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Scandinavian design
Scandinavian design
is a design movement characterized by simplicity, minimalism and functionality that emerged in the early 20th century, and which flourished in the 1950s, in the five Nordic countries
Nordic countries
of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden.

Contents

1 Overview 2 In the Scandinavian nations

2.1 In Denmark 2.2 In Finland 2.3 In Iceland 2.4 In Norway 2.5 In Sweden

3 References

3.1 Books

4 External links

Overview[edit]

Bang & Olufsen TV and speakers

In 1914, the Danish Selskabet for Dekorativ Kunst (Company for Decorative Arts) launched its Skønvirke  (da) (literally "Graceful Work") magazine. Its title became the name of a new Danish style of arts and crafts, to rival Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
and Jugendstil.[1] From the 1930s, designers such as Alvar Aalto
Alvar Aalto
(furniture, textiles),[2] Arne Jacobsen
Arne Jacobsen
(chairs),[2] Borge Mogensen (furniture),[2] Hans J. Wegner
Hans J. Wegner
(chairs),[2] Verner Panton
Verner Panton
(plastic chairs),[2] Poul Henningsen
Poul Henningsen
(lamps),[2] and Maija Isola
Maija Isola
(printed textiles)[2] helped to create a "golden age of Scandinavian design".[2] The Lunning Prize, awarded to outstanding Scandinavian designers between 1951 and 1970, was instrumental in making Scandinavian design a recognized commodity, and in defining its profile.[3] In 1954, the Brooklyn Museum
Brooklyn Museum
held its " Design
Design
in Scandinavia" exhibition, and a fashion for "Scandinavian Modern" furniture began in America.[1][4][5] Scandinavian design
Scandinavian design
is by no means limited to furniture and household goods. It has been applied to industrial design, such as of consumer electronics,[6] mobile phones,[7] and cars.[8] The concept of Scandinavian design
Scandinavian design
has been the subject of scholarly debate, exhibitions and marketing agendas since the 1950s. Many emphasize the democratic design ideals that were a central theme of the movement and are reflected in the rhetoric surrounding contemporary Scandinavian and international design. Others, however, have analyzed the reception of Scandinavian design
Scandinavian design
abroad, seeing in it a form of myth-making and racial politics.[9] In the Scandinavian nations[edit]

PH-lamp
PH-lamp
(1958 version), Denmark

In Denmark[edit] Main article: Danish design Danish Design
Design
is a style of functionalistic design and architecture that was developed in mid-20th century. Influenced by the German Bauhaus
Bauhaus
school, many Danish designers used the new industrial technologies, combined with ideas of simplicity and functionalism to design buildings, furniture and household objects, many of which have become iconic and are still in use and production, such as Arne Jacobsen's 1958 Egg chair[10] and Poul Henningsen's 1926 PH-lamps.[11] After the Second World War, conditions in Denmark were ideally suited to success in design. The emphasis was on furniture but architecture, silver, ceramics, glass and textiles also benefitted from the trend. Denmark's late industrialisation combined with a tradition of high-quality craftsmanship formed the basis of gradual progress towards industrial production.[12]

Ceramics designed by Ulla Procopé for Arabia, Finland

In Finland[edit] Further information: Design
Design
Forum Finland
Finland
and Design
Design
Museum, Helsinki Finnish design spans clothing, engineering design, furniture, glass, lighting, textiles, and household products.[13] The " Design
Design
from Finland" mark was created in 2011.[14] Finland's Design
Design
Museum (formerly called the Museum of Art and Design) has a collection founded in 1873, while Helsinki's University of Art and Design, established in 1871, now forms part of Aalto University.[15] Prominent Finnish designers include Alvar Aalto
Alvar Aalto
(vases, furniture), Aino Aalto
Aino Aalto
(glassware), Kaj Frank (glass, tableware), Klaus Haapaniemi (fabric prints), Simo Heikkilä
Simo Heikkilä
(furniture), Kristina Isola (textiles), Maija Isola
Maija Isola
( Marimekko
Marimekko
prints), Harri Koskinen
Harri Koskinen
(glass, homeware), Mika Piirainen (clothing, accessories), Timo Sarpaneva (glass, homeware), Oiva Toikka
Oiva Toikka
(glass art), Tapio Wirkkala
Tapio Wirkkala
(glass art, glassware), Eero Aarnio
Eero Aarnio
(plastic furniture), Sanna Annukka (screenprints), Anu Penttinen (glass), Aino-Maija Metsola (textiles, homeware), and Maija Louekari (tableware, homeware).[16]

Stacking chairs, Iceland

In Iceland[edit] Design
Design
in Iceland
Iceland
is a relatively young tradition, starting in the 1950s but now growing rapidly. The country's limited options for manufacturing and its constrained choice of materials have both forced designers to be innovative, though wool remains a staple material, whether felted or knitted. Iceland's Museum of Design
Design
and Applied Art, aiming to record Icelandic design from 1900 onwards, opened in 1998.[17] The Iceland
Iceland
Academy of the Arts was also founded in 1998, soon followed by its Faculty of Architecture
Architecture
and Design, which has promoted a distinctively Icelandic character in the nation's design.[18]

Telephone Kiosk by Georg Fredrik Fasting, Norway

In Norway[edit] Further information: Norwegian Design
Design
Council Norwegian design has a strong minimalist aesthetic.[19] Designed items include lamps and furniture. Qualities emphasised include durability, beauty, functionality, simplicity, and natural forms.[20] The Norwegian Centre for Design
Design
and Architecture, "DogA", is housed in a former transformer station in Oslo.[21] Norway
Norway
holds an annual design exhibition called "100% Norway" at the London Design Fair.[22][23] Prominent Norwegian designers include Hans Brattrud (Scandia Jr., Grorudstolen, the table Fagott, and the armchair Comet), Sven Ivar Dysthe (armchair 1001 from 1960,and the chair Laminette from 1964), Olav Eldøy (chair Peel, the chair Date & the chair Eight), Olav Haug, Fredrik A. Kayser (Chair “711”) and Ingmar Relling (Orbit and Siesta).

"HOL" furniture for IKEA, Sweden

In Sweden[edit] Further information: Swedish Centre for Architecture
Architecture
and Design Swedish design is considered minimalist, with an emphasis on functionality and simple clean lines. This has applied especially to furniture. Sweden
Sweden
is known for traditional crafts including glass and Sami handicrafts. Swedish design was pioneered by Anders Beckman (graphics), Bruno Mathsson
Bruno Mathsson
(furniture), Märta Måås-Fjetterström and Astrid Sampe (textile), and Sixten Sason
Sixten Sason
(industrial). Organisations that promote design in Sweden
Sweden
are Svensk Form, the Swedish society of crafts and design, founded in 1845; the Swedish Industrial Design
Design
Foundation, known as SVID; the Swedish Arts Council; and the Swedish Centre for Architecture
Architecture
and Design
Design
(known as ArkDes) on the island of Skeppsholmen
Skeppsholmen
in Stockholm, beside the modern art museum.[24]

References[edit]

^ a b c Rekkali, Zeynep. "Danish Design: The birth, rise, fall and resurrection". Danish. Retrieved 3 January 2018.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Scandinavian design". Scandinavia design. Retrieved 3 January 2018.  ^ Krondahl, Hans. "Tema Lunning Prize winners". Runeberg. Retrieved 3 January 2018.  ^ Englund, Schmidt & Wood 2007. ^ Halén & Wickman 2003. ^ Ingdal, Cecilie. "Let there be light". Bang & Olufsen. Retrieved 3 January 2018.  ^ "The new old principles of HMD's #Nokia design". Nokia. 15 August 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2018.  ^ Green, Gavin. "Designed to Delight". Volvo. Retrieved 3 January 2018.  ^ Leary, Erin (2015). "'The Total Absence of Foreign Subjects': The Racial Politics of US Interwar Exhibitions of Scandinavian Design". Design
Design
and Culture. 7 (3): 283–312.  ^ "Egg Chair". Aram. Retrieved 31 December 2017.  ^ "The PH lamp". Visit Denmark.  ^ "Furniture and Industrial Design" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Denmark. Retrieved 17 December 2008.  ^ "Brand Stories". Finnish Design. Retrieved 7 May 2014.  Information from pages on each artist on that website. ^ "About". Design
Design
from Finland. Retrieved 3 January 2018.  ^ "Welcome to Finland, the design nation". This is Finland. Retrieved 3 January 2018.  ^ "Finnish Designers". Finnish Design. Retrieved 7 May 2014.  Information from pages on each artist on that website. ^ " Design
Design
and Architecture
Architecture
General information". Iceland
Iceland
Design Centre. Retrieved 1 January 2018.  ^ " Iceland
Iceland
Design
Design
Centre". Iceland
Iceland
Design
Design
Centre. Retrieved 1 January 2018.  ^ "Design: Where nature meets minimalism". Visit Norway. Retrieved 4 January 2018.  ^ Danner, Christi (22 May 2014). "10 Reasons Norwegian Design
Design
Is Awesome". Complex. Retrieved 4 January 2018.  ^ "DogA - Norwegian Centre for Design
Design
and Architecture
Architecture
[Privacy Badger has replaced this FacebookLike button.]". Visit Oslo. Retrieved 4 January 2018.  ^ "Norwegian Design
Design
Now". 100percentnorway. Retrieved 4 January 2018.  ^ "Norwegian Arts". Norwegian Arts. Retrieved 4 January 2018.  ^ "Stylish functionality". Sweden.se. Retrieved 1 January 2018. 

Books[edit]

Bolander, Lars; MacIssac, Heather (2010). Lars Bolander's Scandinavian Design. Harry N Abrams.  Englund, Magnus; Schmidt, Chrystina; Wood, Andrew (2007). Scandinavian Modern. Ryland Peters & Small.  Fallan, Kjetil (2012). Scandinavian Design: Alternative Histories. Berg.  Fiell, Charlotte J; Fiell, Peter (2005). Scandinavian Design. Taschen.  Gura, Judith (2012). Sourcebook of Scandinavian Furniture, Designs for the 21st Century. Norton.  Hard af Segerstad, Ulf (1961). Scandinavian Design
Design
(Nordisk Nyttokonst). Nordisk Rotogravyr.  Halén, Widar; Wickman, Kerstin (2003). Scandinavian Design
Design
Beyond the Myth. Arvinius.  Nelson, Katherine E; Cabra, Raul (2004). New Scandinavian Design. Chronicle Books.  Oriol, Anja Llorella (2005). Asensio, Paco, ed. New Scandinavian Design. teNeues.  Sommar, Ingrid (2005). Scandinavian Style. Carlton.  Wickman, Kerstin (1996). Scandinavian Design: the dream is still alive. Swedish Information Service.  Zahle, Erik (1961). A Treasury of Scandinavian Design. Golden Press. 

External links[edit]

Finnish Design Iceland
Iceland
Design
Design
Centre Scandin

.