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Coordinates: 13°35′S 172°20′W / 13.583°S 172.333°W / -13.583; -172.333

Independent State of Samoa Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa  (Samoan)

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "Faʻavae i le Atua Sāmoa" " Samoa
Samoa
is founded on God"

Anthem: O le fuʻa o le saʻolotoga o Samoa "The Banner of Freedom" The National Anthem of Samoa

Capital and largest city Apia 13°50′S 171°45′W / 13.833°S 171.750°W / -13.833; -171.750

Official languages

Samoan English

Ethnic groups (2001)

92.6% Samoans 7.0% Euronesians 0.4% Europeans 0.1% East Asian[1]

Religion Christianity
Christianity
(official)[2]

Demonym Samoan

Government Unitary parliamentary democracy

• O le Ao o le Malo

Va'aletoa Sualauvi II

• Prime Minister

Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi

Legislature Legislative Assembly

Independence from New Zealand

• Treaty of Berlin

14 June 1889

• Tripartite Convention

16 February 1900

• Colonization by Germany

1 March 1900

• Colonization by New Zealand

30 August 1914

• League mandate

17 December 1920

• UN trusteeship

13 December 1946

• Western Samoa
Samoa
Act 1961

1 January 1962

Area

• Total

2,842 km2 (1,097 sq mi) (167th)

• Water (%)

0.3

Population

• November 2016 census

192,342[3]

• Density

68/km2 (176.1/sq mi)

GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate

• Total

$1.046 billion[4]

• Per capita

$5,368[4]

GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate

• Total

$876 million[4]

• Per capita

$4,496[4]

HDI (2014)  0.702[5] high · 105th

Currency Tala (WST)

Time zone UTC+13:00 (UTC+13b)

• Summer (DST)

UTC+14:00 (UTC+14)

Drives on the leftc

Calling code +685

ISO 3166 code WS

Internet TLD .ws

Head of state. Since 31 December 2011.[6] Since 7 September 2009.[7]

Samoa
Samoa
(/səˈmoʊə/), officially the Independent State of Samoa (Samoan: Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa)(Samoan: Sāmoa, IPA: [ˈsaːmoa]) and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions. The two main islands are Savai'i
Savai'i
and Upolu
Upolu
with four smaller islands surrounding the landmasses. The capital city is Apia. The Lapita
Lapita
people discovered and settled the Samoan Islands
Samoan Islands
around 3,500 years ago. They developed a unique Samoan language
Samoan language
and Samoan cultural identity. Samoa
Samoa
is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Western Samoa
Samoa
was admitted to the United Nations
United Nations
on 15 December 1976.[8] The entire island group, which includes American Samoa, was called "Navigator Islands" by European explorers before the 20th century because of the Samoans' seafaring skills.[9][10]

Contents

1 History

1.1 German Samoa
German Samoa
(1900–1914) 1.2 New Zealand
New Zealand
rule (1914–1962) 1.3 Independence (1962) 1.4 1997 name change 1.5 21st century

2 Politics

2.1 Administrative divisions 2.2 Human rights 2.3 Christian revival

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Ecology

4 Economy 5 Demographics

5.1 Ethnic groups 5.2 Languages 5.3 Religion

6 Education 7 Culture

7.1 Tattooing 7.2 Contemporary culture 7.3 Sport

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Samoa The oldest date so far for remains in Samoa
Samoa
has been calculated by New Zealand scientists to a likely true age of circa 3,000 years ago from a Lapita
Lapita
site at Mulifanua
Mulifanua
during the 1970s.[11] The origins of the Samoans
Samoans
are closely studied in modern research about Polynesia
Polynesia
in various scientific disciplines such as genetics, linguistics and anthropology. Scientific research is ongoing, although a number of different theories exist; including one proposing that the Samoans
Samoans
originated from Austronesian
Austronesian
predecessors during the terminal eastward Lapita
Lapita
expansion period from Southeast Asia and Melanesia between 2,500 and 1,500 BCE.[12] Intimate sociocultural and genetic ties were maintained between Samoa, Fiji, and Tonga, and the archaeological record supports oral tradition and native genealogies that indicate inter-island voyaging and intermarriage between pre-colonial Samoans, Fijians, and Tongans. Notable figures in Samoan history included the Tui Manu'a line and Queen Salamasina (15th century). Nafanua
Nafanua
was a famous woman warrior who was deified in ancient Samoan religion.

Studio photo depicting preparation of the Samoa 'ava ceremony
Samoa 'ava ceremony
c. 1911.

Interior of Samoan house, Apia, Urville 1842.

Contact with Europeans
Europeans
began in the early 18th century. Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman, was the first known European to sight the Samoan islands in 1722. This visit was followed by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, who named them the Navigator Islands in 1768. Contact was limited before the 1830s, which is when English missionaries and traders began arriving. Christian missionary work in Samoa
Samoa
began in 1830 by John Williams, of the London Missionary Society
London Missionary Society
arriving in Sapapali'i
Sapapali'i
from The Cook Islands and Tahiti.[13] According to Barbara A. West, "The Samoans were also known to engage in ‘headhunting', a ritual of war in which a warrior took the head of his slain opponent to give to his leader, thus proving his bravery."[14] However, Robert Louis Stevenson, who lived in Samoa
Samoa
from 1889 until his death in 1894, wrote in A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa, "… the Samoans
Samoans
are gentle people."[15]

Exiled orator Lauaki Namulau'ulu Mamoe.

The Germans in particular began to show great commercial interest in the Samoan Islands, especially on the island of Upolu, where German firms monopolised copra and cocoa bean processing. The United States laid its own claim, based on commercial shipping interests in Pearl River in Hawaii
Hawaii
and Pago Pago Bay in Eastern Samoa, and forced alliances, most conspicuously on the islands of Tutuila
Tutuila
and Manu'a which became American Samoa. Britain also sent troops to protect British business enterprise, harbour rights, and consulate office. This was followed by an eight-year civil war, during which each of the three powers supplied arms, training and in some cases combat troops to the warring Samoan parties. The Samoan crisis
Samoan crisis
came to a critical juncture in March 1889 when all three colonial contenders sent warships into Apia
Apia
harbour, and a larger-scale war seemed imminent. A massive storm on 15 March 1889 damaged or destroyed the warships, ending the military conflict.[16] The Second Samoan Civil War
Samoan Civil War
reached a head in 1898 when Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States
United States
were locked in dispute over who should control the Samoa
Samoa
Islands. The Siege of Apia
Apia
occurred in March 1899. Samoan forces loyal to Prince Tanu were besieged by a larger force of Samoan rebels loyal to Mata'afa Iosefo. Supporting Prince Tanu were landing parties from four British and American warships. After several days of fighting, the Samoan rebels were finally defeated.[17]

Mata'afa Iosefo
Mata'afa Iosefo
(1832–1912) paramount chief and rival for the kingship of Samoa

American and British warships shelled Apia
Apia
on 15 March 1899, including the USS Philadelphia. Germany, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States quickly resolved to end the hostilities and divided the island chain at the Tripartite Convention
Tripartite Convention
of 1899, signed at Washington on 2 December 1899 with ratifications exchanged on 16 February 1900.[18] The eastern island-group became a territory of the United States
United States
(the Tutuila
Tutuila
Islands in 1900 and officially Manu'a
Manu'a
in 1904) and was known as American Samoa. The western islands, by far the greater landmass, became German Samoa. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
had vacated all claims in Samoa
Samoa
and in return received (1) termination of German rights in Tonga, (2) all of the Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
south of Bougainville, and (3) territorial alignments in West Africa.[19] German Samoa
German Samoa
(1900–1914)[edit]

People in attendance at Tupua Tamesese's funeral.

Main article: German Samoa The German Empire
German Empire
governed the western Samoan islands from 1900 to 1914. "Over all, the period of German rule was the most progressive, economically, that the country has experienced."[20] Wilhelm Solf
Wilhelm Solf
was appointed the colony’s first governor. His actions and conduct became "… paternal, fair and absolute".[21] In 1908, when the non-violent Mau a Pule resistance movement arose, Solf did not hesitate to banish the Mau leader Lauaki Namulau'ulu Mamoe to Saipan in the German Northern Mariana Islands.[22] The German colonial administration governed on the principle that "there was only one government in the islands."[23] Thus, there was no Samoan Tupu (king), nor an alii sili (similar to a governor), but two Fautua (advisors) were appointed by the colonial government. Tumua and Pule (traditional governments of Upolu
Upolu
and Savai'i) were for a time silent; all decisions on matters affecting lands and titles were under the control of the colonial Governor. In the first month of World War I, on 29 August 1914, troops of the New Zealand
New Zealand
Expeditionary Force landed unopposed on Upolu
Upolu
and seized control from the German authorities, following a request by Great Britain for New Zealand
New Zealand
to perform this "great and urgent imperial service."[24] New Zealand
New Zealand
rule (1914–1962)[edit] Main article: Western Samoa
Samoa
Trust Territory From the end of World War I
World War I
until 1962, New Zealand
New Zealand
controlled Samoa as a Class C Mandate under trusteeship through the League of Nations,[25] then through the United Nations. There followed a series of New Zealand
New Zealand
administrators who were responsible for two major incidents. In the first incident, approximately one fifth of the Samoan population died in the influenza epidemic of 1918–1919.[26] Between 1919 and 1962, Samoa
Samoa
was administered by the Department of External Affairs, a government department which had been specially created to oversee New Zealand's Island Territories and Samoa.[27] In 1943, this Department was renamed the Department of Island Territories after a separate Department of External Affairs was created to conduct New Zealand's foreign affairs.[28] In 1919, the Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Epidemic concluded that there had been no epidemic of pneumonic influenza in Western Samoa
Samoa
before the arrival of the SS Talune
SS Talune
from Auckland
Auckland
on 7 November 1918. The NZ administration allowed the ship to berth in breach of quarantine; within seven days of this ship's arrival, influenza became epidemic in Upolu
Upolu
and then spread rapidly throughout the rest of the territory.[29] The second major incident arose out of an initially peaceful protest by the Mau (which literally translates as "strongly held opinion"), a non-violent popular movement which had its beginnings in the early 1900s on Savai'i, led by Lauaki Namulauulu Mamoe, an orator chief deposed by Solf. In 1909, Lauaki was exiled to Saipan
Saipan
and died en route back to Samoa
Samoa
in 1915. By 1918, Samoa
Samoa
had a population of some 38,000 Samoans
Samoans
and 1,500 Europeans.[30] However, Samoans
Samoans
greatly resented New Zealand's colonial rule, and blamed inflation and the catastrophic 1918 flu epidemic on its misrule.[31] By the late 1920s the resistance movement against colonial rule had gathered widespread support. One of the Mau leaders was Olaf Frederick Nelson, a half Samoan and half Swedish merchant.[32] Nelson was eventually exiled during the late 1920s and early 1930s, but he continued to assist the organisation financially and politically. In accordance with the Mau's non-violent philosophy, the newly elected leader, High Chief Tupua Tamasese Lealofi, led his fellow uniformed Mau in a peaceful demonstration in downtown Apia
Apia
on 28 December 1929.[33] The New Zealand
New Zealand
police attempted to arrest one of the leaders in the demonstration. When he resisted, a struggle developed between the police and the Mau. The officers began to fire randomly into the crowd and a Lewis machine gun, mounted in preparation for this demonstration, was used to disperse the demonstrators.[34] Chief Tamasese was shot from behind and killed while trying to bring calm and order to the Mau demonstrators, screaming "Peace, Samoa". Ten others died that day and approximately 50 were injured by gunshot wounds and police batons.[35] That day would come to be known in Samoa as Black Saturday. The Mau grew, remaining steadfastly non-violent, and expanded to include the highly influential women's branch. Independence (1962)[edit] After repeated efforts by the Samoan independence movement, the New Zealand Western Samoa
Samoa
Act 1961 of 24 November 1961 granted Samoa independence, effective on 1 January 1962, upon which the Trusteeship Agreement terminated.[36][37] Samoa
Samoa
also signed a friendship treaty with New Zealand. Samoa, the first small-island country in the Pacific to become independent, joined the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
on 28 August 1970. While independence was achieved at the beginning of January, Samoa
Samoa
annually celebrates 1 June as its independence day.[38][39] Travel writer Paul Theroux
Paul Theroux
noted marked differences between the societies in Western Samoa
Samoa
and American Samoa
American Samoa
in 1992.[40] In 2002, New Zealand's prime minister Helen Clark
Helen Clark
formally apologised for New Zealand's role in the events of 1918 and 1929.[41][42] 1997 name change[edit] On 4 July 1997 the government amended the constitution to change the country's name from Western Samoa
Samoa
to Samoa.[43] American Samoa protested against the move, asserting that the change diminished its own identity.[44] 21st century[edit] On 7 September 2009, the government changed the driving orientation for motorists: Samoans
Samoans
now drive on the left side of the road. This brought Samoa
Samoa
into line with many other countries in the region. Samoa thus became the first country in the 21st century to switch to driving on the left.[45] At the end of December 2011, Samoa
Samoa
jumped forward by one day, omitting 30 December from the local calendar, when the nation moved to the west of the International Date Line.[46] This change aimed to help the nation boost its economy in doing business with Australia
Australia
and New Zealand. Before this change, Samoa
Samoa
was 21 hours behind Sydney, but the change means it is now three hours ahead. The previous time zone, implemented on 4 July 1892, operated in line with American traders based in California.[47] In June 2017, Parliament voted to amend the wording of Article 1 of the constitution, thereby making Christianity
Christianity
the state religion.[48][49] Politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Samoa
Politics of Samoa
and Fa'amatai

Government buildings in Apia.

The 1960 constitution, which formally came into force with independence from New Zealand
New Zealand
in 1962, builds on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take account of Samoan customs.[50] The national modern Government of Samoa
Samoa
is referred to as the Malo. Fiame Mata'afa Faumuina Mulinu’u II, one of the four highest-ranking paramount chiefs in the country, became Samoa's first Prime Minister. Two other paramount chiefs at the time of independence were appointed joint heads of state for life. Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole
Tupua Tamasese Mea'ole
died in 1963, leaving Malietoa Tanumafili II
Malietoa Tanumafili II
sole head of state until his death on 11 May 2007, upon which Samoa
Samoa
changed from a constitutional monarchy to a parliamentary republic de facto.[51][dubious – discuss] The next Head of State, Tuiatua Tupua Tamasese Efi, was elected by the legislature on 17 June 2007 for a fixed five-year term,[52] and was re-elected unopposed in July 2012. The unicameral legislature (the Fono) consists of 49 members serving 5-year terms. Forty-seven are matai title-holders elected from territorial districts by Samoans; the other two are chosen by non- Samoans
Samoans
with no chiefly affiliation on separate electoral rolls.[53] Universal suffrage was adopted in 1990, but only chiefs (matai) may stand for election to the Samoan seats. There are more than 25,000 matais in the country, about 5% of whom are women.[54] The prime minister, chosen by a majority in the Fono, is appointed by the head of state to form a government. The prime minister's choices for the 12 cabinet positions are appointed by the head of state, subject to the continuing confidence of the Fono. Prominent women in Samoan politics include the late Laulu Fetauimalemau Mata'afa (1928–2007) from Lotofaga
Lotofaga
constituency, the wife of Samoa's first prime minister. Their daughter Fiame Naomi Mata'afa is a paramount chief and a long-serving senior member of cabinet. Other women in politics include Samoan scholar and eminent professor Aiono Fanaafi Le Tagaloa, orator-chief Matatumua Maimoana and Safuneitu'uga Pa'aga Neri (as of 2016[update] the Minister of Communication and Technology). The judicial system incorporates English common law
English common law
and local customs. The Supreme Court of Samoa
Samoa
is the court of highest jurisdiction. Its chief justice is appointed by the head of state upon the recommendation of the prime minister. Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Districts of Samoa Samoa
Samoa
comprises eleven itūmālō (political districts). These are the traditional eleven districts which predate European arrival. Each district has its own constitutional foundation (faavae) based on the traditional order of title precedence found in each district's faalupega (traditional salutations).[55] The capital village of each district administers and coordinates the affairs of the district and confers each district's paramount title, amongst other responsibilities. For example, the District of A'ana
A'ana
has its capital at Leulumoega. The paramount title of A'ana
A'ana
is the TuiA'ana. The orator group which confers this title – the Faleiva (House of Nine) – is based at Leulumoega. This is also the same for the other districts. In the district of Tuamasaga, the paramount title of the district – the Malietoa title – is conferred by the Fale Tuamasaga
Tuamasaga
based in Afega.

Political districts of Samoa

Upolu (including minor islands)

Tuamasaga
Tuamasaga
(Afega) A'ana
A'ana
(Leulumoega) Aiga-i-le-Tai
Aiga-i-le-Tai
(Mulifanua)1 Atua (Lufilufi)2 Va'a-o-Fonoti
Va'a-o-Fonoti
(Samamea)

Savai'i

Fa'asaleleaga
Fa'asaleleaga
(Safotulafai) Gaga'emauga
Gaga'emauga
(Saleaula)3 Gaga'ifomauga
Gaga'ifomauga
(Safotu) Vaisigano
Vaisigano
(Asau) Satupa'itea
Satupa'itea
(Satupa'itea) Palauli
Palauli
(Vailoa)

1 including islands Manono, Apolima
Apolima
and Nu'ulopa 2 including the Aleipata Islands
Aleipata Islands
and Nu'usafe'e
Nu'usafe'e
Island 3 smaller parts also on Upolu
Upolu
(Salamumu (incl. Salamumu-Uta) and Leauvaa villages) Human rights[edit] See also: Human rights in Samoa Major areas of concern include the under-representation of women, domestic violence and poor prison conditions. Homosexual acts are illegal in Samoa.[56] Christian revival[edit] In June 2017, an Act was passed changing the country's constitution to include a reference to the Trinity. As amended, Article 1 of the Samoan Constitution states that “ Samoa
Samoa
is a Christian nation founded of God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit”. According to The Diplomat, "What Samoa
Samoa
has done is shift references to Christianity into the body of the constitution, giving the text far more potential to be used in legal processes."[57] The preamble to the constitution already described the country as "an independent State based on Christian principles and Samoan custom and traditions."[57] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Samoa

A map of Samoa.

Topography of Samoa.

Samoa
Samoa
is located south of the equator, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
New Zealand
in the Polynesian region of the Pacific Ocean. The total land area is 2,842 km² (1,097 sq mi),[58] consisting of the two large islands of Upolu
Upolu
and Savai'i, which account for 99% of the total land area, and eight small islets. These are the three islets in the Apolima
Apolima
Strait (Manono Island, Apolima
Apolima
and Nu'ulopa), the four Aleipata Islands
Aleipata Islands
off the eastern end of Upolu
Upolu
(Nu'utele, Nu'ulua, Namua, and Fanuatapu), and Nu'usafe'e which is less than 0.01 km² (2½ acres) in area and about 1.4 km (0.9 mi) off the south coast of Upolu
Upolu
at the village of Vaovai.[59] The main island of Upolu
Upolu
is home to nearly three-quarters of Samoa's population, and its capital city is Apia. The Samoan islands have been produced by vulcanism, the source of which is the Samoa hotspot
Samoa hotspot
which is probably the result of a mantle plume.[60][61] While all of the islands have volcanic origins, only Savai'i, the westernmost island in Samoa, is volcanically active with the most recent eruptions in Mt Matavanu
Mt Matavanu
(1905–1911), Mata o le Afi (1902) and Mauga Afi (1725). The highest point in Samoa
Samoa
is Mt Silisili, at 1858 m (6,096 ft). The Saleaula
Saleaula
lava fields situated on the central north coast of Savai'i
Savai'i
are the result of the Mt Matavanu
Mt Matavanu
eruptions which left 50 km² (20 sq mi) of solidified lava.[62] Climate[edit] The climate is equatorial/monsoonal, with an average annual temperature of 26.5 °C (79.7 °F), and a rainy season from November to April.[63] Savai'i
Savai'i
is the largest of the Samoan islands and the sixth largest Polynesian island after New Zealand's North, South and Stewart Islands and the Hawaiian islands of Hawaiʻi and Maui. The population of Savai'i
Savai'i
is 42,000 people.

Climate data for Apia

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 30.4 (86.7) 30.6 (87.1) 30.6 (87.1) 30.7 (87.3) 30.4 (86.7) 30.0 (86) 29.5 (85.1) 29.6 (85.3) 29.9 (85.8) 30.1 (86.2) 30.3 (86.5) 30.5 (86.9) 30.22 (86.39)

Average low °C (°F) 23.9 (75) 24.2 (75.6) 24.0 (75.2) 23.8 (74.8) 23.4 (74.1) 23.2 (73.8) 22.6 (72.7) 22.8 (73) 23.1 (73.6) 23.4 (74.1) 23.6 (74.5) 23.8 (74.8) 23.48 (74.27)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 489.0 (19.252) 368.0 (14.488) 352.1 (13.862) 211.2 (8.315) 192.6 (7.583) 120.8 (4.756) 120.7 (4.752) 113.2 (4.457) 153.9 (6.059) 224.3 (8.831) 261.7 (10.303) 357.5 (14.075) 2,965 (116.733)

Source: World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(UN)[64]

Ecology[edit] See also: List of birds of Samoa and List of protected areas of Samoa Samoa
Samoa
is located within the Samoan tropical moist forests
Samoan tropical moist forests
ecoregion. Since human habitation began, about 80% of the lowland rainforests have been lost. Within the ecoregion about 28% of plants and 84% of land birds are endemic.[65] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Samoa

Central Bank of Samoa

Taro, a root crop, traditionally was Samoa's largest export, generating more than half of all export revenue in 1993. A fungal blight decimated the plants, and in each year since 1994 taro exports have accounted for less than 1% of export revenue.

The United Nations
United Nations
has classified Samoa
Samoa
as an economically developing country since 2014.[66] In 2017, Samoa's gross domestic product in purchasing power parity was estimated to be $1.13 billion U.S. dollars, ranking 204th among all countries. The services sector accounted for 66% of GDP, followed by industry and agriculture at 23.6% and 10.4%, respectively.[67] The same year, the Samoan labour force was estimated at 50,700.[67] The country's currency is the Samoan tālā, issued and regulated by the Central Bank of Samoa.[68] The economy of Samoa
Samoa
has traditionally been dependent on agriculture and fishing at the local level. In modern times, development aid, private family remittances from overseas, and agricultural exports have become key factors in the nation's economy. Agriculture
Agriculture
employs two-thirds of the labour force and furnishes 90% of exports, featuring coconut cream, coconut oil, noni (juice of the nonu fruit, as it is known in Samoan), and copra.[1] Outside of a large automotive wire harness factory ( Yazaki
Yazaki
Corporation which ended production in August 2017[69]), the manufacturing sector mainly processes agricultural products. Tourism is an expanding sector which now accounts for 25% of GDP. Tourist arrivals have been increasing over the years with more than 100,000 tourists visiting the islands in 2005, up from 70,000 in 1996. The Samoan government has called for deregulation of the financial sector, encouragement of investment, and continued fiscal discipline.[citation needed] Observers point to the flexibility of the labour market as a basic strength for future economic advances.[citation needed] The sector has been helped enormously by major capital investment in hotel infrastructure, political instability in neighbouring Pacific countries, and the 2005 launch of Virgin Samoa
Virgin Samoa
a joint-venture between the government and Virgin Australia
Australia
(then Virgin Blue). In the period before German colonisation, Samoa
Samoa
produced mostly copra. German merchants and settlers were active in introducing large scale plantation operations and developing new industries, notably cocoa bean and rubber, relying on imported labourers from China
China
and Melanesia. When the value of natural rubber fell drastically, about the end of the Great War (World War I), the New Zealand
New Zealand
government encouraged the production of bananas, for which there is a large market in New Zealand.[citation needed] Because of variations in altitude, a large range of tropical and subtropical crops can be cultivated, but land is not generally available to outside interests. Of the total land area of 2,934 km² (725,000 acres), about 24.4% is in permanent crops and another 21.2% is arable. About 4.4% is Western Samoan Trust Estates Corporation (WSTEC).[citation needed] The staple products of Samoa
Samoa
are copra (dried coconut meat), cocoa bean (for chocolate), and bananas. The annual production of both bananas and copra has been in the range of 13,000 to 15,000 metric tons (about 14,500 to 16,500 short tons). If the rhinoceros beetle in Samoa
Samoa
were eradicated, Samoa
Samoa
could produce in excess of 40,000 metric tons (44,000 short tons) of copra. Samoan cocoa beans are of very high quality and used in fine New Zealand
New Zealand
chocolates. Most are Criollo-Forastero hybrids. Coffee grows well, but production has been uneven. WSTEC is the biggest coffee producer. Rubber has been produced in Samoa
Samoa
for many years, but its export value has little impact on the economy.[citation needed] Other agricultural industries have been less successful. Sugarcane production, originally established by Germans in the early 20th century, could be successful. Old train tracks for transporting cane can be seen at some plantations east of Apia. Pineapples grow well in Samoa, but beyond local consumption have not been a major export. Demographics[edit]

A Samoan family.

Main article: Demographics of Samoa Samoa
Samoa
reported a population of 194,320 in its 2016 census.[3] About three-quarters of the population live on the main island of Upolu.[50] Ethnic groups[edit] 92.6% of the population are Samoans, 7% Euronesians (people of mixed European and Polynesian ancestry) and 0.4% are Europeans, per the CIA World Factbook. Only the Māori of New Zealand
New Zealand
outnumber Samoans
Samoans
among Polynesian groups. Languages[edit] Samoan (Gagana Fa'asāmoa) and English are the official languages. Including second-language speakers, there are more speakers of Samoan than English in Samoa.[70] Samoan Sign Language is also used by at least some of the deaf population. Religion[edit] Further information: Religion in Samoa Article 1 of the Samoan Constitution states that “ Samoa
Samoa
is a Christian nation founded of God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit”.[2] Samoans' religious adherence includes the following: Christian Congregational Church of Samoa
Christian Congregational Church of Samoa
31.8%, Roman Catholic 19.4%, Methodist
Methodist
15.2%, Assembly of God 13.7%, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints 7.6%, Seventh-day Adventist 3.9%, Worship Centre 1.7%, other Christian 5.5%, other 0.7%, none 0.1%, unspecified 0.1% (2011 estimate).[1] The Head of State until 2007, His Highness Malietoa Tanumafili II, was a Bahá'í. Samoa
Samoa
hosts the seventh (of nine current) Bahá'í Houses of Worship in the world; completed in 1984 and dedicated by the Head of State, it is located in Tiapapata, 8 km (5 mi) from Apia. Education[edit] The Samoan government provides eight years of primary and secondary education that is tuition-free and is compulsory through age 16.[71] Samoa's main post-secondary educational institution is the National University of Samoa, established in 1984. The country is also home to several branches of the multi-national University of the South Pacific and the Oceania
Oceania
University of Medicine.[72] Education in Samoa
Samoa
has proved to be effective as a 2012 UNESCO
UNESCO
report stated that 99 percent of Samoan adults are literate[73]. Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Samoa See also: Music of Samoa

A view of Falefa Valley
Falefa Valley
from Le Mafa Pass, east Upolu.

The fa'a Samoa, or traditional Samoan way, remains a strong force in Samoan life and politics. Despite centuries of European influence, Samoa
Samoa
maintains its historical customs, social and political systems, and language. Cultural customs such as the Samoa 'ava ceremony
Samoa 'ava ceremony
are significant and solemn rituals at important occasions including the bestowal of matai chiefly titles. Items of great cultural value include the finely woven 'ie toga. Samoan mythology includes many gods with creation stories and figures of legend such as Tagaloa and the goddess of war Nafanua, the daughter of Saveasi'uleo, ruler of the spirit realm Pulotu. Other legends include the well known story of Sina and the Eel
Sina and the Eel
which explains the origins of the first coconut tree. Some Samoans
Samoans
are spiritual and religious, and have subtly adapted the dominant religion of Christianity
Christianity
to 'fit in' with fa'a Samoa
Samoa
and vice versa. Ancient beliefs continue to co-exist side-by-side with Christianity, particularly in regard to the traditional customs and rituals of fa'a Samoa. The Samoan culture
Samoan culture
is centred around the principle of vāfealoa'i, the relationships between people. These relationships are based on respect, or fa'aaloalo. When Christianity was introduced in Samoa, most Samoan people converted. Currently 98% of the population identify themselves as Christian. Some Samoans
Samoans
live a communal way of life, participating in activities collectively. Examples of this are the traditional Samoan fale (houses) which are open with no walls, using blinds made of coconut palm fronds during the night or bad weather. The Samoan siva dance has unique gentle movements of the body in time to music and tells a story, although the Samoan male dances can be more snappy.[74] The sasa is also a traditional dance where rows of dancers perform rapid synchronised movements in time to the rhythm of wooden drums (pate) or rolled mats. Another dance performed by males is called the fa'ataupati or the slap dance, creating rhythmic sounds by slapping different parts of the body. This is believed to have been derived from slapping insects on the body.[citation needed] The form and construction of traditional architecture of Samoa
Samoa
was a specialised skill by Tufuga fai fale that was also linked to other cultural artforms.

Roman Catholic Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception
of Mary cathedral.

A Samoan fire dancer.

A fale on Manono Island

LDS Apia
Apia
Samoa
Samoa
Temple

Tattooing[edit]

A Samoan woman with a traditional malu.

As with other Polynesian cultures (Hawaiian, Tahitian and Māori) with significant and unique tattoos, Samoans
Samoans
have two gender specific and culturally significant tattoos. For males, it is called the Pe'a
Pe'a
and consists of intricate and geometrical patterns tattooed that cover areas from the knees up towards the ribs. A male who possesses such a tatau is called a soga'imiti. A Samoan girl or teine is given a malu, which covers the area from just below her knees to her upper thighs.[75] Contemporary culture[edit] Albert Wendt is a significant Samoan writer whose novels and stories tell the Samoan experience. In 1989, his novel Flying Fox in a Freedom Tree was made into a feature film in New Zealand, directed by Martyn Sanderson.[76] Another novel Sons for the Return Home had also been made into a feature film in 1979, directed by Paul Maunder.[77] The late John Kneubuhl, born in American Samoa, was an accomplished playwright and screenwriter and writer. Sia Figiel won the 1997 Commonwealth Writers' Prize for fiction in the south-east Asia/South Pacific region with her novel "Where We Once Belonged". Momoe Malietoa Von Reiche is an internationally recognised poet and artist. Tusiata Avia is a performance poet. Her first book of poetry Wild Dogs Under My Skirt was published by Victoria University Press in 2004. Dan Taulapapa McMullin is an artist and writer. Other Samoan poets and writers include Sapa'u Ruperake Petaia, Eti Sa'aga and Savea Sano Malifa, the editor of the Samoa
Samoa
Observer. In music, popular local bands include The Five Stars, Penina o Tiafau and Punialava'a. The Yandall Sisters' cover of the song Sweet Inspiration reached number one on the New Zealand
New Zealand
charts in 1974. King Kapisi was the first hip hop artist to receive the prestigious New Zealand APRA Silver Scroll Award in 1999 for his song Reverse Resistance. The music video for Reverse Resistance was filmed in Savai'i
Savai'i
at his villages. Other successful Samoan hip hop artists include rapper Scribe, Dei Hamo, Savage and Tha Feelstyle whose music video Suamalie was filmed in Samoa. Lemi Ponifasio
Lemi Ponifasio
is a director and choreographer who is prominent internationally with his dance Company MAU.[78] Neil Ieremia's company Black Grace has also received international acclaim with tours to Europe and New York. Hip hop
Hip hop
has had a significant impact on Samoan culture. According to Katerina Martina Teaiwa, PhD from the University of Hawaii
Hawaii
at Manoa, " Hip hop
Hip hop
culture in particular is popular amongst Samoan youth."[79] As in many other countries, hip hop music is popular. In addition, the integration of hip hop elements into Samoan tradition also "testifies to the transferability of the dance forms themselves," and to the "circuits through which people and all their embodied knowledge travel."[80] Dance both in its traditional form and its more modern forms has remained a central cultural currency to Samoans, especially youths.[79] The arts organisation Tautai is a collective of visual artists including Fatu Feu'u, Johnny Penisula, Shigeyuki Kihara, Iosefa Leo, Michel Tuffery, John Ioane and Lily Laita.[81] Director Sima Urale is an award-winning filmmaker. Urale's short film O Tamaiti won the prestigious Best Short Film at the Venice Film Festival in 1996. Her first feature film Apron Strings opened the 2008 NZ International Film Festival. The feature film Siones Wedding, co-written by Oscar Kightley, was financially successful following premieres in Auckland
Auckland
and Apia. The 2011 film The Orator was the first ever fully Samoan film, shot in Samoa
Samoa
in the Samoan language
Samoan language
with a Samoan cast telling a uniquely Samoan story. Written and directed by Tusi Tamasese, it received much critical acclaim and attention at film festivals throughout the world. In comedy, Laughing Samoans, the Naked Samoans
Samoans
and Kila Kokonut Krew have enjoyed sold-out tours. Actor and director Nathaniel Lees has featured in many theatre productions and films including his role as Captain Mifune in The Matrix trilogy. Published playwrights include Oscar Kightley, Victor Rodger, Makerita Urale and Niuean Samoan playwright Dianna Fuemana.[82] Sport[edit] See also: Sport in Samoa

Samoa
Samoa
(blue) vs. South Africa in June 2007.

The main sports played in Samoa
Samoa
are rugby union, Samoan cricket and netball. Rugby union
Rugby union
is the national football code of Samoa. In Samoan villages, volleyball is also popular. Rugby union
Rugby union
is the national sport in Samoa
Samoa
and the national team, nicknamed the Manu Samoa, is consistently competitive against teams from vastly more populous nations. Samoa
Samoa
has competed at every Rugby World Cup since 1991, and made the quarter finals in 1991, 1995 and the second round of the 1999 World Cup.[83] At the 2003 world cup, Manu Samoa
Samoa
came close to beating eventual world champions, England. Samoa
Samoa
also played in the Pacific Nations Cup
Pacific Nations Cup
and the Pacific Tri-Nations. The sport is governed by the Samoa
Samoa
Rugby Football Union, who are members of the Pacific Islands Rugby Alliance, and thus, also contribute to the international Pacific Islanders rugby union team. At club level, there is the National Provincial Championship and Pacific Rugby Cup. They also took home the cup at Wellington and the Hong Kong Rugby Sevens in 2007—for which the Prime Minister of Samoa, also Chairman of the national rugby union, Tuila’epa Sa’ilele Malielegaoi, declared a national holiday. They were also the IRB World Sevens Series
IRB World Sevens Series
Champions in 2010 capping a year of achievement for the Samoans, following wins in the USA, Australia, Hong Kong and Scotland Sevens tournaments. Prominent Samoan players include Pat Lam and Brian Lima. In addition, many Samoans
Samoans
have played for or are playing for New Zealand. Rugby league
Rugby league
is mostly played by Samoans
Samoans
living in New Zealand
New Zealand
and Australia.[citation needed] Samoa
Samoa
reached the quarter finals of the 2013 Rugby League World Cup, the team comprising players from the NRL and Super League
Super League
plus domestic players. Many Samoans
Samoans
and New Zealanders or Australians of Samoan descent play in the Super League and National Leagues in Britain, including Francis Meli, Ta'ane Lavulavu of Workington Town, Maurie Fa'asavalu of St Helens and David Fatialofa of Whitehaven and Setima Sa who signed with London Irish rugby club. Other noteworthy players from NZ and Australia
Australia
have represented the Samoan National team. The 2011 domestic Samoan rugby league competition contained 10 teams with plans to expand to 12 in 2012.[84] Samoans
Samoans
have been very visible in boxing, kickboxing, wrestling, and sumo; some Samoan sumo wrestlers, most famously Musashimaru
Musashimaru
and Konishiki, have reached the highest rank of Ozeki
Ozeki
and yokozuna. American football
American football
is occasionally played in Samoa, reflecting its wide popularity in American Samoa, where the sport is played under high school sanction. About 30 ethnic Samoans, many from American Samoa, currently play in the National Football League. A 2002 article from ESPN
ESPN
estimated that a Samoan male (either an American Samoan or a Samoan living in the mainland United States) is 40 times more likely to play in the NFL than a non-Samoan American.[85] See also[edit]

Book: Samoa

Samoa
Samoa
portal Oceania
Oceania
portal

1889 Apia
Apia
cyclone 2009 Samoa earthquake
2009 Samoa earthquake
and tsunami Archaeology of Samoa Science and technology in Pacific Island countries Military of Samoa Outline of Samoa Time in Samoa Transport in Samoa Visa policy of Samoa

References[edit]

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Samoa
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– The Heart of Polynesia". Polynesian Culture Center. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011.  ^ Green, Roger C.; Leach, Helen M. (1989). "New Information for the Ferry Berth Site, Mulifanua, Western Samoa". Journal of the Polynesian Society. 98 (3): 319–330. Retrieved 30 January 2011.  ^ The Political Economy of Ancient Samoa: Basalt Adze Production and Linkages to Social Status” (Winterhoff 2007) ^ Watson, R.M. (1919). History of Samoa: THE ADVENT OF THE MISSIONARY. (1830.1839). Chapter III.  ^ West, Barbara A. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. p. 704. ISBN 0-8160-7109-8 ^ Stevenson, Robert Louis (1892). A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa
Samoa
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United States
in Relation to Samoa. New York: Octagon Books, 1975. (Reprint by special arrangement with Yale University Press. Originally published at New Haven: Yale University Press, 1928), p. 574 ^ Ryden, p. 571 ^ Davidson, J. W. Samoa
Samoa
mo Samoa
Samoa
[ Samoa
Samoa
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Agriculture
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New Zealand
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Parliamentary Debates, Vol. 185 (3 October–5 November 1919), p.337. ^ Templeton, Malcolm (1993). An Eye, An Ear, and a Voice: 50 Years in New Zealand's External Relations, 1943–1993. Wellington: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. p. 1.  ^ Albert Wendt. "Guardians and Wards: (A study of the origins, causes, and the first two years of the Mau in Western Samoa.)".  ^ "Wartime administration – capture of German Samoa". NZHistory.net.nz. Retrieved 18 October 2010.  ^ Hiery, Hermann (1992). "West Samoans
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Sacrifices a Day for Its Future". nytimes.com. New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2017.  ^ Wyeth, Grant (16 June 2017). " Samoa
Samoa
Officially Becomes a Christian State". The Diplomat. Retrieved 16 June 2017.  ^ Feagaimaali’i-Luamanu, Joyetter (8 June 2017). "Constitutional Amendment Passes; Samoa
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Officially Becomes 'Christian State'". Pacific Islands Report. Retrieved 16 June 2017.  ^ a b "Background Note: Samoa". U.S. State Department. Retrieved 26 November 2007.  ^ " Samoa
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profile". BBC News. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011.  ^ "New head of state for Samoa". The New Zealand
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and PNG", Radio Australia, 21 October 2011 ^ a b Wyeth, Grant (16 June 2017). " Samoa
Samoa
Officially Becomes a Christian State". The Diplomat. Retrieved 19 June 2017.  ^ "Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2010.  ^ " Samoa
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– An Introduction, Samoa
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Tourism Authority. ^ "Samoa: Climate". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 November 2007.  ^ World Weather Information Service – Apia, World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 15 October 2012. ^ "Samoan tropical moist forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 30 December 2011.  ^ " Samoa
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Committee for Development Policy. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2018.  ^ a b "Samoa". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 11 March 2018.  ^ "Introduction". Central Bank of Samoa
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(2015). "Pacific Education for All 2015 Review" (PDF). UNESCO. Archived from the original (PDF) on archive-url= requires archive-date= (help).  ^ "Dance: Siva". Samoa.co.uk.  ^ "Worn With Pride – Tatau (Tatoo)". Oceanside Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 30 March 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2007.  ^ "NZ Feature Project: Flying Fox in a Freedom Tree – The New Zealand Film Archive". Filmarchive.org.nz. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ "NZ Feature Project: Sons For the Return Home – The New Zealand Film Archive". Filmarchive.org.nz. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ Home. Mau.co.nz. Retrieved on 9 November 2016. ^ a b Dances of Life American Samoa. piccom.org ^ Henderson, April K. “Dancing Between Islands: Hip Hop and the Samoan Diaspora.” In The Vinyl Ain’t Final: Hip Hop and the Globalization of Black Popular Culture, ed. by Dipannita Basu and Sidney J. Lemelle, 180–199. London; Ann Arbor, MI: Pluto Press, 2000 ^ "Home – Tautai Contemporary Pacific Arts Trust". Tautaipacific.com. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ "Buy NZ books and NZ plays online – Home". Playmarket. Retrieved 30 June 2010.  ^ "Rugby in Samoa". ManuSamoa.net. Retrieved 26 November 2007.  ^ "Samoa". rugbyleagueplanet.com.  ^ "American football, Samoan style". ESPN. Retrieved 26 November 2007. 

Further reading[edit]

Watson, R M, History of Samoa
History of Samoa
(Wellington, 1918) Meleisea, Malama. The Making of Modern Samoa: Traditional Authority and Colonial Administration in the Modern History of Western Samoa. (Suva, 1987) Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific. Schnee, Dr. Heinrich (former Deputy Governor of German Samoa
German Samoa
and last Governor of German East Africa). 1926. German Colonization, Past and Future: The Truth about the German Colonies. London: George Allen & Unwin. Eustis, Nelson. [1979] 1980. Aggie Grey of Samoa. Adelaide, South Australia: Hobby Investments. ISBN 0-9595609-0-4. Stevenson, Robert Louis. A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 1-4264-0754-8.  Mead, Margaret. 1928, Coming of Age in Samoa: A Study of Adolescence and Sex in Primitive Societies. Freeman, Derek. 1983. Margaret Mead in Samoa: the Making and Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth. Urmenyhazi Attila. 2013 Samoan & Marquesan Life in Oceania: a probing travelogue. ISBN 9780646909127 – National Library of Australia, Bib ID: 6377055. Mallon, Sean. 2002. Samoan Art and Artists. O Measina a Samoa. Honolulu: University of Hawaii
Hawaii
Press. ISBN 0-8248-2675-2 Gill, B.J. (1993). "The land reptiles of Western Samoa". Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 23 (2): 79–89. doi:10.1080/03036758.1993.10721219. 

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