2000:p.97n14).
^ Cadamosto (Engl. 1811 trans., (p.213). Giovanni Battista Ramusio,
publisher of the 1550 Italian edition of Cadamosto's memoir, refers to
the gold from the
Senegal as oro tiber (p.107), thus leading some to
imagine it was also customary to call the
Senegal the Tiber River! In
all likelihood, "Tiber Gold" was just a generic Italian reference to
^ Cadamosto (p.220; Ital: p.111).
^ By confounding the Ptolemy's Greek 'Nigir' with the Latin word for
Leo Africanus assumed the "Nile of the Blacks" (i.e.
Senegal-Niger of the Arab traders) must be the Nigir of the ancients.
See Leo Africanus, (Ital: p.7, Eng: p.124
Luis del Marmol Carvajal
Luis del Marmol Carvajal (1573) (ch. 17)
^ Barros, Décadas da Ásia (p.109). See also Bailot (1853: p.199).
^ See also A.M. de Castilho (1866) Descripção e roteiro da costa
occidental de Africa, vol. 1, p.92.
^ Marmol (1573), Lib. VIII, ch.3. See also Phérotée de La Croix
(1688: Ch. 2 p.406) and Cooley (1841: p.38)
^ Barros, p.109. This is reiterated in Marmol, Ch.8.3.
^ Cadamosto (Ital: p.110; Eng: p.220).
^ Cadamosto (Ital: p.113; Eng., p.225 )
^ Russell (2000: p.298)
^ e.g. in a Genoese note about Jaume Ferrer's 1346 trip to the River
Gold, "Istud flumen vocatur Vedamel similiter vocatur riu Auri". See
G. Gråberg (1802) Annali di geografia e di statistica, Genoa, vol.
^ The "
River of Treasure" interpretation of Vedamel can be found in
J.G.H. "'Histoire du commerce entre le Levant et l'Europe' in 1831,
Antologia; giornale di scienze, lettere e arti, Vol. 3 (Aug.) p.27.
R.H. Major (p.113) proposes the "Nile" interpretation.
^ Fr. David Boilat (1853) Esquisses sénégalaises p.199
^ Bailot, p.199
^ Monod & Mauny, in the French translation of Zurara, although it
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