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Euselasiinae Nemeobiinae (but see text) Riodininae

Zygia metalmark (Lemonias zygia) in the Pantanal, Brazil

Riodinidae
Riodinidae
is the family of metalmark butterflies. The common name "metalmarks" refers to the small metallic-looking spots commonly found on their wings. There are 1532 species and 146 genera of metalmark butterflies in the world.[1] Although mostly neotropical in distribution, the family is represented both in the Nearctic and the Palearctic.

Contents

1 Description 2 Distinguishing features 3 Taxonomy and systematics

3.1 Subfamilies 3.2 Genera of uncertain position

4 Biology 5 Life cycle

5.1 Food plants

6 Economic significance 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Description[edit] The family includes small to medium-sized species, from 12 to 60 mm wingspan, often with vibrant structural colouring. The wing shape is very different within the family. They may resemble butterflies in other groups, some are similar to Satyrinae, some are bright yellow reminiscent of Coliadinae
Coliadinae
and others (examples Barbicornis, Rhetus arcius, Helicopis, Chorinea) have tails as do Papilionidae. The colouration ranges from muted colours in the temperate zone species to iridescent blue and green wings and transparent wings in tropical species.[2] The golden or silvery metallic spots on the wings in many species of the Americas gave them the English common name "metalmarks". A number of species mimic poisonous moths of several families and there are often extensive mimicry rings of similar-looking species, grouped around a model.[3] Mimicry causes often closely related species to have completely different wing patterns, for example the genus Thisbe.[4] Many species mimic the stain and stripe pattern of toxic Nymphalidae. Batesian mimicry seems to be more common than in any other insect family of similar size.[5] Reasons for this are unknown. Another example is Ithomeis
Ithomeis
where different subspecies resemble the species they mimic in different parts of the geographic range more than they resemble each other. The delimitation from the closely related Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
by morphological autapomorphy is difficult.[6] The first pair of legs of the males, which arises on the prothorax, is less than half as long as the legs of the pterothorax and they are not used for walking. The individual segments of the tarsus are sometimes fused together and fused with the tibia, and the pretarsi have no claws. This feature is also found in some Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
(and also the Monotrysia), but in these the legs are always much longer. The sensory hairs on the tarsi of the female forelimbs are arranged in a group. These groups which are arranged in pairs can be found in the other taxa of the Papilionoidea. The third problematic apomorphy is the absence of the rear projections (apophyses) of the female genitalia. This feature (absence) is found as well in some species of the subfamily of Poritiinae. In almost all Riodinidae, the coxae of the front legs are extended on males jutting out over the trochanter (only hinted at in Styx infernalis and Corrachia leucoplaga). If there are similar projections in Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
(in genera Curetis, Feniseca and Poritia), they are built differently in detail and may be, for example, dorsally convex.[7] In addition, almost all Riodinidae
Riodinidae
in contrast to the Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
have a humeral vein in the hindwings and the costa is thickened (exceptions in the subfamily Hamearinae). The head in relation to the eyes is wider than in Lycaenidae, making the antennal bases further away from the eye. The relatively long antennae often reach half of the front wing length. Riodinidae
Riodinidae
have an unusual variety in chromosome numbers, only some very basal groups have the number typical for butterflies (between 29 and 31) or the number characteristic of Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
(23 to 24). Numbers between 9 and 110 occur. In some cases, representatives of a morphologically indistinguishable cryptospecies have different chromosome numbers and are reproductively isolated. Distinguishing features[edit] Like the lycaenids, the males of this family have reduced forelegs while the females have full-sized, fully functional forelegs. The foreleg of males is often reduced and has a uniquely shaped first segment (the coxa) which extends beyond its joint with the second segment, rather than meeting it flush. They have a unique venation on the hindwing: the costa of the hindwing is thickened out to the humeral angle and the humeral vein is short.[8] Taxonomy and systematics[edit] Riodinidae
Riodinidae
is currently treated as a distinct family within the superfamily Papilionoidea, but in the past they were held to be the subfamily Riodininae
Riodininae
of the Lycaenidae. Earlier, they were considered to be part of the now defunct family Erycinidae, whose species are divided between this family and the subfamily Libytheinae. Today, most systematists prefer to accept an independent family even if there are counter arguments.[9] Based on morphological studies Ackery et al.[10] in the manual of zoology (Kristensen 1998, cf. literature) placed Riodininae
Riodininae
within the Lycaenidae. Kristensen et al.[11] accepted the updating of the manual in 2007 raising the classification to family rank at least on a provisional basis. Molecular phylogenetics (based on homologous DNA sequences) establishes a sister group relationship between the Riodinidae
Riodinidae
and the Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
accepted almost unanimously.[12][13][14] Subfamilies[edit]

Duke of Burgundy ( Hamearis
Hamearis
lucina)

The family Riodinidae
Riodinidae
consists of three subfamilies. They are:

Euselasiinae
Euselasiinae
– a handful of genera New World
New World
(Americas) Nemeobiinae[15] – sometimes treated as a tribe, Nemeobiini, but which of the remaining two subfamilies it would belongs is uncertain. see Riodinidae
Riodinidae
incertae sedis. Riodininae
Riodininae
– some dozens of genera New World
New World
(Americas)

Genera of uncertain position[edit] Several genera from the Old World
Old World
are of more uncertain affiliations; some of them are monotypic. Such Riodinidae
Riodinidae
incertae sedis are:[16]

Dicallaneura Hamearis
Hamearis
– Duke of Burgundy (tribe Zemerini or distinct subfamily Hamearinae?) Praetaxila Taxila – orange harlequin Tribe Abisarini

Abisara Laxita Paralaxita Stiboges
Stiboges
– columbine

Tribe Nemeobiini

Polycaena Saribia Takashia

Tribe Zemerini

Dodona – Punches Zemeros

The fossil genus Lithopsyche
Lithopsyche
is sometimes placed here but sometimes in the Lycaenidae.

Amazonas tropical rainforest is the habitat for most species of Riodinidae

Biology[edit] Species occur in a variety of habitats, but have a unique distribution focus in the tropical rain forests of South America.[17] Many species are rarely found and have a relatively small distribution area. Species of the genus Charis were therefore used to reconstruct the history of the forest of the Amazon basin: each of the 19 species has a vicariant distribution area, three originally separate forests (upper, lower Amazonas, Guyana) can be derived from the relationship of between the species.[18] The food plants for the caterpillars include total more than 40 plant families. Mostly young leaves or flowers are used, and rarely fallen, dead leaves or lichen are eaten. The larvae feed mostly individually not gregariously. However, gregarious caterpillars are found within the Euselasiinae
Euselasiinae
(Euselasia), Riodinini (Melanis) and Emesini (Emesis), with some species demonstrating processionary behaviours. Available evidence from Euselasia and Hades suggests the gregarious trait may be widespread among members of the subfamily Euselasiinae.[19] The larva of Setabis lagus (Riodininae: Nymphidiini), is predatory. There are records of predation on larvae of Horiola species (family Membracidae) as well as scale insects (Coccidae). Predatory feeding has also been shown in Alesa amesis.[20] A number of species associate and are protected by ants during one or more stages of their life cycle.[21] A study in Ecuador based on adult male feeding records for 124 species in 41 genera of Riodinidae
Riodinidae
(out of a total of 441 species in 85 genera collected in the study) demonstrated that rotting fish and other carrion was the most frequently used food source in terms of numbers of individuals and taxa, attracting 89 species from 32 genera. Other food substrates visited in this study included flowers, damp sand or mud-puddling[22] Life cycle[edit] The eggs vary in shape but often appear round and flattened, some have the shape of a dome or turban. They are similar to the eggs of Lycaenidae. The caterpillars are usually hairy, plump, and are the common overwintering stage. The caterpillars are usually longer than those of the Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
except in the myrmecophilous species. Pupae are hairy and attached with silk to either the host plant or to ground debris or leaf litter. There is no cocoon. Several genera of Riodinidae
Riodinidae
have evolved intimate associations with ants, and their larvae are tended and defended by ant associates. This also is the case with several linages of Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
and contributed to arguments for the uniting the two families. It is now recognized that myrmecophily arose several times among Riodinidae
Riodinidae
and Lycaenidae clades. But there are counter arguments. Like their sister family Lycaenidae, numerous species of Riodinidae are myrmecophiles (involving about 280 ant species). The larvae of many species have special organs, which have a soothing or tempting effect on ants. Many Riodinidae
Riodinidae
larvae have so-called "tentacle nectary organs" on the eighth segment of the abdomen that secrete a fluid which is eaten by ants. Other tentacle organs on the third thoracic segment have been shown to emit allomones which influence ants. Studies suggest caterpillar acoustic signals are used to enhance their symbioses with ants (see singing caterpillars). The location of riodinid organs that function in caterpillar-ant symbioses differs from those found in the Lycaenidae, suggesting that the organs in these two families of butterflies are not homologous in origin.[23] Food plants[edit] The larvae feed on plants of the families Araceae, Asteraceae, Bromeliaceae, Bombacaceae, Cecropiaceae, Clusiaceae, Dilleniaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lecythidaceae, Loranthaceae, Malpighiaceae, Marantaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Orchidaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae, Zingiberaceae
Zingiberaceae
as well as bryophytes and lichens.[24][25] Economic significance[edit] The importance of Riodinidae
Riodinidae
species considered pests is very low. Some species of Euselasiinae
Euselasiinae
feed on Myrtaceae
Myrtaceae
of economic importance such as guava. A few Riodininae
Riodininae
are specified as harmful to farmed Bromeliceae or Orchidaceae. Footnotes[edit]

^ Erik J. van Nieukerken, Lauri Kaila, Ian J. Kitching, Niels P. Kristensen, David C. Lees, Joël Minet, Charles Mitter, Marko Mutanen, Jerome C. Regier, Thomas J. Simonsen, Niklas Wahlberg, Shen-Horn Yen, Reza Zahiri, David Adamski, Joaquin Baixeras, Daniel Bartsch, Bengt Å. Bengtsson, John W. Brown, Sibyl Rae Bucheli, Donald R. Davis, Jurate De Prins, Willy De Prins, Marc E. Epstein, Patricia Gentili-Poole, Cees Gielis, Peter Hättenschwiler, Axel Hausmann, Jeremy D. Holloway, Axel Kallies, Ole Karsholt, Akito Y. Kawahara, Sjaak (J.C.) Koster, Mikhail V. Kozlov, J. Donald Lafontaine, Gerardo Lamas, Jean-François Landry, Sangmi Lee, Matthias Nuss, Kyu-Tek Park, Carla Penz, Jadranka Rota, Alexander Schintlmeister, B. Christian Schmidt, Jae-Cheon Sohn, M. Alma Solis, Gerhard M. Tarmann, Andrew D. Warren, Susan Weller, Roman V. Yakovlev, Vadim V. Zolotuhin, Andreas Zwick (2011): Order Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Editor) Animal
Animal
biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 212-221. ^ Thomas C. Emmel, Edward S. Ross (Hrsg.): Wunderbare und geheimnisvolle Welt der Schmetterlinge. 1. Auflage. Bertelsmann, Gütersloh und Berlin 1976 (übersetzt von Irmgard Jung), ISBN 3-570-00893-2. ^ Mathieu Joron (2008): Batesian Mimicry: Can a Leopard Change Its Spots — and Get Them Back? Current Biology Volume 18, Issue 11: R476–R479. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.04.009 ^ Carla M. Penz & Philip J. DeVries (2001): A phylogenetic reassessment of Thisbe
Thisbe
and Uraneis butterflies (Riodinidae, Nymphidiini). Contributions in Science 485: 1-27. ^ K.S. Brown Jr., B. von Schoultz, A.O. Saura, A. Saura (2012): Chromosomal evolution in the South American Riodinidae
Riodinidae
(Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Hereditas 149: 128–138. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5223.2012.02250.x .. ^ Rienk de Jong, Philip R. Ackery, Richard I. Vane-Wright (1996):The higher classification of butterflies (Lepidoptera): problems and prospects. Insect
Insect
Systematics & Evolution, Volume 27, Issue 1: 65 – 101. doi:10.1163/187631296X00205. ^ Robert K. Robbins (1988): Comparative morphology of the butterfly foreleg coxa and trochanter (Lepidoptera) and its systematic implications. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 90 (2): 133-154. ^ Borror et al. (1989) ^ Zhao F, Huang DY, Sun XY, Shi QH, Hao JS, Zhang LL, Yang Q. (2013): The first mitochondrial genome for the butterfly family Riodinidae ( Abisara
Abisara
fylloides) and its systematic implications. Zoological Research 34 (E4−5): E109−E119. doi:10.11813/j.issn.0254-5853.2013.E4−5.E109 ^ Philip R. Ackery, Rienk de Jong, Richard I. Vane-Wright: The Butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea, Papilionoidea. In: Niels P. Kristensen (editor): Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies. Volume 1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Walter de Gruvter, Berlin & New York 1999. vgl. pp. 283-284 ^ Niels P. Kristensen, Malcolm J. Scoble, Ole Karsholt (2007): Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
phylogeny and systematics: the state of inventorying moth and butterfly diversity. Zootaxa 1668: 699–747. ^ Dana L. Campbell and Naomi E. Pierce (2003): Phylogenetic relationships of the Riodinidae: Implications for the evolution of ant association. In: C. Boggs, P. Ehrlich, W.B. Watt (editors). Butterflies as Model Systems. Chicago University Press: 395-408. download ^ Niklas Wahlberg, Michael F Braby, Andrew V.Z Brower, Rienk de Jong, Ming-Min Lee, Sören Nylin, Naomi E Pierce, Felix A.H Sperling, Roger Vila, Andrew D Warren and Evgueni Zakharov (2005): Synergistic effects of combining morphological and molecular data in resolving the phylogeny of butterflies and skippers. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 272: 1577-1586. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3124 ^ aria Heikkilä, Lauri Kaila, Marko Mutanen, Carlos Peña, Niklas Wahlberg (2012) Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 279: 1093-1099. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1430 ^ Hall, J.P.W. (2004b) ^ See Savela (2007) for references. ^ J.P.W. Hall (2004): Metalmark Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) In J.L. Capinera (editor) Encyclopedia of Entomology, Vol. 2 Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. pp. 1383–1386. ^ Jason P.W. Hall & Donald J. Harvey (2002): The phylogeography of Amazonia revisited: new evidence from Riodinid butterflies. Evolution, 56(7): 1489–1497. ^ P.J. DeVries, I.A. Chacon & D. Murray (1992) Toward a better understanding of host use and biodiversity in riodinid butterflies (Lepidoptera). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, 31(1-2):103-126. ^ DeVries, P.J. & C.M. Penz. 2000. Entomophagy, behavior, and elongated thoracic legs in the myrmecophilous Neotropical butterfly Alesa amesis (Riodinidae). Biotropica 32: 712-721. ^ DeVries, P. J. 1997. The Butterflies of Costa Rica and their Natural History. II: Riodinidae. Princeton Univ. Press, New Jersey, p. 288. ^ Jason P.W. Hall & Keith R. Willmott (2000): Patterns of feeding behaviour in adult male riodinid butterflies and their relationship to morphology and ecology. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69: 1–23. doi:10.1006/bijl.1999.0345. ^ DeVries, P. J. 1991. Ecological and evolutionary patterns in riodinid butterflies. IN: Ant-Plant Interactions. C. Huxley & D. F. Cutler (eds.) Oxford Univ. Press, pp. 143-156. ^ DeVries, P.J. (2001): [Riodinidae]. In Levin, S.A. (ed.): Encyclopaedia of Biodiversity. Academic Press. ^ Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L.; Donaldson, John (2013). "Congruence and Diversity of Butterfly-Host Plant Associations at Higher Taxonomic Levels". PLoS ONE. 8 (5): e63570. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063570. PMC 3662771 . PMID 23717448. Retrieved 29 June 2016. 

References[edit]

Borror, Donald J.; Triplehorn, Charles A. & Johnson, Norman F. (1989): An introduction to the study of insects (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders College Pub. ISBN 0-03-025397-7. DeVries, P.J. (1997): Butterflies of Costa Rica and their natural history. Vol 2 Riodinidae. Princeton University Press. Hall, J.P.W. (2004b): Metalmark Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae), pp. 1383–1386. In J.L. Capinera (ed.) Encyclopedia of Entomology, Vol. 2. (PDF) Savela, Markku (2007): Markku Savela's Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
and some other life forms: Riodinidae. Version of 7 August 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2007.

Further reading[edit]

Charles A. Bridges, 1994. Catalogue of the family-group, genus-group and species-group names of the Riodinidae
Riodinidae
& Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera) of the world Urbana, Ill.:C.A. Bridges pdf Campbell, D. L. & Pierce, N. E. 2003: Chapter 18: Phylogenetic Relationships of the Riodinidae:Implications for the Evolution of Ant Association. Pp. 395–408. – In: Boggs, C. L.,Watt, B. & Ehrlich, P. R. (eds): Butterflies. Ecology and Evolution Taking Flight. The University of Chicago Press, Cambridge University Press, Chicago and London pdf Glassberg, Jeffrey Butterflies through Binoculars, The West (2001) Guppy, Crispin S. and Shepard, Jon H. Butterflies of British Columbia (2001) James, David G. and Nunnallee, David Life Histories of Cascadia Butterflies (2011) Pelham, Jonathan Catalogue of the Butterflies of the United States and Canada (2008) Pyle, Robert Michael The Butterflies of Cascadia (2002) Seitz, A., 1916. Family: Erycinidae. In A. Seitz (editor), Macrolepidoptera of the World, vol. 5: 617–738. Stuttgart: Alfred Kernen.[1] also available as pdf. Out of date but very useful.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Riodinidae.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Riodinidae

Riodinidae
Riodinidae
in French Images representing Riodinidae
Riodinidae
at eol TOL - Implied clade links to species lists. TOL Images 3 pages. LEPINDEX Taxonomy project of Natural History Museum, London Barcode of Life Includes images. Idaho Museum of Natural History Calephelis virginiensis, little metalmark on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site Mariposas mexicana Excellent high resolution images of Mexican Riodinidae Flickr Riodinidae Neotropical Butterflies Metalmark Gallery Butterflies of America Images of type specimens Butterflies and Moths of North America

v t e

Extant Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Zeugloptera

Micropterigoidea

Micropterigidae
Micropterigidae
(mandibulate archaic moths)

Suborder Aglossata

Agathiphagoidea

Agathiphagidae (kauri moths)

Suborder Heterobathmiina

Heterobathmioidea

Heterobathmiidae

Suborder Glossata

Dacnonypha

Eriocranioidea

Eriocraniidae

Acanthoctesia

Acanthopteroctetoidea

Acanthopteroctetidae (archaic sun moths)

Lophocoronina

Lophocoronoidea

Lophocoronidae

Neopseustina

Neopseustoidea

Neopseustidae (archaic bell moths)

Exoporia

Hepialoidea

Anomosetidae Hepialidae
Hepialidae
(swift moths, ghost moths) Neotheoridae (Amazonian primitive ghost moths) Palaeosetidae (miniature ghost moths) Prototheoridae (African primitive ghost moths)

Mnesarchaeoidea

Mnesarchaeidae (New Zealand primitive moths)

H e t e r o n e u r a

M o n o t r y s i a

Incurvarioidea

Adelidae
Adelidae
(fairy longhorn moths) Cecidosidae Crinopterygidae Heliozelidae Incurvariidae Prodoxidae
Prodoxidae
(yucca moths)

Andesianoidea

Andesianidae (Andean endemic moths)

Nepticuloidea

Nepticulidae
Nepticulidae
(pigmy, or midget moths) Opostegidae
Opostegidae
(white eyecap moths)

Palaephatoidea

Palaephatidae (Gondwanaland moths)

Tischerioidea

Tischeriidae (trumpet leaf miner moths)

D i t r y s i a

Simaethistoidea

Simaethistidae

Tineoidea

Acrolophidae
Acrolophidae
(burrowing webworm moths) Arrhenophanidae Eriocottidae ( Old World
Old World
spiny-winged moths) Lypusidae Psychidae (bagworm moths) Tineidae
Tineidae
(fungus moths)

Gracillarioidea

Bucculatricidae
Bucculatricidae
(ribbed cocoon makers) Douglasiidae (Douglas moths) Gracillariidae Roeslerstammiidae

Yponomeutoidea

Acrolepiidae
Acrolepiidae
(false diamondback moths) Bedelliidae Glyphipterigidae
Glyphipterigidae
(sedge moths) Heliodinidae Lyonetiidae Plutellidae Yponomeutidae (ermine moths) Ypsolophidae

Gelechioidea

Autostichidae Batrachedridae Blastobasidae Coleophoridae
Coleophoridae
(case-bearers, case moths) Cosmopterigidae
Cosmopterigidae
(cosmet moths) Elachistidae
Elachistidae
(grass-miner moths) Gelechiidae
Gelechiidae
(twirler moths) Lecithoceridae
Lecithoceridae
(long-horned moths) Metachandidae Momphidae
Momphidae
(mompha moths) Oecophoridae
Oecophoridae
(concealer moths) Pterolonchidae Scythrididae
Scythrididae
(flower moths) Xyloryctidae
Xyloryctidae
(timber moths)

Galacticoidea

Galacticidae

Zygaenoidea

Heterogynidae Zygaenidae
Zygaenidae
(burnet, forester, or smoky moths) Himantopteridae Lacturidae Somabrachyidae Megalopygidae (flannel moths) Aididae Anomoeotidae Cyclotornidae Epipyropidae
Epipyropidae
(planthopper parasite moths) Dalceridae
Dalceridae
(slug caterpillars) Limacodidae
Limacodidae
(slug, or cup moths)

Cossoidea

Cossidae
Cossidae
(carpenter millers, or goat moths) Dudgeoneidae (dudgeon carpenter moths)

Sesioidea

Brachodidae (little bear moths) Castniidae
Castniidae
(castniid moths: giant butterfly-moths, sun moths) Sesiidae
Sesiidae
(clearwing moths)

Choreutoidea

Choreutidae
Choreutidae
(metalmark moths)

Tortricoidea

Tortricidae
Tortricidae
(tortrix moths)

Urodoidea

Urodidae
Urodidae
(false burnet moths)

Schreckensteinioidea

Schreckensteiniidae
Schreckensteiniidae
(bristle-legged moths)

Epermenioidea

Epermeniidae
Epermeniidae
(fringe-tufted moths)

Alucitoidea

Alucitidae (many-plumed moths) Tineodidae (false plume moths)

Pterophoroidea

Pterophoridae
Pterophoridae
(plume moths)

Whalleyanoidea

Whalleyanidae

Immoidea

Immidae

Copromorphoidea

Copromorphidae (tropical fruitworm moths) Carposinidae
Carposinidae
(fruitworm moths)

Hyblaeoidea

Hyblaeidae
Hyblaeidae
(teak moths)

Pyraloidea

Pyralidae
Pyralidae
(snout moths) Crambidae
Crambidae
(grass moth)

Thyridoidea

Thyrididae
Thyrididae
(picture-winged leaf moths)

Mimallonoidea

Mimallonidae (sack bearer moths)

Lasiocampoidea

Lasiocampidae
Lasiocampidae
(eggars, snout moths, or lappet moths)

Bombycoidea

Anthelidae
Anthelidae
(Australian lappet moth) Bombycidae
Bombycidae
(silk moths) Brahmaeidae
Brahmaeidae
(Brahmin moths) Carthaeidae (Dryandra moth) Endromidae
Endromidae
(Kentish glory and relatives) Eupterotidae Lemoniidae Saturniidae
Saturniidae
(saturniids) Sphingidae
Sphingidae
(hawk moths, sphinx moths and hornworms) Phiditiidae

Noctuoidea

Doidae Erebidae
Erebidae
(underwing, tiger, tussock, litter, snout, owlet moths) Euteliidae Noctuidae
Noctuidae
(daggers, sallows, owlet moths, quakers, cutworms, darts) Nolidae
Nolidae
(tuft moths) Notodontidae
Notodontidae
(prominents, kittens) Oenosandridae

Drepanoidea

Epicopeiidae
Epicopeiidae
(oriental swallowtail moths) Drepanidae
Drepanidae
(hook-tips)

Geometroidea

Sematuridae Uraniidae Geometridae (geometer moths)

Cimelioidea

Cimeliidae (gold moths)

Calliduloidea

Callidulidae
Callidulidae
( Old World
Old World
butterfly-moths)

Superfamily unassigned

Millieriidae

Rhopalocera (butterflies)

Hedyloidea

Hedylidae
Hedylidae
(American moth-butterflies)

Hesperioidea

Hesperiidae (skippers)

Papilionoidea (true butterflies)

Lycaenidae
Lycaenidae
(gossamer-winged butterflies: blues, coppers and relatives) Nymphalidae
Nymphalidae
(brush-footed, or four-footed butterflies) Papilionidae
Papilionidae
(swallowtail butterflies) Pieridae
Pieridae
(whites, yellows, orangetips, sulphurs) Riodinidae
Riodinidae
(metalmarks)

Note: division Monotrysia
Monotrysia
is not a clade.

Taxonomy of the Lepidoptera Lists by region

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q838733 BAMONA: Riodinidae BugGuide: 12663 EoL: 894 EPPO: 1RIODF Fauna Europaea: 357093 Fossilworks: 212997 GBIF: 1933999 ITIS: 1

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