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Sakoku
Sakoku
(鎖国, "closed country") was the isolationist foreign policy of the Japanese Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
under which relations and trade between Japan
Japan
and other countries were severely limited, nearly all foreigners were barred from entering Japan
Japan
and the common Japanese people were kept from leaving the country for a period of over 220 years. The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa shogunate
under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633–39, and ended after 1853 when the American Black Ships
Black Ships
commanded by Matthew Perry forced the opening of Japan
Japan
to American (and, by extension, Western) trade through a series of unequal treaties. It was preceded by a period of largely unrestricted trade and widespread piracy when Japanese mariners travelled Asia and official embassies and envoys visited both Asian states, New Spain (now Mexico), and Europe. This period was also noted for the large number of foreign traders and pirates who were resident in Japan
Japan
and active in Japanese waters. The term Sakoku
Sakoku
originates from the manuscript work Sakoku-ron (「鎖国論」) written by Japanese astronomer and translator Shizuki Tadao (ja:志筑忠雄) in 1801. Shizuki invented the word while translating the works of the 17th-century German traveller Engelbert Kaempfer
Engelbert Kaempfer
concerning Japan.[1] Japan
Japan
was not completely isolated under the sakoku policy. It was a system in which strict regulations were applied to commerce and foreign relations by the shogunate, and by certain feudal domains (han). There was extensive trade with China
China
through the port of Nagasaki, in the far west of Japan, with a residential area for the Chinese. The policy stated that the only European influence permitted was the Dutch factory at Dejima
Dejima
in Nagasaki. Trade with Korea
Korea
was limited to the Tsushima Domain
Tsushima Domain
(today part of Nagasaki
Nagasaki
Prefecture). Trade with the Ainu people
Ainu people
was limited to the Matsumae Domain in Hokkaidō, and trade with the Ryūkyū Kingdom
Ryūkyū Kingdom
took place in Satsuma Domain (present-day Kagoshima Prefecture). Apart from these direct commercial contacts in peripheral provinces, trading countries sent regular missions to the shōgun in Edo
Edo
and Osaka Castle.

Contents

1 Trade under sakoku 2 Terminology 3 Rationale 4 Challenges to seclusion 5 End of isolationism

5.1 Missions to the West

6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Trade under sakoku[edit] Japan
Japan
traded at this time with five entities, through four "gateways". The largest was the private Chinese trade at Nagasaki
Nagasaki
(who also traded with the Ryūkyū Kingdom), where the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
was also permitted to operate. The Matsumae clan
Matsumae clan
domain in Hokkaidō
Hokkaidō
(then called Ezo) traded with the Ainu people. Through the Sō clan
Sō clan
daimyō of Tsushima, there were relations with Joseon-dynasty Korea. Ryūkyū, a semi-independent kingdom for nearly all of the Edo
Edo
period, was controlled by the Shimazu clan
Shimazu clan
daimyō of Satsuma Domain. Tashiro Kazui has shown that trade between Japan
Japan
and these entities was divided into two kinds: Group A in which he places China
China
and the Dutch, "whose relations fell under the direct jurisdiction of the Bakufu
Bakufu
at Nagasaki" and Group B, represented by the Korean Kingdom and the Ryūkyū Kingdom, "who dealt with Tsushima (the Sō clan) and Satsuma (the Shimazu clan) domains respectively".[2] These two different groups of trade basically reflected a pattern of incoming and outgoing trade. Many items traded from Japan
Japan
to Korea
Korea
and the Ryūkyū Kingdom
Ryūkyū Kingdom
were eventually shipped on to China. In the Ryūkyū Islands
Ryūkyū Islands
and Korea, the clans in charge of trade built trading towns outside Japanese territory where commerce actually took place.[3] Due to the necessity for Japanese subjects to travel to and from these trading posts, this resembled something of an outgoing trade, with Japanese subjects making regular contact with foreign traders in essentially extraterritorial land. Commerce with Chinese and Dutch traders in Nagasaki
Nagasaki
took place on an island called Dejima, separated from the city by a narrow strait; foreigners could not enter Nagasaki
Nagasaki
from Dejima, nor could Japanese enter Dejima
Dejima
without special permission or authorization. Terminology[edit] Trade in fact prospered during this period, and though relations and trade were restricted to certain ports, the country was far from closed. In fact, even as the shogunate expelled the Portuguese, they simultaneously engaged in discussions with Dutch and Korean representatives to ensure that the overall volume of trade did not suffer.[3] Thus, it has become increasingly common in scholarship in recent decades to refer to the foreign relations policy of the period not as sakoku, implying a totally secluded, isolated, and "closed" country, but by the term kaikin (海禁, "maritime prohibitions") used in documents at the time, and derived from the similar Chinese concept haijin.[4] Rationale[edit]

Text from the seclusion edict of 1636: "No Japanese ship ... nor any native of Japan, shall presume to go out of the country; whoever acts contrary to this, shall die, and the ship with the crew and goods aboard shall be sequestered until further orders. All persons who return from abroad shall be put to death. Whoever discovers a Christian
Christian
priest shall have a reward of 400 to 500 sheets of silver and for every Christian
Christian
in proportion. All Namban (Portuguese and Spanish) who propagate the doctrine of the Catholics, or bear this scandalous name, shall be imprisoned in the Onra, or common jail of the town. The whole race of the Portuguese with their mothers, nurses and whatever belongs to them, shall be banished to Macao. Whoever presumes to bring a letter from abroad, or to return after he hath been banished, shall die with his family; also whoever presumes to intercede for him, shall be put to death. No nobleman nor any soldier shall be suffered to purchase anything from the foreigner."

[5]

It is conventionally regarded that the shogunate imposed and enforced the sakoku policy in order to remove the colonial and religious influence of primarily Spain and Portugal, which were perceived as posing a threat to the stability of the shogunate and to peace in the archipelago. The increasing number of Catholic
Catholic
converts in southern Japan
Japan
(mainly Kyūshū) was a significant element of that which was seen as a threat. Based on work conducted by Japanese historians in the 1970s, some scholars have challenged this view, believing it to be only a partial explanation of political reality. The motivations for the gradual strengthening of the maritime prohibitions during the early 17th century should be considered within the context of the Tokugawa bakufu's domestic agenda. One element of this agenda was to acquire sufficient control over Japan's foreign policy so as not only to guarantee social peace, but also to maintain Tokugawa supremacy over the other powerful lords in the country, particularly the tozama daimyōs. These daimyōs had used East Asian trading linkages to profitable effect during the Sengoku
Sengoku
period, which allowed them to build up their military strength as well. By restricting the daimyōs' ability to trade with foreign ships coming to Japan
Japan
or pursue trade opportunities overseas, the Tokugawa bakufu could ensure none would become powerful enough to challenge the bakufu's supremacy. This is consistent with the generally agreed rationale for the Tokugawa bakufu's implementation of the system of alternate attendance, or sankin-kōtai. Directing trade predominantly through Nagasaki, which came under Toyotomi Hideyoshi's control in 1587, would enable the bakufu, through taxes and levies, to bolster its own treasury. This was no small matter, as lack of wealth had limited both the preceding Kamakura bakufu
Kamakura bakufu
and the Muromachi bakufu
Muromachi bakufu
in crucial ways.[6] The focus on the removal of Western and Christian
Christian
influence from the Japanese archipelago as the main driver of the kaikin could be argued to be a somewhat eurocentric reading of Japanese history, although it is a common perception.[7] Nevertheless, Christianity and the two colonial powers it was most strongly associated with, were seen as genuine threats by the Tokugawa bakufu. Once the remnants of the Toyotomi clan had been defeated in 1615, Tokugawa Hidetada
Tokugawa Hidetada
turned his attention to the sole remaining credible challenge to Tokugawa supremacy. Religious challenges to central authority were taken seriously by the bakufu as ecclesiastical challenges by armed Buddhist monks were common during the sengoku period. The Empress Meishō
Empress Meishō
(1624–96) also had grave doubts when she heard about how the Spanish and Portuguese were settling in the New World, and thought that Japan
Japan
would soon become one of the many countries in their possession.

Buddhist statue with hidden cross on back, used by Christians in Japan to hide their real beliefs.

Protestant
Protestant
English and Dutch traders reinforced this perception by accusing the Spanish and Portuguese missionaries of spreading the religion systematically, as part of a claimed policy of culturally dominating and colonizing Asian countries. The Dutch and English were generally seen by the Japanese to be able to separate religion and trade, while their Iberian counterparts were looked upon with much suspicion. The Dutch, eager to take over trade from the Spanish and Portuguese, had no problems reinforcing this view. The number of Christians in Japan
Japan
had been steadily rising due to the efforts of missionaries, such as Francis Xavier
Francis Xavier
and daimyō converts. The direct trigger which is said to have spurred the imposition of sakoku was the Shimabara Rebellion
Shimabara Rebellion
of 1637–38, an uprising of 40,000 mostly Christian
Christian
peasants. In the aftermath, the shogunate accused missionaries of instigating the rebellion, expelled them from the country, and strictly banned the religion on penalty of death. The remaining Japanese Christians, mostly in Nagasaki, formed underground communities and came to be called Kakure Kirishitan. All contact with the outside world became strictly regulated by the shogunate, or by the domains (Tsushima, Matsumae, and Satsuma) assigned to the task. Dutch traders were permitted to continue commerce in Japan
Japan
only by agreeing not to engage in missionary activities. Today, the Christian percentage of the population (1%) in Japan
Japan
remains far lower than in other East Asian countries such as China
China
(3%), Vietnam
Vietnam
(7%), South Korea
Korea
(29%)[8] and the Philippines
Philippines
(over 90%).

Beacon on Taketomi, one of the Sakishima Beacons
Sakishima Beacons
constructed in 1644 to monitor foreign shipping[9]

The sakoku policy was also a way of controlling commerce between Japan and other nations, as well as asserting its new place in the East Asian hierarchy. The Tokugawa had set out to create their own small-scale international system where Japan
Japan
could continue to access the trade in essential commodities such as medicines, and gain access to essential intelligence about happenings in China, while avoiding having to agree to a subordinate status within the Chinese tributary system. Japan's generally constructive official diplomatic relationship with Joseon
Joseon
Korea
Korea
allowed regular embassies (Tongsinsa) to be dispatched by Korea
Korea
to Japan. Together with the brisk trade between Tsushima and Korea, as well as the presence of Japanese in Pusan, Japan
Japan
was able to access Chinese cultural, intellectual and technological developments throughout the Edo
Edo
period. At the time of the promulgation of the strictest versions of the maritime prohibitions, the Ming dynasty had lost control of much of China
China
and it was unnecessary, and perhaps undesirable, for Japan
Japan
to pursue official diplomatic relations with either of the Ming or the Qing governments while the issue of imperial legitimacy was unsettled. Japan
Japan
was able to acquire the imported goods it required through intermediary trade with the Dutch and through the Ryukyu Islands. The Japanese actually encouraged the Ryūkyū Kingdom's rulers to maintain a tributary relationship with China, even though the Shimazu clan
Shimazu clan
had surreptitiously established great political influence in the Ryukyu Islands.[6] The Qing
Qing
became much more open to trade after it had defeated the Ming loyalists in Taiwan, and thus Japan's rulers felt even less need to establish official relations with China. Liberalizing challenges to sakoku did come from within Japan's elite in the 18th century, but they came to naught.[10] Later on, the sakoku policy was the main safeguard against the total depletion of Japanese mineral resources—such as silver and copper—to the outside world. However, while silver exportation through Nagasaki
Nagasaki
was controlled by the shogunate to the point of stopping all exportation, the exportation of silver through Korea
Korea
continued in relatively high quantities.[2] The way Japan
Japan
kept abreast of Western technology during this period was by studying medical and other texts in the Dutch language
Dutch language
obtained through Dejima. This developed into a blossoming field in the late 18th century which was known as Rangaku
Rangaku
(Dutch studies). It became obsolete after the country was opened and the sakoku policy collapsed. Thereafter, many Japanese students (e.g., Kikuchi Dairoku) were sent to study in foreign countries, and many foreign employees were employed in Japan
Japan
(see o-yatoi gaikokujin). The policies associated with sakoku ended with the Convention of Kanagawa in response to demands made by Commodore Perry. Challenges to seclusion[edit] Many isolated attempts to end Japan's seclusion were made by expanding Western powers during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. American, Russian and French ships all attempted to engage in a relationship with Japan
Japan
but were rejected.

In 1647 Portuguese warships attempted to enter Nagasaki. The Japanese formed a blockade of almost 900 boats to stop the ships. After the event, the Japanese added more security to Nagasaki
Nagasaki
as fears rose that other countries would challenge the new seclusion policy and attempt to enter through Nagasaki.[11] In 1738, a Russian naval squadron (including Martin Spangberg) visited the island of Honshu. The Russians landed in a scenic area which is now part of the Rikuchu Kaigan National Park. Despite the prevalent seclusion policy, the sailors were treated with politeness if not friendliness.[12] In 1778, a merchant from Yakutsk
Yakutsk
by the name of Pavel Lebedev-Lastochkin arrived in Hokkaidō
Hokkaidō
with a small expedition. He offered gifts, and politely asked to trade in vain. In 1787, Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse
Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse
navigated in Japanese waters. He visited the Ryūkyū islands
Ryūkyū islands
and the strait between Hokkaidō
Hokkaidō
and Sakhalin, naming it after himself. In 1791, two American ships commanded by the American explorer John Kendrick—the Lady Washington,[13] under Captain Kendrick, and the Grace, under Captain William Douglas—stopped for 11 days on Kii Ōshima island, south of the Kii Peninsula.[14] Kendrick was the first known American to have visited Japan. He apparently planted an American flag and claimed the islands, although accounts of his visit in Japan
Japan
are nonexistent. In 1792 the Russian subject Adam Laxman
Adam Laxman
visited the island of Hokkaido. From 1797 to 1809, several American ships traded in Nagasaki
Nagasaki
under the Dutch flag, upon the request of the Dutch who were not able to send their own ships because of their conflict against Britain during the Napoleonic Wars:[15]

In 1797 US Captain William Robert Stewart, commissioned by the Dutch from Batavia, took the ship Eliza of New York to Nagasaki, Japan, with a cargo of Dutch trade goods. In 1803, William Robert Stewart
William Robert Stewart
returned on board a ship named "The Emperor of Japan" (the captured and renamed "Eliza of New York"), entered Nagasaki
Nagasaki
harbour and tried in vain to trade through the Dutch enclave of Dejima. Another American captain John Derby of Salem, Massachusetts
Salem, Massachusetts
aboard the Margaret, tried in vain to open Japan
Japan
to the opium trade.[16]

In 1804, the Russian expedition around the world led by captain Adam Johann von Krusenstern reached Nagasaki. The Russian envoy Nikolai Rezanov requested trade exchanges. The Bakufu
Bakufu
refused the request and the ships had to leave in spring 1805. The Russians attacked Sakhalin and the Kuril islands
Kuril islands
during the following three years, prompting the Bakufu
Bakufu
to build up defences in Ezo. In 1808, the British frigate HMS Phaeton, preying on Dutch shipping in the Pacific, sailed into Nagasaki
Nagasaki
under a Dutch flag, demanding and obtaining supplies by force of arms. In 1811, the Russian naval lieutenant Vasily Golovnin
Vasily Golovnin
landed on Kunashiri
Kunashiri
Island, and was arrested by the Bakufu
Bakufu
and imprisoned for 2 years. In 1825, following a proposal by Takahashi Kageyasu (ja:高橋景保), the Bakufu
Bakufu
issued an "Order to Drive Away Foreign Ships" (Ikokusen uchiharairei, also known as the "Ninen nashi", or "No second thought" law), ordering coastal authorities to arrest or kill foreigners coming ashore. In 1830, the brig "Cyprus", a ship of Australian convicts who had successfully mutinied against their masters and set sail for Canton, China, arrived on the coast of Shinkoku
Shinkoku
near the town of Mugi in Tokushima Prefecture. The mutineers were desperately low on water, firewood, and supplies, but were attacked and sent away by the Japanese. This was the first time an Australian ship ever visited Japan. Also in 1830, the Bonin Islands, claimed by Japan
Japan
but uninhabited, were settled by the American Nathaniel Savory, who landed on the island of Chichijima and formed the first colony there.[17] In 1837, an American businessman in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
named Charles W. King saw an opportunity to open trade by trying to return to Japan
Japan
three Japanese sailors (among them, Otokichi) who had been shipwrecked a few years before on the coast of Oregon. He went to Uraga Channel
Uraga Channel
with Morrison, an unarmed American merchant ship. The ship was fired upon several times, and finally sailed back unsuccessfully. In 1842, following the news of the defeat of China
China
in the Opium
Opium
War and internal criticism following the Morrison Incident, the Bakufu responded favourably to foreign demands for the right to refuel in Japan
Japan
by suspending the order to execute foreigners and adopting the "Order for the Provision of Firewood and Water" (Shinsui kyuyorei ja:薪水給与令). In 1844, a French naval expedition under Captain Fornier-Duplan visited Okinawa
Okinawa
on April 28, 1844. Trade was denied, but Father Forcade was left behind with a translator. In 1845, whaling ship Manhattan (1843) rescued 22 Japanese shipwrecked sailors. Captain Mercator Cooper
Mercator Cooper
was allowed into Edo
Edo
Bay, where he stayed for four days and met with the Governor of Edo
Edo
and several high officers representing The Emperor. They were given several presents and allowed to leave unmolested, but told never to return. On July 20, 1846, Commander James Biddle, sent by the United States Government to open trade, anchored in Tokyo Bay
Tokyo Bay
with two ships, including one warship armed with 72 cannons, but his demands for a trade agreement remained unsuccessful. On July 24, 1846, the French Admiral Cécille arrived in Nagasaki, but failed in his negotiations and was denied landing. He was accompanied by two priests who had learnt the Japanese language in Okinawa: Father Forcade and Father Ko.[18] In 1848, Half-Scottish/Half-Chinook Ranald MacDonald pretended to be shipwrecked on the island of Rishiri in order to gain access to Japan. He was sent to Nagasaki, where he stayed for 10 months and became the first English teacher in Japan. Upon his return to America, MacDonald made a written declaration to the United States Congress, explaining that the Japanese society was well policed, and the Japanese people well behaved and of the highest standard. In 1848, Captain James Glynn
James Glynn
sailed to Nagasaki, leading at last to the first successful negotiation by an American with "Closed Country" Japan. James Glynn
James Glynn
recommended to the United States Congress
United States Congress
that negotiations to open Japan
Japan
should be backed up by a demonstration of force, thus paving the way to Perry's expedition. In 1849, the Royal Navy's HMS Mariner entered Uraga Harbour to conduct a topographical survey. Onboard was the Japanese castaway Otokichi, who acted as a translator. To avoid problems with the Japanese authorities, he disguised himself as Chinese, and said that he had learned Japanese from his father, allegedly a businessman who had worked in relation with Nagasaki. In 1853, the Russian embassy of Yevfimy Putyatin
Yevfimy Putyatin
arrived in Nagasaki (August 12, 1853). The embassy demonstrated a steam engine, which led to the first recorded attempts at manufacturing a steam engine in Japan, by Hisashige Tanaka in 1853.

These largely unsuccessful attempts continued until, on July 8, 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy with four warships: Mississippi, Plymouth, Saratoga, and Susquehanna steamed into the Bay of Edo
Edo
(Tokyo) and displayed the threatening power of his ships' Paixhans guns. He demanded that Japan
Japan
open to trade with the West. These ships became known as the kurofune, the Black Ships. End of isolationism[edit]

Commodore Perry's fleet for his second visit to Japan
Japan
in 1854.

The following year, at the Convention of Kanagawa
Convention of Kanagawa
(March 31, 1854), Perry returned with seven ships and forced the Shogun to sign the "Treaty of Peace and Amity", establishing formal diplomatic relations between Japan
Japan
and the United States. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
signed the Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty at the end of 1854. Between 1852 and 1855, Admiral Yevfimiy Putyatin
Yevfimiy Putyatin
of the Russian Navy made several attempts to obtain from the Shogun favourable trade terms for Russia. In June 1853, he brought to Nagasaki Bay
Nagasaki Bay
a letter from the Foreign Minister Karl Nesselrode
Karl Nesselrode
and demonstrated to Tanaka Hisashige a steam engine, probably the first ever seen in Japan. His efforts culminated in the signing of the Treaty of Shimoda
Treaty of Shimoda
in February 1855. Within five years, Japan
Japan
had signed similar treaties with other western countries. The Harris Treaty was signed with the United States on July 29, 1858. These "Ansei Treaties" were widely regarded by Japanese intellectuals as unequal, having been forced on Japan
Japan
through gunboat diplomacy, and as a sign of the West's desire to incorporate Japan
Japan
into the imperialism that had been taking hold of the continent. Among other measures, they gave the Western nations unequivocal control of tariffs on imports and the right of extraterritoriality to all their visiting nationals. They would remain a sticking point in Japan's relations with the West up to the turn of the 20th century. Missions to the West[edit]

The son of Nadar, photographed with members of the Second Japanese Embassy to Europe
Europe
in 1863. Photographed by Nadar.

Several missions were sent abroad by the Bakufu, in order to learn about Western civilization, revise treaties, and delay the opening of cities and harbour to foreign trade. A Japanese Embassy to the United States was sent in 1860, on board the Kanrin Maru. In 1861 in the Tsushima Incident
Tsushima Incident
a Russian fleet tried to force open a harbour not officially opened to foreign trade with foreign countries, but was finally repelled with the help of the British. An Embassy to Europe
Europe
was sent in 1862, and a Second Embassy to Europe in 1863. Japan
Japan
also sent a delegation and participated to the 1867 World Fair in Paris. Other missions, distinct from those of the Shogunate, were also sent to Europe, such as the Chōshū Five, and missions by the fief of Satsuma. See also[edit]

Haijin
Haijin
(海禁) – Maritime restrictions; kaikin in Japanese. Paradise sakoku (パラダイス鎖国) – A kind of Galápagos syndrome Convention of Kanagawa Dutch missions to Edo Joseon
Joseon
missions to Japan Ryukyuan missions to Edo List of Westerners who visited Japan
Japan
before 1868

References[edit]

^ Gunn, Geoffrey C, First globalization: the Eurasian exchange, 1500 to 1800, Google Books, p. 151  ^ a b Tashiro, Kazui. "Foreign Relations During the Edo
Edo
Period: Sakoku Reexamined". Journal of Japanese Studies. Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer 1982. ^ a b Toby, Ronald (1984). State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ^ Toby, Ronald (1977). "Reopening the Question of Sakoku: Diplomacy in the Legitimation of the Tokugawa Bakufu", Journal of Japanese Studies. Seattle: Society for Japanese Studies. ^ Straelen, H. van (1952) Yoshida Shoin, Forerunner of the Meiji Restoration. Leiden: E.J. Brill. pp. 7–8 ^ a b Hellyer, Robert I. (2009). Defining engagement: Japan
Japan
and global contexts, 1640–1868. Harvard University.  ^ Laver, Michael S. (2011). The Sakoku
Sakoku
Edicts and the Politics of Tokugawa Hegemony. Cambria Press.  ^ Agence France-Presse
Agence France-Presse
(2009-01-31). "S. Korea
Korea
president faces protests from Buddhists". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 2008-09-04. Retrieved 2009-01-31.  ^ 先島諸島火番盛 [Sakishima Beacons] (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. Retrieved 11 June 2012.  ^ Hall, J (1955). Tanuma Okitsugu, 1719–1788, p. 105. ^ Cullen, L.M. A History of Japan, 1582–1941. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. p. 39 ^ Glynn Barratt. Russia in Pacific Waters, 1715-1825. UBC Press, 1981. ISBN 9780774801171. Pages 35-37. ^ Islands and empires: Western impact on the Pacific and east Asia by Ernest Stanley Dodge p.302 ^ Ridley, Scott (2010). Morning of Fire: John Kendrick's Daring American Odyssey in the Pacific. HarperCollins. pp. 221–25. ISBN 978-0-06-170012-5. Retrieved 30 July 2012.  ^ K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways, University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 57 ^ John, Derby. "The Derby Family" (PDF). Peabody Essex Museum. p. 3. Retrieved 15 December 2016.  ^ Asia Society of Japan, Long lecture. ^ Polak 2001, p. 19

Further reading[edit]

Hall, John Wesley. (1955) Tanuma Okitsugu: Forerunner of Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Oshima, Akihide. (2009) Sakoku
Sakoku
to iu Gensetsu.(大島明秀『「鎖国」という言説』)Kyoto in Japan: Minerva Publisher.

External links[edit]

"Numismatist in Commodore Perry's fleet (1853–54)", Journal of Antiques, August 2005 .

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