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SCHOLASTICISM is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics," or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context. It originated as an outgrowth of and a departure from Christian monastic schools at the earliest European universities. The first institutions in the West to be considered universities were established in Italy, France, Spain, and England in the late 11th and 12th centuries for the study of arts , law , medicine , and theology , such as Schola Medica Salernitana , the University
University
of Bologna , and the University
University
of Paris . It is difficult to define the date at which they became true universities, although the lists of studia generalia for higher education in Europe are a useful guide, held by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and its various religious orders .

Scholasticism
Scholasticism
is not so much a philosophy or a theology as a method of learning, as it places a strong emphasis on dialectical reasoning to extend knowledge by inference and to resolve contradictions . The Scholastic thought is also known for rigorous conceptual analysis and the careful drawing of distinctions. In the classroom and in writing, it often takes the form of explicit disputation ; a topic drawn from the tradition is broached in the form of a question, opponents' responses are given, a counterproposal is argued and opponents' arguments rebutted. Because of its emphasis on rigorous dialectical method, scholasticism was eventually applied to many other fields of study.

As a program, scholasticism began as an attempt at harmonization on the part of medieval Christian thinkers, to harmonize the various authorities of their own tradition, and to reconcile Christian theology with classical and late antiquity philosophy, especially that of Aristotle
Aristotle
but also of Neoplatonism . (See also Christian apologetics .)

Some of the main figures of scholasticism include Anselm of Canterbury , Peter Abelard , Alexander of Hales , Albertus Magnus
Albertus Magnus
, Duns Scotus , William of Ockham
William of Ockham
, Bonaventure , and Thomas Aquinas . Aquinas's masterwork _ Summa Theologica
Summa Theologica
_ is considered to be the pinnacle of scholastic, medieval, and Christian philosophy; it began while Aquinas was regent master at the _studium provinciale_ of Santa Sabina in Rome, the forerunner of the Pontifical University
University
of Saint Thomas Aquinas, _Angelicum_ . Important work in the scholastic tradition has been carried on well past Aquinas's time, for instance by Francisco Suárez
Francisco Suárez
and Luis de Molina , and also among Lutheran and Reformed thinkers.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early Scholasticism
Scholasticism
* 2.2 High Scholasticism
Scholasticism
* 2.3 Late Scholasticism
Scholasticism
* 2.4 Lutheran Scholasticism
Scholasticism
* 2.5 Reformed Scholasticism
Scholasticism
* 2.6 Neo-Scholasticism * 2.7 Thomistic Scholasticism
Scholasticism
* 2.8 Analytical Scholasticism
Scholasticism

* 3 Scholastic method * 4 Scholastic instruction * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Primary sources * 8 Secondary sources * 9 Further reading * 10 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The terms "scholastic" and "scholasticism" derive from the Latin
Latin
word _scholasticus_ and the latter from the Greek _σχολαστικός_, which means "that belongs to the school". The "scholastics" were, roughly, "schoolmen".

HISTORY

Forerunners (and later companions) of Christian scholasticism were Islamic Ilm al- Kalām , literally "science of discourse", and Jewish philosophy , especially Jewish Kalam .

EARLY SCHOLASTICISM

The first significant renewal of learning in the West came with the Carolingian Renaissance of the Early Middle Ages . Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, advised by Peter of Pisa and Alcuin of York , attracted the scholars of England and Ireland. By decree in AD 787, he established schools in every abbey in his empire. These schools, from which the name _scholasticism_ is derived, became centers of medieval learning.

During this period, knowledge of Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
had vanished in the west except in Ireland, where its teaching and use was widely dispersed in the monastic schools . Irish scholars had a considerable presence in the Frankish court , where they were renowned for their learning. Among them was Johannes Scotus Eriugena , (815–877) one of the founders of scholasticism. Eriugena was the most significant Irish intellectual of the early monastic period and an outstanding philosopher in terms of originality. He had considerable familiarity with the Greek language
Greek language
and translated many works into Latin, affording access to the Cappadocian Fathers
Cappadocian Fathers
and the Greek theological tradition .

The other three founders of scholasticism were the 11th-century scholars Peter Abelard , Archbishop Lanfranc of Canterbury and Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury .

This period saw the beginning of the 'rediscovery ' of many Greek works which had been lost to the Latin
Latin
West. As early as the 10th century, scholars in Spain had begun to gather translated texts and, in the latter half of that century, began transmitting them to the rest of Europe. After a successful burst of Reconquista
Reconquista
in the 12th century, Spain opened even further for Christian scholars, who were now able to work in 'friendly' religious territory. As these Europeans encountered Islamic philosophy, they opened a wealth of Arab knowledge of mathematics and astronomy. Scholars such as Adelard of Bath traveled to Spain and Sicily, translating works on astronomy and mathematics, including the first complete translation of Euclid
Euclid
's _Elements _ into Latin.

At the same time, Anselm of Laon systematized the production of the gloss on Scripture, followed by the rise to prominence of dialectic (the middle subject of the medieval trivium ) in the work of Abelard . Peter Lombard
Peter Lombard
produced a collection of _ Sentences ,_ or opinions of the Church Fathers and other authorities

HIGH SCHOLASTICISM

The 13th and early 14th centuries are generally seen as the high period of scholasticism. The early 13th century witnessed the culmination of the recovery of Greek philosophy . Schools of translation grew up in Italy and Sicily, and eventually in the rest of Europe. Powerful Norman kings gathered men of knowledge from Italy and other areas into their courts as a sign of their prestige. William of Moerbeke 's translations and editions of Greek philosophical texts in the middle half of the thirteenth century helped form a clearer picture of Greek philosophy, particularly of Aristotle, than was given by the Arabic versions on which they had previously relied, and which had distorted or obscured the relation between Platonic and Aristotelian systems of philosophy. His work formed the basis of the major commentaries that followed.

Universities developed in the large cities of Europe during this period, and rival clerical orders within the church began to battle for political and intellectual control over these centers of educational life. The two main orders founded in this period were the Franciscans
Franciscans
and the Dominicans . The Franciscans
Franciscans
were founded by Francis of Assisi
Francis of Assisi
in 1209. Their leader in the middle of the century was Bonaventure , a traditionalist who defended the theology of Augustine and the philosophy of Plato
Plato
, incorporating only a little of Aristotle
Aristotle
in with the more neoplatonist elements. Following Anselm, Bonaventure supposed that reason can only discover truth when philosophy is illuminated by religious faith. Other important Franciscan scholastics were Duns Scotus , Peter Auriol and William of Ockham .

By contrast, the Dominican order, a teaching order founded by St Dominic in 1215, to propagate and defend Christian doctrine, placed more emphasis on the use of reason and made extensive use of the new Aristotelian sources derived from the East and Moorish Spain. The great representatives of Dominican thinking in this period were Albertus Magnus
Albertus Magnus
and (especially) Thomas Aquinas , whose artful synthesis of Greek rationalism and Christian doctrine eventually came to define Catholic philosophy. Aquinas placed more emphasis on reason and argumentation, and was one of the first to use the new translation of Aristotle's metaphysical and epistemological writing. This was a significant departure from the Neoplatonic and Augustinian thinking that had dominated much of early scholasticism. Aquinas showed how it was possible to incorporate much of the philosophy of Aristotle without falling into the errors of the Commentator, Averroes
Averroes
.

LATE SCHOLASTICISM

Main article: Second scholasticism

LUTHERAN SCHOLASTICISM

Main article: Lutheran scholasticism

REFORMED SCHOLASTICISM

Main article: Reformed scholasticism

Following the Reformation, Calvinists largely adopted the scholastic method of theology, while differing regarding sources of authority and content of theology.

NEO-SCHOLASTICISM

Main article: Neo-scholasticism

The revival and development from the second half of the 19th century of medieval scholastic philosophy is sometimes called neo- Thomism .

THOMISTIC SCHOLASTICISM

As J. A. Weisheipl O.P. emphasizes, within the Dominican Order Thomistic scholasticism has been continuous since the time of Aquinas: " Thomism was always alive in the Dominican Order, small as it was after the ravages of the Reformation, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic occupation. Repeated legislation of the General Chapters, beginning after the death of St. Thomas, as well as the Constitutions of the Order, required all Dominicans to teach the doctrine of St. Thomas both in philosophy and in theology."

Thomistic scholasticism or scholastic Thomism identifies with the philosophical and theological tradition stretching back to the time of St. Thomas. It focuses not only on exegesis of the historical Aquinas but also on the articulation of a rigorous system of orthodox Thomism to be used as an instrument of critique of contemporary thought. Due to its suspicion of attempts to harmonize Aquinas with non-Thomistic categories and assumptions, Scholastic Thomism has sometimes been called "Strict Observance Thomism." A discussion of recent and current Thomistic scholasticism can be found in _La Metafisica di san Tommaso d'Aquino e i suoi interpreti_ (2002) by Battista Mondin, which includes such figures as Sofia Vanni Rovighi (1908-1990), Cornelio Fabro (1911-1995), Carlo Giacon (1900-1984), Tomas Tyn O.P. (1950-1990), Abelardo Lobato O.P. (1925-2012), Leo Elders (1926- ) and Giovanni Ventimiglia (1964- ) among others. Fabro in particular emphasizes Aquinas' originality, especially with respect to the _actus essendi_ or act of existence of finite beings by participating in being itself. Other scholars such as those involved with the "Progetto Tommaso" seek to establish an objective and universal reading of Aquinas' texts.

Thomistic scholasticism in the English speaking world went into decline in the 1970s when the Thomistic revival that had been spearheaded by Jacques Maritain
Jacques Maritain
, Étienne Gilson , and others, diminished in influence. Partly, this was because this branch of Thomism had become a quest to understand the historical Aquinas after the Second Vatican Council . Still, those who had learned Scholastic philosophy continued to have unresolved questions about how the insights of the medieval synthesis could be applied to contemporary problems. This conversation departed from the academic environment and entered internet discussion groups such as Aquinas, Christian Philosophy, and Thomism, and websites such as Open Philosophy, where it continues today.

ANALYTICAL SCHOLASTICISM

A renewed interest in the "scholastic" way of doing philosophy has recently awoken in the confines of the analytic philosophy . Attempts emerged to combine elements of scholastic and analytic methodology in pursuit of a contemporary philosophical synthesis. Proponents of various incarnations of this approach include Anthony Kenny , Peter King , Thomas Williams or David Oderberg . Analytical Thomism can be seen as a pioneer part of this movement.

SCHOLASTIC METHOD

The scholasticists would choose a book by a renowned scholar, _auctor _ (author), as a subject for investigation. By reading it thoroughly and critically, the disciples learned to appreciate the theories of the author. Other documents related to the book would be referenced, such as Church councils, papal letters and anything else written on the subject, be it ancient or contemporary. The points of disagreement and contention between multiple sources would be written down in individual sentences or snippets of text, known as sententiae .

Once the sources and points of disagreement had been laid out through a series of dialectics , the two sides of an argument would be made whole so that they would be found to be in agreement and not contradictory. (Of course, sometimes opinions would be totally rejected, or new positions proposed.) This was done in two ways.

The first was through philological analysis. Words were examined and argued to have multiple meanings. It was also considered that the auctor might have intended a certain word to mean something different. Ambiguity could be used to find common ground between two otherwise contradictory statements.

The second was through logical analysis, which relied on the rules of formal logic — as they were known at the time — to show that contradictions did not exist but were subjective to the reader.

SCHOLASTIC INSTRUCTION

Scholastic instruction consisted of several elements. The first was the _lectio_: a teacher would read an authoritative text followed by a commentary, but no questions were permitted. This was followed by the _meditatio_ (meditation or reflection) in which students reflected on and appropriated the text. Finally, in the _quaestio_ students could ask questions (_quaestiones_) that might have occurred to them during _meditatio_. Eventually the discussion of _questiones_ became a method of inquiry apart from the _lectio_ and independent of authoritative texts. _Disputationes_ were arranged to resolve controversial _quaestiones_.

Questions to be disputed were ordinarily announced beforehand, but students could propose a question to the teacher unannounced – _disputationes de quodlibet_. In this case, the teacher responded and the students rebutted; on the following day the teacher, having used notes taken during the disputation, summarised all arguments and presented his final position, riposting all rebuttals.

The _quaestio_ method of reasoning was initially used especially when two authoritative texts seemed to contradict one another. Two contradictory propositions would be considered in the form of an either/or question, and each part of the question would have to be approved (_sic_) or denied (_non_). Arguments for the position taken would be presented in turn, followed by arguments against the position, and finally the arguments against would be refuted. This method forced scholars to consider opposing viewpoints and defend their own arguments against them.

SEE ALSO

* Actus primus * Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
* Medieval philosophy * History of science in the Middle Ages * List of scholastic philosophers * Renaissance of the 12th century * Scotism
Scotism
* Nominalism * Allegory in the Middle Ages * Pardes (Jewish exegesis)

REFERENCES

* ^ See Steven P. Marone, " Medieval philosophy in context" in A. S. McGrade, ed., _The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Philosophy_ (Cambridge: Cambridge University
University
Press, 2003). On the difference between scholastic and medieval monastic postures towards learning, see Jean Leclercq, _The Love of Learning and the Desire for God_ (New York: Fordham University
University
Press, 1970) esp. 89; 238ff. * ^ de Ridder-Symoens 1992, pp. 47–55 * ^ Particularly through Pseudo-Dionysius, Augustine, and Boethius, and through the influence of Plotinus and Proclus on Muslim philosophers. In the case of Aquinas, for instance, see Jan Aertsen, "Aquinas' philosophy in its historical setting" in _The Cambridge Companion to Aquinas_, ed. Norman Kretzmann and Eleonore Stump (Cambridge: Cambridge University
University
Press, 1993). Jean Leclerq, _The Love of Learning and the Desire for God_ (New York: Fordham University Press, 1970). * ^ Gilson, Etienne (1991). _The Spirit of Medieval Philosophy (Gifford Lectures 1933-35)_. Notre Dame, IN: University
University
of Notre Dame Press. p. 490. ISBN 978-0-268-01740-8 . * ^ The word _Scholasticism_ is derived from the Latin
Latin
word _scholasticus_, the Latinized form of the Greek σχολαστικός (_scholastikos_), an adjective derived from σχολή _(scholē_), "school ". "school". "scholastic". Online Etymology Dictionary . σχολή, σχολαστικός. Liddell, Henry George ; Scott, Robert ; _ A Greek–English Lexicon _ at the Perseus Project . * ^ Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction. The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2008. 4-5. Print. * ^ Madeleine Pelner Cosman, Linda Gale Jones, Handbook to Life in the Medieval World, p 391. ISBN 1438109075 * ^ MacManus, p 215 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "John Scottus Eriugena". _Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Philosophy
_. Stanford University
University
. 2004-10-17. Retrieved 2008-07-21. * ^ _A_ _B_ Toman 2007 , p. 10: Abelard himself was ... together with John Scotus Erigena (9th century), and Lanfranc and Anselm of Canterbury (both 11th century), one of the founders of scholasticism." * ^ Lindberg 1978 , pp. 60–61. * ^ Lindberg 1978 ; Palencia . * ^ Watt * ^ Clagett 1982 , p. 356. * ^ "Peter Lombard, Master of the Sentences". _http://www.ligonier.org_. External link in journal= (help ) * ^ Lindberg 1978 , pp. 70-72. * ^ Fryde * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-09-27. Retrieved 2013-08-21. "The Revival of Thomism: An Historical Survey, " James Weisheipl, 1962. * ^ http://edwardfeser.blogspot.com/2009/10/thomistic-tradition-part-i.html Accessed 5 September 2013 * ^ it:Battista Mondin Accessed 12 April 2013 * ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/sofia-vanni-rovighi_(Dizionario-di-filosofia)/ Accessed 17 August 2013 * ^ http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/carlo-giacon_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ Accessed 9 April 2013 * ^ Leo Elders Accessed 30 August 2013 * ^ http://www.istitutotomistico.it/risorse/testi_arca.htm Accessed 5 Sept. 2013 * ^ See Raffaele Rizzello's "Il Progetto Tommaso," in _Vita quaerens intellectum_, eds. Giacomo Grasso, O.P. and Stefano Serafini, Millennium Romae, Rome 1999, pp. 157-161. http://www.phmae.it/rec35.htm Accessed 5 Sept. 2013 * ^ https://groups.yahoo.com/group/aquinas/ * ^ https://groups.yahoo.com/group/xianphil/ * ^ https://groups.yahoo.com/group/thomism/ * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-09-26. Retrieved 2009-07-10. * ^ van Asselt 2011 , p. 59. * ^ van Asselt 2011 , p. 60. * ^ van Asselt 2011 , pp. 61-62.

PRIMARY SOURCES

* Hyman, J.; Walsh, J. J., eds. (1973). _ Philosophy
Philosophy
in the Middle Ages_. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing. ISBN 0-915144-05-0 . * Schoedinger, Andrew B., ed. (1996). _Readings in Medieval Philosophy_. New York: Oxford University
University
Press. ISBN 0-19-509293-7 .

SECONDARY SOURCES

* van Asselt, Willem J. (2011). _Inleiding in de Gereformeerde Scholastiek_ (in Dutch). With contributions by T. Theo J. Pleizier, Pieter L. Rouwendal, and Maarten Wisse; Translated by Albert Gootjes. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Reformation Heritage Books. ISBN 978-1-60178-121-5 . * Clagett, Marshall (1982). "William of Moerbeke: Translator of Archimedes". _Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society_. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 126, No. 5. 126 (5): 356–366. JSTOR 986212 . * Fryde, E., _The Early Palaeologan Renaissance_, Brill 2000. * Gallatin, Harlie Kay (2001). "Medieval Intellectual Life and Christianity". * Gracia, J. G. and Noone, T. B., eds., (2003) _A Companion to Philosophy
Philosophy
in the Middle Ages_. London: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-21672-3 * McGrade, A. S., ed., (2003) _The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Philosophy_. Cambridge: Cambridge University
University
Press. * Lindberg, David C. (1978). _Science in the Middle Ages_. Chicago: University
University
of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-48232-4 . * Maurer, Armand A. (1982). _Medieval Philosophy_ (2nd ed.). Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN 0-88844-704-3 . * Toman, Rolf (2007). _The Art of Gothic: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting_. photography by Achim Bednorz. Tandem Verlag GmbH . ISBN 978-3-8331-4676-3 .

FURTHER READING

* Trueman, Carl R. and R. Scott Clark, _jt. eds_. (1999). _Protestant Scholasticism: Essays in Reassessment_. Carlisle, Eng.: Paternoster Press. ISBN 0-85364-853-0

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Scholasticon by Jacob Schmutz * Medieval