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The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
(Latin: Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD. Originating in the central parts of the Eurasian Steppe, the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
started migrating westward around the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, coming to dominate the closely related Scythians
Scythians
by 200 BC. At their greatest reported extent, around 1st century AD, these tribes ranged from the Vistula River
Vistula River
to the mouth of the Danube
Danube
and eastward to the Volga, bordering the shores of the Black and Caspian seas as well as the Caucasus
Caucasus
to the south. Their territory, which was known as Sarmatia to Greco-Roman ethnographers, corresponded to the western part of greater Scythia
Scythia
(mostly modern Ukraine
Ukraine
and Southern Russia, also to a smaller extent north-eastern Balkans
Balkans
and around Moldova). In the 1st century AD the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
began encroaching upon the Roman Empire in alliance with Germanic tribes. In the 3rd century AD their dominance of the Pontic Steppe
Steppe
was broken by the Germanic Goths. With the Hunnic invasions of the 4th century, many Sarmatians
Sarmatians
joined the Goths
Goths
and other Germanic tribes (Vandals) in the settlement of the Western Roman Empire. The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
were eventually decisively assimilated (e.g. Slavicisation) and absorbed by the Proto-Slavic population of Eastern Europe.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Ethnology 3 Archaeology 4 Language 5 Genetics 6 Appearance 7 Greco-Roman ethnography 8 Decline in the 4th century 9 Legacy

9.1 Sarmatia Asiatica and Europea 9.2 Possible influence on Arthurian legends 9.3 Sarmatism

10 Tribes 11 See also 12 References 13 Sources 14 External links

Etymology[edit]

Map of the Roman empire under Hadrian
Hadrian
(ruled 117–138 AD), showing the location of the Sarmatae in the Ukrainian steppe region

Sarmatae probably originated as just one of several tribal names of the Sarmatians, but one that Greco-Roman ethnography
Greco-Roman ethnography
came to apply as an exonym to the entire group. Strabo
Strabo
in the 1st century names as the main tribes of the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
the Iazyges, the Roxolani, the Aorsi
Aorsi
and the Siraces. The Greek name Sarmatai sometimes appears as "Sauromatai", which is almost certainly no more than a variant of the same name. Nevertheless, historians often regarded these as two separate peoples, while archaeologists habitually use the term 'Sauromatian' to identify the earliest phase of Sarmatian culture. Any idea that the name derives from the word lizard (sauros), linking to the Sarmatians' use of reptile-like scale armour and dragon standards, is almost certainly unfounded.[1] Both Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(Natural History book iv) and Jordanes
Jordanes
recognised the Sar- and Sauro- elements as interchangeable variants, referring to the same people. Greek authors of the 4th century (Pseudo-Scylax, Eudoxus of Cnidus) mention Syrmatae as the name of a people living at the Don, perhaps reflecting the ethnonym as it was pronounced in the final phase of Sarmatian culture. The Greek terminology Sarmatai Gynaikokratoumenoi ("Sarmatians, ruled by women") mirrors the Indo-Aryan *sar-ma(n)t, meaning "abundant in women" and *sar-va(n)t, assumed to mean "womenly" or similar; from Indo-Aryan *sar- ("woman"), cf. Indo-European *swe-sor ("sister"),[2] as derived by Oleg Trubachyov in his study on Slavic history and archaeology; he furthermore connects several Slavic ethnonyms to the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and Indo-Aryan.[3] English scholar Harold Walter Bailey (1899–1996) derived the base word from Avestan sar- (to move suddenly) from tsar- in Old Iranian (tsarati, tsaru-, hunter), which also gave its name to the western Avestan region of Sairima (*salm, – *Sairmi), and also connected it to the 10–11th century AD Persian epic Shahnameh's character "Salm".[4] Recently, Belarusian-Ukrainian philologist R. M. Kozlova derived the root *sъrm- from Proto-Slavic adjective *sъrmatъ (-a, -o), meaning "rich with sorma" ("shallows", referring to rivers), based on numerous geographical names.[5] Ethnology[edit]

A Sarmatian diadem, found at the Khokhlach kurgan near Novocherkassk (1st century AD, Hermitage Museum).

The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
were part of the Indo-Iranian steppe peoples, among whom were also Scythians
Scythians
and Saka.[6] These are also grouped together as "East Iranians".[7] Archaeology has established the connection 'between the Iranian-speaking Scythians, Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and Saka and the earlier Timber-grave and Andronovo cultures'.[8] Based on building construction, these three peoples were the likely descendants of those earlier archaeological cultures.[9] The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and Saka used the same stone construction methods as the earlier Andronovo culture.[10] The Timber-grave and Andronovo house building traditions were further developed by these three peoples.[11] Andronovo pottery was continued by the Saka and Sarmatians.[12] Archaeologists describe the Andronovo culture people as exhibiting pronounced Caucasoid
Caucasoid
features.[13]

Great steppe
Great steppe
of Kazakhstan in early spring.

The first Sarmatians
Sarmatians
are mostly identified with the Prokhorovka culture, which moved from the southern Urals to the Lower Volga
Volga
and then northern Pontic steppe, in the 4th–3rd centuries BC. During the migration, the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
seem to have grown and divided themselves into several groups, such as the Alans, Aorsi, Roxolani
Roxolani
and Iazyges. By 200 BC, the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
replaced the Scythians
Scythians
as the dominant people of the steppes.[14] The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and Scythians
Scythians
had fought on the Pontic steppe
Pontic steppe
to the north of the Black Sea.[15] The Sarmatians, described as a large confederation,[16] were to dominate these territories over the next five centuries.[17] According to Brzezinski and Mielczarek, the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
were formed between the Don River and the Ural Mountains.[17] Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(23–79 AD) wrote that they ranged from the Vistula River
Vistula River
(in present-day Poland) to the Danube. The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
differed from the Scythians
Scythians
in their veneration of the god of fire rather than god of nature, and women's prominent role in warfare, which possibly served as the inspiration for the Amazons. Archaeology[edit] Main article: Sarmatian culture

A Sarmatian-Parthian gold necklace and amulet, 2nd century AD. Located in Tamoikin Art Fund

In 1947, Soviet archaeologist Boris Grakov[citation needed] defined a culture flourishing from the 6th century BC to the 4th century AD, apparent in late kurgan graves (buried within earthwork mounds), sometimes reusing part of much older kurgans. It was a nomadic steppe culture ranging from the Black Sea
Black Sea
eastward to beyond the Volga, and is especially evident at two of the major sites at Kardaielova and Chernaya in the trans-Uralic steppe. Grakov defined four phases:

Sauromatian, 6th–5th centuries BC Early Sarmatian, 4th–2nd centuries BC Middle Sarmatian, late 2nd century BC to late 2nd century AD Late Sarmatian: late 2nd century AD to 4th century AD

While "Sarmatian" and "Sauromatian" are synonymous as ethnonyms, they are given different meanings purely by convention as archaeological technical terms. In Hungary, a great Late Sarmatian pottery centre was reportedly unearthed between 2001 and 2006 near Budapest, in the Üllő5 archaeological site. Typical grey, granular Üllő5
Üllő5
ceramics form a distinct group of Sarmatian pottery found everywhere in the north-central part of the Great Hungarian Plain
Great Hungarian Plain
region, indicating a lively trading activity. A 1998 paper on the study of glass beads found in Sarmatian graves suggests wide cultural and trade links.[18] Archaeological evidence suggests that Scythian-Sarmatian cultures may have given rise to the Greek legends of Amazons. Graves of armed females have been found in southern Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia. David Anthony notes, "About 20% of Scythian-Sarmatian "warrior graves" on the lower Don and lower Volga
Volga
contained females dressed for battle as if they were men, a phenomenon that probably inspired the Greek tales about the Amazons."[19] Language[edit] Main article: Scytho-Sarmatian languages

Approximate extent of East Iranian languages in the 1st century BC is shown in orange.[citation needed]

The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
spoke an Iranian language, derived from 'Old Iranian', that was heterogenous. By the 1st century BC, the Iranian tribes in what is today South Russia spoke different languages or dialects, clearly distinguishable.[20] According to a group of Iranologists writing in 1968, the numerous Iranian personal names in Greek inscriptions from the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast indicated that the Sarmatians spoke a North-Eastern Iranian dialect ancestral to Alanian-Ossetian.[21] However, Harmatta (1970) argued that "the language of the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
or that of the Alans
Alans
as a whole cannot be simply regarded as being Old Ossetian".[20] Genetics[edit] In a study conducted in 2014 by Gennady Afanasiev et al. on bone fragments from ten Alanic burials on the Don River, DNA was extracted from seven.[clarification needed][22] In 2015, the Institute of Archaeology in Moscow conducted research on various Sarmato-Alan and Saltovo-Mayaki culture Kurgan
Kurgan
burials. In these analyses, the two Alan samples from the 4th to 6th century AD turned out to belong to yDNA haplogroups G2a-P15 and R1a-z94, while two of the three Sarmatian samples from the 2nd to 3rd century AD were found to belong to yDNA haplogroup J1-M267 while one belonged to R1a.[23] Three Saltovo-Mayaki samples from the 8th to 9th century AD turned out to have yDNA corresponding to haplogroups G, J2a-M410 and R1a-z94.[24][clarification needed] Appearance[edit] Like the Scythians, Sarmatians
Sarmatians
were of a Caucasoid
Caucasoid
appearance. Sarmatian noblemen often reached 1.70–1.80 m (5 ft 7 in–5 ft 11 in) as measured from skeletons. They had sturdy bones, long hair and beards.[citation needed] In the late 2nd or early 3rd century AD, the Greek physician Galen declared that Sarmatians, Scythians
Scythians
and other northern peoples had reddish hair.[25] They are said to owe their name (Sarmatae) to it.[26] The Alans
Alans
were a group of Sarmatian tribes, according to the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He wrote, "Nearly all the Alani are men of great stature and beauty, their hair is somewhat yellow, their eyes are frighteningly fierce".[17] Greco-Roman ethnography[edit] Herodotus
Herodotus
(Histories 4.21) in the 5th century BC placed the land of the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
east of the Tanais, beginning at the corner of the Maeotian Lake, stretching northwards for fifteen days' journey, adjacent to the forested land of the Budinoi. Herodotus
Herodotus
(4.110–117) recounts that the Sauromatians arose from marriages of a group of Amazons
Amazons
and young Scythian men. In the story, some Amazons
Amazons
were captured in battle by Greeks
Greeks
in Pontus (northern Turkey) near the river Thermodon, and the captives were loaded into three boats. They overcame their captors while at sea, but were not able sailors. Their ships were blown north to the Maeotian Lake
Maeotian Lake
(the Sea of Azov) onto the shore of Scythia
Scythia
near the cliff region (today's southeastern Crimea). After encountering the Scythians
Scythians
and learning the Scythian language, they agreed to marry Scythian men, but only on the condition that they move away and not be required to follow the customs of Scythian women. According to Herodotus, the descendants of this band settled toward the northeast beyond the Tanais
Tanais
(Don) river and became the Sauromatians. Herodotus' account explains the origins of their language as an "impure" form of Scythian. He credits the unusual social freedoms of Sauromatae women, including participation in warfare, as an inheritance from their Amazon ancestors. Later writers refer to the "woman-ruled Sarmatae" (γυναικοκρατούμενοι).[27]

Hippocrates[28] explicitly classes them as Scythian and describes their warlike women and their customs:

Their women, so long as they are virgins, ride, shoot, throw the javelin while mounted, and fight with their enemies. They do not lay aside their virginity until they have killed three of their enemies, and they do not marry before they have performed the traditional sacred rites. A woman who takes to herself a husband no longer rides, unless she is compelled to do so by a general expedition. They have no right breast; for while they are yet babies their mothers make red-hot a bronze instrument constructed for this very purpose and apply it to the right breast and cauterize it, so that its growth is arrested, and all its strength and bulk are diverted to the right shoulder and right arm.

Polybius
Polybius
(XXV, 1) mentions them for the first time as a force to be reckoned with in 179 B.C.[15] Strabo[29] mentions the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
in a number of places, but never says much about them. He uses both the terms of Sarmatai and Sauromatai, but never together, and never suggesting that they are different peoples. He often pairs Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and Scythians
Scythians
in reference to a series of ethnic names, never stating which is which, as though Sarmatian or Scythian could apply equally to them all.[30] Strabo
Strabo
wrote that the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
extend from above the Danube
Danube
eastward to the Volga, and from north of the Dnieper River
Dnieper River
into the Caucasus, where, he says, they are called Caucasii like everyone else there. This statement indicates that the Alans
Alans
already had a home in the Caucasus, without waiting for the Huns
Huns
to push them there. Even more significantly, he points to a Celtic admixture in the region of the Basternae, who, he said, were of Germanic origin. The Celtic Boii, Scordisci
Scordisci
and Taurisci
Taurisci
are there. A fourth ethnic element interacting and intermarrying are the Thracians
Thracians
(7.3.2). Moreover, the peoples toward the north are Keltoskythai, "Celtic Scythians" (11.6.2). Strabo
Strabo
portrays the peoples of the region as being nomadic, or Hamaksoikoi, "wagon-dwellers," and Galaktophagoi, "milk-eaters." This latter likely referred to the universal koumiss eaten in historical times. The wagons were used for transporting tents made of felt, a type of the yurts used universally by Asian nomads. Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
writes (4.12.79–81):

From this point (the mouth of the Danube) all the races in general are Scythian, though various sections have occupied the lands adjacent to the coast, in one place the Getae ... at another the Sarmatae ... Agrippa describes the whole of this area from the Danube
Danube
to the sea ... as far as the river Vistula
Vistula
in the direction of the Sarmatian desert ... The name of the Scythians has spread in every direction, as far as the Sarmatae and the Germans, but this old designation has not continued for any except the most outlying sections ...

According to Pliny, Scythian rule once extended as far as Germany. Jordanes
Jordanes
supports this hypothesis by telling us on the one hand that he was familiar with the Geography of Ptolemy, which includes the entire Balto-Slavic territory in Sarmatia,[citation needed] and on the other that this same region was Scythia. By "Sarmatia", Jordanes
Jordanes
means only the Aryan territory. The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
were, therefore, a sub-group of the broader Scythian peoples. Tacitus' De Origine et situ Germanorum speaks of "mutual fear" between Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
and Sarmatians:

All Germania is divided from Gaul, Raetia, and Pannonia
Pannonia
by the Rhine and Danube
Danube
rivers; from the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and the Dacians
Dacians
by shared fear and mountains. The Ocean laps the rest, embracing wide bays and enormous stretches of islands. Just recently, we learned about certain tribes and kings, whom war brought to light.[31]

According to Tacitus, like the Persians, the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
wore long, flowing robes (ch 17). Moreover, the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
exacted tribute from the Cotini
Cotini
and Osi, and iron from the Cotini
Cotini
(ch. 43), "to their shame" (presumably because they could have used the iron to arm themselves and resist).

Sarmatian cataphracts during Dacian Wars as depicted on Trajan's Column.

By the 3rd century BC, the Sarmatian name appears to have supplanted the Scythian in the plains of what is now south Ukraine. The geographer, Ptolemy,[citation needed] reports them at what must be their maximum extent, divided into adjoining European and central Asian sections. Considering the overlap of tribal names between the Scythians
Scythians
and the Sarmatians, no new displacements probably took place. The people were the same Indo-Europeans, but were referred to under yet another name. Later, Pausanias, viewing votive offerings near the Athenian Acropolis in the 2nd century AD,[32] found among them a Sauromic breastplate.

On seeing this a man will say that no less than Greeks
Greeks
are foreigners skilled in the arts: for the Sauromatae have no iron, neither mined by themselves nor yet imported. They have, in fact, no dealings at all with the foreigners around them. To meet this deficiency they have contrived inventions. In place of iron they use bone for their spear-blades and cornel wood for their bows and arrows, with bone points for the arrows. They throw a lasso round any enemy they meet, and then turning round their horses upset the enemy caught in the lasso. Their breastplates they make in the following fashion. Each man keeps many mares, since the land is not divided into private allotments, nor does it bear any thing except wild trees, as the people are nomads. These mares they not only use for war, but also sacrifice them to the local gods and eat them for food. Their hoofs they collect, clean, split, and make from them as it were python scales. Whoever has never seen a python must at least have seen a pine-cone still green. He will not be mistaken if he liken the product from the hoof to the segments that are seen on the pine-cone. These pieces they bore and stitch together with the sinews of horses and oxen, and then use them as breastplates that are as handsome and strong as those of the Greeks. For they can withstand blows of missiles and those struck in close combat.

Pausanias' description is well borne out in a relief from Tanais.[citation needed] These facts are not necessarily incompatible with Tacitus, as the western Sarmatians
Sarmatians
might have kept their iron to themselves, it having been a scarce commodity on the plains. In the late 4th century, Ammianus Marcellinus[33] describes a severe defeat which Sarmatian raiders inflicted upon Roman forces in the province of Valeria in Pannonia
Pannonia
in late AD 374. The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
almost destroyed two legions: one recruited from Moesia
Moesia
and one from Pannonia. The last had been sent to intercept a party of Sarmatians which had been in pursuit of a senior Roman officer named Aequitius. The two legions failed to coordinate, allowing the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
to catch them unprepared. Decline in the 4th century[edit] See also: Alans
Alans
and Ossetians The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
remained dominant until the Gothic ascendancy in the Black Sea
Black Sea
area, Oium. Goths
Goths
attacked Sarmatian tribes on the north of the Danube
Danube
in Dacia, in what is today Romania. Roman Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
called his son Constantine II up from Gallia to run a campaign north of the Danube. In very cold weather, the Romans were victorious, killing 100,000 Goths
Goths
and capturing Ariaricus the son of the Goth king. In their efforts to halt the Gothic expansion and replace it with their own on the north of Lower Danube
Danube
(present-day Romania), the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
armed their 'servants' Limigantes. After the Roman victory, however, the local population revolted against their Sarmatian masters, pushing them beyond the Roman border. Constantine, on whom the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
had called for help, defeated Limigantes, and moved the Sarmatian population back in. In the Roman provinces, Sarmatian combatants were enlisted in the Roman army, whilst the rest of the population was distributed throughout Thrace, Macedonia and Italy. The Origo Constantini mentions 300,000 refugees resulting from this conflict. The emperor Constantine was subsequently attributed the title of Sarmaticus Maximus.[34] In the 4th and 5th centuries, the Huns
Huns
expanded and conquered both the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and the Germanic Tribes living between the Black Sea
Black Sea
and the borders of the Roman Empire. From bases in modern-day Hungary, the Huns
Huns
ruled the entire former Sarmatian territory. Their various constituents flourished under Hunnish rule, fought for the Huns against a combination of Roman and Germanic troops, and went their own ways after the Battle of Chalons, the death of Attila
Attila
and the appearance of the Chuvash ruling elements west of the Volga- current Russian territory. The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
were eventually decisively assimilated (e.g. Slavicisation) and absorbed by the Proto-Slavic population of Eastern Europe around the Early Medieval Age.[35][36] A related people to the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
known as the Alans
Alans
survived in the North Caucasus
Caucasus
into the Early Middle Ages, ultimately giving rise to the modern Ossetic ethnic group.[37] Legacy[edit] Sarmatia Asiatica and Europea[edit] Main article: Sarmatia Asiatica and Sarmatia Europea

Sarmatia Europea in map of Scythia, 1697.

Maciej Miechowita
Maciej Miechowita
(1457–1523) used "Sarmatia" for the Black Sea region and further divided it into Sarmatia Europea, which included East Central Europe, and Sarmatia Asiatica.[38] Following him, cartographers created several maps of these regions. In the 19th century several authors tried to locate their extent. Possible influence on Arthurian legends[edit] Scholars C. Scott Littleton and Ann C. Thomas posited that the legends of King Arthur
King Arthur
and The Holy Grail
The Holy Grail
derive from Sarmatian legends. The authors find parallels between the Sarmatian legend of Batraz, a Sarmatian king commanding his companions to throw his magical sword into a lake and Arthur's instructions to Sir Bedivere
Bedivere
to throw his magical sword Excalibur
Excalibur
into a lake. The authors also use historical records to demonstrate the presence of a 2nd-century AD colony of Sarmatian veterans at Bremetennacum, in modern Lancashire, as a historical source for the legends entering Britain.[39] A more extensive study of the Alano-Sarmatian impact on the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the Arthurian tradition is presented by Littleton and Linda A. Malcor in From Scythia
Scythia
to Camelot.[40] Sarmatism[edit] Main article: Sarmatism Sarmatism
Sarmatism
(or Sarmatianism) is an ethno-cultural concept with a shade of politics designating the formation of an idea of Poland's origin from Sarmatians
Sarmatians
within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[41] The dominant Baroque culture and ideology of the nobility (szlachta) that existed in times of the Renaissance
Renaissance
to the 18th centuries.[41] Together with another concept of "Golden Liberty", it formed a central aspect of the Commonwealth's culture and society. At its core was the unifying belief that the people of the Polish Commonwealth descended from the ancient Iranic Sarmatians, the legendary invaders of Slavic lands in antiquity.[42][43] Tribes[edit]

Alans Aorsi Arcaragantes Hamaxobii
Hamaxobii
(possibly) Iazyges Limigantes Ossetians Roxolani Saii Serboi Siraces Spali Taifals
Taifals
(possibly)

See also[edit]

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v t e

List of ancient Iranian peoples Alans Cimmerians Early Slavs

References[edit]

^ Brzezinski & Mielczarek 2002, p. 6. ^ Filologija. 40. JAZU. 2003. p. 49.  ^ Валентин Седов (2017). Славяне. Историко-археологическое исследование. ЛитРес. pp. 193,. ISBN 978-5-04-087968-7. ; Trubachev, Oleg (1981). : 151.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Bailey, Harold Walter (1985). Khotanese Text. Cambridge University Press. p. 65.  ^ Козлова 2004, pp. 244–261. ^ Kuzmina 2007, p. 220. ^ Kuzmina 2007, p. 445. ^ Kuzmina 2007, p. xiv. ^ Kuzmina 2007, p. 50. ^ Kuzmina 2007, p. 51. ^ Kuzmina 2007, p. 64. ^ Kuzmina 2007, p. 78. ^ Keyser, Christine; Bouakaze, Caroline; Crubézy, Eric; Nikolaev, Valery G.; Montagnon, Daniel; Reis, Tatiana; Ludes, Bertrand (May 16, 2009). "Ancient DNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan
Kurgan
people". Human Genetics. Springer-Verlag. 126: 395–410. doi:10.1007/s00439-009-0683-0. PMID 19449030. Retrieved 15 February 2015.  ^ Barry W. Cunliffe (2001). The Oxford Illustrated History of Prehistoric Europe. Oxford University Press. pp. 402–. ISBN 978-0-19-285441-4.  ^ a b Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.  ^ Sinor 1990, p. 113. ^ a b c Brzezinski & Mielczarek 2002. ^ "Chemical Analyses of Sarmatian Glass Beads from Pokrovka, Russia" Archived 2005-04-15 at the Library of Congress, by Mark E. Hall and Leonid Yablonsky. ^ Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05887-3.  ^ a b Harmatta 1970, 3.4. ^ Handbuch der Orientalistik, Iranistik. By I. Gershevitch, O. Hansen, B. Spuler, M.J. Dresden, Prof M Boyce, M. Boyce Summary. E.J. Brill. 1968. ^ Афанасьев Г.Е., Добровольская М.В., Коробов Д.С., Решетова И.К. О культурной, антропологической и генетической специфике донских алан // Е.И. Крупнов и развитие археологии Северного Кавказа. М. 2014. С. 312-315. Gennady Afanasiev and Irina Reshetova - Academia.edu ^ дДНК Сарматы, Аланы Google Maps ^ Г.Е., Вень Ш., Тун С., Ван Л., Вэй Л., Добровольская М.В., Коробов Д.С., Решетова И.К., Ли Х.. Хазарские конфедераты в бассейне Дона // Естественнонаучные методы исследования и парадигма современной археологии. М. 2015. С.146-153. Irina Reshetova and Gennady Afanasiev - Academia.edu ^ Day 2001, pp. 55–57. ^ Baumgarten, Siegmund Jakob; Beer, Ferdinand Wilhelm; Semler, Johann Salomo (1760). A Supplement to the English Universal History: Lately Published in London: Containing ... Remarks and Annotations on the Universal History, Designed as an Improvement and Illustration of that Work ... E. Dilly. p. 30.  ^ Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, 70; cf. Geographi Graeci minores: Volume 1, p.58 ^ De Aere XVII ^ Strabo's Geography, books V, VII, XI ^ J. Harmatta, Studies in the History and Language of the Sarmatians, 1970, ch.1.2 ^ Germania omnis a Gallis Raetisque et Pannoniis Rheno et Danuvio fluminibus, a Sarmatis Dacisque mutuo metu aut montibus separatur: cetera Oceanus ambit, latos sinus et insularum inmensa spatia complectens, nuper cognitis quibusdam gentibus ac regibus, quos bellum aperuit. ^ Description of Greece 1.21.5–6 ^ Amm. Marc. 29.6.13–14 ^ Eusebius. "IV.6". Life of Constantine. ; *Valois, Henri, ed. (1636) [ca. 390]. "6.32". Anonymus Valesianus I/Origo Constantini Imperatoris.  ^ Brzezinski & Mielczarek 2002, p. 39. ^ Slovene Studies. 9–11. Society for Slovene Studies. 1987. p. 36. (..) For example, the ancient Scythians, Sarmatians (amongst others), and many other attested but now extinct peoples were assimilated in the course of history by Proto-Slavs.  ^ James Minahan, "One Europe, Many Nations", Published by Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000. pg 518: "The Ossetians, calling themselves Iristi and their homeland Iryston are the most northerly Iranian people. ... They are descended from a division of Sarmatians, the Alans
Alans
who were pushed out of the Terek River lowlands and in the Caucasus
Caucasus
foothills by invading Huns
Huns
in the fourth century A.D. ^ Howell A. Lloyd; Glenn Burgess; Simon Hodson (2007). European Political Thought 1450-1700: Religion, Law and Philosophy. Yale University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-300-11266-5.  ^ Littleton, C. Scott; Thomas, Ann C. (1978). "The Sarmatian connection: New light on the origin of the Arthurian and Holy Grail legends". The Journal of American Folklore. 91 (359): 513–527. doi:10.2307/539571.  ^ Littleton, C. Scott; Malcor, Linda A. (2000). From Scythia
Scythia
to Camelot (2nd ed.). New York, New York: Routeledge. ISBN 978-0-8153-3566-5.  ^ a b Kresin, O. Sarmatism
Sarmatism
Ukrainian. Ukrainian History ^ Tadeusz Sulimirski, The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
(New York: Praeger Publishers 1970) at 167. ^ P. M. Barford, The Early Slavs
Early Slavs
(Ithaca: Cornell University 2001) at 28.

Sources[edit]

Books

Brzezinski, Richard; Mielczarek, Mariusz (2002). The Sarmatians
Sarmatians
600 BC–AD 450. Men-At-Arms (373). Bloomsbury USA; Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-485-6.  Davis-Kimball, Jeannine; Bashilov, Vladimir A.; Yablonsky, Leonid T. (1995). Nomads of the Eurasian Steppes in the Early Iron Age. Berkeley: Zinat Press. ISBN 1-885979-00-2.  Day, John V. (2001). Indo-European origins: the anthropological evidence. Institute for the Study of Man. ISBN 0941694755.  Hinds, Kathryn (2009). Scythians
Scythians
and Sarmatians. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0-7614-4519-7.  Istvánovits, Eszter; Kulcsár, Valéria (2017). Sarmatians: History and Archaeology of a Forgotten People. Schnell & Steiner. ISBN 978-3-7954-3234-8.  Kozlovskaya, Valeriya (2017). The Northern Black Sea
Black Sea
in Antiquity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-01951-5.  Kuzmina, Elena Efimovna (2007). The Origin of the Indo-Iranians. BRILL. pp. 50, 51, 56, 64, 78, 83, 220, 410. ISBN 90-04-16054-X.  Sinor, Denis, ed. (1990). The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24304-9.  К.Ф. Смирнов. Сарматы и утверждение их политического господства в Скифии. Рипол Классик. ISBN 978-5-458-40072-5.  Sulimirski, Tadeusz (1970). The Sarmatians. Ancient People and Places, vol. 73. Praeger. 

Journals

Абрамова, М. П. (1988). "Сарматы и Северный Кавказ". Проблемы сарматской археологии и истории. ТДК. Азов: 4–18.  Genito, Bruno (1988). "The Archaeological Cultures of the Sarmatians with a Preliminary Note on the Trial-Trenches at Gyoma 133: a Sarmatian Settlement in South-Eastern Hungary
Hungary
(Campaign 1985)" (PDF). Annali dell'Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli. Napoli. 42: 81–126.  Harmatta, J. (1970). "Studies in the History and Language of the Sarmatians". Acta antique et archaeologica. Szeged. XIII.  Клепиков, В. М.; Скрипкин, А. С. (1997). "Ранние сарматы в контексте исторических событий Восточной Европы". Донские древности. 5: 28–40.  Козлова, Р. М. (2004). "О Сормах, Сарматах, Сорматских горах". Студії з ономастики та етимології. Київ: Інститут української мови НАН України.  (in Ukrainian) Lebedynsky, Iaroslav (2002). Les Sarmates: amazones et lanciers cuirassés entre Oural et Danube, VIIe siècle av. J.-C.-VIe siècle apr. J.-C. Errance. ISBN 978-2-87772-235-3.  Mordvintseva, Valentina I. (2015). "Сарматы, Сарматия и Северное Причерноморье" [Sarmatia, the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
and the North Pontic Area] (PDF). Вестник древней истории [Journal of Ancient History]. 1 (292): 109–135.  Mordvintseva, Valentina I. (2013). "The Sarmatians: The Creation of Archaeological Evidence". Oxford Journal of Archaeology. 32 (2): 203–219. doi:10.1111/ojoa.12010.  Moshkova, M. G. (1995). "A brief review of the history of the Sauromatian and Sarmatian tribes". Nomads of the Eurasian Steppes in the Early Iron Age: 85–89.  Perevalov, S. M. (2002). "The Sarmatian Lance and the Sarmatian Horse-Riding Posture". Anthropology & archeology of Eurasia. 40 (4): 7–21. doi:10.2753/aae1061-195940047.  Rjabchikov, Sergei V. (2004). "Remarks on the Scythian, Sarmatian and Meotian Beliefs". AnthroGlobe Journal.  Симоненко, А. В.; Лобай, Б. И. (1991). "Сарматы Северо-Западного Причерноморья в I в. н. э.". Погребения знати у с. Пороги. Киев.  (in Russian)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sarmatians.

Ptolemaic Map (Digital Scriptorium) Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements: Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age Nomadic Art of the Eastern Eurasian Steppes, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), which contains mate

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