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Riga
Riga
(/ˈriːɡə/; Latvian: Rīga [ˈriːɡa] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 641,481 inhabitants (2016),[3] it is also the largest city in the three Baltic states, home to one third of Latvia's population and one tenth of the three Baltic states' combined population.[6] The city lies on the Gulf of Riga, at the mouth of the Daugava. Riga's territory covers 307.17 square kilometres (118.60 square miles) and lies between one and ten metres (3 feet 3 inches and 32 feet 10 inches) above sea level,[7] on a flat and sandy plain.[7] Riga
Riga
was founded in 1201 and is a former Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
member. Riga's historical centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, noted for its Art Nouveau/Jugendstil architecture and 19th century wooden architecture.[8] Riga
Riga
was the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
during 2014, along with Umeå
Umeå
in Sweden. Riga
Riga
hosted the 2006 NATO Summit, the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
2003, the 2006 IIHF Men's World Ice Hockey Championships and the 2013 World Women's Curling Championship. It is home to the European Union's office of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC). In 2016, Riga
Riga
received over 1.4 million visitors.[9] It is served by Riga
Riga
International Airport, the largest and busiest airport in the Baltic states. Riga
Riga
is a member of Eurocities,[10] the Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC)[11] and Union of Capitals of the European Union (UCEU).[12]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Founding 2.2 Under Bishop Albert 2.3 Hanseatic League 2.4 Holy Roman Empire, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Swedish and Russian Empires 2.5 World War I 2.6 World War II 2.7 21st century

3 Geography

3.1 Administrative divisions 3.2 Climate

4 Government 5 Demographics

5.1 Historic population figures

6 Economy 7 Culture

7.1 Theatres 7.2 World Choir Games

8 Architecture

8.1 Art Nouveau

9 Sports

9.1 Sports clubs 9.2 Sports facilities 9.3 Sports events

10 Transport 11 Universities 12 Notable residents 13 Sister cities 14 See also 15 References

15.1 Notes

16 Bibliography 17 External links

Etymology[edit] One theory about the origin of the name Riga
Riga
is that it is a corrupted borrowing from the Liv ringa meaning loop, referring to the ancient natural harbour formed by the tributary loop of the Daugava River.[13][14] The other is that Riga
Riga
owes its name to this already-established role in commerce between East and West,[15] as a borrowing of the Latvian rija, for threshing barn, the "j" becoming a "g" in German — notably, Riga
Riga
is called Rie by English geographer Richard Hakluyt
Richard Hakluyt
(1589),[16][17] and German historian Dionysius Fabricius (1610) confirms the origin of Riga
Riga
from rija.[16][18] Another theory could be that Riga
Riga
was named after Riege, the German name for the River Rīdzene, a tributary of the Daugava.[19] History[edit] Main articles: History of Riga
History of Riga
and Timeline of Riga

Historical affiliations

Terra Mariana
Terra Mariana
(condominium of Archbishops of Riga
Riga
and Livonian Order) 1201–1561 Imperial Free City
City
1561–1582 Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1582–1629 Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
1629–1721 Russian Empire
Russian Empire
1721–1917   German Empire
German Empire
1917–1918 Republic of Latvia
Latvia
1918–1940   Soviet Union
Soviet Union
1940–1941   Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
1941–1944 Soviet Union
Soviet Union
1944–1991 Republic of Latvia
Latvia
1991–present

Founding[edit] The river Daugava
Daugava
has been a trade route since antiquity, part of the Vikings' Dvina-Dnieper navigation route to Byzantium.[16] A sheltered natural harbour 15 km (9.3 mi) upriver from the mouth of the Daugava — the site of today's Riga — has been recorded, as Duna Urbs, as early as the 2nd century.[16] It was settled by the Livs, an ancient Finnic tribe.[13]

The building of the Brotherhood of Blackheads is one of the most iconic buildings of Old Riga
Riga
(Vecrīga)

Riga
Riga
began to develop as a centre of Viking trade during the early Middle Ages.[16] Riga's inhabitants occupied themselves mainly with fishing, animal husbandry, and trading, later developing crafts (in bone, wood, amber, and iron).[16] The Livonian Chronicle of Henry
Livonian Chronicle of Henry
testifies to Riga
Riga
having long been a trading centre by the 12th century, referring to it as portus antiquus (ancient port), and describes dwellings and warehouses used to store mostly flax, and hides.[16] German traders began visiting Riga, establishing a nearby outpost in 1158. Along with German traders also arrived the monk Meinhard of Segeberg[15] to convert the Livonian pagans to Christianity. Catholic and Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
had already arrived in Latvia
Latvia
more than a century earlier, and many Latvians baptised.[15][16] Meinhard settled among the Livs, building a castle and church at Ikšķile, upstream from Riga, and established his bishopric there.[15] The Livs, however, continued to practice paganism and Meinhard died in Ikšķile
Ikšķile
in 1196, having failed his mission.[20] In 1198, the Bishop Berthold arrived with a contingent of crusaders[20] and commenced a campaign of forced Christianization.[15][16] Berthold was killed soon afterwards and his forces defeated.[20] The Church mobilised to avenge. Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
issued a bull declaring a crusade against the Livonians.[20] Bishop Albert was proclaimed Bishop of Livonia by his uncle Hartwig of Uthlede, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen
Bremen
and Hamburg
Hamburg
in 1199. Albert landed in Riga in 1200[16][20] with 23 ships[21] and 500 Westphalian crusaders.[22] In 1201, he transferred the seat of the Livonian bishopric from Ikšķile
Ikšķile
to Riga, extorting agreement to do so from the elders of Riga
Riga
by force.[16] Under Bishop Albert[edit] The year 1201 also marked the first arrival of German merchants in Novgorod, via the Dvina.[23] To defend territory[24] and trade, Albert established the Order of Livonian Brothers of the Sword
Livonian Brothers of the Sword
in 1202, open to nobles and merchants.[23] Christianization
Christianization
of the Livs continued. In 1207, Albert started on fortification of the town.[23][25] Emperor Philip invested Albert with Livonia as a fief[26] and principality of the Holy Roman Empire.[16] To promote a permanent military presence, territorial ownership was divided between the Church and the Order, with the Church taking Riga and two-thirds of all lands conquered and granting the Order a third.[27] Until then, it had been customary for crusaders to serve for a year and then return home.[27] Albert had ensured Riga's commercial future by obtaining papal bulls which decreed that all German merchants had to carry on their Baltic trade through Riga.[27] In 1211, Riga
Riga
minted its first coinage,[16] and Albert laid the cornerstone for the Riga
Riga
Dom.[28] Riga
Riga
was not yet secure as an alliance of tribes failed to take Riga.[27] In 1212, Albert led a campaign to compel Polotsk
Polotsk
to grant German merchants free river passage.[23] Polotsk
Polotsk
conceded Kukenois (Koknese) and Jersika to Albert, also ending the Livs' tribute to Polotsk.[29] Riga's merchant citizenry chafed and sought greater autonomy from the Church. In 1221, they acquired the right to independently self-administer Riga[24] and adopted a city constitution.[30] That same year Albert was compelled to recognise Danish rule over lands they had conquered in Estonia
Estonia
and Livonia.[31] Albert had sought the aid of King Valdemar of Denmark
Denmark
to protect Riga
Riga
and Livonian lands against Liv insurrection when reinforcements could not reach Riga. The Danes landed in Livonia, built a fortress at Reval (Tallinn) and set about conquering Estonian and Livonian lands. The Germans attempted, but failed, to assassinate Valdemar.[32] Albert was able to reach an accommodation with them a year later, however and, in 1222, Valdemar returned all Livonian lands and possessions to Albert's control.[33] Albert's difficulties with Riga's citizenry continued; with papal intervention, a settlement was reached in 1225 whereby they no longer had to pay tax to the Bishop of Riga,[34] and Riga's citizens acquired the right to elect their magistrates and town councillors.[34] In 1226, Albert consecrated the Dom Cathedral,[16] built St. James's Church,[16] (now a cathedral) and founded a parochial school at the Church of St. George.[15] In 1227, Albert conquered Oesel[35] and the city of Riga
Riga
concluded a treaty with the Principality of Smolensk
Principality of Smolensk
giving Polotsk
Polotsk
to Riga.[36] Albert died in January 1229.[37] He failed in his aspiration to be anointed archbishop[26] but the German hegemony he established over the Baltic would last for seven centuries.[27]

Riga
Riga
in the 16th century

Hanseatic League[edit] In 1282, Riga
Riga
became a member of the Hanseatic League. The Hansa was instrumental in giving Riga
Riga
economic and political stability, thus providing the city with a strong foundation which endured the political conflagrations that were to come, down to modern times.

Riga
Riga
in 1650. Drawing by Johann Christoph Brotze

Holy Roman Empire, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Swedish and Russian Empires[edit] As the influence of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
waned, Riga
Riga
became the object of foreign military, political, religious and economic aspirations. Riga
Riga
accepted the Reformation in 1522, ending the power of the archbishops. In 1524, iconoclasts targeted a statue of the Virgin Mary in the Cathedral to make a statement against religious icons. It was accused of being a witch, and given a trial by water in the Daugava River. The statue floated, so it was denounced as a witch and burnt at Kubsberg.[38] With the demise of the Livonian Order
Livonian Order
during the Livonian War, Riga
Riga
for twenty years had the status of a Free Imperial City
City
of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
before it came under the influence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
by the Treaty of Drohiczyn, which ended the war for Riga
Riga
in 1581. In 1621, during the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625), Riga
Riga
and the outlying fortress of Daugavgriva came under the rule of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, who intervened in the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
not only for political and economic gain but also in favour of German Lutheran Protestantism. During the Russo-Swedish War (1656–1658), Riga
Riga
withstood a siege by Russian forces. Riga
Riga
remained the largest city in Sweden
Sweden
until 1710,[citation needed] a period during which the city retained a great deal of autonomous self-government. In that year, in the course of the Great Northern War, Russia
Russia
under Tsar
Tsar
Peter the Great besieged plague-stricken Riga. Along with the other Livonian towns and gentry, Riga
Riga
capitulated to Russia, but largely retained their privileges. Riga
Riga
was made the capital of the Governorate of Riga
Riga
(later: Livonia). Sweden's northern dominance had ended, and Russia's emergence as the strongest Northern power was formalised through the Treaty of Nystad
Treaty of Nystad
in 1721. Riga
Riga
became an industrialised port city of the Russian empire, in which it remained until World War I. By 1900, Riga
Riga
was the third largest city in Russia
Russia
after Moscow
Moscow
and Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
in terms of the number of industrial workers and number of theatres.[citation needed]

German troops entering Riga
Riga
during World War I.

During these many centuries of war and changes of power in the Baltic, and despite demographic changes, the Baltic Germans
Baltic Germans
in Riga
Riga
had maintained a dominant position. By 1867, Riga's population was 42.9% German.[39] Riga
Riga
employed German as its official language of administration until the installation of Russian in 1891 as the official language in the Baltic provinces, as part of the policy of Russification
Russification
of the non-Russian speaking territories of the Russian Empire, including Congress Poland, Finland
Finland
and the Baltics, undertaken by Tsar
Tsar
Alexander III. More and more Latvians started moving to the city during the mid-19th century. The rise of a Latvian bourgeoisie made Riga
Riga
a centre of the Latvian National Awakening
Latvian National Awakening
with the founding of the Riga
Riga
Latvian Association in 1868 and the organisation of the first national song festival in 1873. The nationalist movement of the Neo-Latvians was followed by the socialist New Current
New Current
during the city's rapid industrialisation, culminating in the 1905 Revolution led by the Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party. World War I[edit] The 20th century brought World War I
World War I
and the impact of the Russian Revolution of 1917 to Riga. In consequence of the battle of Jugla, the German army marched into Riga
Riga
on 3 September 1917.[40] On 3 March 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed, giving the Baltic countries to Germany. Because of the Armistice with Germany
Germany
of 11 November 1918, Germany
Germany
had to renounce that treaty, as did Russia, leaving Latvia
Latvia
and the other Baltic States
Baltic States
in a position to claim independence. Latvia, with Riga
Riga
as its capital city, thus declared its independence on 18 November 1918. Between World War I
World War I
and World War II (1918–1940), Riga
Riga
and Latvia
Latvia
shifted their focus from Russia
Russia
to the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Germany
Germany
replaced Russia
Russia
as Latvia's major trade partners. The majority of the Baltic Germans were resettled in late 1939, prior to the occupation of Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia
Latvia
by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in June 1940. World War II[edit] During World War II, Latvia
Latvia
was occupied by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in June 1940 and then was occupied by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in 1941–1944. On June 17, 1940, the Soviet forces invaded Latvia
Latvia
occupying bridges, post/telephone, telegraph, and broadcasting offices. Three days later, Latvian president Karlis Ulmanis
Karlis Ulmanis
was forced to approve a pro-Soviet government which had taken office. On July 14–15, rigged elections were held in Latvia
Latvia
and the other Baltic states, The ballots held following instructions: "Only the list of the Latvian Working People's Bloc must be deposited in the ballot box. The ballot must be deposited without any changes." The alleged voter activity index was 97.6%. Most notably, the complete election results were published in Moscow
Moscow
12 hours before the election closed. Soviet electoral documents found later substantiated that the results were completely fabricated. Tribunals were set up to punish "traitors to the people" - those who had fallen short of the "political duty" of voting Latvia
Latvia
into the USSR and those who failed to have their passports stamped for so voting were allowed to be shot in the back of the head. The Soviet authorities, having regained control over Riga
Riga
and Latvia
Latvia
imposed a regime of terror, opening the headquarters of the KGB, massive deportations started. Hundreds of men were arrested, including leaders of the former Latvian government. The most notorious deportation, the June deportation took place on June 13 and June 14, 1941, estimated at 15,600 men, women, and children, and including 20% of Latvia's last legal government. Similar deportations were repeated after the end of WWII. The building of the KGB
KGB
located in Brīvības iela
Brīvības iela
61, known as 'the corner house', is now a museum. Stalin's deportations also included thousands of Latvian Jews. (The mass deportation totalled 131,500 across the Baltics.) Similar atrocities were made after the Nazi occupation of Latvia
Latvia
when the city's Jewish community was forced into the Riga Ghetto
Riga Ghetto
and a Nazi concentration camp
Nazi concentration camp
was constructed in Kaiserwald. On 25 October 1941, the Nazis relocated all Jews from Riga and the vicinity to the ghetto. Most of Latvia's Jews (about 24,000) were killed on 30 November and 8 December 1941 in the Rumbula massacre.[41] By the end of the war, the remaining Baltic Germans
Baltic Germans
were expelled to Germany. The Soviet Red Army re-entered Riga
Riga
on 13 October 1944. In the following years the massive influx of labourers, administrators, military personnel, and their dependents from Russia
Russia
and other Soviet republics started. Microdistricts of the large multi-storied housing blocks were built to house immigrant workers. By the end of the war, Rīga's historical centre was heavily damaged because of constant bombing. After the war, huge efforts were made to reconstruct and renovate most of the famous buildings that were part of the skyline of the city before the war. Such buildings were, amongst others: St. Peter's Church which lost its wooden tower after a fire caused by the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
(renovated in 1954). Other example is The House of the Blackheads, completely destroyed, its ruins were subsequently demolished. A facsimile was subsequently constructed in 1995. In 1989, the percentage of Latvians in Riga
Riga
had fallen to 36.5%.[42] 21st century[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2011)

In 2004, the arrival of low-cost airlines resulted in cheaper flights from other European cities such as London
London
and Berlin
Berlin
and consequently a substantial increase in numbers of tourists.[43] In November 2013, the roof of a supermarket collapsed, possibly as a result of the weight of materials used in the construction of a garden on the roof. At least 54 people were killed. The Latvian President Andris Berzins described the disaster as "a large scale murder of many defenceless people".[44] Riga
Riga
was the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2014.[45] During the Latvia's Presidency of the Council of the European Union
European Union
in 2015 the 4th Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership
Summit took place in Riga.[46] Geography[edit]

The river Daugava
Daugava
flows through Riga

See also: Neighbourhoods in Riga
Neighbourhoods in Riga
and List of tourist attractions in Riga Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of Riga

Central District (3 km2 or 1.2 sq mi) Kurzeme District (79 km2 or 31 sq mi) Zemgale Suburb (41 km2 or 16 sq mi) Northern District (77 km2 or 30 sq mi) Vidzeme Suburb (57 km2 or 22 sq mi) Latgale Suburb (50 km2 or 19 sq mi)

Riga's administrative divisions consist of six administrative entities: Central, Kurzeme and Northern Districts and the Latgale, Vidzeme and Zemgale Suburbs. Three entities were established on 1 September 1941, and the other three were established in October 1969.[47] There are no official lower level administrative units, but the Riga City Council
Riga City Council
Development Agency is working on a plan, which officially makes Riga
Riga
consist of 58 neighbourhoods.[48] The current names were confirmed on 28 December 1990.[49]

Panorama over Riga
Riga
from St. Peter's Church

Climate[edit] The climate of Riga
Riga
is humid continental (Köppen Dfb). The coldest months are January and February, when the average temperature is −5 °C (23 °F) but temperatures as low as −20 to −25 °C (−4 to −13 °F) can be observed almost every year on the coldest days. The proximity of the sea causes frequent autumn rains and fogs. Continuous snow cover may last eighty days. The summers in Riga
Riga
are cool and rainy with the average temperature of 18 °C (64 °F), while the temperature on the hottest days can exceed 30 °C (86 °F).

Climate data for Riga

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 10.2 (50.4) 13.5 (56.3) 20.5 (68.9) 27.9 (82.2) 30.1 (86.2) 32.5 (90.5) 34.1 (93.4) 33.6 (92.5) 29.3 (84.7) 23.4 (74.1) 17.2 (63) 11.5 (52.7) 34.1 (93.4)

Average high °C (°F) −2.3 (27.9) −1.7 (28.9) 2.7 (36.9) 9.8 (49.6) 16.2 (61.2) 20.1 (68.2) 21.7 (71.1) 21.0 (69.8) 16.3 (61.3) 10.4 (50.7) 3.9 (39) 0.3 (32.5) 9.87 (49.76)

Daily mean °C (°F) −5.1 (22.8) −4.7 (23.5) −1.0 (30.2) 5.4 (41.7) 11.1 (52) 15.1 (59.2) 17.0 (62.6) 16.4 (61.5) 12.2 (54) 7.2 (45) 1.7 (35.1) −2.1 (28.2) 6.1 (42.98)

Average low °C (°F) −7.8 (18) −7.6 (18.3) −4.7 (23.5) 1.0 (33.8) 5.9 (42.6) 10.0 (50) 12.3 (54.1) 11.8 (53.2) 8.0 (46.4) 4.0 (39.2) −0.5 (31.1) −4.4 (24.1) 2.33 (36.19)

Record low °C (°F) −33.7 (−28.7) −34.9 (−30.8) −23.3 (−9.9) −11.4 (11.5) −5.3 (22.5) −1.2 (29.8) 4.0 (39.2) 0.0 (32) −4.1 (24.6) −8.7 (16.3) −18.9 (−2) −31.9 (−25.4) −34.9 (−30.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 33.7 (1.327) 27.0 (1.063) 27.9 (1.098) 41.1 (1.618) 42.5 (1.673) 59.9 (2.358) 74.3 (2.925) 73.1 (2.878) 78.9 (3.106) 60.2 (2.37) 57.3 (2.256) 46.0 (1.811) 620.9 (24.445)

Average precipitation days 21.5 18.6 15.7 11.0 11.8 12.1 12.8 13.7 13.0 16.0 18.9 20.6 185.7

Average relative humidity (%) 87.9 85.2 79.4 69.7 67.7 72.0 74.2 76.7 81.1 85.1 90.2 89.4 79.9

Mean monthly sunshine hours 31.0 62.2 127.1 183.0 263.5 288.0 263.5 229.4 153.0 93.0 39.0 21.7 1,754.4

Source #1: Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency (avg high and low)[50]

Source #2: NOAA (sun and extremes)[51]

Government[edit] Main article: Riga
Riga
City
City
Council

Riga
Riga
City
City
Council

Nils Ušakovs, the first ethnic Russian mayor of Riga
Riga
in independent Latvia

The head of the city government in Riga
Riga
is the mayor. Incumbent mayor Nils Ušakovs, who is a member of the Harmony party, took office on 1 July 2009. The city council is a democratically elected institution and is the final decision-making authority in the city. The Council consists of 60 members who are elected every four years. The Presidium of the Riga City
City
Council consists of the Chairman of the Riga City Council
Riga City Council
and the representatives delegated by the political parties or party blocks elected to the City
City
Council. Demographics[edit] With 639,630 inhabitants in 2016 as according to the Central statistical administration of Latvia,[3] Riga
Riga
is the largest city in the Baltic States, though its population has decreased from just over 900,000 in 1991.[3] Notable causes include emigration and low birth rates. According to the 2017 data, ethnic Latvians made up 44.03% of the population of Riga, while ethnic Russians
Russians
formed 37.88%, Belarusians
Belarusians
3.72%, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
3.66%, Poles
Poles
1.83% and other ethnicities 9.10%. By comparison, 60.1% of Latvia's total population was ethnically Latvian, 26.2% Russian, 3.3% Belarusian, 2.4% Ukrainian, 2.1% Polish, 1.2% are Lithuanian and the rest of other origins.[52] Upon the restoration of Latvia's independence in 1991, Soviet era immigrants (and any of their offspring born before 1991) were not automatically granted Latvian citizenship because they had migrated to the territory of Latvia
Latvia
during the years when Latvia
Latvia
was part of the Soviet Union. In 2013 citizens of Latvia
Latvia
made up 73.1%, non-citizens 21.9% and citizens of other countries 4.9% of the population of Riga.[53] The proportion of ethnic Latvians in Riga
Riga
increased from 36.5% in 1989 to 42.4% in 2010. In contrast, the percentage of Russians
Russians
fell from 47.3% to 40.7% in the same time period. Latvians overtook Russians
Russians
as the largest ethnic group in 2006.[4] Further projections show that the ethnic Russian population will continue a steady decline, despite higher birth rates, due to emigration.[citation needed] Historic population figures[edit]

population in thousands. Economy[edit] Riga
Riga
is one of the key economic and financial centres of the Baltic States. Roughly half of all the jobs in Latvia
Latvia
are in Riga
Riga
and the city generates more than 50% of Latvia's GDP as well as around half of Latvia's exports. The biggest exporters are in wood products, IT, food and beverage manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, transport and metallurgy.[54] Riga
Riga
Port is one of the largest in the Baltics. It handled a record 34 million tons of cargo in 2011[55] and has potential for future growth with new port developments on Krievu Sala.[56] Tourism is also a large industry in Riga
Riga
and after a slowdown during the recent global economic recessions, grew 22% in 2011 alone.[57]

Bank of Latvia

Riga
Riga
Stock Exchange early 20th century. Now The Art Museum Riga
Riga
Bourse

Culture[edit]

The Latvian National Opera

Theatres[edit]

The Latvian National Opera
Latvian National Opera
was founded in 1918. The repertoire of the theatre embraces all opera masterpieces. The Latvian National Opera
Latvian National Opera
is famous not only for its operas, but for its ballet troupe as well.[58] The Latvian National Theatre
Latvian National Theatre
was founded in 1919. The Latvian National Theatre preserves the traditions of Latvian drama school. It is one of the biggest theatres in Latvia.[59] The Mikhail Chekhov Riga Russian Theatre
Mikhail Chekhov Riga Russian Theatre
is the oldest professional drama theatre in Latvia, established in 1883. The repertoire of the theatre includes classical plays and experimental performances of Russian and other foreign playwrights. The Daile Theatre was opened for the first time in 1920. It is one of the most successful theatres in Latvia. This theatre is distinguished by its frequent productions of modern foreign plays.[60] Latvian State Puppet Theatre was founded in 1944. This theatre presents shows for children and adults.[61] The New Riga Theatre
New Riga Theatre
was opened in 1992. It has an intelligent and attractive repertoire of high quality that focused on a modern, educated and socially active audience.

World Choir Games[edit] Riga
Riga
hosted the biannual 2014 World Choir Games
World Choir Games
from 9–19 July 2014 which coincided with the city being named European Capital of Culture for 2014.[62][63] The event, organised by the choral foundation, Interkultur, takes place at various host cities every two years and was originally known as the "Choir Olympics".[64] The event regularly sees over 15'000 choristers in over 300 choirs from over 60 nations compete for gold, silver and bronze medals in over 20 categories. The competition is further divided into a Champions Competition and an Open Competition to allow choirs from all backgrounds to enter.[62] Choral workshops and festivals are also witnessed in the host cities and are usually open to the public.[65] Architecture[edit]

Riga
Riga
Castle

The radio and TV tower of Riga
Riga
is the tallest structure in Latvia
Latvia
and the Baltic States, and one of the tallest in the European Union, reaching 368.5 m (1,209 ft). Riga
Riga
centre also has many great examples of Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
architecture, as well as a medieval old town. Art Nouveau[edit]

Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
building on Alberta iela
Alberta iela
designed by Mikhail Eisenstein

Main article: Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
architecture in Riga It is generally recognized that Riga
Riga
has largest collection of Art Nouveau buildings in the world. This is due to the fact that at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, when Art Nouveau was at the height of its popularity, Riga
Riga
experienced an unprecedented financial and demographic boom.[66] In the period from 1857 to 1914 its population grew from 282,000 (256,200 in Riga
Riga
itself and another 26,200 inhabitants beyond the city limits in patrimonial district and military town of Ust-Dvinsk) to 558,000 making it the 4th largest city in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(after Saint-Petersburg, Moscow
Moscow
and Warsaw) and its largest port.[66] The middle class of Riga
Riga
used their acquired wealth to build imposing apartment blocks outside the former city walls. Local architects, mostly graduates of Riga
Riga
Technical University, adopted current European movements and in particular Art Nouveau.[67] Between 1910 and 1913, between 300 and 500 new buildings were built each year in Riga, most of them in Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style and most of them outside the old town.[67] Sports[edit] Riga
Riga
has a rich basketball history. In the 1950s ASK Riga
ASK Riga
became the best club in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and also in Europe, winning the first three editions of the European Cup for Men's Champions Clubs from 1958 to 1960.[68] In 1960, ASK was not the only team from Riga
Riga
to take the European crown. TTT Riga
TTT Riga
clinched their first title in the European Cup for Women's Champion Clubs, turning Riga
Riga
into the capital city of European basketball because for the first and, so far, only time in the history of European basketball, clubs from the same city were concurrent European Men's and Women's club champions.[69] In 2015, Riga
Riga
was one of the hosts for EuroBasket 2015. Sports clubs[edit]

Basketball

BK VEF Rīga
BK VEF Rīga
– a professional basketball team that is a three-time Latvian champion. VEF also participates in high-level international competition such as Eurocup Barons LMT
Barons LMT
– a men's basketball team, two-time Latvian champion, as well as the 2008 FIBA EuroCup
FIBA EuroCup
winner TTT Riga
TTT Riga
– a women's basketball team, which between 1960 and 1982 won eighteen FIBA EuroLeague Women
EuroLeague Women
titles

Ice hockey

Dinamo Riga
Dinamo Riga
– a professional ice hockey club established in 2008. It plays in the Kontinental Hockey League. Dinamo was established as a successor to the former hockey team with the same name, which was founded in 1946 but ceased to exist in 1995. HK Riga
HK Riga
– a junior hockey club, playing in the Minor Hockey League

Football

Skonto FC
Skonto FC
– a football club established in 1991. The club won fourteen successive Latvian Higher League
Latvian Higher League
titles. For a long time it provided the core of the Latvian national football team FS Metta-LU

Sports facilities[edit]

Skonto Stadium

Arena Riga
Arena Riga
– a multi-purpose arena built in 2006 as the main venue for the 2006 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships. It can hold up to 14,500 people and has hosted ice hockey, basketball and volleyball events, as well as Red Bull X-Fighters Skonto Stadium
Skonto Stadium
– a football stadium, built in 2000. It is the main stadium used for games of the Latvian national football team Daugava
Daugava
Stadium – a stadium built in 1958, used for both football and athletics Latvijas Universitates Stadions Biķernieku Kompleksā Sporta Bāze – Latvia's leading motorsport complex

Sports events[edit]

Eurobasket 1937 1999 European Athletics Junior Championships EuroBasket Women 2009 2006 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships Riga
Riga
Marathon 2013 World Women's Curling Championship 2014 Cricket Latvia
Latvia
play Masstor Cricket Club EuroBasket 2015 2016 Men's World Floorball Championships[70]

Transport[edit]

One of the several Trolleybus
Trolleybus
types in Riga

Riga, with its central geographic position and concentration of population, has always been the infrastructural hub of Latvia. Several national roads begin in Riga, and European route E22
European route E22
crosses Riga
Riga
from the east and west, while the Via Baltica crosses Riga
Riga
from the south and north. As a city situated by a river, Riga
Riga
also has several bridges. The oldest standing bridge is the Railway Bridge, which is also the only railroad-carrying bridge in Riga. The Stone Bridge (Akmens tilts) connects Old Riga
Riga
and Pārdaugava; the Island Bridge (Salu tilts) connects Maskavas Forštate
Maskavas Forštate
and Pārdaugava
Pārdaugava
via Zaķusala; and the Shroud Bridge (Vanšu tilts) connects Old Riga
Riga
and Pārdaugava
Pārdaugava
via Ķīpsala. In 2008, the first stage of the new Southern Bridge (Dienvidu tilts) route across the Daugava
Daugava
was completed, and was opened to traffic on 17 November.[71] The Southern Bridge
Southern Bridge
was the biggest construction project in the Baltic states in 20 years, and its purpose was to reduce traffic congestion in the city centre.[72][73] Another major construction project is the planned Riga
Riga
Northern Transport Corridor;[74] its first segment detailed project was completed in 2015.[75] The Freeport of Riga
Freeport of Riga
facilitates cargo and passenger traffic by sea. Sea ferries currently connect Riga Passenger Terminal
Riga Passenger Terminal
to Stockholm operated by Tallink.[76]

A Škoda 15 T
Škoda 15 T
tram in Riga

Riga
Riga
has one active airport that serves commercial airlines—the Riga International Airport (RIX), built in 1973. Renovation and modernization of the airport was completed in 2001, coinciding with the 800th anniversary of the city. In 2006, a new terminal extension was opened. Extension of the runway was completed in October 2008, and the airport is now able to accommodate large aircraft such as the Airbus A340, Boeing 747, 757, 767 and 777. Another terminal extension is under construction as of 2014[update].[77] The annual number of passengers has grown from 310,000 in 1993 to 4.7 million in 2014, making Riga International Airport
Riga International Airport
the largest in the Baltic States. The former international airport of Riga, Spilve Airport, located 5 km (3.11 mi) from Riga
Riga
city centre, is currently used for small aircraft, pilot training and recreational aviation. Riga
Riga
was also home to a military air base during the Cold War
Cold War
— Rumbula Air Base. Public transportation in the city is provided by Rīgas Satiksme
Rīgas Satiksme
which operates a large number of trams, buses and trolleybuses on an extensive network of routes across the city. In addition, up until 2012 many private owners operated minibus services, after which the City
City
Council established the unified transport company Rīgas mikroautobusu satiksme, establishing a monopoly over the service. Riga
Riga
is connected to the rest of Latvia
Latvia
by trains operated by the national carrier Passenger Train, whose headquarters are in Riga. There are also international rail services to Russia
Russia
and Belarus, and plans to revive passenger rail traffic with Estonia. A TEN-T project called Rail Baltica
Rail Baltica
envisages building a high-speed railway line via Riga
Riga
connecting Tallinn
Tallinn
to Warsaw
Warsaw
using standard gauge,[78] expected to be put into operation in 2024.[79] Riga International Coach Terminal provides domestic and international connections by coach. Universities[edit]

University of Latvia
Latvia
(LU) Art Academy of Latvia
Latvia
(LMA) Riga Technical University
Riga Technical University
(RTU) Riga Stradiņš University
Riga Stradiņš University
(RSU) Riga Graduate School of Law
Riga Graduate School of Law
(RGSL) Stockholm
Stockholm
School of Economics in Riga
Riga
(SSE Riga) BA School of Business and Finance
BA School of Business and Finance
(BA) Transport and Telecommunication Institute
Transport and Telecommunication Institute
(TTI) Riga
Riga
International School of Economics and Business Administration (RISEBA) Turiba University

Notable residents[edit]

Rutanya Alda, a Latvian-American actress Helmuts Balderis, a Latvian ice hockey player Mikhail Baryshnikov, a Russian dancer, choreographer, and actor Ernst von Bergmann, a Baltic German surgeon, pioneer of aseptic surgery Sir Isaiah Berlin, a British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas Léopold Bernhard Bernstamm, a Russian sculptor Andris Biedriņš, a Latvian professional basketball player Gunnar Birkerts, a Latvian-American architect Leonīds Breikšs, a Latvian poet, author, and newspaper editor Tanhum Cohen-Mintz, an Israeli basketball player Jacob W. Davis,(born Jacob Youphes), inventor of jeans (pants) Valdis Dombrovskis, a Latvian politician, Commissioner for Economic and Monetary Affairs and the Euro of the European Commission Kaspars Dubra, a Latvian footballer Mikhail Eisenstein, Latvian architect Sergei Eisenstein, a Soviet Russian film director and film theorist Heinz Erhardt, a Baltic German comedian, musician and entertainer Jakob Benjamin Fischer, a Baltic German naturalist and apothecary Artur Fonvizin, a Soviet painter of watercolours Laila Freivalds, former Swedish Minister for Justice, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister Elīna Garanča, a Latvian operatic mezzo-soprano Zemgus Girgensons, an ice hockey player for the Buffalo Sabres, the highest-ever drafted Latvian in the NHL Entry Draft Philippe Halsman, an American portrait photographer Johann Georg Hamann, German philosopher, teacher of J. G. Herder, the ideologue of Sturm und Drang movement Juris Hartmanis, a prominent Latvian-American computer scientist and computational theorist, a recipient of the Turing Award Nicolai Hartmann, a Baltic German philosopher, one of the most important twentieth century metaphysicians Johann Gottfried Herder, a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic Lola Hoffmann, a physiologist, psychiatrist and guide to self-development and transformation Miervaldis Jursevskis, a Latvian-Canadian chess master Charles Kalme, an American International Master of chess and mathematician Karlis Kaufmanis, astronomer Mstislav Keldysh, a Soviet mathematician, an advocate of the creation of the first artificial satellite Gidon Kremer, a Latvian violinist and conductor Ivan Krylov, a Russian fabulist Yeshayahu Leibowitz, an Israeli public intellectual and polymath DJ Lethal, an American music producer Ernst Munzinger, German Abwehr
Abwehr
(Army intelligence) officer, later anti-Nazi Jeļena Ostapenko
Jeļena Ostapenko
women's professional tennis player "2017 French open winner" Wilhelm Ostwald, a Baltic German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate in 1909 Sandis Ozoliņš, a Latvian ice hockey player, a seven-time NHL All-Star, Stanley Cup
Stanley Cup
champion Marians Pahars, a Latvian footballer Raimonds Pauls, a Latvian composer and piano player Kristjan Jaak Peterson, an Estonian poet Valentin Pikul, a Soviet historical novelist Alfred Rosenberg, a Baltic German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party Johann Steinhauer, an entrepreneur, industrialist and Latvian civil rights pioneer in the 18th century Mikhail Tal, Soviet-Latvian chess grandmaster and the eighth World Chess Champion, nicknamed "The Wizard of Riga" Juris Upatnieks, a Latvian-American physicist and inventor in the field of holography Valdis Valters, a Latvian basketball player Richard Wagner, a German composer, theatre director, polemicist Tatiana Warsher, a Russian archaeologist known for her studies of Pompeii. Friedrich Zander, a Baltic German engineer, designer of the first Soviet liquid-fuelled rocket Walter Zapp, a Baltic German inventor Yosef Mendelevich, a Jewish refusenik from the former Soviet Union, also known as a "Prisoner of Zion" and now a politically unaffiliated rabbi living in Jerusalem who gained fame for his adherence to Judaism and public attempts to emigrate to Israel at a time when it was considered to be against the law in the USSR.

Sister cities[edit]

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See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Latvia Riga
Riga
maintains sister city relationships with the following cities:[80]

Aalborg, Denmark[81][82] Almaty, Kazakhstan[83] Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands[83] Astana, Kazakhstan Beijing, China[84] Bordeaux, France[85][86] Bremen, Free Hanseatic City
City
of Bremen, Germany[87] Cairns, Queensland, Australia Calais, Nord, France Dallas, Texas, United States[88] Florence, Tuscany, Italy Kiev, Ukraine Kobe, Japan[89] Minsk, Belarus Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow, Russia

Norrköping, Sweden Pori, Finland Prague, Czech Republic Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany Saint Petersburg, Russia:[90] Santiago, Chile Stockholm, Sweden Suzhou, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China Taipei, Taiwan[91] Tallinn, Estonia Tashkent, Uzbekistan Tartu, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia
Armenia
(2013)[92] Warsaw, Poland[93]

See also[edit]

Latvia
Latvia
portal

Archbishops of Riga Riga
Riga
City
City
Council Riga
Riga
Charter, on cultural heritage conservation, adopted here in 2000 Riga
Riga
Region Rīgas Satiksme Riga
Riga
Salsa Festival Siege of Riga

References[edit] Notes[edit]

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Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Riga External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Riga.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Riga.

Riga
Riga
Municipality
Municipality
portal Rīga, Latvia
Latvia
at JewishGen

Articles related to Riga

v t e

Riga
Riga
cityscape

Old Town

Castle Cat House Convent Yard Dannenstern House House of the Blackheads House of the Livonian Noble Corporation Large Guild Powder Tower Small Guild Swedish Gate Three Brothers

Hotels

Grand Palace Radisson Blu Daugava Gallery Park

Monuments & memorials

Brothers' Cemetery Bikernieki Memorial Forest Cemetery Freedom Monument Great Cemetery Pokrov Cemetery Victory Memorial to Soviet Army

Parks & gardens

Vērmanes Garden

Museums & galleries

Museum of the History of Riga
History of Riga
and Navigation National Museum of Art Museum of the Occupation of Latvia Latvian Ethnographic Open Air Museum War Museum Museum of Foreign Art Museum of National History

Theatres

Latvian National Opera Latvian National Theatre Palladium Riga New Riga
Riga
Theatre Mikhail Chekhov Riga
Riga
Russian Theatre

Places of worship

Nativity Cathedral Cathedral St. Peter's Church St. James's Cathedral

Bridges

Island Bridge Railway Bridge Southern Bridge Stone Bridge Vanšu Bridge

Structures

Radio and TV Tower

Other

National Library of Latvia Central Market Latvian Academy of Sciences Zoo Mežaparks
Mežaparks
Great Bandstand Palace of Justice Laima Clock

Waterways

Daugava
Daugava
River

Streets

Alberta iela Brīvības iela Kaļķu iela

v t e

Neighbourhoods of Riga

Kurzeme District

Bolderāja Daugavgrīva Dzirciems Iļģuciems Imanta Kleisti Ķīpsala Rītabuļļi Spilve Voleri Zasulauks

Zemgale Suburb

Āgenskalns Atgāzene Beberbeķi Bieriņi Bišumuiža Katlakalns Mūkupurvs Pleskodāle Salas Šampēteris Torņakalns Ziepniekkalns Zolitūde

Northern District

Čiekurkalns Jaunciems Kundziņsala Mangaļsala Mežaparks Mīlgrāvis Pētersala-Andrejsala Sarkandaugava Trīsciems Vecāķi Vecdaugava Vecmīlgrāvis

Vidzeme Suburb

Berģi Brasa Brekši Bukulti Dreiliņi Jugla Mežciems Purvciems Skanste Suži Teika

Central District

Centrs Vecrīga

Latgale Suburb

Avoti Dārzciems Dārziņi Grīziņkalns Ķengarags Maskavas Forštate Pļavnieki Rumbula Šķirotava

v t e

Cities and municipalities in Riga
Riga
Planning Region

Cities:

Riga Jūrmala

Municipalities:

Aloja Ādaži Babīte Baldone Carnikava Engure Garkalne Ikšķile Inčukalns Jaunpils Kandava Krimulda Ķegums Ķekava Lielvārde Limbaži Mālpils Mārupe Ogre Olaine Ropaži Salacgrīva Salaspils Saulkrasti Sēja Sigulda Stopiņi Tukums

v t e

First-level administrative divisions of Latvia

Republican cities:

Daugavpils Jēkabpils Jelgava Jūrmala Liepāja Rēzekne Riga Valmiera Ventspils

Municipalities:

Aglona Aizkraukle Aizpute Aknīste Aloja Alsunga Alūksne Amata Ape Auce Ādaži Babīte Baldone Baltinava Balvi Bauska Beverīna Brocēni Burtnieki Carnikava Cēsis Cesvaine Cibla Dagda Daugavpils Dobele Dundaga Durbe Engure Ērgļi Garkalne Grobiņa Gulbene Iecava Ikšķile Inčukalns Ilūkste Jaunjelgava Jaunpiebalga Jaunpils Jēkabpils Jelgava Kandava Kārsava Kocēni Koknese Krāslava Krimulda Krustpils Kuldīga Ķegums Ķekava Lielvārde Līgatne Limbaži Līvāni Lubāna Ludza Madona Mālpils Mārupe Mazsalaca Mērsrags Naukšēni Nereta Nīca Ogre Olaine Ozolnieki Pārgauja Pāvilosta Pļaviņas Preiļi Priekule Priekuļi Rauna Rēzekne Riebiņi Roja Ropaži Rucava Rugāji Rundāle Rūjiena Salacgrīva Sala Salaspils Saldus Saulkrasti Sēja Sigulda Skrīveri Skrunda Smiltene Stopiņi Strenči Talsi Tērvete Tukums Vaiņode Valka Varakļāni Vārkava Vecpiebalga Vecumnieki Ventspils Viesīte Viļaka Viļāni Zilupe

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Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

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Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

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Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.

Wendish

Lübeck

Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar

Saxon

Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen

Baltic

Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)

Westphalian

Cologne
Cologne
1 Dortmund
Dortmund
1

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest

Kontore

Principal

Bryggen
Bryggen
(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

Steelyard
Steelyard
(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)

Subsidiary

Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
Cologne
and Dortmund
Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin
Zwin
channel.

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World Heritage Sites in Latvia

Historic Centre of Riga Struve Geodetic Arc
Struve Geodetic Arc
(with nine other countries)

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Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest

History Host cities Languages Presenters Rules Voting Winners Winners discography

Contests

1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Countries

Active

Albania Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Malta Moldova Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Inactive

Andorra Bosnia and Herzegovina Luxembourg Monaco Morocco Slovakia Turkey

Former

Lebanon Serbia and Montenegro Yugoslavia

Relations

Armenia–Azerbaijan Russia–Ukraine

National selections

Current

Albania Armenia Belarus Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Israel Italy Latvia Lithuania Malta Moldova Montenegro Norway Poland Portugal Romania Serbia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Ukraine United Kingdom

Former

Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Finland Greece

Ellinikós Telikós Eurosong - A MAD Show

Ireland

The Late Late Show You're a Star

Israel Latvia

Eirodziesma Dziesma

Lithuania Macedonia Malta Montenegro Netherlands Serbia and Montenegro Spain Switzerland United Kingdom Yugoslavia

Other awards

Marcel Bezençon Awards OGAE

OGAE
OGAE
Video Contest OGAE
OGAE
Second Chance Contest

Barbara Dex Award

Television and concerts

Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
Previews Songs of Europe Kvalifikacija za Millstreet Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest Best of Eurovision Eurovision
Eurovision
Song Contest's Greatest Hits

Category Portal

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European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago
Santiago
de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City
City
and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312793147 LCCN: n79013823 GND: 4050042-1 SELIBR: 158158 NDL: 00916865 B

.