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The RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS WING (R previously, both domestic and foreign intelligence had been the purview of the Intelligence Bureau .

During the nine-year tenure of its first Director, Rameshwar Nath Kao , R&AW quickly came to prominence in the global intelligence community, playing a role in major events such as the independence of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and the accession of the state of Sikkim
Sikkim
to India. The agency's primary function is gathering foreign intelligence , engaging in counter-terrorism , promoting counter-proliferation , advising Indian policymakers, and advancing India's foreign strategic interests. It is also involved in the security of India's nuclear programme . Many foreign analysts consider the R&AW to be an effective organisation and identify it as one of the primary instruments of India's national power.

Headquartered in New Delhi, R">:259 The R"> The framework of Indian intelligence

R&AW started as a wing of the main Intelligence Bureau with 250 employees and an annual budget of ₹20 million (US$310,600.00). In the early seventies, its annual budget had risen to ₹300 million (US$4.7 million) while its personnel numbered several thousand. In 1971, Kao had persuaded the Government to set up the Aviation Research Centre (ARC). The ARC's job was aerial reconnaissance . It replaced the Indian Air Force's old reconnaissance aircraft and by the mid-1970s, R&AW, through the ARC, had high quality aerial pictures of the installations along the Chinese and Pakistani borders. Presently, the budget of R&AW is speculated to be as high as US$450 million to as low as US$100 million.

Slowly other child agencies such as The Radio Research Center and Electronics & Tech. Services were added to R&AW in the 1970s and 1990s. In the 1970s the Special Frontier Force
Special Frontier Force
moved to R">:262 In 1977, R&AW's operations and staff were dramatically cut under the Premiership of Morarji Desai , which hurt the organizations capabilities with the shutting of entire sections of R&AW, like its Information Division. These cuts were reduced following Gandhi's return.

In 2004 Government of India
India
added yet another signal intelligence agency called the National Technical Facilities Organisation (NTFO), which was later renamed as National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO). It is believed to be functioning under the titular control of R&AW, although it remains autonomous to some degree. While the exact nature of the operations conducted by NTRO is classified, it is believed that it deals with research on imagery and communications using various platforms.

The Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC), under the Cabinet Secretariat , is responsible for co-ordinating and analysing intelligence activities between R&AW, the Intelligence Bureau and the Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA). In practice, however, the effectiveness of the JIC has been varied. With the establishment of the National Security Council in 1999, the role of the JIC has been merged with the NSC. R&AW's legal status is unusual, in that it is not an "Agency", but a "Wing" of the Cabinet Secretariat. Hence, R&AW is not answerable to the Parliament of India
India
on any issue, which keeps it out of reach of the Right to Information Act
Right to Information Act
. This exemption was granted through Section 24 read with Schedule II of the act. However, information regarding the allegations of corruption and human rights violations has to be disclosed.

OBJECTIVES

The present R&AW objectives include, and are not limited to:

* Monitoring the political, military, economic and scientific developments in countries which have a direct bearing on India's national security and the formulation of its foreign policy. * Moulding international public opinion and influence foreign governments with the help of the strong and vibrant Indian diaspora . * Covert Operations to safe guard India's National interests. * Anti – Terror Operations and neutralising terror elements posing a threat to India.

In the past, following the Sino-Indian war
Sino-Indian war
of 1962 and due to India's volatile relations with Pakistan, R"> Organisational structure of R&AW.

R&AW has been organised on the lines of the CIA
CIA
. The head of R Area two – China and Southeast Asia; Area three – the Middle East and Africa; and Area four – other countries. Two Special
Special
Joint Secretaries, reporting to the Additional Secretary, head the Electronics and Technical Department which is the nodal agency for ETS , NTRO and the RRC . * The Director General of Security has two important sections – the Aviation Research Centre is headed by one Special
Special
Secretary and the Special
Special
Services Bureau controlled by two Special
Special
Secretaries.

The internal structure of the R&AW is a matter of speculation, but brief overviews of the same are present in the public domain. Attached to the Headquarters of R it is either preprocessed by a senior field officer or by a desk officer. The desk officer then passes the information to the Joint Secretary and then on to the Additional Secretary and from there it is disseminated to the concerned end user. R&AW personnel are called "Research Officers" instead of the traditional "agents". There is a sizeable number of female officers in R&AW even at the operational level. In recent years, R&AW has shifted its primary focus from Pakistan
Pakistan
to China and have started operating a separate desk for this purpose.

List of Secretaries of the Research and Analysis Wing
Research and Analysis Wing
NO. NAME TOOK OFFICE LEFT OFFICE NOTES

1 R. N. Kao 1968 1977 Founder of R&AW, ARC • Bangladesh Liberation War
Bangladesh Liberation War
• Operation Smiling Buddha
Smiling Buddha
• Amalgamation of Sikkim
Sikkim
ELINT
ELINT
operation with the CIA
CIA
against China

2 K. Sankaran Nair 1977 1977 Resigned from service in protest of downgrading the designation of Head of R&AW as Director, R&AW instead of Secretary (R).

3 N. F. Suntook 1977 1983 Founder Director of RRC , ETS • Executed operation Lal Dora • He had the unique distinction of working under Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
, Morarji Desai and Charan Singh
Charan Singh
.

4 Girish Chandra Saxena 1983 1986 Collaborated with the Intelligence Agencies of United States, the erstwhile USSR
USSR
, China, Iran
Iran
, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
, etc. • Kanishka Bombing
Kanishka Bombing
Operation Blue Star
Operation Blue Star

5 S. E. Joshi 1986 1987 Continued collaboration with Intelligence Agencies • During his tenure, the post of Director of RA&W was re-designated as Secretary (R) and this designation has continued since then.

6 A. K. Verma 1987 1990 Operation Cactus
Operation Cactus
Indian Peace Keeping Force

7 G. S. Bajpai 1990 1991 Counter Insurgency
Insurgency
operations

8 N. Narasimhan 1991 1993

9 J. S. Bedi 1993 1993 Chief during 1993 Mumbai bombings • Specialist in China, Pakistan and counter terrorism.

10 A. S. Syali 1993 1996 Increased economic surveillance • Emphasis on advanced training and more recruitment

11 Ranjan Roy 1996 1997 Negotiation on Farkhor Air Base

12 Arvind Dave 1997 1999 Kargil War Operation Shakti

13 A. S. Dulat 1999 2000 Negotiated with IC 814 hijackers

14 Vikram Sood 13 December 2000 31 March 2003 Founder of National Technical Facilities Organisation

15 C. D. Sahay 1 April 2003 31 January 2005 Revamped ARC • Inauguration of R&AW headquarters at Lodhi Road, New Delhi

16 P. K. H. Tharakan 1 February 2005 31 January 2007 Was instrumental in setting up of Nuclear Command Authority (India) • negotiated the end of Nepalese Civil War
Nepalese Civil War
by persuading warring parties to sign the Comprehensive Peace Accord .

17 Ashok Chaturvedi 1 February 2007 31 January 2009 Investigation of Samjhauta bombings • Tenure marred by many allegations of nepotism and corruption.

18 K. C. Verma 1 February 2009 30 December 2010 Investigation of 2008 Mumbai attacks

19 Sanjeev Tripathi 30 December 2010 29 December 2012

20 Alok Joshi 30 December 2012 30 December 2014

21 Rajinder Khanna 31 December 2014 31 January 2017

22 Anil Dhasmana 1 February 2017

Most of the Directors/Secretaries of Research and Analysis Wing
Research and Analysis Wing
have been Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
(IPS) officers. R. N. Kao and K. Sankaran Nair belonged to the Imperial Police (IP), of the British colonial days which was renamed as the Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
after Indian Independence in 1947. N. F. Suntook had served in the Indian Navy
Indian Navy
, then in the Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
and in the Indian Frontier Administration Service. Vikram Sood was from the Indian Postal Service and was later permanently absorbed in the RAS cadre. Now he acts as Advisor to Fair Observer. A. S. Dulat was an Indian Police Service officer deputed from the Intelligence Bureau , while K. C. Verma is an ex-Intelligence Bureau officer. All the chiefs have been experts on China or Pakistan
Pakistan
except for Ashok Chaturvedi , who is an expert on Nepal
Nepal
. Designations at R&AW

CLASS I / GROUP A OFFICERS GROUP B / C OFFICERS

Secretary (R) Senior Field Officer

Additional Secretary Field Officer

Special
Special
Secretary/Joint Secretary Deputy Field Officer

Director/Deputy Secretary/Attache Assistant Field Officer

RECRUITMENT

Initially, R&AW relied primarily on trained intelligence officers who were recruited directly. These belonged to the external wing of the Intelligence Bureau . In times of great expansion, many candidates were taken from the military, police and the Indian Revenue Service
Indian Revenue Service
. Later, R&AW began directly recruiting graduates from universities. However owing to allegations of nepotism in appointments, in 1983 R&AW created its own service cadre, the Research and Analysis Service (RAS) to absorb talent from other Group A Civil Services, under the Central Staffing Scheme. Direct recruitment at Class I executive level is from Civil services officers undergoing Foundation course at Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration . At the end of the course, R&AW conducts a campus interview. Based on a selection of psychological tests and the interview, candidates are inducted into R&AW for a lien period of one year. During this period, they have an option of rejoining their parent service (if they wish to) after which they can be permanently absorbed into the Research and Analysis Service. Delhi-based security think tank Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses noted in one of its reports that R&AW suffered from the 'tail-end syndrome' where the 'bottom of the entrance lists' of those qualifying the UPSC examinations were offered jobs. Additionally, recruitment is also by lateral deputation from the Officer corps of Armed Forces or Group A Civil Service Officers. The Civil and Defence Service Officers permanently resign their cadre and join the RAS. However, according to recent reports, officers can return to their parent cadre after serving a specific period in the agency if they wish to. Most of the secretaries have been officers from the IPS and other posts are held by IRS and IFS officers. R&AW also employs a number of linguists and other experts in various fields. The service conditions of R&AW officers are governed by the Research and Analysis Wing (Recruitment, Cadre and Service) Rules, 1975.

TRAINING

Basic training

Basic training commences with 'pep talks' to boost the morale of the new recruit. This is a ten-day phase in which the inductee is familiarised with the real world of intelligence and espionage, as opposed to the spies of fiction. Common usages, tradecraft techniques and classification of information are taught. Financial and economic analysis, Space Technology, Information Security, Energy Security and Scientific knowledge is imbibed to the trainees. The recruit is made to specialise in a foreign language and introduced to Geo strategic analysis. Case studies of other agencies like CIA
CIA
, KGB
KGB
, ISI , Mossad and MI6
MI6
are presented for study. The inductee is also taught that intelligence organisations do not identify who is friend and who is foe, the country's foreign policy does. Basic classroom training in tactics and language are imparted to Rfloat:right;clear:right;width:315px;margin-bottom:0.5em;margin-left:1em;;padding:3px">

METHODS OF INTELLIGENCE COLLECTION

Signals Intelligence – Human Intelligence – Imagery Intelligence – Electronic Intelligence – Measurement & Signature Intelligence – Open Source Intelligence – Communications Intelligence – Foreign instrumentation signals intel – Geospatial Intel – Financial Intelligence – Technical Intelligence – Telemetry Intelligence – Acoustic Intelligence – Infrared Intelligence – Radiation Intelligence

Activities and functions of R&AW are highly confidential and declassification of past operations are uncommon unlike agencies like CIA, MI6
MI6
and Mossad
Mossad
who have many of their activities declassified. The Secretary (R) reported to the Vohra Committee that R&AW offices abroad have limited strength and are largely geared to the collection of military , economic , scientific and political intelligence . R&AW monitors the activities of certain organisations abroad only insofar as they relate to their involvement with narco terrorist elements and smuggling arms, ammunition, explosives, etc. into India. It does not monitor the activities of criminal elements abroad, which are mainly confined to normal smuggling without any links to terrorist elements. However, if there is evidence to suggest that certain organisations have links with Intelligence agencies of other countries, and that they are being used or are likely to be used by such countries for destabilising India's economy, it would become R&AW's responsibility to monitor their activities.

The primary mission of R&AW includes aggressive intelligence collection via espionage, psychological warfare , subversion , sabotage and assassinations . R&AW maintains active collaboration with other secret services in various countries. Its contacts with FSB of Russia, NDS , the Afghan agency, Israel
Israel
's Mossad
Mossad
, the CIA
CIA
and MI6 have been well-known, a common interest being Pakistan's nuclear programme . R&AW has been active in obtaining information and operating through third countries like Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Myanmar
Myanmar
and Singapore.

R&AW obtains information critical to Indian strategic interests both by overt and covert means. The data is then classified and filed with the assistance of the computer networks. International business houses, information technology sector and media centres can easily absorb R&AW operatives and provide freedom of movement. A task force report prepared by a New Delhi-based security think tank highlighted that Rfloat:right;clear:right;width:315px;margin-bottom:0.5em;margin-left:1em;;padding:3px">

ESPIONAGE TECHNIQUES

Agent Handling Black Bag Operations – Black operation Concealment device
Concealment device
Cryptography
Cryptography
Dead drop
Dead drop
Eavesdropping
Eavesdropping
False flag
False flag
operations – Honeypot – Nonofficial cover Interrogation
Interrogation
– Numbers messaging – One-way voice link Steganography
Steganography
Surveillance
Surveillance
TEMPEST
TEMPEST

OPERATIONS

* ELINT
ELINT
OPERATIONS AIMED AT CHINA: After China tested its first nuclear weapons on 16 October 1964, at Lop Nur
Lop Nur
, Xinjiang, India
India
and the USA shared a common fear about the nuclear capabilities of China. Owing to the extreme remoteness of Chinese testing grounds, strict secrecy surrounding the Chinese nuclear programme, and the extreme difficulty that an Indian or American would have passing themselves off as Chinese, it was almost impossible to carry out any HUMINT operation. So, the CIA
CIA
in the late 1960s decided to launch an ELINT operation along with RAW and ARC to track China's nuclear tests and monitor its missile launches. The operation, in the garb of a mountaineering expedition to Nanda Devi
Nanda Devi
involved celebrated Indian climber M S Kohli who along with operatives of Special
Special
Frontier Force and the CIA
CIA
– most notably Jim Rhyne, a veteran STOL
STOL
pilot – was to place a permanent ELINT
ELINT
device, a transceiver powered by a plutonium battery, that could detect and report data on future nuclear tests carried out by China. The monitoring device was near successfully implanted on Nanda Devi
Nanda Devi
, when an avalanche forced a hasty withdrawal. Later, a subsequent mountain operation to retrieve or replant the device was aborted when it was found that the device was lost. Recent reports indicate that radiation traces from this device have been discovered in sediment below the mountain. However, the actual data is not conclusive.

In more recent time, under a security agreement with Mongolia
Mongolia
, R&AW along with NTRO have set up cybertapping infrastructure on the main internet communication cable in Mongolia
Mongolia
which links rest of the world to China. Giving India
India
unparalleled access to monitor and intercept outgoing and incoming internet traffic from China.

* CREATION OF BANGLADESH AND AFTERMATH: In the early 1970s the army of Pakistan
Pakistan
launched military crackdown in response to the Bangladesh
Bangladesh
independence movement . Nearly 10 million refugees fled to India. R&AW was instrumental in the formation of the Bangladeshi guerilla organisation Mukti Bahini
Mukti Bahini
and responsible for supplying information, providing training and heavy ammunition to this organisation. It is also alleged that R&AW planned and executed the 1971 Indian Airlines hijacking as a false flag operation to ban overflight by Pakistani aircraft and disrupt Pakistani troop movement in East Pakistan
Pakistan
. Special Frontier Force
Special Frontier Force
, the paramilitary wing of R&AW actively participated in military operations especially in the Chittagong Hill Tracts
Chittagong Hill Tracts
. The war ended in the successful creation of Bangladesh.However, four years later Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was assassinated on 15 August 1975 at his residence. RAW operatives claimed that they had advance information about Mujib-ur-Rahman\'s assassination but Sheikh Mujib tragically ignored inputs. He was killed along with 40 members of his family. R&AW thus failed to prevent the assassination which led to the loss of a charismatic leader who was appreciative of India
India
for its help. Later, R&AW successfully thwarted plans of assassinating Sheikh Hasina Wazed , daughter of Mujibur Rahman, by Islamist extremists
Islamist extremists
. * OPERATION SMILING BUDDHA : Operation Smiling Buddha
Operation Smiling Buddha
was the name given to India\'s nuclear programme . The task to keep it under tight wraps for security was given to RAW. This was the first time that R&AW was involved in a project inside India. On 18 May 1974, India detonated a 15-kiloton plutonium device at Pokhran
Pokhran
and became a member of the nuclear club. * AMALGAMATION OF SIKKIM : In 1947 Sikkim
Sikkim
became a protectorate under India, which controlled its external affairs, defence, diplomacy and communications. It is alleged that in 1972 R&AW was authorised to install a pro-Indian democratic government there. After widespread rioting and demonstration against the King of Sikkim
Sikkim
in 1975 a referendum was held in which 97.5% of the electorate (in a nation where 59% of the population could vote) voted to join the Indian Union. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim
Sikkim
officially became the 22nd state of the Indian Union, and the monarchy was abolished. * KAHUTA \'S BLUEPRINT: Kahuta
Kahuta
is the site of the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL), Pakistan's main nuclear weapons laboratory as well as an emerging centre for long-range missile development. The primary Pakistani missile-material production facility is located at Kahuta
Kahuta
, employing gas centrifuge enrichment technology to produce Highly Enriched Uranium
Uranium
(HEU). R which showed that Pakistan
Pakistan
had developed the ability to enrich uranium to weapons-grade quality. RAW agents knew of Kahuta
Kahuta
Research Laboratories from at least early 1978, when the then Indian Prime Minister, Morarji Desai
Morarji Desai
, accidentally thwarted R&AW's operations on Pakistan\'s covert nuclear weapons program . In an indiscreet moment in a telephone conversation one day, Morarji Desai informed the then Pakistan
Pakistan
President, Zia-ul-Haq , that India
India
was aware of Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. According to later reports, acting on this "tip-off", Pakistani Intelligence eliminated RAW's sources on Kahuta, leaving India
India
in the dark about Pakistan's nuclear weapons program from then on. * OPERATION LAL DORA : In February 1983, Mauritian Prime Minister Anerood Jugnauth requested assistance from Mrs Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
in the event of a coup by Berenger. In March 1983, Gandhi
Gandhi
ordered the Indian Army and Navy to prepare for a military intervention against a possible coup against the Jugnauth government. But the military intervention was put off by Mrs. Gandhi, after a squabble between the Indian Navy
Indian Navy
and Army, on who would lead the operation. Instead, she chose to task the Research and Analysis Wing's then chief, Nowsher F. Suntook, with supervising a largely intelligence-led operation to reunite the Indian community whose fracturing along ideological and communal lines had allowed Mr. Berenger to mount a political challenge. * OPERATION MEGHDOOT : R&AW received information from the London company which had supplied Arctic-weather gear for Indian troops from Northern Ladakh
Ladakh
region some paramilitary forces that Pakistan
Pakistan
too had bought similar Arctic-weather gear. This information was shared with Indian Army
Indian Army
which soon launched Operation Meghdoot
Operation Meghdoot
to take control of Siachen Glacier with around 300 acclimatised troops were airlifted to Siachen before Pakistan
Pakistan
could launch any operation resulting in Indian head start and eventual Indian domination of all major peaks in Siachen. * KANISHKA BOMBING CASE: On 23 June 1985 Air India's Flight 182 was blown up near Ireland and 329 people died. On the same day, another explosion took place at Tokyo's Narita airport's transit baggage building where baggage was being transferred from Cathay Pacific Flight No CP 003 to Air India
India
Flight 301 which was scheduled for Bangkok
Bangkok
. Both aircraft were loaded with explosives from Canadian airports. Flight 301 got saved because of a delay in its departure. This was considered as a major setback to R&AW for failing to gather enough intelligence about the Khalistani terrorists . * SPECIAL OPERATIONS: In the mid-1980s, R&AW set up two covert groups, Counterintelligence Team-X(CIT-X) and Counterintelligence Team-J(CIT-J), the first directed at Pakistan
Pakistan
and the second at Khalistani groups. Rabinder Singh , the RAW double agent who defected to the United States in 2004, helped run CIT-J in its early years. Both these covert groups used the services of cross-border traffickers to ferry weapons and funds across the border, much as their ISI counterparts were doing. According to former RAW official and noted security analyst B. Raman, the Indian counter-campaign yielded results. "The role of our cover action capability in putting an end to the ISI's interference in Punjab", he wrote in 2002, "by making such interference prohibitively costly is little known and understood." These covert operations were discontinued during the tenure of IK Gujral and were never restarted. As per B Raman the former RAW cabinet secretary, such covert operations were successful in keeping a check on ISI and were "responsible for ending the Khalistani insurgency". He also notes that a lack of such covert capabilities, since they were closed down in 1997, has left the country even more vulnerable than before and says that developing covert capabilities is the need of the hour. * OPERATION CACTUS : In November 1988, the People\'s Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE), composed of about 200 Tamil secessionist rebels, invaded Maldives
Maldives
. At the request of the president of Maldives, Maumoon Abdul Gayoom , the Indian Armed Forces , with assistance from RAW, launched a military campaign to throw the mercenaries out of Maldives. On the night of 3 November 1988, the Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
airlifted the 6th parachute battalion of the Parachute Regiment from Agra
Agra
and flew them over 2,000 km to Maldives
Maldives
. The Indian paratroopers landed at Hulule and restored the Government rule at Malé
Malé
within hours. The operation, labelled Operation Cactus, also involved the Indian Navy
Indian Navy
. Swift operation by the military and precise intelligence by R"> * ANTI-APARTHEID MOVEMENT : R&AW trained the intelligence officers of many independent African countries and assisted the anti-apartheid struggles in South Africa and Namibia
Namibia
. Retired R&AW officers were deputed to work in training institutes of intelligence agencies of some African states. * OPERATION CHANAKYA : This was the RAW operation in the Kashmir region to infiltrate various ISI -backed Kashmiri separatist groups and restore peace in the Kashmir valley. R&AW operatives infiltrated the area, collected military intelligence, and provided evidence about ISI 's involvement in training and funding Kashmiri separatist groups. RAW was successful not only in unearthing the links between the ISI and the separatist groups, but also in infiltrating and neutralising the militancy in the Kashmir valley. RAW is also credited for creating a split in the Hizb-ul-Mujahideen . Operation Chanakya
Chanakya
also marked the creation of pro-Indian groups in Kashmir like the Ikhwan-ul-Muslimeen, Muslim Mujahideen etc. These counter-insurgencies consist of ex-militants and relatives of those slain in the conflict. Ikhwan-ul-Muslimeen leader Kokka Parrey was himself assassinated by separatists. * HELP TO THE NORTHERN ALLIANCE : After the rise of Pakistan
Pakistan
backed Taliban
Taliban
in Afghanistan, India
India
decided to side with the Northern Alliance By 1996, R&AW had built a 25-bed military hospital at the Farkhor Air Base . This airport was used by the Aviation Research Centre , the reconnaissance arm of RAW, to repair and operate the Northern Alliance's aerial support. This relationship was further cemented in the 2001 Afghan war . India
India
supplied the Northern Alliance high altitude warfare equipment worth around US$8–10 million. R&AW was the first intelligence agency to determine the extent of the Kunduz airlift . * KARGIL WAR : R&AW was heavily criticised in 1999, following the Pakistani incursions at Kargil. Critics accused R&AW of failing to provide intelligence that could have prevented the ensuing ten-week conflict that brought India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
to the brink of a full-scale war. While the Army has been critical of the information they received R&AW has pointed the finger at the politicians, claiming they had provided all the necessary information. However, R&AW was successful in intercepting a telephonic conversation between Pervez Musharraf , the then Pakistan
Pakistan
Army Chief who was in Beijing and his chief of staff Lt. Gen. Mohammed Aziz in Islamabad
Islamabad
. This tape was later published by India
India
to prove Pakistani involvement in the Kargil incursion. In 2011, a think tank report stated that RAW had warned in its October 1998 assessment that Pakistan
Pakistan
Army might launch a limited swift offensive with possible support of alliance partners, however the government ignored such reports. * OPERATION LEECH : Surrounded by Arakanese and dense forest, Myanmar
Myanmar
had always been a worrisome point for Indian intelligence. India
India
has sought to promote democracy and install friendly governments in the region. To these ends, RAW cultivated Burmese rebel groups and pro-democracy coalitions, especially the Kachin Independence Army (KIA). India
India
allowed the KIA to carry a limited trade in jade and precious stones using Indian territory and even supplied them weapons. It is further alleged that KIA chief Maran Brang Seng met the RAW chief in Delhi
Delhi
twice. However, when the KIA became the main source of training and weapons for all northeastern rebel groups, R&AW initiated an operation, code named Operation Leech, to assassinate the leaders of the Burmese rebels as an example to other groups. in 1998, six top rebel leaders, including military wing chief of National Unity Party of Arakans (NUPA), Khaing Raza, were shot dead and 34 Arakanese guerrillas were arrested and charged with gunrunning. * WAR ON TERROR : Although R&AW's contribution to the War on Terror is highly classified, the organisation gained some attention in the Western media after claims that it was assisting the United States by providing intelligence on Osama Bin Laden
Osama Bin Laden
and the Taliban
Taliban
's whereabouts. Maps and photographs of terrorist training camps in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan
Pakistan
along with other evidence implicating Osama bin Laden in terrorist attacks were given to US intelligence officials. RAW's role in the War on Terror may increase as US intelligence has indicated that it sees RAW as a more reliable ally than Pakistani intelligence. It has further come to light that a timely tip-off by RAW helped foil a third assassination plot against Pakistan's former President, General Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
. * 2008 MUMBAI ATTACKS : About 2–6 months before 26/11 Mumbai attacks R&AW had intercepted several telephone calls through SIGINT
SIGINT
which pointed at impending attacks on Mumbai Hotels by Pakistan-based terrorists, however there was a co-ordination failure and no follow up action was taken. Few hours before the attacks, a RAW technician monitoring satellite transmissions picked up conversations between attackers and handlers, as the attackers were sailing toward Mumbai. The technician flagged the conversations as being suspicious and passed them on to his superiors. RAW believed that they were worrying and immediately alerted the office of the National Security Advisor. However the intelligence was ignored. Later, just after the terrorists had attacked Mumbai, RAW technicians started monitoring the six phones used by the terrorists and recorded conversations between the terrorists and their handlers. On 15 January 2010, in a successful snatch operation R&AW agents nabbed Sheikh Abdul Khwaja, one of the handlers of the 26/11 attacks, chief of HuJI India operations and a most wanted terror suspect in India, from Colombo
Colombo
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and brought him over to Hyderabad, India
India
for formal arrest. * SNATCH OPERATIONS WITH IB: In late 2009, investigative journal The Week ran a cover story on one of India's major clandestine operations that the R&AW ran with Intelligence Bureau to nab terrorists infiltrating India, via Nepal
Nepal
and other neighbouring countries. To bypass the lengthy extradition process, R&AW conducts snatch operations to nab suspects from various foreign countries. The suspect is brought to India, interrogated in black sites , later shown as arrested at an airport or border post and is usually produced before a court. With emergence of Nepal
Nepal
as a terror transit point R&AW and the IB started closely monitoring the movement of suspected terrorists in Nepal. According to The Week, in last decade there has been close to 400 successful snatch operations conducted by R&AW and/or IB in Nepal, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and other countries. Some famous snatches netted Bhupinder Singh Bhuda of the Khalistan
Khalistan
Commando Force, Lashkar militant Tariq Mehmood and Abdul Karim Tunda , Sheikh Abdul Khwaja, one of the handlers of the 2008 Mumbai attacks, Yasin Bhatkal founder leader of the proscribed terrorist organisation Indian Mujahideen etc. most of the suspects are kept at Tihar Jail . * SRI LANKAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION, 2015 It was alleged by the Sri Lankan newspaper The Sunday Times, that R&AW had played a role in uniting the opposition, to bring about the defeat of Mahinda Rajapaksa . There had been growing concern in the Indian government, on the increasing influence of economic and military rival China in Sri Lankan affairs. Rajapaksa further upped the ante by allowing 2 Chinese submarines to dock in 2014, without informing India, in spite of a stand still agreement to this effect between India
India
and Sri Lanka. The growing Chinese tilt of Rajapaksa was viewed by India
India
with unease. Further, it was alleged, that a RAW agent, helped co-ordination of talks within the opposition, and convincing former PM Ranil Wickremasinghe not to stand against Rajapaksa, but to choose a common opposition candidate, who had better chances of winning. The agent is also alleged to have been in touch with Chandrika Kumaratunga
Chandrika Kumaratunga
, who played a key role in convincing Maithripala Sirisena
Maithripala Sirisena
to be the common candidate. Further, it was alleged, that the Rajapaksa government had expelled the involved R&AW agent in the run-up to presidential election. However these allegations were denied by the Indian Government and the Sri Lankan Foreign Minister Mangala Samaraweera. * OTHER OPERATIONS: On 25 March 2016, Pakistan
Pakistan
claimed that they arrested a RAW operative by the name of Kulbhushan Yadav who was operating in Balochistan province under the covername Hussain Mubarak Patel . Pakistan
Pakistan
claimed that he was carrying a passport under that fake identity and used to operate a jewellery shop in Chahbahar , Iran. He is believed to be a retired commander-ranked officer in Indian Navy
Indian Navy
. According to a section of Pakistani media, He was involved in terrorist incidents in Karachi
Karachi
and Balochistan, most notably the terrorist attack on a bus full of Shia passengers in Safoora Goth , Karachi. However, Indian MEA said that though Yadav was an Indian Navy
Indian Navy
officer who retired prematurely, but he has no link with the government. The Indian High Commission has also sought consular access to Yadav but Pakistan
Pakistan
has not agreed to it. According to Indian sources, Pakistan
Pakistan
has fabricated the documents on the retired naval officer, Kulbhushan Jadhav, and leaked them without realising glaring loopholes in the same. The Iranian President
Iranian President
Hassan Rouhani also, dismissed Pakistan's claim and state them as mere a rumour. According to Indian official, Yadhav owns a cargo business in Iran
Iran
and had been working out of Bandar Abbas
Bandar Abbas
and Chabahar
Chabahar
ports. "It appears that he strayed into Pakistani waters. But there is also a possibility that he was lured into Pakistan
Pakistan
sometime back and fake documents were created on him by the ISI .

CONTROVERSIES

From its inception R&AW has been criticised for being an agency not answerable to the people of India
India
(R&AW reports to Prime Minister only). Fears arose that it could turn into the KGB
KGB
of India. Such fears were kept at bay by the R&AW's able leadership (although detractors of R&AW and especially the Janata Party
Janata Party
have accused the agency of letting itself be used for terrorising and intimidating opposition during the 1975–1977 Emergency ). The main controversy which has plagued R&AW in recent years is over bureaucratisation of the system with allegations about favouritism in promotions, corruption, ego clashes, no financial accountability, inter-departmental rivalry etc. R "while being strong in its capability for covert action it is weak in its capability for intelligence collection, analysis and assessment. Strong in low and medium-grade intelligence, weak in high-grade intelligence. Strong in technical intelligence , weak in human intelligence . Strong in collation, weak in analysis. Strong in investigation, weak in prevention. Strong in crisis management, weak in crisis prevention."

* In the edition of 8 February 2010 Outlook Magazine reported on former R&AW Chief, Ashok Chaturvedi , using Government of India
India
funds to take his wife along on international trips. After retirement, Chaturvedi had a diplomatic passport issued for himself and his wife. Per Outlook Magazine : "Only grade 'A' ambassadors—usually IFS officers posted in key countries like the UK and US—are allowed to hold diplomatic passports after retirement. The majority, who do not fit that bill, hold passports issued to ordinary citizens. In fact, all former R&AW chiefs Outlook spoke to confirmed they had surrendered their diplomatic passports the day they retired. And their spouses weren't entitled to diplomatic passports even while they were in service." * In September 2007, R&AW was involved in a controversy due to a high-profile CBI raid at the residence of Major General (retired) V K Singh, a retired Joint Secretary of R&AW who has recently written a book on R&AW where it was alleged that political interference and corruption in the intelligence agency has made it vulnerable to defections. One of the instances of corruption mentioned in the book was the preference given by R&AW departments towards purchasing intelligence from the Rohde and Schwarz company. A reason for such corruption as explained by the author is that "...R&AW was not answerable to any outside agency – the control of the Prime Minister\'s Office was perfunctory, at best – many officers thought that they were not only above the law but a law unto themselves." A case under the Official Secrets Act has also been filed against V K Singh. * On 19 August 2008 the R&AW Director (Language) who was also head of the R&AW Training Institute in Gurgaon
Gurgaon
from 2005 tried to commit suicide in front of Prime Minister\'s Office , alleging inaction and wrong findings to a sexual harassment complaint filed against a Joint Secretary, who was on deputation to R&AW. She was discharged from duty on the ground that she was mentally unfit and that her identity was disclosed. She was later separately charged with criminal trespass, human trafficking and for her repeated attempts to commit suicide. The Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT) ordered R&AW to reinstate her however R&AW filed an appeal against the CAT order which is pending before Delhi High Court . On 20 January 2011 she was sent for psychological evaluation and medical detention by a Delhi High Court judge when she tried to strip herself in the court protesting over the slow pace of her trial. The psychological evaluation report stated that 'she may be suffering a mental problem due to loss of job and her continuous run-ins at the courts, but she was certainly not suffering from any permanent or grave mental disorder.' On 15 December 2014, the Supreme Court of India
India
quashed the 2008 media release, which proclaimed Ms. Bhatia as mentally unstable, on the ground that it affected the "dignity, reputation and privacy of a citizen". * A senior technical officer was arrested by CBI on graft charges, on 4 February 2009. The scientist, a Director level employee, worked in the division that granted export licenses to companies dealing in "sensitive" items, including defence-related equipment. He was accused of demanding and accepting a bribe of Rs. 100,000 from a Chennai
Chennai
based manufacturer for obtaining an export license. * In September 2009, seven Additional Secretaries from the RAS cadre had gone on protest leave after A. B. Mathur, an IPS officer, superseded them to the post of Special
Special
Secretary. Over the years the tussle between the RAS cadre and officers on deputation from IPS cadre has caused friction in the working of the agency.

DEFECTIONS AND SPY SCANDALS

* In the early 1980s, K.V. Unnikrishnan, a 1962 batch IPS officer, who was posted at R&AW station in Colombo
Colombo
was honeytrapped by CIA. Between 1985 and 1987 when he was deputed as the station chief at Chennai, co-ordinating Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
operations, he gave away information to his handler on training and arming Tamil groups including LTTE, the Indian government's negotiating positions on the peace accord with Sri Lanka and the encryption code used by the agency. He was caught by IB counter-intelligence in 1987, spent a year in Tihar jail and was dismissed from IPS cadre. * In 2004, there was a spy scandal involving the CIA
CIA
. Rabinder Singh , Joint Secretary and the head of R&AW's South East Asia department, defected to America on 5 June 2004. R&AW had already become suspicious about his movements and he was under surveillance for a very long time. Soon he was confronted by Counter Intelligence officials on 19 April 2004. Despite all precautions, Rabinder Singh managed to defect with 'sensitive files' he had allegedly removed from R&AW's headquarters in south New Delhi. This embarrassing fiasco and national security failure were attributed to weak surveillance, shoddy investigation and lack of co-ordination between the Counter Intelligence and Security , Intelligence Bureau (IB) and R&AW. According to unconfirmed reports, Singh has surfaced in Virginia
Virginia
, USA. Recently in an affidavit submitted to the court, R&AW deposed that Singh has been traced in New Jersey
New Jersey
. It has been speculated in the book Mission
Mission
R&AW that although the CIA
CIA
was found directly involved in compromising Singh and Unnikrishnan, at least eight other R&AW officers managed to clandestinely migrate and settle in foreign countries like the US and Canada with the help of their spy agencies. * In 2007, there was a spy scandal involving Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. A Bangladeshi DGFI agent concealed his nationality before joining R&AW, and was known by the name of Diwan Chand Malik in the agency. He was known to have some important intel which was damaging for the national security. He joined the agency in 1999 and used to live in East Delhi . A case of cheating and forgery was filed against him at the Lodhi Colony police station on the basis of a complaint by a senior R&AW official.

NOTABLE OFFICERS

* Rameshwar Nath Kao , founder director * K. Sankaran Nair , former director * B. Raman * Ravindra Kaushik

IN POPULAR CULTURE

Unlike in the Western cultural sphere, which has portrayed its foreign intelligence agencies (such as the CIA
CIA
and MI6
MI6
) in different media forms, Indian authors and actors have been shy to explore the area of espionage, especially R&AW, until the 1990s. Unlike CBI , the federal investigative agency of India
India
, whose existence is known to the majority of people, R&AW receives little to no attention from the populace, which seems to be unaware of the existence of such an organisation or even India's internal intelligence agency, the Intelligence Bureau (IB) . Excessive secrecy surrounding activities and rare declassification of the information are considered to be the major reasons behind this.

Nevertheless, there were films which refer to 'agents', 'espionage' etc. like Aankhen (1968, Ramanand Sagar Production, starring Dharmendra
Dharmendra
, Mala Sinha
Mala Sinha
), Prem Pujari starring Dev Anand in 1970, and Hindustan Ki Kasam (starring Raaj Kumar , Priya Rajvansh in 1973). However, since the late 1990s and early 2000 the following Bollywood and other regional films have openly mentioning R&AW and its allied units, with the intelligence agencies at the centre of the plot.

YEAR NAME OF THE FILM DIRECTOR PLOT SYNOPSIS AND HIGHLIGHTS

1998 Highway Jayaraaj In this Malayalam film Suresh Gopi
Suresh Gopi
plays the role of an undercover R&AW officer investigating a bomb blast.

1998 Such a Long Journey Sturla Gunnarsson Focuses on covert operations by R&AW operative played by Naseeruddin Shah
Naseeruddin Shah
to finance the Bangladeshi rebels. Based on the novel of the same name written by Rohinton Mistry .

2003 The Hero: Love Story of a Spy Anil Sharma Sunny Deol plays the role of a R&AW officer who almost single-handedly derails plans by Pakistan-based jihadi terrorists to get hold of a nuclear weapon in Canada. The film was third highest grosser of the year.

2003 Ottran Ilankannan In the original Tamil film Arjun Sarja
Arjun Sarja
plays the role of an undercover officer working to thwart ISI activities in India. The film was later dubbed in Telegu and titled as Goodachari No. 1.

2004 Asambhav Rajiv Rai Jammel Khan essaying the role of a fictional R&AW agent Atul Bhatnagar helps army special officer played by Arjun Rampal
Arjun Rampal
in rescuing Indian President taken hostage in Switzerland by Islamic millitants.

2008 Mission Istaanbul Apoorva Lakhia Shweta Bhardwaj played the role of Lisa Lobo, a R&AW agent in Istanbul
Istanbul
, who helps journalist Vikas Sagar, played by Zayed Khan
Zayed Khan
, in foiling the anti- India
India
terrorist attempts by a terror group.

2008 Maan Gaye Mughal-e-Azam Sanjay Chhel Rahul Bose
Rahul Bose
plays a R&AW officer (Arjun Rastogi) who attempts to thwart explosives delivery in the city.

2008 Chamku Kabeer Kaushik R&AW led by Irrfan Khan is shown as undertaking a covert program much in the lines of the Bourne series to build up a black team composed of Bobby Deol as Jaived Pratap Singh aka Chamku, Riteish Deshmukh as Arjun Tiwari and others for political assassinations.

2008 Dasavathaaram
Dasavathaaram
K. S. Ravikumar Kamal Hasan essayed the role of a Telugu R&AW operative in the original Tamil film. The film was later dubbed into a Hindi version titled Dashavatar where the ethnicity of the R&AW operative was changed to Bengali .

2011 Aazaan Prashant Chadha The film portrays Sachiin J Joshi as a R&AW officer who has to go undercover beyond enemy lines to save the country from the threat of biological warfare. It is one of the most expensive B-grade films in Bollywood
Bollywood
.

2012 Agent Vinod Sriram Raghavan Saif Ali Khan plays the titular character of a James Bondesque R&AW officer who foils a false flag operation to start a nuclear war between India
India
and Pakistan.

2012 Ek Tha Tiger Kabir Khan Salman Khan
Salman Khan
plays the titular role of an accomplished R&AW field officer who falls in love with an ISI agent played by Katrina Kaif
Katrina Kaif
and both desert their agencies. It was alleged that the film is inspired by the life of Ravinder Kaushik , a deep penetration agent of R&AW. The film is the one of the highest-grossing Bollywood
Bollywood
films of all time.

2012 Thandavam A. L. Vijay Vikram plays the central role of a R&AW agent retrieving a WMD .

2013 D-Day Nikhil Advani Arjun Rampal
Arjun Rampal
, Irrfan Khan and Huma Qureshi play a R&AW snatch team in a fictitious operation to capture Dawood Ibrahim alive and bring back to India.

2013 Madras Cafe Shoojit Sircar John Abraham plays an Army officer absorbed into R&AW to head covert operations in Jaffna
Jaffna
shortly after Indian peace-keeping force was forced to withdraw. As he journeys to Sri Lanka, with the intention of disrupting the LTF rebels, he becomes entangled in rebel and military politics and uncovers a conspiracy to assassinate "a former Indian prime minister" which he fails to prevent.

2013 Vishwaroopam Kamal Hasan Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
again played the character of a R&AW agent in this multilingual film, which explores the R&AW operation in Afghanistan and US to bring down terrorists affiliated to Al Queda .

2014 Bang Bang! Siddharth Anand
Siddharth Anand
An authorised remake of Knight and Day
Knight and Day
, the film portrayed Hrithik Roshan as intelligence agent Rajveer Nanda assigned to lead a joint operation of 'Indian Secret Service' (a fictional organisation loosely based on R&AW) and MI6
MI6
to stop a wanted terrorist Omar Zafar (played by Danny Denzongpa
Danny Denzongpa
) from stealing Koh-i-Noor
Koh-i-Noor
Diamond from Tower of London .

2015 Baby Neeraj Pandey Akshay Kumar
Akshay Kumar
plays an action hero character partly inspired from Jack Bauer and the Mission
Mission
impossible film series . He leads a covert operation team of an Indian intelligence agency and helps in abducting and exfiltration of a Hafiz Muhammad Saeed -esque target from Saudi Arabia .

2015 Phantom Kabir Khan Saif Ali Khan plays role of disgraced army officer trying to regain his honour and Katrina Kaif
Katrina Kaif
plays role of deepcover R&AW officer. In the film they are tasked by R&AW with 'out of the book' assassination of masterminds of 26/11 attacks namely Hafiz Muhammad Saeed and Zaki ur Rehman Lakhvi in Pakistan
Pakistan
and David Coleman Headley in an US prison. A spiritual sequel to Agent Vinod .

2016 Ambarsariya Mandeep Kumar

2016 Force 2 Abhinay Deo
Abhinay Deo

2017 Naam Shabana Shivam Nair It is a spin-off prequel to the 2015 film Baby with Taapsee Pannu reprising her role as Shabana. She is sent to kill Mikhail, an international arm dealer who has been on the radar of several intelligence agencies with the help of other R&AW agents, Ajay Singh ( Akshay Kumar
Akshay Kumar
) and Om Prakash Shukla ( Anupam Kher
Anupam Kher
).

The thriving entertainment channels in India
India
have started to tap into the theme of Intelligence agencies. 2612 which used to air on Life OK , featured Cabir Maira as a R&AW agent Anand Swami who helps a STF officer Randeep Rathore to save the country from a terrorist attack. Time Bomb 9/11, a series aired on Zee TV
Zee TV
, featured Rajeev Khandelwal in the role of a R&AW field officer who attempts to defuse a nuclear bomb set in India, as well as saving the life of the Indian prime minister. Zee Bangla featured a serial named Mohona where the chief protagonist is a R&AW officer. Sajda Tere Pyar Mein a series on Star Plus , features Shaleen Bhanot in the role of a R&AW officer who asks a young woman named Aliya for help in catching a spy named Mahendra Pratap. The Indian version of 24 has a host of characters affiliated to R -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

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spy scandal – Jane\'s Security News". Janes.com. 11 September 2001. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ US Warned India
India
of Mumbai Attack * ^ India\'s lack of preparedness raised Mumbai death toll Archived 14 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Lessons of Mumbai, Rand Corporation, p19 * ^ Virsanghvi.com Archived 27 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Hindustantimes.com Archived 26 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ 26/11 attacks handler arrested Hindustan Times, Abhishek Sharan & Ashok Das, Delhi/Hyderabad, 18 January 2010 Archived 29 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Home". theweek.in. Retrieved 25 March 2016. * ^ "Intelligence op that spanned 3 nations, 20 yrs led to Tunda\'s arrest". Hindustan Times. 18 August 2013. Archived from the original on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013. * ^ "Terror vet falls into net". The Telegraph. 17 August 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013. * ^ "RAW & IB\'s biggest anti-terror covert ops abroad". Defence.pk. Retrieved 28 May 2012. * ^ Chalmers, John; Miglani, Sanjeev (17 January 2015). "Indian spy\'s role alleged in Sri Lankan president\'s election defeat" (US). Reuters. Retrieved 2 February 2015. * ^ Singh, Neha (18 January 2015). " Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Elections: Was India\'s RAW Behind Rajapaksa\'s Defeat?". International Business Times. Retrieved 2 February 2015. * ^ "INdia\'s RAW joined hands of Ranil & Chandrika to settle on Mathiri as Opposition Candidate...". Lanka Newspapers. 15 January 2015. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015. * ^ Chalmers, John; Miglani, Sanjeev (19 January 2015). "Indian spy expelled, accused of helping oust Sri Lankan president Mahinda Rajapaksa". The Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney). Retrieved 2 February 2015. * ^ "Beyond the rainbow revolution". The Economist. 19 January 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015. * ^ Anthony, Jerome (18 January 2015). "Indian spy accused of helping opposition win Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
elections". International Business Times. Retrieved 2 February 2015. * ^ " India
India
denies RAW deal in Sri Lanka\'s recent elections". Hindustan Times (New Delhi). 19 January 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015. * ^ "SL election won by the people, not by RAW-Mangala". Daily Mirror. 19 January 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2015. * ^ "New Delhi
Delhi
admits spy served in Indian Navy". The Express Tribune. 26 March 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016. * ^ Mateen Haider, Shakeel Qarar (25 March 2016). " India
India
accepts \'spy\' as former navy officer, denies having links". DAWN. Retrieved 26 March 2016. * ^ "RAW agent reveals, more spies present to destabilize Pakistan". geo.tv. Retrieved 27 March 2016. * ^ "Dunya News reveals undeniable facts about arrested RAW agent – Pakistan
Pakistan
– Dunya News". dunyanews.tv. Retrieved 25 March 2016. * ^ "Alleged \'Indian spy\' arrested in Pakistan
Pakistan
has no connection with govt: MEA to Islamabad". Zee News. Retrieved 26 March 2016. * ^ A B C " Iran
Iran
President Dismisses Pakistan\'s RAW Spy Claim". The New Indian Express. * ^ Watch, Naxal (15 February 2009). "IntelliBriefs: Special report: New Era, New Hope at India\'s Intelligence Agency". Intellibriefs.blogspot.com. Retrieved 4 March 2010. * ^ C K Kutty. A RAW Hand * ^ "Can its new chief turn R&AW around?: Rediff.com
Rediff.com
news". Rediff.com. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ "India\'s Independent Weekly News Magazine". Tehelka. Retrieved 28 May 2012. * ^ Singh, Brijesh (13 September 2014). "Why Intel Agencies are wary of Hiring Muslims and Sikhs". Tehelka. 11 (37). * ^ 'The Kaoboys of RAW: Down Memory Lane', B. Raman, Lancer Publishers (2007), ISBN 0-9796174-3-X * ^ Spooks in the machine * ^ Outlook reports on RAW corruption: Outlookindia.com * ^ Singh VK. India's External Intelligence: Secrets of Research and Analysis Wing (RAW). New Delhi: Manas Publications. Pg 87 * ^ Singh VK. India's External Intelligence: Secrets of Research and Analysis Wing (RAW). New Delhi: Manas Publications. Pg 12 * ^ RAW man protests CBI raid on his home over story book. Retrieved 24 September 2007 * ^ "\'Sexually harassed but no one listening\': suicide bid at PMO by RAW director". The Indian Express. 20 August 2008. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ RAW officer attempts suicide near PMO (19 August 2008). "RAW officer attempts suicide near PMO". NDTV.com. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ "RAW officer attempts suicide at PMO". Newstrackindia.com. 20 August 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ "Ms. Nisha Priya Bhatia vs Cabinet Secretariat (R ) on 31 December, 2009". Indiankanoon.org. Retrieved 28 May 2012. * ^ A B C "No \'grave\' mental disorder, institute seeks review in trial of ex-RAW official". The Indian Express. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2012. * ^ "Arrested RAW director gets bail in trespass case". The Indian Express. 10 December 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2012. * ^ "Former RAW official tries to undress in court". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. * ^ "CAT snubs R&AW, reinstates officer". The Indian Express. 19 March 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2012. * ^ "No \'grave\' mental disorder, institute seeks review in trial of ex-RAW official". The Indian Express. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2012. * ^ "Ex-RAW official to stay in medical detention". The Times of India. 28 January 2011. * ^ "Protesting slow pace of trial, woman strips in HC". The Times of India. 21 January 2011. * ^ "Former RAW official strips in Delhi
Delhi
court – India
India
News – IBN7". Ibnlive.in.com. 21 January 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2012. * ^ Correspondent, Legal (15 December 2014). "Sanity slur off". Calcutta Telegraph. Retrieved 16 December 2014. * ^ "Front Page : RAW official arrested on graft charge". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ "The Daily Mail – Daily News from india – Newspaper from Pakistan". Dailymailnews.com. 1 February 2009. Archived from the original on 12 February 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ "India\'s spies the latest to go on strike: Rediff.com
Rediff.com
news". Rediff.com. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ "IPS promoted, RAW officials strike with a holiday – Yahoo! India
India
News". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ "Spy Versus Spy Saikat Datta". Outlookindia.com. Retrieved 28 May 2012. * ^ Unnithan, Sandip (29 August 2013). " Madras Cafe brings back uncomfortable memories of the CIA\'s honey trap". India
India
Today. Retrieved 11 September 2013. * ^ Gupta, Shekhar (11 September 2013). "Such a long Lankan journey". The Indian Express. Retrieved 11 September 2013. * ^ Bahdwar, Inderjit (30 September 1987). "Spy Catching" (PDF). India
India
Today. Retrieved 11 September 2013. * ^ "India\'s CIA
CIA
spy scandal". Janes.com. 11 September 2001. Archived from the original on 25 February 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ C K Kutty. Did the CIA
CIA
help Rabinder Singh flee? * ^ "Rabindra "spy" Singh surfaces in Virginia". Hvk.org. Archived from the original on 23 September 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ "Rabinder in US, we want him back: RAW in court". The Indian Express. 2 November 2006. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ Yadav, Yatish. "Former Spy Reveals Secrets of Research and Analysis Wing". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 6 April 2014. * ^ "Bangladeshi worked for RAW for 6 years- Hindustan Times". Newsrack.in. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ Bangladeshi worked for RAW for 6 years Archived 3 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Peter Young (3 August 1979). "Ankhen (1968)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 25 March 2016. * ^ "Such a Long Journey". Reelviews.net. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ Hitting Pakistan
Pakistan
is Bollywood\'s formula as. Retrieved 4 April 2007 Archived 11 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ " Asambhav (2004)". Internet Movie Database. 23 July 2004. Retrieved 25 March 2016. * ^ Anand Vaishnav (2 May 2009). "REVIEW: 10 Kamals in Dashavatar- Buzz18 Entertainment". India: Buzz18.in.com. Archived from the original on 20 April 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ "\'Dasavathaaram\' – 10 Kamals too many Bollywood
Bollywood
News – Yahoo! India
India
Movies". Yahoo!. Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ "HindustanTimes-Print". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ "AAZAAN-one of the most expensive films of Bollywood
Bollywood
– Yahoo!! OMG! India". Yahoo!. 9 September 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2011. * ^ Singh, Dalip (30 December 2002). "Frontpage". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. Retrieved 18 September 2012. * ^ "Dead RAW agent\'s nephew takes Salman\'s Ek Tha Tiger producers to court". Indiatvnews.com. 28 July 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012. * ^ Udita Jhunjhunwala (5 August 2013). " Madras Cafe courts controversy with Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
war references". Livemint. Retrieved 18 August 2013. * ^ "\'Madras Cafe\' defines cinema I stand for: John Abraham". The Times of India. 12 July 2013. Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013. * ^ "Madras Cafe: Bollywood
Bollywood
film stirs up a storm in India". BBC. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 25 August 2013. * ^ "Madras CafÃ". The Times of India. 11 July 2013. Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2013. * ^ Dubey, Bharati. "No \'Baby\' in Pakistan?". Retrieved 23 January 2015. * ^ Maderya, Kumuthan. "The Myth of the Global Brown Messiah in Kollywood Cinema". PopMatters. Retrieved 7 August 2014. * ^ Sampath, Jananai (1 September 2013). "Foreign baddies muscle into Tamil cinema". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 7 August 2014.

FURTHER READING

* Inside RAW, Ashok Raina, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, 1981 * Smash and grab: Annexation of Sikkim, Sunanda K Datta-Ray, Tranquebar, 1984 * Open Secrets: India's Intelligence Unveiled – Maloy Krishna Dhar, New Delhi, Manas Publication, 2005 ISBN 81-7049-240-8 * Mission
Mission
to Pakistan: An Intelligence Agent in Pakistan
Pakistan
Maloy Kri. Dhar, Manas Publication, 1 January 2002, ISBN 978-81-7049-148-4 * Mission: Pakistan, Maloy Krishna Dhar, iUniverse (January 2004), ISBN 978-0-595-30482-0 * Fulcrum of Evil: ISI, CIA
CIA
and Al qaeda Nexus – Maloy K Dhar, New Delhi, Manas Publication, 2006, ISBN 81-7049-278-5 . * Sin of National conscience – R.N. Kulkarni, Mysore: Kritagnya Publication, 2004. * Intelligence: Past, Present, Future – B.R. Raman * Indians Hand Evidence on bin Laden to US, Herald Sun , 17 September 2001. * The KaoBoys of RAW: Down Memory Lane, B. Raman, Lancer Publishers (2007), ISBN 0-9796174-3-X * Inside IB and RAW: The Rolling stone that gathered moss, K. Sankaran Nayar, Manas Publication * RAW: Global and Regional Ambitions edited by Rashid Ahmad Khan and Muhammad Saleem, Islamabad
Islamabad
Policy Research Institute, Asia Printers, Islamabad, 2005 * The Game Of Foxes: J-K Intelligence War, Manoj Joshi, Times Of India, 16 July 1994 * Indian Spy Agency's Machinations, Islamabad
Islamabad
, The Muslim, 18 December 1996 p6 * RAW: Research and Analysis Wing
Research and Analysis Wing
– Tariq Ismail Sagar, Sagar Publication. See also: E-buyer in soup for Pak writer\'s book on RAW. Retrieved 27 July 2007. * Soft Target: How the Indian Intelligence Service Penetrated Canada – Zuhair Kashmeri and Brian McAndrew, Toronto: James Lorimer, 1989. * Spies in the Himalayas: Secret Missions and Perilous Climbs. – MS Kohli and Kenneth Conboy, Ed. KS Lawrence, University of Kansas Press, 2003. * Intelligence: A Security Weapon, DC Pathak, New Delhi: Manas Publication, 2003. * Indian intervention in Sri Lanka: The role of India\'s intelligence agencies, Rohan Gunaratna, South Asian Network on Conflict Research, 1993, ISBN 955-95199-0-5 * India's External Intelligence: Secrets of Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), Maj. Gen. V.K Singh, Manas Publications, ISBN 81-7049-332-3 * Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth (2004). Encyclopedia of espionage, intelligence, and security. Detroit: Thomson/Gale. ISBN 0-7876-7687-X . * Assignment Colombo, J.N. Dixit, Konark Publishers Pvt. Ltd, Delhi, 1998. * Escape To Nowhere – Amar Bhushan, Konark publishers, 2012, ISBN 9789322008109 * Mission
Mission
R;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Indian intelligence agencies

NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL

* National Security Council * National Security Advisor * Joint Intelligence Committee * National Technical Research Organisation

INTERNAL SECURITY

* Intelligence Bureau * Central Bureau of Investigation
Central Bureau of Investigation
* National Investigation Agency
National Investigation Agency
* All India
India
Radio Monitoring Service * Narcotics Control Bureau
Narcotics Control Bureau

EXTERNAL INTELLIGENCE

* Research and Analysis Wing * Aviation Research Centre * Radio Research Center * Electronics and Technical Services

DEFENCE INTELLIGENCE

* Defence Intelligence
Defence Intelligence
Agency * Directorate of Military Intelligence * Directorate of Naval Intelligence * Directorate of Air Intelligence * Image Processing and Analysis Centre * Directorate of Signals Intelligence * Joint Cipher Bureau

ECONOMIC INTELLIGENCE

* Economic Intelligence Council * Central Economic Intelligence Bureau * Directorate of Revenue Intelligence * Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation * Directorate General of Economic Enforcement

* v * t * e

India
India
topics

HISTORY

OVERVIEWS

* Timeline * Years

* Astronomy * Economics * Linguistics * Maritime * Mathematics * Metallurgy * Military * Postal * Science and technology

PRE-COLONIAL

* Stone Age * Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
* Vedic period
Vedic period
* Mahajanapadas * Mauryas * Middle kingdoms * Hoysala * Chola * Pala * Kakatiya * Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate * Vijayanagara * Mughals * Marathas * European trade

* Colonial * Princely

* East India
India
Company * Plassey * 1857 rebellion * British Raj * Railways * Economy * Army * Zamindari * Bengali renaissance
Bengali renaissance
* Political reforms * Princely states * Partition of Bengal * Independence movement * 1943 famine * World War II * Partition

REPUBLIC

* Integration * Non-Aligned Movement * Five-Year Plans * Sino-Indian War
Sino-Indian War
* Indo-Pakistani wars * Green Revolution * White Revolution * Naxal Insurgency
Insurgency
* Smiling Buddha
Smiling Buddha
* Space programme * The Emergency * Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) * Economic liberalisation * Pokhran-II
Pokhran-II

GEOGRAPHY

ENVIRONMENT

* Biosphere reserves

* Climate

* Climatic regions

* Earthquakes * Ecoregions * Environmental issues * Fauna * Flora * Geology * National parks * Protected areas * Wildlife * sanctuaries

LANDFORMS

* Beaches * Desert * Extreme points * Glaciers * Islands * Lakes * Mountains

* Plains

* Indo-Gangetic * Eastern coastal * Western coastal

* Rivers * Valleys * Volcanoes * Waterfalls

REGIONS

* East * North * Northeast * South * West

SUBDIVISIONS

* Autonomous administrative divisions * Cities * Districts * Municipalities * States and territories

POLITICS

GOVERNMENT

* Agencies * Energy policy * Foreign relations * Parliament * President * Vice President * Prime Minister * Union Council of Ministers * Civil Services * Cabinet Secretary * State governments

LAW

* Chief Justice * Constitution * District Courts * Fundamental rights, principles and duties * High Courts * Human rights * Supreme Court

ENFORCEMENT

FEDERAL

* Border Security Force
Border Security Force
(BSF) * Central Industrial Security Force
Central Industrial Security Force
(CISF) * Central Reserve Police Force
Central Reserve Police Force
(CRPF) * Indo-Tibetan Border Police
Indo-Tibetan Border Police
(ITBP) * National Security Guard (NSG) * Railway Protection Force
Railway Protection Force
(RPF) * Sashastra Seema Bal
Sashastra Seema Bal
(SSB) * Special
Special
Protection Group (SPG)

INTELLIGENCE

* Bureau of Police Research and Development
Bureau of Police Research and Development
(BPR&D) * Central Bureau of Investigation
Central Bureau of Investigation
(CBI) * Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) * Enforcement Directorate
Enforcement Directorate
* Intelligence Bureau (IB) * Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) * Narcotics Control Bureau
Narcotics Control Bureau
(NCB) * National Investigation Agency
National Investigation Agency
(NIA) * Research and Analysis Wing (Rborder-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Army * Navy * Air Force

POLITICS

* Censorship * Elections * Nationalism

* Parliament

* Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
* Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha

* Political parties

* INC * BJP * BSP * CPI * CPM * NCP

* Reservations * Scandals * Scheduled groups * Secularism

ECONOMY

COMPANIES

* BSE SENSEX
BSE SENSEX
* CNX Nifty * Government-owned companies * List of companies

GOVERNANCE

* Ministry of Finance

* Finance ministers

* Ministry of Commerce and Industry

* Commerce ministers

* Finance Commission * Planning Commission * Economic Advisory Council
Economic Advisory Council
* Central Statistical Office * Securities and Exchange Board of India
India
* Enforcement Directorate
Enforcement Directorate
* Foreign trade * Remittances * Taxation * Subsidies * Industrial licensing * Voluntary guidelines * NITI Aayog * Make in India
India
* FDI in India
India

CURRENCY

* Indian rupee

* History * Historical exchange rates data of the Indian rupee * Coinage

* Reserve Bank of India
India

* Governors

* India
India
Government Mint

FINANCIAL SERVICES

* Banking

* Banks

* Insurance * Foreign exchange reserves * Bombay Stock Exchange * National Stock Exchange * Multi Commodity Exchange * Bullion * Black money

HISTORY

* Economic Development * Economic liberalisation * Licence Raj
Licence Raj
* Green revolution * Government initiatives * Numbering system

PEOPLE

* Billionaires * Businesspeople * Demography

* Income

* Poverty

* Labour law

* Pensions

* EPFO * NPS * PPF

STATES

* Andhra Pradesh * Assam * Bihar * Goa * Gujarat * Haryana * Himachal Pradesh * Jammu and Kashmir * Karnataka * Kerala * Madhya Pradesh * Maharashtra * Manipur * Mizoram * Nagaland * Odisha * Punjab * Rajasthan * Tamil Nadu * Telangana * Uttarakhand * Uttar Pradesh * West Bengal

SECTORS

* Agriculture

* Livestock * Fishing

* Automotive * Defence * Construction * Education

* Energy

* Nuclear * Solar * Wind

* Entertainment * Forestry * Gambling * Healthcare * Information technology

* Media

* Cinema * Television * Printing

* Mining * Pharmaceuticals * Retail

* Science and technology

* Biotechnology

* Telecommunications * Textiles * Tourism

* Transport

* Aviation

* Civil

* Ports * Rail

* Utilities

* Electricity * Water

* Society * Culture

SOCIETY

* Caste system * Corruption * Demographics

* Education

* Universities in India
India
* Medical colleges in India
India
* Law colleges in India
India
* Engineering colleges in India
India

* Ethnic relations

* Healthcare

* Hospitals in India
India

* Languages * Literacy * Poverty * Prisons * Religion * Socio-economic issues * Standard of living * Water supply and sanitation

CULTURE

* Arts and entertainment * Architecture * Blogging * Cinema

* Comics

* Webcomics

* Cuisine

* wine

* Dance * Dress * Folklore * Festivals * Literature

* Media

* television

* Martial arts * Music * Public holidays * Sport

* v * t * e

National intelligence agencies

Foreign intelligence

* Afghanistan: NDS * Albania: SHISH
SHISH
* Algeria: DRS * Argentina: AFI * Armenia: SNB * Australia: ASIS * Azerbaijan: MTN * Bahrain: NSA * Bangladesh: NSI * Belarus: KGB
KGB
RB * Belgium: ADIV/SGRS * Bosnia and Herzegovina: OSA-OBA * Brazil: ABIN * Brunei: BRD * Bulgaria: NRS * Cameroon: BMM * Canada: CSIS * Chad: ANS * Chile: ANI * China: MSS * Croatia: SOA * Cuba: DI * Czech Republic: ÚZSI * Denmark: FE * Djibouti: BSRG * Ecuador: SENAIN * Egypt: Mukhabarat * Estonia: EFIS * France: DGSE * Gambia: SIS * Georgia: GIS * Germany: BND * Ghana: BNI , BGU , RDU * Greece: EYP * Hungary: IH * India: RAW * Indonesia: BIN * Iran: VAJA * Iraq: GSD * Ireland: G2 * Israel: Mossad
Mossad
* Italy: AISE * Ivory Coast: NSC * Japan: NPA * CIRO * Jordan: GID * Kazakhstan: Syrbar * Kenya: NIS * Kyrgyzstan: SNB * Kuwait: KSS * Latvia: SAB * Lithuania: VSD * Lebanon: GDGS * Libya: MJ * Republic of Macedonia: UBK * Malaysia: MEIO * Maldives: NSS * Mexico: CISEN * Mongolia: GIA * Montenegro: ANB * Morocco: DGST * Mozambique: SISE * Netherlands: AIVD * New Zealand: NZSIS * Nigeria: NIA * North Korea: RGB * Norway: E-tjenesten * Pakistan: ISI * Papua New Guinea: NIO * Philippines: NICA * Poland: AW * Portugal: SIED * Qatar: QSS * Romania: SIE * Russia: SVR * Saudi Arabia: Al Mukhabarat Al A\'amah * Serbia: BIA * Sierra Leone: CISU * Singapore: SID * Slovakia: SIS * Slovenia: SOVA * Somalia: NISA * South Africa: SSA * South Korea: NIS * Spain: CNI * Sri Lanka: SIS * Sudan: JAWM * Sweden: KSI * Switzerland: NDB * Syria: GSD * Taiwan: NSB * Tajikistan: MoS * Thailand: NIA * Togo: NIA * Tunisia: TIA * Turkey: MİT * Turkmenistan: KNB * Uganda: ISO * Ukraine: SZRU * United Arab Emirates: UAEI * United Kingdom: SIS (MI6) * United States: CIA
CIA
* Uzbekistan: SNB * Vietnam: TC2

Domestic intelligence

* Algeria: DRS * Argentina: AFI * Australia: ASIO * Azerbaijan: MTN * Bangladesh: SB * Belarus: KGB
KGB
RB * Belgium: VS/SE * Bosnia and Herzegovina: SIPA * Brazil: PF * Brunei: IRD * Canada: CSIS * Chile: ANI * China: MSS * Croatia: SOA * Czech Republic: BIS * Denmark: PET * Egypt: EHS * Estonia: KAPO * Finland: SUPO * France: DGSI * Germany: BfV * Ghana: GPS , CID * Greece: EYP * Hungary: AH * India: IB , CBI , NSC , AIRMS * Iran: VAJA , AJA , IRGC , PAVA * Ireland: CSB , SDU , NSU * Israel: Shin Bet
Shin Bet
* Italy: AISI * Kazakhstan: NSC * Kenya: NIS * Latvia: DP * Lithuania: STT * Republic of Macedonia: IA * Malaysia: SB * Japan: NPA , PSIA * Netherlands: NCTb
NCTb
* New Zealand: NZSIS * Nigeria: SSS * Norway: PST * North Korea: SSD * Oman: ISS * Pakistan: IB , FIA * Philippines: NBI * Poland: ABW * Portugal: SIS * Romania: SRI * Russia: FSB * Saudi Arabia: Mabahith
Mabahith
* Serbia: BIA * Singapore: ISD * South Africa: SSA * South Korea: SPO * Spain: CITCO * Sri Lanka: SIS * Sweden: SÄPO * Switzerland: NDB * Syria: GSD * Taiwan: MJIB * Thailand: ISOC , SB * Turkey: KDGM * Ukraine: SBU * United Kingdom: Security Service (MI5) , NDEDIU , NCA , NBIS * United States: FBI * Uzbekistan: SNB * Venezuela: SEBIN * Vietnam: TC5 * Zimbabwe CIO

Military intelligence

* Australia: DIO * Bangladesh: DGFI * Belgium: ADIV/SGRS * Brazil: DIE * Canada: Int Branch * China: MID * Croatia: VSOA * Czech Republic: VZ * Denmark: FE * Egypt: DMISR * Finland: FMIS * France: DRM , DGSE * Germany: MAD * Ghana: MIU * Hungary: KNBSZ * Iran: General Staff , SAHEFAJA , SAHEFASA , SAHEFANAJA , SAHEFAVEDJA * India: DMI , DIA * Indonesia: BAIS * Ireland: G2 * Israel: Aman * Italy: CII * Japan: MIC * Kazakhstan: NSC * Lithuania: AOTD * Republic of Macedonia: MSSI * Malaysia: DSID * Morocco: DGED * Netherlands: MIVD * New Zealand: DDIS * Norway: E-tjenesten * Pakistan: MI , NI , AI * Philippines: ISAFP * Poland: SKW , SWW * Portugal: CISMIL * Romania: DGIA * Russia: GRU * Serbia: VOA , VBA * Singapore: MIO * Slovakia: VSS * Slovenia: OVS * South Africa: SANDF-ID * South Korea: DSC * Spain: Armed Forces Intelligence Center * Sri Lanka: DMI * Sweden: MUST * Switzerland: MND * Syria: MI , AFID * Taiwan: MND * Thailand: AFSC * Turkey: GENKUR İ.D.B. , JİTEM * Ukraine: HUR MO * United Kingdom: DI * United States: DIA * Venezuela: DGCIM * Vietnam: TC2

Signals intelligence

* Australia: ASD * Brazil: 2ª Sch/EMD * Canada: CSE * China: SIGINT
SIGINT
* Croatia: OTC * Finland: FIRE * France: DGSE * Germany: BND * Ghana: RDU * India: JCB ,NTRO * Indonesia: LEMSANEG * Ireland: CIS * Israel: 8200 * Japan: DIH * Kazakhstan: NSC * Netherlands: AIVD * New Zealand: GCSB * Pakistan: JSIB * Russia: Spetssvyaz * South Africa: SSA * Sweden: FRA * Switzerland: NDB * Syria: MI * Turkey: MİT-ETİB , MİT-SİB * Ukraine: Derzhspetszviazok * United Kingdom: GCHQ * United States: NSA

Imagery intelligence

* Australia: AGO * India: DAI * New Zealand: GEOINT
GEOINT
NZ * Portugal: CIGeoE * Russia: TsVTI GRU * United Kingdom: DGIFC * United States: NGA

Related topics

* Espionage
Espionage

* Global surveillance disclosures
Global surveillance disclosures

* Chelsea Manning
Chelsea Manning
* Snowden leaks * WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks

* Great Firewall of China

* Mass surveillance in China

* Law enforcement

* Surveillance
Surveillance

* Big Brother * Call detail record * Carnivore * Dishfire
Dishfire
* ECHELON
ECHELON
* PRISM * Stone Ghost * Turbulence (NSA programme)

* National security
National security
* Surveillance
Surveillance
issues in smart cities

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Links: ------ /wiki/Intelligence_agency /wiki/India /wiki/Sino-Indian_War /wiki/Indo-Pakistani_War /wiki/Government_of_India /#cite_note-SAAGpaper108-1 /wiki/Intelligence_Bureau_(India) /#cite_note-2