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Seamus Justin Heaney MRIA (/ˈʃeɪməs ˈhiːni/; 13 April 1939 – 30 August 2013) was an Irish poet, playwright and translator. He received the 1995 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature.[1][2] Heaney was born in the townland of Tamniaran between Castledawson
Castledawson
and Toomebridge, Northern Ireland. His family moved to nearby Bellaghy when he was a boy. He became a lecturer at St. Joseph's College in Belfast
Belfast
in the early 1960s, after attending Queen's University and began to publish poetry. He lived in Sandymount, Dublin
Dublin
from 1976 until his death.[2][3][4] He also lived part-time in the United States from 1981 to 2006. Heaney was recognised as one of the principal contributors to poetry during his lifetime. Heaney was a professor at Harvard from 1981 to 1997, and its Poet in Residence from 1988 to 2006. From 1989 to 1994, he was also the Professor of Poetry
Professor of Poetry
at Oxford. In 1996, was made a Commandeur
Commandeur
de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres. Other awards that he received include the Geoffrey Faber Memorial Prize (1968), the E. M. Forster Award (1975), the PEN Translation Prize (1985), the Golden Wreath of Poetry (2001), the T. S. Eliot Prize
T. S. Eliot Prize
(2006) and two Whitbread Prizes (1996 and 1999).[5][6] In 2011, he was awarded the Griffin Poetry Prize
Griffin Poetry Prize
and in 2012, a Lifetime Recognition Award from the Griffin Trust. His literary papers are held by the National Library of Ireland. American poet Robert Lowell
Robert Lowell
described him as "the most important Irish poet since Yeats", and many others, including the academic John Sutherland, have said that he was "the greatest poet of our age".[5][6] Robert Pinsky
Robert Pinsky
has stated that "with his wonderful gift of eye and ear Heaney has the gift of the story-teller."[7] Upon his death in 2013, The Independent
The Independent
described him as "probably the best-known poet in the world."[8] One of his best known works is Death of a Naturalist, published in 1966. His body is buried at the Cemetery of St. Mary's Church, Bellaghy, Northern Ireland. The headstone bears the epitaph "Walk on air against your better judgement", from one of his poems, "The Gravel Walks".

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career

2.1 1957–1969 2.2 1970–84 2.3 1985–99 2.4 2000s 2.5 2010s 2.6 Death

3 Work

3.1 Naturalism 3.2 Politics 3.3 Translation 3.4 Plays and prose 3.5 Use in school syllabuses

4 Influence 5 Publications

5.1 Poetry: main collections 5.2 Poetry: selected editions 5.3 Prose: main collections 5.4 Prose: selected editions 5.5 Plays 5.6 Translations 5.7 Limited editions and booklets (poetry and prose)

6 Critical studies of Heaney 7 Selected discography 8 Major prizes and honours 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Early life[edit]

From Mid-Term Break

Wearing a poppy bruise on the left temple, He lay in the four foot box as in a cot. No gaudy scars, the bumper knocked him clear.

A four foot box, a foot for every year.

“ ”

from "Mid-term break", Death of a Naturalist
Death of a Naturalist
(1966)

Heaney was born on 13 April 1939, at the family farmhouse called Mossbawn,[3] between Castledawson
Castledawson
and Toomebridge; he was the first of nine children. In 1953, his family moved to Bellaghy, a few miles away, which is now the family home. His father, Patrick Heaney (d. October 1986),[9] was the eighth child of ten born to James and Sarah Heaney.[10] Patrick was a farmer, but his real commitment was to cattle dealing, to which he was introduced by the uncles who had cared for him after the early death of his own parents.[11] Heaney's mother, Margaret Kathleen McCann (1911–1984),[12] who bore nine children,[13] came from the McCann family.[14] Her uncles and relations were employed in the local linen mill, and her aunt had worked as a maid for the mill owner's family. Heaney commented that his parentage contained both the Ireland of the cattle-herding Gaelic past and the Ulster of the Industrial Revolution; he considered this to have been a significant tension in his background. Heaney initially attended Anahorish Primary School; when he was twelve years old, he won a scholarship to St. Columb's College, a Roman Catholic boarding school situated in Derry. Heaney's infant brother, Christopher, was killed in a road accident while Heaney was studying at St. Columb's. The poems "Mid-Term Break" and "The Blackbird of Glanmore" are related to his brother's death.[15] Career[edit] 1957–1969[edit] Further information on his works during this period: Death of a Naturalist and Door into the Dark

Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
in 1970

From "Digging"

My grandfather cut more turf in a day Than any other man on Toner's bog. Once I carried him milk in a bottle Corked sloppily with paper. He straightened up To drink it, then fell to right away

Nicking and slicing neatly, heaving sods Over his shoulder, going down and down For the good turf. Digging.

The cold smell of potato mould, the squelch and slap Of soggy peat, the curt cuts of an edge Through living roots awaken in my head. But I've no spade to follow men like them.

Between my finger and my thumb The squat pen rests. I'll dig with it.

“ ”

from "Digging", Death of a Naturalist
Death of a Naturalist
(1966)

In 1957, Heaney travelled to Belfast
Belfast
to study English Language and Literature at Queen's University Belfast. During his time in Belfast, he found a copy of Ted Hughes's Lupercal, which spurred him to write poetry. "Suddenly, the matter of contemporary poetry was the material of my own life," he said.[5] He graduated in 1961 with a First Class Honours degree. During teacher training at St Joseph's Teacher Training College in Belfast
Belfast
(now merged with St Mary's, University College), Heaney went on a placement to St Thomas' secondary Intermediate School in west Belfast. The headmaster of this school was the writer Michael McLaverty from County Monaghan, who introduced Heaney to the poetry of Patrick Kavanagh.[16][17] With McLaverty's mentorship, Heaney first started to publish poetry in 1962. Hillan describes how McLaverty was like a foster father to the younger Belfast
Belfast
poet.[18] In the introduction to McLaverty's Collected Works, Heaney summarised the poet's contribution and influence: "His voice was modestly pitched, he never sought the limelight, yet for all that, his place in our literature is secure."[19] Heaney's poem Fosterage, in the sequence Singing School from North (1975), is dedicated to him. In 1963, Heaney became a lecturer at St Joseph's, and in the spring of 1963, after contributing various articles to local magazines, he came to the attention of Philip Hobsbaum, then an English lecturer at Queen's University. Hobsbaum set up a Belfast
Belfast
Group of local young poets (to mirror the success he had with the London group), and Heaney was able to meet other Belfast
Belfast
poets such as Derek Mahon
Derek Mahon
and Michael Longley. In August 1965, he married Marie Devlin, a school teacher and native of Ardboe, County Tyrone. (Also a writer, Devlin published Over Nine Waves (1994), a collection of traditional Irish myths and legends.) Heaney's first book, Eleven Poems, was published in November 1965 for the Queen's University Festival. In 1966, Faber and Faber published his first major volume, called Death of a Naturalist. This collection was met with much critical acclaim and won several awards, including the Gregory Award for Young Writers and the Geoffrey Faber Prize.[17] Also in 1966, Heaney was appointed as a lecturer in Modern English Literature at Queen's University Belfast. That year his first son, Michael, was born. A second son, Christopher, was born in 1968. That same year, with Michael Longley, Heaney took part in a reading tour called Room to Rhyme, which increased awareness of the poet's work. In 1969, his second major volume, Door into the Dark, was published. 1970–84[edit] Further information on his works during this period: Wintering Out, North (poetry collection), Field Work (poetry collection), and Selected Poems 1965-1975 After a spell as guest lecturer at the University of California, Berkeley, Heaney returned in 1971 to Queen's University. In 1972, Heaney left his lectureship at Belfast, moved to Wicklow
Wicklow
in the Republic of Ireland, and began writing on a full-time basis. In the same year, he published Wintering Out. Over the next few years, Heaney began to give readings throughout Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. In 1975, Heaney published his fourth volume, North. A pamphlet of prose poems entitled Stations was published the same year. He became Head of English at Carysfort College
Carysfort College
in Dublin
Dublin
in 1976, and he moved with his family to Sandymount
Sandymount
in that city. His next volume, Field Work, was published in 1979. Selected Poems 1965-1975
Selected Poems 1965-1975
and Preoccupations: Selected Prose 1968–1978 were published in 1980. When Aosdána, the national Irish Arts Council, was established in 1981, Heaney was among those elected into its first group. (He was subsequently elected a Saoi, one of its five elders and its highest honour, in 1997).[20] Also in 1981, Heaney traveled to the United States as a visiting professor at Harvard University, where he was affiliated with Adams House. He was awarded two honorary doctorates, from Queen's University and from Fordham University
Fordham University
in New York City (1982). At the Fordham commencement ceremony on May 23, 1982, Heaney delivered his address as a 46-stanza poem entitled "Verses for a Fordham Commencement."[21] Born and educated in Northern Ireland, Heaney stressed that he was Irish and not British.[22] Following the success of the Field Day Theatre Company's production of Brian Friel's Translations, the founders Brian Friel
Brian Friel
and Stephen Rea
Stephen Rea
decided to make the company a permanent group. Heaney joined the company's expanded Board of Directors in 1981.[23] In autumn 1984, his mother, Margaret, died.[9][24] 1985–99[edit] Further information on his works during this period: Station Island (poetry), The Haw Lantern, The Cure at Troy, and The Spirit Level (poetry collection)

Marie and Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
at the Dominican Church, Kraków, Poland, 4 October 1996

Heaney received a tenure position at Harvard, becoming Boylston Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory at Harvard University
Harvard University
(formerly Visiting Professor), serving 1985–1997, and the Ralph Waldo Emerson Poet in Residence at Harvard 1998–2006.[25] In 1986, Heaney received a Litt.D. from Bates College. His father, Patrick, died in October the same year.[9] The loss of both parents within two years affected Heaney deeply, and he expressed his grief in poems.[9] In 1988, a collection of his critical essays, The Government of the Tongue, was published. In 1985 Heaney wrote the poem "From the Republic of Conscience" at the request of Amnesty International
Amnesty International
Ireland. He wanted to "celebrate United Nations Day and the work of Amnesty."[26] The poem inspired the title of Amnesty International's highest honor, the Ambassador of Conscience Award.[27] In 1988, Heaney donated his lecture notes to the Manuscripts, Archives, and Rare Book Library (MARBL) of Emory University
Emory University
in Atlanta, Georgia, after giving the notable Ellmann Lecture in Modern Literature there.[28] In 1989, Heaney was elected Professor of Poetry
Professor of Poetry
at the University of Oxford, which he held for a five-year term to 1994. The chair does not require residence in Oxford. Throughout this period, he was dividing his time between Ireland and the United States. He also continued to give public readings. So well attended and keenly anticipated were these events that those who queued for tickets with such enthusiasm were sometimes dubbed "Heaneyboppers", suggesting an almost teenybopper fan base.[29] In 1990, The Cure at Troy, his play based on Sophocles's Philoctetes,[30] was published to much acclaim. The next year, he published another volume of poetry, Seeing Things (1991). Heaney was named an Honorary Patron of the University Philosophical Society, Trinity College, Dublin, and was elected an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature
Royal Society of Literature
(1991).[31] In 1993, Heaney guest-edited The Mays
The Mays
Anthology, a collection of new writing from students at the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
and University of Cambridge. That same year, he was awarded the Dickinson College
Dickinson College
Arts Award and returned to the Pennsylvania college to deliver the commencement address and receive an honorary degree. He was scheduled to return to Dickinson again to receive the Harold and Ethel L. Stellfox Award—for a major literary figure—at the time of his death in 2013. Irish poet Paul Muldoon
Paul Muldoon
was named recipient of the award that year, partly in recognition of the close connection between the two poets. Heaney was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1995 for what the Nobel committee described as "works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past."[32] He was on holiday in Greece with his wife when the news broke. Neither journalists nor his own children could reach him until he arrived at Dublin
Dublin
Airport two days later, although an Irish television camera traced him to Kalamata. Asked how he felt to have his name added to the Irish Nobel pantheon of William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw and Samuel Beckett, Heaney responded: "It's like being a little foothill at the bottom of a mountain range. You hope you just live up to it. It's extraordinary."[33] He and his wife Marie were immediately taken from the airport to Áras an Uachtaráin
Áras an Uachtaráin
for champagne with President Mary Robinson.[33] Heaney's 1996 collection The Spirit Level won the Whitbread Book of the Year Award; he repeated the success in 1999 with Beowulf: A New Translation.[34] Heaney was elected a Member of the Royal Irish Academy
Member of the Royal Irish Academy
in 1996 and was admitted in 1997.[35] In the same year, Heaney was elected Saoi of Aosdána.[36] In 1998, Heaney was elected Honorary Fellow of Trinity College Dublin. 2000s[edit]

The Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
Centre for Poetry, which was officially opened at Queen's University Belfast
Belfast
in 2004

In 2000, Heaney was awarded an honorary doctorate and delivered the commencement address at the University of Pennsylvania.[37] In 2002, Heaney was awarded an honorary doctorate from Rhodes University
Rhodes University
and delivered a public lecture on "The Guttural Muse".[38] In 2003, the Seamus Heaney Centre for Poetry
Seamus Heaney Centre for Poetry
was opened at Queen's University Belfast. It houses the Heaney Media Archive, a record of Heaney's entire oeuvre, along with a full catalogue of his radio and television presentations.[39] That same year, Heaney decided to lodge a substantial portion of his literary archive at Emory University
Emory University
as a memorial to the work of William M. Chace, the university's recently retired president.[40][41] The Emory papers represented the largest repository of Heaney's work (1964–2003). He donated these to help build their large existing archive of material from Irish writers including Yeats, Paul Muldoon, Ciaran Carson, Michael Longley
Michael Longley
and other members of The Belfast
Belfast
Group.[42] In 2003, when asked if there was any figure in popular culture who aroused interest in poetry and lyrics, Heaney praised American rap artist Eminem
Eminem
from Detroit, saying, "He has created a sense of what is possible. He has sent a voltage around a generation. He has done this not just through his subversive attitude but also his verbal energy."[43][44] Heaney wrote the poem "Beacons at Bealtaine" to mark the 2004 EU Enlargement. He read the poem at a ceremony for the 25 leaders of the enlarged European Union, arranged by the Irish EU presidency. In August 2006, Heaney suffered a stroke. Although he recovered and joked, "Blessed are the pacemakers" when fitted with a heart monitor,[45] he cancelled all public engagements for several months.[46] He was in County Donegal
County Donegal
at the time of the 75th birthday of Anne Friel, wife of playwright Brian Friel.[14][47] He read the works of Henning Mankell, Donna Leon
Donna Leon
and Robert Harris while in hospital. Among his visitors was former President Bill Clinton.[14][48] Heaney's District and Circle
District and Circle
won the 2006 T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot
Prize.[49] In 2008, he became artist of honour in Østermarie, Denmark, and Seamus Heaney Stræde (street) was named after him. In 2009, Heaney was presented with an Honorary-Life Membership award from the University College Dublin
Dublin
(UCD) Law Society, in recognition of his remarkable role as a literary figure.[50] Faber and Faber published Dennis O'Driscoll's book Stepping Stones: Interviews with Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
in 2008; this has been described as the nearest thing to an autobiography of Heaney.[51] In 2009, Heaney was awarded the David Cohen Prize for Literature. He spoke at the West Belfast
Belfast
Festival 2010 in celebration of his mentor, the poet and novelist Michael McLaverty, who had helped Heaney to first publish his poetry.[52] 2010s[edit] In 2010, Faber published Human Chain, Heaney's twelfth collection. Human Chain was awarded the Forward Poetry Prize for Best Collection, one of the major poetry prizes Heaney had never previously won, despite having been twice shortlisted.[53][54] The book, published 44 years after the poet's first, was inspired in part by Heaney's stroke in 2006, which left him "babyish" and "on the brink". Poet and Forward judge Ruth Padel
Ruth Padel
described the work as "a collection of painful, honest and delicately weighted poems ... a wonderful and humane achievement."[53] Writer Colm Tóibín
Colm Tóibín
described Human Chain as "his best single volume for many years, and one that contains some of the best poems he has written... is a book of shades and memories, of things whispered, of journeys into the underworld, of elegies and translations, of echoes and silences."[55] In October 2010, the collection was shortlisted for the T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot
Prize. Heaney was named one of "Britain's top 300 intellectuals" by The Observer in 2011, though the newspaper later published a correction acknowledging that "several individuals who would not claim to be British" had been featured, of which Heaney was one.[56] That same year, he contributed translations of Old Irish marginalia for Songs of the Scribe, an album by Traditional Singer in Residence of the Seamus Heaney Centre for Poetry, Pádraigín Ní Uallacháin.[57] In December 2011, he donated his personal literary notes to the National Library of Ireland.[58] Even though he admitted he would likely have earned a fortune by auctioning them, Heaney personally packed up the boxes of notes and drafts and, accompanied by his son Michael, delivered them to the National Library.[59] In June 2012, Heaney accepted the Griffin Trust for Excellence in Poetry's Lifetime Recognition Award and gave a speech in honour of the award.[60] Heaney was compiling a collection of his work in anticipation of Selected Poems 1988-2013 at the time of his death. The selection includes poems and writings from Seeing Things, The Spirit Level, the translation of Beowulf, Electric Light, District and Circle, and Human Chain (fall 2014). In February 2014, Emory University
Emory University
premiered Seamus Heaney: The Music of What Happens, the first major exhibition to celebrate the life and work of Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
since his death. [61] The exhibit holds a display of the surface of Heaney's personal writing desk that he used in the 1980s as well as old photographs and personal correspondence with other writers.[62] Heaney died in August 2013, during the exhibition's curatorial process. Though the exhibit's original vision to celebrate Heaney's life and work remains at the forefront, there is a small section commemorating his death and its influence.[63] In September 2015, it was announced that Heaney's family would posthumously publish his translation of Book VI of The Aeneid
The Aeneid
in 2016.[64] Death[edit] Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
died in the Blackrock Clinic
Blackrock Clinic
in Dublin
Dublin
on 30 August 2013, aged 74, following a short illness.[65][66][67] After a fall outside a restaurant in Dublin,[67] he entered hospital for a medical procedure, but died at 7:30 the following morning before it took place. His funeral was held in Donnybrook, Dublin, on the morning of 2 September 2013, and he was buried in the evening at his home village of Bellaghy, in the same graveyard as his parents, young brother, and other family members.[65][68] His son Michael revealed at the funeral mass that his father texted his final words, "Noli timere" (Latin: "Do not be afraid"), to his wife, Marie, minutes before he died.[45][69][70] The day after his death, a crowd of 81,553 spectators applauded Heaney for three minutes at an All-Ireland Gaelic football semi-final match on 1 September.[71] His funeral was broadcast live the following day on RTÉ television and radio and was streamed internationally at RTÉ's website. RTÉ Radio 1 Extra
RTÉ Radio 1 Extra
transmitted a continuous broadcast, from 8 a.m. to 9:15 p.m. on the day of the funeral, of his Collected Poems album, recorded by Heaney in 2009.[72] His poetry collections sold out rapidly in Irish bookshops immediately following his death.[73] Many tributes were paid to Heaney. President Michael D. Higgins
Michael D. Higgins
said:

...we in Ireland will once again get a sense of the depth and range of the contribution of Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
to our contemporary world, but what those of us who have had the privilege of his friendship and presence will miss is the extraordinary depth and warmth of his personality...Generations of Irish people
Irish people
will have been familiar with Seamus' poems. Scholars all over the world will have gained from the depth of the critical essays, and so many rights organisations will want to thank him for all the solidarity he gave to the struggles within the republic of conscience.[74]

President Higgins also appeared live from Áras an Uachtaráin
Áras an Uachtaráin
on the Nine O'Clock News in a five-minute segment in which he paid tribute to Seamus Heaney.[75] Bill Clinton, former President of the United States, said:

Both his stunning work and his life were a gift to the world. His mind, heart, and his uniquely Irish gift for language made him our finest poet of the rhythms of ordinary lives and a powerful voice for peace...His wonderful work, like that of his fellow Irish Nobel Prize winners Shaw, Yeats, and Beckett, will be a lasting gift for all the world.[76]

José Manuel Barroso, European Commission president, said:

I am greatly saddened today to learn of the death of Seamus Heaney, one of the great European poets of our lifetime. ... The strength, beauty and character of his words will endure for generations to come and were rightly recognised with the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
for Literature.[76]

Harvard University
Harvard University
issued a statement:

"We are fortunate and proud to have counted Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
as a revered member of the Harvard family. For us, as for people around the world, he epitomised the poet as a wellspring of humane insight and artful imagination, subtle wisdom and shining grace. We will remember him with deep affection and admiration."[76]

Poet Michael Longley, a close friend of Heaney, said: "I feel like I've lost a brother."[77] Thomas Kinsella said he was shocked, but John Montague said he had known for some time that the poet was not well.[78] Playwright Frank McGuinness called Heaney "the greatest Irishman of my generation: he had no rivals."[79] Colm Tóibín
Colm Tóibín
wrote: "In a time of burnings and bombings Heaney used poetry to offer an alternative world."[80] Gerald Dawe said he was "like an older brother who encouraged you to do the best you could do."[79] Theo Dorgan said, "[Heaney's] work will pass into permanence." Everywhere I go there is real shock at this. Seamus was one of us." His publisher, Faber and Faber, noted that "his impact on literary culture is immeasurable."[81] Playwright Tom Stoppard
Tom Stoppard
said, "Seamus never had a sour moment, neither in person nor on paper".[79] Andrew Motion, a former UK Poet Laureate and friend of Heaney, called him "a great poet, a wonderful writer about poetry, and a person of truly exceptional grace and intelligence."[77] Many memorial events were held, including a commemoration at Emory University,[82] Harvard University, Oxford University and the Southbank Centre, London.[83][84][85] Leading US poetry organisations also met in New York to commemorate the death.[86] Work[edit]

From "Joy Or Night": In order that human beings bring about the most radiant conditions for themselves to inhabit, it is essential that the vision of reality which poetry offers should be transformative, more than just a printout of the given circumstances of its time and place. The poet who would be most the poet has to attempt an act of writing that outstrips the conditions even as it observes them. “ ”

—from "Joy Or Night: Last Things in the Poetry of W. B. Yeats
W. B. Yeats
and Philip Larkin", W. D. Thomas Memorial Lecture delivered by Seamus Heaney at University College of Swansea on 18 January 1993.

Naturalism[edit] According to the BBC, at one time, Heaney's books made up two-thirds of the sales of living poets in the UK.[5] His work often deals with the local surroundings of Ireland, particularly in Northern Ireland, where he was born and lived until young adulthood. Speaking of his early life and education, he commented, "I learned that my local County Derry
Derry
experience, which I had considered archaic and irrelevant to 'the modern world', was to be trusted. They taught me that trust and helped me to articulate it."[87] Death of a Naturalist
Death of a Naturalist
(1966) and Door into the Dark (1969) mostly focus on the details of rural, parochial life.[87] In a number of volumes, beginning with Door into the Dark (1969) and Wintering Out
Wintering Out
(1972), Heaney also spent a significant amount of time writing on the northern Irish bog. Particularly of note is the collection of bog body poems in North (1975), featuring mangled bodies preserved in the bog. In a review by Ciaran Carson, he said that the bog poems made Heaney into "the laureate of violence—a mythmaker, an anthropologist of ritual killing...the world of megalithic doorways and charming noble barbarity."[88] Poems such as "Bogland" and "Bog Queen" addressed political struggles directly for the first time, as well as maintaining a natural aesthetic. Politics[edit] Allusions to sectarian difference, widespread in Northern Ireland through his lifetime, can be found in his poems. His books Wintering Out (1973) and North (1975) seek to interweave commentary on the Troubles with a historical context and wider human experience.[87] While some critics accused Heaney of being "an apologist and a mythologiser" of the violence, Blake Morrison
Blake Morrison
suggests the poet

has written poems directly about the Troubles as well as elegies for friends and acquaintances who have died in them; he has tried to discover a historical framework in which to interpret the current unrest; and he has taken on the mantle of public spokesman, someone looked to for comment and guidance... Yet he has also shown signs of deeply resenting this role, defending the right of poets to be private and apolitical, and questioning the extent to which poetry, however "committed", can influence the course of history.[87]

Shaun O'Connell in the New Boston Review notes that "those who see Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
as a symbol of hope in a troubled land are not, of course, wrong to do so, though they may be missing much of the undercutting complexities of his poetry, the backwash of ironies which make him as bleak as he is bright."[87] O'Connell notes in his Boston Review critique of Station Island:

Again and again Heaney pulls back from political purposes; despite its emblems of savagery, Station Island lends no rhetorical comfort to Republicanism. Politic about politics, Station Island is less about a united Ireland than about a poet seeking religious and aesthetic unity.[89]

Heaney is described by critic Terry Eagleton
Terry Eagleton
as "an enlightened cosmopolitan liberal",[90] refusing to be drawn. Eagleton suggests: "When the political is introduced... it is only in the context of what Heaney will or will not say."[91] Reflections on what Heaney identifies as "tribal conflict"[91] favour the description of people's lives and their voices, drawing out the "psychic landscape". His collections often recall the assassinations of his family members and close friends, lynchings and bombings. Colm Tóibín
Colm Tóibín
wrote, "throughout his career there have been poems of simple evocation and description. His refusal to sum up or offer meaning is part of his tact."[55] Heaney published "Requiem for the Croppies", a poem that commemorates the Irish rebels of 1798, on the 50th anniversary of the 1916 Easter Rising. He read the poem to both Catholic and Protestant audiences in Ireland. He commented, "To read 'Requiem for the Croppies' wasn't to say ‘up the IRA’ or anything. It was silence-breaking rather than rabble-rousing."[92] He stated, "You don't have to love it. You just have to permit it."[92] He turned down the offer of laureateship of the United Kingdom, partly for political reasons, commenting, "I’ve nothing against the Queen personally: I had lunch at the Palace once upon a time."[92] He stated that his "cultural starting point" was "off-centre".[92] A much-quoted statement was when he objected to being included in The Penguin Book of Contemporary British Poetry (1982). Although he was born in Northern Ireland, his response to being included in the British anthology was delivered in his poem "An Open Letter":

Don't be surprised if I demur, for, be advised My passport's green. No glass of ours was ever raised To toast The Queen.[92]

Translation[edit] He was concerned, as a poet and a translator, with the English language as it is spoken in Ireland but also as spoken elsewhere and in other times; he explored Anglo-Saxon influences in his work and study. Critic W. S. Di Piero noted

Whatever the occasion, childhood, farm life, politics and culture in Northern Ireland, other poets past and present, Heaney strikes time and again at the taproot of language, examining its genetic structures, trying to discover how it has served, in all its changes, as a culture bearer, a world to contain imaginations, at once a rhetorical weapon and nutriment of spirit. He writes of these matters with rare discrimination and resourcefulness, and a winning impatience with received wisdom.[87]

Heaney's first translation was of the Irish lyric poem Buile Suibhne, published as Sweeney Astray: A Version from the Irish (1984). He took up this character and connection in poems published in Station Island (1984). Heaney's prize-winning translation of Beowulf
Beowulf
(Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2000, Whitbread Book of the Year Award) was considered groundbreaking in its use of modern language melded with the original Anglo-Saxon "music".[87] Plays and prose[edit] His plays include The Cure at Troy: A Version of Sophocles' Philoctetes (1991). Heaney's 2004 play, The Burial at Thebes, suggests parallels between Creon and the foreign policies of the Bush administration.[93] Heaney's engagement with poetry as a necessary engine for cultural and personal change is reflected in his prose works The Redress of Poetry (1995) and Finders Keepers: Selected Prose, 1971–2001 (2002).[87]

"When a poem rhymes," Heaney wrote, "when a form generates itself, when a metre provokes consciousness into new postures, it is already on the side of life. When a rhyme surprises and extends the fixed relations between words, that in itself protests against necessity. When language does more than enough, as it does in all achieved poetry, it opts for the condition of overlife, and rebels at limit."[55]

He continues: "The vision of reality which poetry offers should be transformative, more than just a printout of the given circumstances of its time and place".[55] Often overlooked and underestimated in the direction of his work is his profound poetic debts to and critical engagement with 20th-century Eastern European poets, and in particular Nobel laureate Czesław Miłosz.[94] Use in school syllabuses[edit] Heaney's work is used extensively on school syllabuses internationally, including the anthologies The Rattle Bag (1982) and The School Bag (1997) (both edited with Ted Hughes). Originally entitled The Faber Book of Verse for Younger People on the Faber contract, Hughes and Heaney decided the main purpose of The Rattle Bag was to offer enjoyment to the reader: "Arbitrary riches." Heaney commented "the book in our heads was something closer to The Fancy Free Poetry Supplement."[95] It included work that they would have liked to encountered sooner in their own lives, as well as nonsense rhymes, ballad-type poems, riddles, folk songs and rhythmical jingles. Much familiar canonical work was not included, since they took it for granted that their audience would know the standard fare. Fifteen years later, The School Bag aimed at something different. The foreword stated that they wanted "less of a carnival, more like a checklist." It included poems in English, Irish, Welsh, Scots and Scots Gaelic, together with work reflecting the African-American experience.[95] Two of his poems entitled 'Storm on the Island' and 'Follower' feature on the new GCSE English Literature course as part of the anthology poetry cluster. Influence[edit] Heaney influenced a wide range of poets, including Natasha Trethewey, Kevin Young and Tracy K. Smith.[96][97][98] Heaney collaborated with American composer Mohammed Fairouz, who composed Anything Can Happen (2012), a setting of the poetry of Heaney and Biblical verses in Arabic,[99] and on campus on 14 April 2012.[100] Heaney is a favorite of Joe Biden, the former Vice President of the United States, who often quoted his poetry.[101] Publications[edit]

Poetry: main collections[edit]

1966: Death of a Naturalist, Faber & Faber 1969: Door into the Dark, Faber & Faber 1972: Wintering Out, Faber & Faber 1975: North, Faber & Faber 1979: Field Work, Faber & Faber 1984: Station Island, Faber & Faber 1987: The Haw Lantern, Faber & Faber 1991: Seeing Things, Faber & Faber 1996: The Spirit Level, Faber & Faber 2001: Electric Light, Faber & Faber 2006: District and Circle, Faber & Faber 2010: Human Chain, Faber & Faber

Poetry: selected editions[edit]

1980: Selected Poems 1965–1975, Faber & Faber 1990: New Selected Poems 1966–1987, Faber & Faber 1998: Opened Ground: Poems 1966–1996, Faber & Faber 2014: New Selected Poems 1988–2013, Faber & Faber

Prose: main collections[edit]

1980: Preoccupations: Selected Prose 1968–1978, Faber & Faber 1988: The Government of the Tongue, Faber & Faber 1995: The Redress of Poetry: Oxford Lectures, Faber & Faber

Prose: selected editions[edit]

2002: Finders Keepers: Selected Prose 1971–2001, Faber & Faber

Plays[edit]

1990: The Cure at Troy: A version of Sophocles' Philoctetes, Field Day 2004: The Burial at Thebes: A version of Sophocles' Antigone, Faber & Faber

Translations[edit]

1983: Sweeney Astray: A version from the Irish, Field Day 1992: Sweeney's Flight
Sweeney's Flight
(with Rachel Giese, photographer), Faber & Faber 1993: The Midnight Verdict: Translations
Translations
from the Irish of Brian Merriman and from the Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
of Ovid, Gallery Press 1995: Laments, a cycle of Polish Renaissance elegies by Jan Kochanowski, translated with Stanisław Barańczak, Faber & Faber 1999: Beowulf, Faber & Faber 1999: Diary of One Who Vanished, a song cycle by Leoš Janáček
Leoš Janáček
of poems by Ozef Kalda, Faber & Faber 2002: Hallaig, Sorley MacLean Trust 2002: Arion, a poem by Alexander Pushkin, translated from the Russian, with a note by Olga Carlisle, Arion Press 2004: The Testament of Cresseid, Enitharmon Press 2004: Columcille The Scribe, The Royal Irish Academy 2009: The Testament of Cresseid
The Testament of Cresseid
& Seven Fables, Faber & Faber 2013: The Last Walk, Gallery Press 2016: "Aeneid: Book VI", Faber & Faber[102]

Limited editions and booklets (poetry and prose)[edit]

1965: Eleven Poems, Queen's University 1968: The Island People, BBC 1968: Room to Rhyme, Arts Council N.I. 1969: A Lough Neagh Sequence, Phoenix 1970: Night Drive, Gilbertson 1970: A Boy Driving His Father to Confession, Sceptre Press 1973: Explorations, BBC 1975: Stations, Ulsterman Publications 1975: Bog Poems, Rainbow Press 1975: The Fire i' the Flint, Oxford University Press 1976: Four Poems, Crannog Press 1977: Glanmore Sonnets, Editions Monika Beck 1977: In Their Element, Arts Council N.I. 1978: Robert Lowell: A Memorial Address and an Elegy, Faber & Faber 1978: The Makings of a Music, University of Liverpool 1978: After Summer, Gallery Press 1979: Hedge School, Janus Press 1979: Ugolino, Carpenter Press 1979: Gravities, Charlotte Press 1979: A Family Album, Byron Press 1980: Toome, National College of Art and Design 1981: Sweeney Praises the Trees, Henry Pearson 1982: A Personal Selection, Ulster Museum 1982: Poems and a Memoir, Limited Editions Club 1983: An Open Letter, Field Day 1983: Among Schoolchildren, Queen's University 1984: Verses for a Fordham Commencement, Nadja Press 1984: Hailstones, Gallery Press 1985: From the Republic of Conscience, Amnesty International 1985: Place and Displacement, Dove Cottage 1985: Towards a Collaboration, Arts Council N.I. 1986: Clearances, Cornamona Press 1988: Readings in Contemporary Poetry, DIA Art Foundation 1988: The Sounds of Rain, Emory University 1988: The Dark Wood, Colin Smythe 1989: An Upstairs Outlook, Linen
Linen
Hall Library 1989: The Place of Writing, Emory University 1990: The Tree Clock, Linen
Linen
Hall Library 1991: Squarings, Hieroglyph Editions 1992: Dylan the Durable, Bennington College 1992: The Gravel Walks, Lenoir Rhyne College 1992: The Golden Bough, Bonnefant Press 1993: Keeping Going, Bow and Arrow Press 1993: Joy or Night, University of Swansea 1994: Extending the Alphabet, Memorial University of Newfoundland 1994: Speranza in Reading, University of Tasmania 1995: Oscar Wilde
Oscar Wilde
Dedication, Westminster Abbey 1995: Charles Montgomery Monteith, All Souls College 1995: Crediting Poetry: The Nobel Lecture, Gallery Press 1996: Commencement Address, UNC Chapel Hill 1997: Poet to Blacksmith, Pim Witteveen 1997: An After Dinner Speech, Atlantic Foundation 1998: Audenesque, Maeght 1999: The Light of the Leaves, Bonnefant Press 1999: Ballynahinch Lake, Sonzogni 2001: Something to Write Home About, Flying Fox 2001: Towers, Trees, Terrors, Università degli Studi di Urbino 2002: The Whole Thing: on the Good of Poetry, The Recorder 2002: Hope and History, Rhodes University 2002: A Keen for the Coins, Lenoir Rhyne College 2003: Eclogues in Extremis, Royal Irish Academy 2003: Squarings, Arion Press 2004: Anything can Happen, Town House Publishers 2004: Room to Rhyme, University of Dundee 2005: A Tribute to Michael McLaverty, Linen
Linen
Hall Library 2005: The Door Stands Open, Irish Writers Centre 2005: A Shiver, Clutag Press 2007: The Riverbank Field, Gallery Press 2008: Articulations, Royal Irish Academy 2008: One on a Side, Robert Frost Foundation 2009: Spelling It Out, Gallery Press 2010: Writer & Righter, Irish Human Rights Commission 2012: Stone From Delphi, Arion Press

Critical studies of Heaney[edit]

1993: The Poetry of Seamus Heaney, ed. by Elmer Andrews, ISBN 0-231-11926-7 1993: Seamus Heaney: The Making of the Poet by Michael Parker, ISBN 0-333-47181-4 1995: The Achievement of Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
by John Wilson Foster, Lilliput Press, Dublin, ISBN 1-874675-71-6 1995: Critical essays on Seamus Heaney, ed. by Robert F. Garratt, ISBN 0-7838-0004-5 1998: The Poetry of Seamus Heaney: A Critical Study by Neil Corcoran, ISBN 0-571-17747-6 2000: Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
by Helen Vendler, ISBN 0-674-00205-9, Harvard University Press 2000: The Poetry of Seamus Heaney, ed. by Elmer Kennedy-Andrews, Icon Books Ltd., Cambridge CB2 4QF UK ISBN 1-84046-137-3 2002: The Bottomless Centre. The Uses of History in the Poetry of Seamus Heaney, by Jerzy Jarniewicz ISBN 83-7171-603-6 2003: Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
and the Place of Writing by Eugene O'Brien, University Press of Florida, ISBN 0-8130-2582-6 2004: Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
Searches for Answers by Eugene O'Brien, Pluto Press, London, ISBN 0-7453-1734-0 2007 "Seamus Heaney: Poet, Critic, Translator" edited by Ashby Bland Crowder and Jason David Hall, Palgrave Macmillan, Basinnstoke ISBN 978-0-230-00342-2 2007: Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
and the Emblems of Hope by Karen Marguerite Moloney, ISBN 978-0-8262-1744-8 2007: Seamus Heaney: Creating Irelands of the Mind by Eugene O'Brien, Liffey Press, Dublin, ISBN 1-904148-02-6 2008 "Seamus Heaney's Rhythmic Contract" by Jason David Hall, Palgrave Macmillan, Basinenstoke ISBN 978-0-230-57488-5 2009: The Cambridge Companion to Seamus Heaney, edited by Bernard O'Donoghue, ISBN 0-5215-4755-5 2010: Poetry and Peace: Michael Longley, Seamus Heaney, and Northern Ireland by Richard Rankin Russell, ISBN 978-0-268-04031-4 2010: Defending Poetry: Art and Ethics in Joseph Brodsky, Seamus Heaney, and Geoffrey Hill by David-Antoine Williams 2010: "Working Nation(s): Seamus Heaney's ‘Digging’ and the Work Ethic in Post-Colonial and Minority Writing", by Ivan Cañadas[103] 2011: " Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
and Beowulf," by M.J. Toswell, in: Cahier Calin: Makers of the Middle Ages. Essays in Honor of William Calin, ed. by Richard Utz and Elizabeth Emery (Kalamazoo, MI: Studies in Medievalism, 2011), pp. 18–22. 2012: In Gratitude for all the Gifts: Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
and Eastern Europe, by Magdalena Kay, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 9781442644984 2016: " Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
as Aesthetic Thinker: A Study of the Prose", by Eugene O'Brien. New York; Syracuse University Press. ISBN 978-0-8156-3460-7. 2016: "'The Soul Exceeds its Circumstances': The Later Poetry of Seamus Heaney", edited by Eugene O'Brien. Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 978-0-268-10020-9

Selected discography[edit]

2001 Beowulf
Beowulf
– Seamus Heaney 2003 The Poet & The Piper – Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
& Liam O'Flynn 2009 Collected Poems – Recording of Heaney reading all of his collected poems

Heaney translated Old Irish marginalia for Songs of the Scribe
Songs of the Scribe
by Pádraigín Ní Uallacháin, Traditional Singer in Residence at the Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
Centre for poetry at Queen's University Belfast. Major prizes and honours[edit]

1966 Eric Gregory Award 1967 Cholmondeley Award 1968 Geoffrey Faber Memorial Prize 1975 E. M. Forster Award 1975 Duff Cooper Memorial Prize 1995 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature 1996 Commandeur
Commandeur
de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres 1997 Elected Saoi of Aosdána 1998 St. Louis Literary Award from the Saint Louis University
Saint Louis University
Library Associates[104][105] 2001 Golden Wreath of Poetry, the main international award given by Struga Poetry Evenings
Struga Poetry Evenings
to a world-renowned living poet for life achievement in the field of poetry 2004 Kenyon Review Award for Literary Achievement[106] 2005 Irish PEN Award 2006 T. S. Eliot Prize
T. S. Eliot Prize
for District and Circle 2007 Poetry Now Award for District and Circle 2009 David Cohen Prize 2011 Poetry Now Award for Human Chain 2011 Griffin Poetry Prize
Griffin Poetry Prize
finalist for Human Chain 2011 Bob Hughes Lifetime Achievement Award 2012 Griffin Poetry Prize, Lifetime Recognition Award[107]

See also[edit]

Poetry portal

List of Nobel laureates
List of Nobel laureates
in Literature List of people on stamps of Ireland

References[edit]

^ a b c Obituary: Heaney ‘the most important Irish poet since Yeats’, Irish Times, 30 August 2013. ^ a b c d Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
obituary, The Guardian, 30 August 2013. ^ a b "Biography of Irish Writer Seamus Heaney". www.seamusheaney.org. Archived from the original on 24 February 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2010. Heaney was born on 13th April 1939, the eldest of nine children at the family farm called Mossbawn in the Townland of Tamniarn in Newbridge near Castledawson, Northern Ireland, ...  Archived at Wayback Engine. ^ Heaney, Seamus (1998). Opened Ground. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-52678-8.  ^ a b c d "Faces of the week". BBC News. BBC. 19 January 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2010.  ^ a b Sutherland, John (19 March 2009). " Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
deserves a lot more than £40,000". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 19 April 2010.  ^ Pinsky, Robert. The Eco Press, Hopewell ISBN 088001217X ^ Craig, Patricia (30 August 2013). " Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
obituary: Nobel Prize-winning Irish Poet". The Independent. Independent Print Limited. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ a b c d Parker, Michael (1993). Seamus Heaney: The Making of the Poet. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. p. 221. ISBN 0-87745-398-5. The deaths of his mother in the autumn of 1984 and of his father in October 1986 left a colossal space, one which he has struggled to fill through poetry.  ^ "A Note on Seamus Heaney". inform.orbitaltec.ne. Retrieved 20 April 2009. Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
was born on 13 April 1939, the first child of Patrick and Margaret Kathleen (née McCann) Heaney, who then lived on a fifty-acre farm called Mossbawn, in the townland of Tamniarn, County Derry, Northern Ireland.  ^ "Biography". Nobelprize. Retrieved 23 May 2010.  ^ Verdonk, Peter (2002). Stylistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-19-437240-5.  ^ Parker, Michael (1993). Seamus Heaney: The Making of the Poet. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. p. 3. ISBN 0-87745-398-5. Mrs Heaney bore nine children, Seamus, Sheena, Ann, Hugh, Patrick, Charles, Colum, Christopher, and Dan.  ^ a b c McCrum, Robert (19 July 2009). "A life of rhyme". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 19 July 2009.  ^ "Heaney, Seamus: Mid-Term Break". Litmed.med.nyu.edu. 27 October 1999. Retrieved 20 November 2010.  ^ "Biography". British Council. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2010.  ^ a b Ed. Bernard O’Donoghue The Cambridge Companion to Seamus Heaney (2009) Cambridge University Press pxiii ISBN 978-0-521-54755-0. Retrieved 23 May 2010. ^ Sophia Hillan, New Hibernia Review / Iris Éireannach Nua, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Autumn, 2005), pp. 86–106 Wintered into Wisdom: Michael McLaverty, Seamus Heaney, and the Northern Word-Hoard. University of St. Thomas (Center for Irish Studies) ^ McLaverty, Michael (2002) Collected short stories Blackstaff Press Ltd pxiii ISBN 0-85640-727-5 ^ "Biography". Aosdána.  ^ Blog, News (2013-08-30). "Fordham Notes: Seamus Heaney's "Verses for a Fordham Commencement"". Fordham Notes. Retrieved 2016-11-03.  ^ "Irish Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
Poet Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
Dies Aged 74 -VIDEO". Ibtimes.co.uk. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ The Cambridge Companion to Seamus Heaney, "Heaney in Public" by Dennis O'Driscoll (p56-72). ISBN 0-5215-4755-5. ^ "Barclay Agency profile". Barclayagency.com. Archived from the original on 8 May 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ British Council biography of Heaney[permanent dead link]. Retrieved 19 April 2010. ^ "Seamus Heaney, Poet". Frontline Defenders. Retrieved 30 November 2014.  ^ "From the Republic of Conscience". Amnesty International. Retrieved 30 November 2014.  ^ " Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
Exhibit", Emory University, January 2014 ^ "Heaney 'catches the heart off guard'". Harvard News Office. Harvard University. 2 October 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2010. Over the years, readings by poet Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
have been so wildly popular that his fans are called "Heaneyboppers."  ^ "Play Listing". Irish Playography. Irish Theatre Institute. Retrieved 24 August 2007.  ^ " Royal Society of Literature
Royal Society of Literature
All Fellows". Royal Society of Literature. Archived from the original on 5 March 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2010.  ^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
1995". Nobelprize. 7 October 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010.  ^ a b Clarity, James F. (9 October 1995). "Laureate and Symbol, Heaney Returns Home". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 9 October 1995.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Beowulf: A New Translation". Rambles.net. Retrieved 20 November 2010.  ^ " Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
MRIA 1939-2013 - A Very Special
Special
Academician". ria.ie. 30 August 2013. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2013.  ^ "Seamus Heaney". aosdána.artscouncil.ie. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 8 September 2013.  ^ University of Pennsylvania. Honorary Degree awarded. Retrieved 19 September 2010. ^ "Rhodes Department of English Annual Report 2002-2003" (PDF). Archived from the original on 14 April 2008. Retrieved 2007-10-18. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) from the Rhodes University
Rhodes University
website. ^ The Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
Centre for Poetry, Queen's University Belfast website ^ "Emory Acquires Nobel Laureate Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
Letters". press release. Emory University. 24 September 2003. When I was here this summer for commencement, I came to the decision that the conclusion of President Chace's tenure was the moment of truth, and that I should now lodge a substantial portion of my literary archive in the Woodruff Library, including the correspondence from many of the poets already represented in its special collections," said Heaney in making the announcement. "So I am pleased to say these letters are now here and that even though President Chace is departing, as long as my papers stay here, they will be a memorial to the work he has done to extend the university's resources and strengthen its purpose.  ^ "Poet Heaney donates papers to Emory". The Augusta Chronicle. 25 September 2003. Retrieved 25 September 2003.  ^ Emory University. Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Book Library (MARBL) Archived 1 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Online collection of The Belfast
Belfast
Group archive. ^ Eminem, The Way I Am, autobiography, cover sheet. Published 21 October 2008. ^ " Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
praises Eminem". BBC News. BBC. 30 June 2003. Retrieved 9 April 2010.  ^ a b Heaney bid farewell at funeral Belfast
Belfast
Telegraph, 2013-09-02. ^ Today Programme, BBC Radio 4, 16 January 2007. ^ "Poet 'cried for father' after stroke". BBC News. BBC. 20 July 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2009.  ^ Kelly, Antoinette (19 July 2009). "Nobel winner Seamus Heaney recalls secret visit from Bill Clinton: President visit to Heaney's hospital bed after near-fatal stroke". Irish Central. Retrieved 19 July 2009.  ^ "Heaney wins TS Eliot poetry prize". BBC News. BBC. 15 January 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2007.  ^ "Announcement of Awards". University College Dublin.  ^ "Stepping Stones: Interviews with Seamus Heaney". The Times. 14 November 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2010.  ^ "Féile an Phobail, Festival of the People, 2010 programme". Official website. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 12 July 2010.  Archived at Wayback Engine. ^ a b Page, Benedicte (6 October 2010). " Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
wins £10k Forward poetry prize for Human Chain". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 6 October 2010.  ^ Kellaway, Kate (22 August 2010). "Human Chain by Seamus Heaney". The Observer. Retrieved 22 August 2010.  ^ a b c d Tóibín, Colm (21 August 2010). "Human Chain by Seamus Heaney – review". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 August 2010.  ^ Naughton, John (8 May 2011). "Britain's top 300 intellectuals". The Observer. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 8 May 2011.  ^ " Songs of the Scribe
Songs of the Scribe
Sung by Pádraigín Ní Uallacháin". Journal of Music. 6 December 2011. ^ Telford, Lyndsey (21 December 2011). " Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
declutters home and donates personal notes to National Library". Irish Independent. Independent News & Media. Retrieved 21 December 2011.  ^ Madden, Anne (22 December 2011). "Seamus Heaney's papers go to Dublin, but we don't mind, insists QUB". The Belfast
Belfast
Telegraph. Retrieved 22 December 2011.  ^ Prize, Griffin Poetry (7 June 2012). "2012 – Seamus Heaney". Griffin Poetry Prize. Retrieved 1 September 2013.  ^ "Seamus Heaney: The Music of What Happens". Emory Library.  ^ "Seamus Heaney: The Music of What Happens". Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ "Woodruff Library Welcomes Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
Exhibit".  ^ Alison Flood. "New Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
translation to be published next year". the Guardian.  ^ a b HEANEY, Seamus : Death notice The Irish Times, 2013-09-30. ^ McGreevy, Ronan (30 August 2013). "Tributes paid to 'keeper of language' Seamus Heaney". The Irish Times. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ a b Higgins to lead mourners at funeral Mass for poet Sunday Indeppendent, 2013-09-01. ^ Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
laid to rest in Bellaghy, Irish Times, 2013-09-02. ^ "Seamus Heaney's last words were 'Noli timere', son tells funeral", The Guardian, 2013-09-02. ^ Heaney, Mick (2015-09-12) Mick Heaney: My father's famous last words; Seamus Heaney's son writes about his father's final message to his family: ‘Noli timere’ The Irish Times. ^ "Epic tale goes Dublin's way", Irish Times, 2013-09-02. ^ Funeral of Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
to be broadcast live on RTÉ TheJournal.ie, 2013-09-01. ^ "Heaney books sell out amid massive demand", Irish Times, 2013-09-05. ^ Statement from Áras an Uachtaráin
Áras an Uachtaráin
Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
Archived 25 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Áras an Uachtaráin, 2013-08-30. ^ President Michael D Higgins pays tribute to his friend Seamus Heaney on YouTube
YouTube
RTÉ News, 2013-09-31. ^ a b c Tributes to Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
BBC News Northern Ireland, 2013-08-30. ^ a b "Poet Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
dies aged 74". BBC News. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ "President and Taoiseach lead tributes to the late Seamus Heaney: Tributes paid to the Nobel Laureate who died this morning at the age of 74". Irish Independent. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ a b c Higgins, Charlotte; McDonald, Henry (30 August 2013). "Seamus Heaney's death 'leaves breach in language itself': Tributes flow in from fellow writers after poet who won Nobel prize for literature dies in Dublin
Dublin
aged 74". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ Tóibín, Colm (30 August 2013). "Seamus Heaney's books were events in our lives". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ "Heaney deserves place among the pantheon, says Dorgan". The Irish Times. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ "Emory honors literary icon with 'A Tribute to Seamus Heaney'". Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ "A Tribute To Seamus Heaney". Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ "Seamus Heaney: A Memorial Celebration". Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ "Bodleian Library - SPECIAL EVENT: Oxford Tribute to Seamus Heaney". Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ "Poets Gather to Remember Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
in New York City on November 11 at 7:00 p.m." Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Biography". Poetry Foundation.  ^ O'Donoghue, Bernard (2009). The Cambridge Companion to Seamus Heaney. Cambridge University Press. p. 4.  ^ O'Connell, Shaun (1 February 1985). "Station Island, Seamus Heaney". Boston Review. Retrieved 2 October 2010.  ^ " Terry Eagleton
Terry Eagleton
reviews 'Beowulf' translated by Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
· LRB 11 November 1999". Lrb.co.uk. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ a b Potts, Robert (7 April 2001). "The view from Olympia". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 April 2001.  ^ a b c d e Rahim, Sameer (11 May 2009). "Interview with Seamus Heaney: On the eve of his 70th birthday, Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
tells Sameer Rahim about his lifetime in poetry – and who he thinks would make a good poet laureate". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 November 2010.  ^ McElroy, Steven (21 January 2007). "The Week Ahead: Jan. 21 – 27". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 21 January 2007.  ^ Kay, Magdalena. In Gratitude for all the Gifts: Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
and Eastern Europe. University of Toronto Press, 2012. ISBN 1442644982 ^ a b Heaney, Seamus (25 October 2003). "Bags of enlightenment". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 25 October 2003.  ^ Trethewey, Natasha. "How Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
Influenced Poet Laureate Natasha Trethewey". The Daily Beast. The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2 December 2014.  ^ "Poet Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
Was A Teacher, Critic, Translator". NPR.org. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2015.  ^ 0=26 May 2013 ^ "The Grinnell Singers to premiere Fairouz work during spring break tour". Grinnell College News. Grinnell.edu. 14 April 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2013.  ^ "Grinnell Singers to perform Apr. 14 campus premiere of commissioned work". Grinnell College News. Grinnell.edu. 14 April 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2014.  ^ https://thinkprogress.org/remembering-seamus-heaney-with-the-cure-at-troy-f6fe97af26ab#.vokcsot1f ^ Excerpt: Virgil (March 7, 2016). Translated by Seamus Heaney. "From "The Aeneid" Book VI". The New Yorker. 92 (4): 27.  ^ Cañadas, Ivan (2010). "Working Nation(s): Seamus Heaney's "Digging" and the Work Ethic in Post-Colonial and Minority Writing". EESE: Erfurt Electronic Studies in English.  ^ Website of St. Louis Literary Award ^ Saint Louis University
Saint Louis University
Library Associates. "Recipients of the Saint Louis Literary Award". Retrieved July 25, 2016.  ^ "Kenyon Review for Literary Achievement". KenyonReview.org.  ^ Newington, Giles (16 June 2012). "Heaney wins top Canadian prize". The Irish Times. Irish Times Trust. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Seamus Heaney

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Seamus Heaney.

Heaney's Nobel acceptance speech Works by or about Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog) Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
on IMDb Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
at the Poetry Foundation Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
at the Poetry Archive Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
at the Academy for American Poets Portraits of Heaney at the National Portrait Gallery, London BBC Your Paintings in partnership PCF. Painting by Peter Edwards " Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
collected news and commentary". The Guardian.  Henri Cole (Fall 1997). "Seamus Heaney, The Art of Poetry No. 75". The Paris Review.  Lannan Foundation reading and conversation with Dennis O'Driscoll, 1 October 2003. (Audio / video - 40 mins). Prose transcript. 1998 Whiting Writers' Award Keynote Speech Seamus Heaney: Man of Words and Grace November–December 2013. "History and the homeland" video from The New Yorker. 15 October 2008. Paul Muldoon, interviews Heaney. (1 hr). Archival material at Leeds University Library

v t e

Works by Seamus Heaney

Poetry

Death of a Naturalist Door into the Dark Wintering Out Stations North Field Work Station Island The Haw Lantern Seeing Things The Spirit Level Electric Light District and Circle Human Chain

Selections

Selected Poems 1965–1975 New Selected Poems 1966–1987

Plays

The Cure at Troy The Burial at Thebes

Translations

Sweeney Astray: A version from the Irish Laments Beowulf The Testament of Cresseid
The Testament of Cresseid
& Seven Fables

Recordings

The Poet and The Piper Collected Poems

v t e

Beowulf

Characters

Beowulf Grendel Grendel's mother Hroðgar Ecgþeow Hygelac Heardred Æschere Onela Wealhþeow Wiglaf Unferð Hygd The Dragon List of Beowulf
Beowulf
characters

Scholars and translators

Michael J. Alexander Nora K. Chadwick P. J. Cosijn Kevin Crossley-Holland Michael D. C. Drout Francis Barton Gummere Seamus Heaney Roy Liuzza William Morris Frederick Klaeber Laurence Nowell Burton Raffel Grímur Jónsson Thorkelin J. R. R. Tolkien

Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary "Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics" Beowulf
Beowulf
and the Critics "On Translating Beowulf" "Sellic Spell" Finn and Hengest

Charles Leslie Wrenn

Depictions

Books

Grendel Eaters of the Dead

Film

Grendel
Grendel
Grendel
Grendel
Grendel Beowulf
Beowulf
(1999) The 13th Warrior No Such Thing Outlander Beowulf
Beowulf
& Grendel (Wrath of Gods) Grendel Beowulf
Beowulf
(2007) Beowulf: Prince of the Geats Beowulf: Return to the Shieldlands

See also

Anglo-Saxon paganism Battle of Finnsburg Heorot Hrunting Nægling Nowell Codex

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Irish poetry

Topics

Irish poetry Chief Ollam of Ireland Irish bardic poetry Irish Literary Revival Metrical Dindshenchas Contention of the bards Aisling Weaver Poets An Gúm Kildare Poems Táin Bó Cúailnge

Poets

Bardic

Mael Ísu Ua Brolcháin Muircheartach Ó Cobhthaigh Gilla Mo Dutu Úa Caiside Baothghalach Mór Mac Aodhagáin Giolla Brighde Mac Con Midhe Gofraidh Fionn Ó Dálaigh Flann mac Lonáin Donnchadh Mór Ó Dálaigh Lochlann Óg Ó Dálaigh Fear Flaith Ó Gnímh Mathghamhain Ó hIfearnáin Cormac Mac Con Midhe Eoghan Carrach Ó Siadhail Fear Feasa Ó'n Cháinte Tadhg Olltach Ó an Cháinte Eochaidh Ó hÉoghusa Proinsias Ó Doibhlin Tarlach Rua Mac Dónaill Gilla Cómáin mac Gilla Samthainde Tadhg Dall Ó hÚigínn Niníne Éces Colmán of Cloyne Cináed ua hArtacáin Muireadhach Albanach Ó Dálaigh Cearbhall Óg Ó Dálaigh Máeleoin Bódur Ó Maolconaire Diarmaid Mac an Bhaird Cú Choigcríche Ó Cléirigh Dallán Forgaill Óengus of Tallaght Sedulius Scottus Saint Dungal Maol Sheachluinn na n-Uirsgéal Ó hÚigínn Philip Ó Duibhgeannain

15th/16th century

Tomás Ó Cobhthaigh

17th century

Dáibhí Ó Bruadair Piaras Feiritéar Aogán Ó Rathaille

18th century

Aogán Ó Rathaille Brian Merriman Jonathan Swift Oliver Goldsmith John Hewitt

19th century

Thomas Moore Charles Gavan Duffy James Clarence Mangan Samuel Ferguson William Allingham Douglas Hyde James Henry Antoine Ó Raifteiri Aeneas Coffey Robert Dwyer Joyce Thomas Davis Speranza Katharine Tynan Oscar Wilde

20th century

James Joyce Patrick Pearse Joseph Plunkett Thomas MacDonagh Francis Ledwidge Padraic Colum F. R. Higgins Austin Clarke Samuel Beckett Brian Coffey Denis Devlin Thomas MacGreevy Blanaid Salkeld Mary Devenport O'Neill Patrick Kavanagh John Hewitt Louis MacNeice Máirtín Ó Direáin Seán Ó Ríordáin Máire Mhac an tSaoi Michael Hartnett Gabriel Rosenstock Nuala Ní Dhomhnaill Micheál Mac Liammóir Robert Greacen Roy McFadden Padraic Fiacc John Montague Michael Longley Derek Mahon Seamus Heaney Paul Muldoon Thomas Kinsella Michael Smith Trevor Joyce Geoffrey Squires Augustus Young Randolph Healy John Jordan Paul Durcan Basil Payne Eoghan Ó Tuairisc Patrick Galvin Cathal Ó Searcaigh Bobby Sands Rita Ann Higgins Eavan Boland Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin Medbh McGuckian Paula Meehan Dennis O'Driscoll Seán Dunne Anthony Cronin W. F. Marshall W. B. Yeats

21st century

Thomas McCarthy John Ennis Pat Boran Mairéad Byrne Ciarán Carson Patrick Chapman Harry Clifton Tony Curtis Pádraig J. Daly Gerald Dawe Greg Delanty Eamon Grennan Vona Groarke Seamus Heaney Pat Ingoldsby Brendan Kennelly Hugh McFadden Sinéad Morrissey Gerry Murphy Bernard O'Donoghue Conor O'Callaghan Caitriona O'Reilly Justin Quinn Maurice Riordan Maurice Scully William Wall Catherine Walsh

Poems

Anthologies

Faber Book of Irish Verse

Epics

The Wanderings of Oisin

Bardic

Timna Cathaír Máir Caithréim Cellaig Le dís cuirthear clú Laighean Is acher in gaíth in-nocht... Is trúag in ces i mbiam Sen dollotar Ulaid ... Sorrow is the worst thing in life ... An Díbirt go Connachta Foraire Uladh ar Aodh A aonmhic Dé do céasadh thrínn A theachtaire tig ón Róimh An sluagh sidhe so i nEamhuin? Cóir Connacht ar chath Laighean Dia libh a laochruidh Gaoidhiol Pangur Bán Liamuin Buile Shuibhne The Prophecy of Berchán Bean Torrach, fa Tuar Broide

18th century

The Traveller Suantraí dá Mhac Tabhartha Mná na hÉireann

19th century

Tone's Grave The Wind That Shakes the Barley

Contemporary

Love Songs of Connacht Hi Uncle Sam Meeting The British Horse Latitudes Sweeney Astray Prayer Before Birth D-Day

Organizations

Poetry Ireland

Publications

Poetry Ireland Review The Lace Curtain

Events

SoundEye Festival

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Laureates of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature

1901–1925

1901 Sully Prudhomme 1902 Theodor Mommsen 1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904 Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906 Giosuè Carducci 1907 Rudyard Kipling 1908 Rudolf Eucken 1909 Selma Lagerlöf 1910 Paul Heyse 1911 Maurice Maeterlinck 1912 Gerhart Hauptmann 1913 Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915 Romain Rolland 1916 Verner von Heidenstam 1917 Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919 Carl Spitteler 1920 Knut Hamsun 1921 Anatole France 1922 Jacinto Benavente 1923 W. B. Yeats 1924 Władysław Reymont 1925 George Bernard Shaw

1926–1950

1926 Grazia Deledda 1927 Henri Bergson 1928 Sigrid Undset 1929 Thomas Mann 1930 Sinclair Lewis 1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932 John Galsworthy 1933 Ivan Bunin 1934 Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936 Eugene O'Neill 1937 Roger Martin du Gard 1938 Pearl S. Buck 1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 Johannes V. Jensen 1945 Gabriela Mistral 1946 Hermann Hesse 1947 André Gide 1948 T. S. Eliot 1949 William Faulkner 1950 Bertrand Russell

1951–1975

1951 Pär Lagerkvist 1952 François Mauriac 1953 Winston Churchill 1954 Ernest Hemingway 1955 Halldór Laxness 1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957 Albert Camus 1958 Boris Pasternak 1959 Salvatore Quasimodo 1960 Saint-John Perse 1961 Ivo Andrić 1962 John Steinbeck 1963 Giorgos Seferis 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965 Mikhail Sholokhov 1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968 Yasunari Kawabata 1969 Samuel Beckett 1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971 Pablo Neruda 1972 Heinrich Böll 1973 Patrick White 1974 Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975 Eugenio Montale

1976–2000

1976 Saul Bellow 1977 Vicente Aleixandre 1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979 Odysseas Elytis 1980 Czesław Miłosz 1981 Elias Canetti 1982 Gabriel García Márquez 1983 William Golding 1984 Jaroslav Seifert 1985 Claude Simon 1986 Wole Soyinka 1987 Joseph Brodsky 1988 Naguib Mahfouz 1989 Camilo José Cela 1990 Octavio Paz 1991 Nadine Gordimer 1992 Derek Walcott 1993 Toni Morrison 1994 Kenzaburō Ōe 1995 Seamus Heaney 1996 Wisława Szymborska 1997 Dario Fo 1998 José Saramago 1999 Günter Grass 2000 Gao Xingjian

2001–present

2001 V. S. Naipaul 2002 Imre Kertész 2003 J. M. Coetzee 2004 Elfriede Jelinek 2005 Harold Pinter 2006 Orhan Pamuk 2007 Doris Lessing 2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009 Herta Müller 2010 Mario Vargas Llosa 2011 Tomas Tranströmer 2012 Mo Yan 2013 Alice Munro 2014 Patrick Modiano 2015 Svetlana Alexievich 2016 Bob Dylan 2017 Kazuo Ishiguro

v t e

1995 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates

Chemistry

Paul J. Crutzen
Paul J. Crutzen
(Netherlands) Mario J. Molina
Mario J. Molina
(Mexico) F. Sherwood Rowland (United States)

Literature

Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
(Ireland)

Peace

Joseph Rotblat (United Kingdom/Poland) Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
(Canada)

Physics

Martin Lewis Perl (United States) Frederick Reines
Frederick Reines
(United States)

Physiology or Medicine

Edward B. Lewis
Edward B. Lewis
(United States) Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
(Germany) Eric F. Wieschaus
Eric F. Wieschaus
(United States)

Economic Sciences

Robert Lucas, Jr. (United States)

Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
recipients 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Awards received by Seamus Heaney

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Recipients of the Mondello Prize

Single Prize for Literature: Bartolo Cattafi (1975) • Achille Campanile (1976) • Günter Grass
Günter Grass
(1977)

Special
Special
Jury Prize: Denise McSmith (1975) • Stefano D'Arrigo (1977) • Jurij Trifonov (1978) • Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz
Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz
(1979) • Pietro Consagra (1980) • Ignazio Buttitta, Angelo Maria e Ela Ripellino (1983) • Leonardo Sciascia
Leonardo Sciascia
(1985) • Wang Meng (1987) • Mikhail Gorbaciov (1988) • Peter Carey, José Donoso, Northrop Frye, Jorge Semprún, Wole Soyinka, Lu Tongliu (1990) • Fernanda Pivano
Fernanda Pivano
(1992) • Associazione Scrittori Cinesi (1993) • Dong Baoucum, Fan Boaci, Wang Huanbao, Shi Peide, Chen Yuanbin (1995) • Xu Huainzhong, Xiao Xue, Yu Yougqnan, Qin Weinjung (1996) • Khushwant Singh
Khushwant Singh
(1997) • Javier Marías
Javier Marías
(1998) • Francesco Burdin (2001) • Luciano Erba (2002) • Isabella Quarantotti De Filippo (2003) • Marina Rullo (2006) • Andrea Ceccherini (2007) • Enrique Vila-Matas
Enrique Vila-Matas
(2009) • Francesco Forgione (2010)

First narrative work: Carmelo Samonà (1978) • Fausta Garavini (1979)

First poetic work: Giovanni Giuga (1978) • Gilberto Sacerdoti (1979)

Prize for foreign literature: Milan Kundera
Milan Kundera
(1978) • N. Scott Momaday (1979) • Juan Carlos Onetti (1980) • Tadeusz Konwicki (1981)

Prize for foreign poetry: Jannis Ritsos (1978) • Josif Brodskij (1979) • Juan Gelman
Juan Gelman
(1980) • Gyula Illyés
Gyula Illyés
(1981)

First work: Valerio Magrelli
Valerio Magrelli
(1980) • Ferruccio Benzoni, Stefano Simoncelli, Walter Valeri, Laura Mancinelli
Laura Mancinelli
(1981) • Jolanda Insana (1982) • Daniele Del Giudice (1983) • Aldo Busi
Aldo Busi
(1984) • Elisabetta Rasy, Dario Villa (1985) • Marco Lodoli, Angelo Mainardi (1986) • Marco Ceriani, Giovanni Giudice (1987) • Edoardo Albinati, Silvana La Spina (1988) • Andrea Canobbio, Romana Petri (1990) • Anna Cascella (1991) • Marco Caporali, Nelida Milani (1992) • Silvana Grasso, Giulio Mozzi (1993) • Ernesto Franco (1994) • Roberto Deidier (1995) • Giuseppe Quatriglio, Tiziano Scarpa (1996) • Fabrizio Rondolino (1997) • Alba Donati (1998) • Paolo Febbraro (1999) • Evelina Santangelo (2000) • Giuseppe Lupo (2001) • Giovanni Bergamini, Simona Corso (2003) • Adriano Lo Monaco (2004) • Piercarlo Rizzi (2005) • Francesco Fontana (2006) • Paolo Fallai (2007) • Luca Giachi (2008) • Carlo Carabba (2009) • Gabriele Pedullà (2010)

Foreign author: Alain Robbe-Grillet
Alain Robbe-Grillet
(1982) • Thomas Bernhard
Thomas Bernhard
(1983) • Adolfo Bioy Casares
Adolfo Bioy Casares
(1984) • Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud
(1985) • Friedrich Dürrenmatt
Friedrich Dürrenmatt
(1986) • Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
(1987) • V. S. Naipaul (1988) • Octavio Paz
Octavio Paz
(1989) • Christa Wolf
Christa Wolf
(1990) • Kurt Vonnegut (1991) • Bohumil Hrabal
Bohumil Hrabal
(1992) • Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
(1993) • J. M. Coetzee
J. M. Coetzee
(1994) • Vladimir Vojnovič (1995) • David Grossman (1996) • Philippe Jaccottet
Philippe Jaccottet
(1998) • Don DeLillo
Don DeLillo
(1999) • Aleksandar Tišma (2000) • Nuruddin Farah
Nuruddin Farah
(2001) • Per Olov Enquist (2002) • Adunis
Adunis
(2003) • Les Murray (2004) • Magda Szabó (2005) • Uwe Timm
Uwe Timm
(2006) • Bapsi Sidhwa
Bapsi Sidhwa
(2007) • Viktor Erofeev (2009) • Edmund White
Edmund White
(2010) • Javier Cercas
Javier Cercas
(2011) • Elizabeth Strout
Elizabeth Strout
(2012) • Péter Esterházy
Péter Esterházy
(2013) • Joe R. Lansdale (2014) • Emmanuel Carrère
Emmanuel Carrère
(2015) • Marilynne Robinson (2016) • Cees Nooteboom
Cees Nooteboom
(2017)

Italian Author: Alberto Moravia
Alberto Moravia
(1982) • Vittorio Sereni
Vittorio Sereni
alla memoria (1983) • Italo Calvino
Italo Calvino
(1984) • Mario Luzi (1985) • Paolo Volponi (1986) • Luigi Malerba (1987) • Oreste del Buono (1988) • Giovanni Macchia (1989) • Gianni Celati, Emilio Villa (1990) • Andrea Zanzotto (1991) • Ottiero Ottieri (1992) • Attilio Bertolucci (1993) • Luigi Meneghello (1994) • Fernando Bandini, Michele Perriera (1995) • Nico Orengo (1996) • Giuseppe Bonaviri, Giovanni Raboni
Giovanni Raboni
(1997) • Carlo Ginzburg
Carlo Ginzburg
(1998) • Alessandro Parronchi (1999) • Elio Bartolini (2000) • Roberto Alajmo (2001) • Andrea Camilleri
Andrea Camilleri
(2002) • Andrea Carraro, Antonio Franchini, Giorgio Pressburger
Giorgio Pressburger
(2003) • Maurizio Bettini, Giorgio Montefoschi, Nelo Risi
Nelo Risi
(2004) • pr. Raffaele Nigro, sec. Maurizio Cucchi, ter. Giuseppe Conte (2005) • pr. Paolo Di Stefano, sec. Giulio Angioni (2006) • pr. Mario Fortunato, sec. Toni Maraini, ter. Andrea Di Consoli (2007) • pr. Andrea Bajani, sec. Antonio Scurati, ter. Flavio Soriga (2008) • pr. Mario Desiati, sec. Osvaldo Guerrieri, ter. Gregorio Scalise (2009) • pr. Lorenzo Pavolini, sec. Roberto Cazzola, ter. (2010) • pr. Eugenio Baroncelli, sec. Milo De Angelis, ter. Igiaba Scego
Igiaba Scego
(2011) • pr. Edoardo Albinati, sec. Paolo Di Paolo, ter. Davide Orecchio (2012) • pr. Andrea Canobbio, sec. Valerio Magrelli, ter. Walter Siti (2013) • pr. Irene Chias, sec. Giorgio Falco, ter. Francesco Pecoraro (2014) • pr. Nicola Lagioia, sec. Letizia Muratori, ter. Marco Missiroli (2015) • pr. Marcello Fois, sec. Emanuele Tonon, ter. Romana Petri (2016) • pr. Stefano Massini, sec. Alessandro Zaccuri, ter. Alessandra Sarchi (2017)

"Five Continents" Award: Kōbō Abe, Tahar Ben Jelloun, Germaine Greer, Wilson Harris, José Saramago
José Saramago
(1992) • Kenzaburō Ōe
Kenzaburō Ōe
(1993) • Stephen Spender
Stephen Spender
(1994) • Thomas Keneally, Alberto Arbasino (1996) • Margaret Atwood, André Brink, David Malouf, Romesh Gunesekera, Christoph Ransmayr
Christoph Ransmayr
(1997)

"Palermo bridge for Europe" Award: Dacia Maraini
Dacia Maraini
(1999), Premio Palermo ponte per il Mediterraneo Alberto Arbasino
Alberto Arbasino
(2000)

"Ignazio Buttitta" Award: Nino De Vita (2003) • Attilio Lolini (2005) • Roberto Rossi Precerotti (2006) • Silvia Bre (2007)

Supermondello Tiziano Scarpa (2009) • Michela Murgia (2010) • Eugenio Baroncelli (2011) • Davide Orecchio (2012) • Valerio Magrelli (2013) • Giorgio Falco (2014) • Marco Missiroli (2015) • Romana Petri (2016) • Stefano Massini (2017)

Special
Special
award of the President: Ibrahim al-Koni (2009) • Emmanuele Maria Emanuele (2010) • Antonio Calabrò (2011)

Poetry prize: Antonio Riccardi (2010)

Translation Award: Evgenij Solonovic (2010)

Identity and dialectal literatures award: Gialuigi Beccaria e Marco Paolini (2010)

Essays Prize: Marzio Barbagli (2010)

Mondello for Multiculturality Award: Kim Thúy
Kim Thúy
(2011)

Mondello Youths Award: Claudia Durastanti (2011) • Edoardo Albinati (2012) • Alessandro Zaccuri (2017)

"Targa Archimede", Premio all'Intelligenza d'Impresa: Enzo Sellerio (2011)

Prize for Literary Criticism: Salvatore Silvano Nigro (2012) • Maurizio Bettini (2013) • Enrico Testa (2014) • Ermanno Cavazzoni (2015) • Serena Vitale (2016) • Antonio Prete (2017)

Award for best motivation: Simona Gioè (2012)

Special
Special
award for travel literature: Marina Valensise (2013)

Special
Special
Award 40 Years of Mondello: Gipi
Gipi
(2014)

v t e

Struga Poetry Evenings
Struga Poetry Evenings
Golden Wreath Laureates

Robert Rozhdestvensky
Robert Rozhdestvensky
(1966) Bulat Okudzhava
Bulat Okudzhava
(1967) László Nagy (1968) Mak Dizdar
Mak Dizdar
(1969) Miodrag Pavlović (1970) W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden
(1971) Pablo Neruda
Pablo Neruda
(1972) Eugenio Montale
Eugenio Montale
(1973) Fazıl Hüsnü Dağlarca
Fazıl Hüsnü Dağlarca
(1974) Léopold Sédar Senghor
Léopold Sédar Senghor
(1975) Eugène Guillevic (1976) Artur Lundkvist
Artur Lundkvist
(1977) Rafael Alberti
Rafael Alberti
(1978) Miroslav Krleža
Miroslav Krleža
(1979) Hans Magnus Enzensberger
Hans Magnus Enzensberger
(1980) Blaže Koneski (1981) Nichita Stănescu
Nichita Stănescu
(1982) Sachchidananda Vatsyayan 'Ajneya' (1983) Andrei Voznesensky
Andrei Voznesensky
(1984) Yiannis Ritsos
Yiannis Ritsos
(1985) Allen Ginsberg
Allen Ginsberg
(1986) Tadeusz Różewicz
Tadeusz Różewicz
(1987) Desanka Maksimović
Desanka Maksimović
(1988) Thomas Shapcott (1989) Justo Jorge Padrón (1990) Joseph Brodsky
Joseph Brodsky
(1991) Ferenc Juhász (1992) Gennadiy Aygi
Gennadiy Aygi
(1993) Ted Hughes
Ted Hughes
(1994) Yehuda Amichai
Yehuda Amichai
(1995) Makoto Ooka
Makoto Ooka
(1996) Adunis
Adunis
(1997) Liu Banjiu (1998) Yves Bonnefoy
Yves Bonnefoy
(1999) Edoardo Sanguineti
Edoardo Sanguineti
(2000) Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
(2001) Slavko Mihalić (2002) Tomas Tranströmer
Tomas Tranströmer
(2003) Vasco Graça Moura (2004) William S. Merwin (2005) Nancy Morejón (2006) Mahmoud Darwish
Mahmoud Darwish
(2007) Fatos Arapi (2008) Tomaž Šalamun
Tomaž Šalamun
(2009) Lyubomir Levchev (2010) Mateja Matevski
Mateja Matevski
(2011) Mongane Wally Serote (2012) José Emilio Pacheco
José Emilio Pacheco
(2013) Ko Un
Ko Un
(2014) Bei Dao
Bei Dao
(2015) Margaret Atwood
Margaret Atwood
(2016) Charles Simic
Charles Simic
(2017) Adam Zagajewski
Adam Zagajewski
(2018)

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Poetry Now Award

Dorothy Molloy (2005) Derek Mahon
Derek Mahon
(2006) Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
(2007) Harry Clifton (2008) Derek Mahon
Derek Mahon
(2009) Sinéad Morrissey
Sinéad Morrissey
(2010) Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
(2011) Michael Longley
Michael Longley
(2012) Dennis O'Driscoll (2013)

v t e

David Cohen Prize

1990s

V. S. Naipaul
V. S. Naipaul
(1993) Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
(1995) Muriel Spark
Muriel Spark
(1997) William Trevor (1999)

2000s

Doris Lessing
Doris Lessing
(2001) Beryl Bainbridge
Beryl Bainbridge
and Thom Gunn (2003) Michael Holroyd (2005) Derek Mahon
Derek Mahon
(2007) Seamus Heaney
Seamus Heaney
(2009)

2010s

Julian Barnes (2011) Hilary Mantel (2013) Tony Harrison (2015)

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 109557338 LCCN: n79099140 ISNI: 0000 0001 2321 5547 GND: 118547410 SELIBR: 208744 SUDOC: 028568338 BNF: cb120378139 (data) MusicBrainz: c867c229-53a9-447e-8191-9cbccd4a827d NLA: 36170680 NDL: 00474775 NKC: jn19990003287 BNE: XX877721 CiNii: DA02220052 SNAC: w6z03890

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